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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 195)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 98)
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Intervención     Open Access  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 46  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-701X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Taxon-specific ultraconserved element probe design for phylogenetic
           analyses of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea)

    • Authors: Dajun Liu, Minmin Niu, Yunyun Lu, Jiufeng Wei, Hufang Zhang
      Abstract: Scale insects (Coccoidea) are morphologically specialized members of the order Hemiptera, with 56 families recognized to date. However, the phylogenetic relationships within and among families are poorly resolved. In this study, to further characterize the phylogenetic relationships among scale insects, an ultraconserved element (UCE) probe set was designed specifically for Coccoidea based on three low-coverage whole genome sequences along with three publicly available genomes. An in silico test including eight additional genomes was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the probe set. Most scale insect lineages were recovered by the phylogenetic analysis. This study recovered the monophyly of neococcoids. The newly developed UCE probe set has the potential to reshape and improve our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within and among families of scale insects at the genome level.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Color in motion: Generating 3-dimensional multispectral models to study
           dynamic visual signals in animals

    • Authors: Audrey E. Miller, Benedict G. Hogan, Mary Caswell Stoddard
      Abstract: Analyzing color and pattern in the context of motion is a central and ongoing challenge in the quantification of animal coloration. Many animal signals are spatially and temporally variable, but traditional methods fail to capture this dynamism because they use stationary animals in fixed positions. To investigate dynamic visual displays and to understand the evolutionary forces that shape dynamic colorful signals, we require cross-disciplinary methods that combine measurements of color, pattern, 3-dimensional (3D) shape, and motion. Here, we outline a workflow for producing digital 3D models with objective color information from museum specimens with diffuse colors. The workflow combines multispectral imaging with photogrammetry to produce digital 3D models that contain calibrated ultraviolet (UV) and human-visible (VIS) color information and incorporate pattern and 3D shape. These “3D multispectral models” can subsequently be animated to incorporate both signaler and receiver movement and analyzed in silico using a variety of receiver-specific visual models. This approach—which can be flexibly integrated with other tools and methods—represents a key first step toward analyzing visual signals in motion. We describe several timely applications of this workflow and next steps for multispectral 3D photogrammetry and animation techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Morphometric analysis of forewing venation does not consistently
           differentiate the leafhopper tribes Typhlocybini and Zyginellini

    • Authors: Hui Wen, Xian Zhou, Christopher H. Dietrich, Min Huang
      Abstract: Tribes of the leafhopper subfamily Typhlocybinae have traditionally been defined based on differences in hind wing venation, but the forewing venation also differs among some tribes. Here we used geometric morphometric analysis to determine whether previously recognized tribes can be distinguished based on the configuration of forewing veins. Focusing on the apical area of the male right forewing, 76 semi-landmarks in six curves corresponding to individual wing veins were measured for representatives of four previously recognized tribes and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), canonical variable analysis (CVA), and UPGMA clustering analysis. The study showed that differences in the apical area of the forewing mainly occur in RP, MP′, and MP″ + CuA′. PCA, CVA, and cluster analysis showed three distinct clusters representing tribes Empoascini, Erythroneurini, and Typhlocybini (sensu lato) but failed to distinguish Typhlocybini (sensu stricto) from Zyginellini, which has been considered as either separate tribe or a synonym of Typhlocybini by recent authors. The results show that the forewing venation differs among tribes of Typhlocybinae, but also agree with recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, indicating that Zyginellini is derived from within Typhlocybini.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Vegetation complexity and pool size predict species richness of forest
           birds

    • Authors: Vladimír Remeš, Lenka Harmáčková, Beata Matysioková, Lucia Rubáčová, Eva Remešová
      Abstract: Disentangling regional and local drivers of species richness in communities is a long-term focus of ecology. Regional species pools affect local communities by providing their constituent species. Additionally, the amount and variety of resources enhance diversity locally. Here, we investigated whether the same ecological factor (vegetation complexity) shapes both regional and local species richness and thus drives local diversity both indirectly (via pool size) and directly (via facilitating the coexistence of species). We studied passerine birds of woodlands and forests in eastern Australia. We quantified regional species pool size and sampled local bird communities at 63 transects spanning 3,000 km. We estimated canopy height both regionally using satellite imagery and locally using vegetation sampling in the field. We studied how species pool size changed with regional canopy height and water availability, and how local species richness changed with pool size and local canopy height. Local species richness increased with both local canopy height and the size of the regional species pool. Pool size, in turn, increased with regional canopy height, which itself increased with water availability. Moreover, local species richness expressed as a proportion of the regional pool also increased with local canopy height. In sum, vegetation complexity indexed by canopy height had a doubly positive effect on local species richness: indirectly by promoting a large regional species pool and directly by facilitating the coexistence of disproportionately many species locally. Regional pools were larger in tall forests probably due to the legacy of extensive moist forests that once covered most of Australia, thus providing a sizeable potential for speciation, diversification, and species persistence. Local species richness was greater in tall, more productive forests with more vegetation layers likely due to more and varied resources (i.e., more potential niches), allowing the coexistence of more individuals and species of consumers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Integument carotenoid-based colouration reflects contamination to
           perfluoroalkyl substances, but not mercury, in arctic black-legged
           kittiwakes

    • Authors: David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Jan Ove Bustnes, Valérie Esteve, Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Dorte Herzke, Ségolène Humann-Guilleminot, Børge Moe, Charline Parenteau, Charlotte Récapet, Paco Bustamante, Olivier Chastel
      Abstract: Anthropogenic activities are introducing multiple chemical contaminants into ecosystems that act as stressors for wildlife. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and mercury (Hg) are two relevant contaminants that may cause detrimental effects on the fitness of many aquatic organisms. However, there is a lack of information on their impact on the expression of secondary sexual signals that animals use for mate choice. We have explored the correlations between integument carotenoid-based colourations, blood levels of carotenoids, and blood levels of seven PFAS and of total Hg (THg) in 50 adult male black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from the Norwegian Arctic during the pre-laying period, while controlling for other colouration influencing variables such as testosterone and body condition. Kittiwakes with elevated blood concentrations of PFAS (PFOSlin, PFNA, PFDcA, PFUnA, or PFDoA) had less chromatic but brighter bills, and brighter gape and tongue; PFOSlin was the pollutant with the strongest association with bill colourations. Conversely, plasma testosterone was the only significant correlate of hue and chroma of both gape and tongue, and of hue of the bill. Kittiwakes with higher concentrations of any PFAS, but not of THg, tended to have significantly higher plasma concentrations of the carotenoids astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and cryptoxanthin. Our work provides the first correlative evidence that PFAS exposure might interfere with the carotenoid metabolism and the expression of integument carotenoid-based colourations in a free-living bird species. This outcome may be a direct effect of PFAS exposure or be indirectly caused by components of diet that also correlate with elevated PFAS concentrations (e.g., proteins). It also suggests that there might be no additive effect of THg co-exposure with PFAS on the expression of colourations. These results call for further work on the possible interference of PFAS with the expression of colourations used in mate choice.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Relationship between brain size and digestive tract length support the
           expensive-tissue hypothesis in Feirana quadranus

    • Authors: Yiping Fu, Yanling Song, Chao Yang, Xinyi Liu, Yenan Liu, Yan Huang
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • A comprehensive review of Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.: An ecologically and
           commercially important Himalayan tree

    • Authors: Balwant Rawat, Janhvi M. Rawat, Sumit Purohit, Gajendra Singh, Pradeep Kumar Sharma, Anup Chandra, J. P. Shabaaz Begum, Divya Venugopal, Mariusz Jaremko, Kamal A. Qureshi
      Abstract: Himalayan mountain forests have been a potential candidate for the investigation of perturbations due to the complex geography in which they sustain and the sensitivity of the species toward human disturbance and climate change. Among various tree species, brown oak (Quercus semecarpifolia), a very important component of the Himalayan mountains, has been identified as a keystone species due to its substantial economic and ecological benefits. Maintenance of microclimate and suitable habitats with a rich source of natural resources makes Q. semecarpifolia the most preferred forest for luxuriant growth of ground flora, shelter for fauna, and multipurpose uses by the local people. In a climax community, it plays a critical role in environmental balance both at the local and regional levels. Unfortunately, it has become one of the most overexploited tree species of the Himalayan region over the last few decades due to its high demand for dry season fodder and firewood. The wide range of seedling distribution 348–4,663 individuals ha–1 is evidence of the disturbance accompanied by poor regeneration in Q. semecarpifolia forests. Moreover, litter accumulation and grass cover adversely affect seed germination. The ecological cost of oak forest degradation is perhaps more important and damage is irreversible. Thus, continuous demand and extensive threats accompanied by poor regeneration have drawn the attention of stakeholders to conserve this species. However, propagation protocol, especially the pre-sowing treatment of the species, has not been impressive for large-scale multiplication. This review is comprehensive information on distribution, phenology, regeneration pattern, human threat, conservation approaches, and management of Q. semecarpifolia in the Himalayan region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pollen and nectar have different effects on the development and
           reproduction of noctuid moths

    • Authors: Limei He, Shengyuan Zhao, Wei He, Kongming Wu
      Abstract: Although many noctuid insects are agricultural pests that threaten food production, they are also the major nocturnal pollinators of flowering plants. Larval foods of noctuid pest insects have been well studied for developing control strategies, but knowledge on host plants for the adults is rather scarce. Here, the impact of plant-derived foods on adult survival, fecundity and reproductive physiology of four global species of noctuid pests (Mythimna separata Walker, Mythimna loreyi Duponchel, Athetis lepigone Möschler, and Hadula trifolii Hufnagel) was assessed in laboratory experiments. Our results indicated that nectar slowed testis decay and prolonged the oviposition period and lifespan, increasing fecundity. Acacia nectar increased the longevity of male and female adults by 3.2∼10.9 and 2.4∼5.0 days, respectively, and fecundity of females by 1.22∼3.34 times compared to water-fed individuals. The fitness among the different species of noctuid moths differed on specific pollen diets. On pine pollen, the fecundity of female moths of M. separata, A. lepigone and H. trifolii was 10.06, 33.52, and 28.61%, respectively, lower than those of the water-fed females, but the fecundity of female moths of M. loreyi on pine pollen was 2.11 times greater than for the water-fed individuals. This work provides valuable information on the nutritional ecology for noctuid moths, which can aid the development and design of nutritional attractants within noctuid pests-infected cropping systems and provide a basis for effective and targeted management of global noctuid pests.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Scent releasing silicone septa: A versatile method for bioassays with
           volatiles

    • Authors: Franz K. Huber, Florian P. Schiestl
      Abstract: Volatile organic compounds are of great importance for communication within biological systems. For the experimental investigation of the functions of volatiles, methods for experimental manipulation are needed. Based on scent-release methods from pheromone research, we describe a simple and cheap method for scent manipulation using silicone rubber (i.e. a silicone septum). Volatile compounds are applied to the septum by soaking the septa for 1 h in a solvent/volatile solution. After removal of the septum from the solution and a drying period of 1 h to allow for evaporation of the solvent, the silicone emits the volatiles at a continuously decreasing rate for a minimum of 24 h. In this study, we measure the variability of the emission and quantify the emission of 22 common floral scent compounds at four different time points and in four different soaking concentrations. Our results show that for the same compound and soaking concentration, variability of volatile emission was low, showing the method leads to repeatable emission rates and can be fine-tuned to the desired emission rate. We provide a calculation tool based on linear regression to allow an experimenter to calculate soaking concentration for each of the 22 compounds to achieve a desirable emission from the septa, as well as to estimate the emission rate of a volatile from the septa after a given time.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Allostasis revisited: A perception, variation, and risk framework

    • Authors: Karen R. Word, Suzanne H. Austin, John C. Wingfield
      Abstract: The framework of allostasis, allostatic load and overload (i.e., stability through change) attempts to combine homeostasis processes in day-to-day responses of physiology and behavior. These include predictive changes in environment such as seasons, and facultative responses to perturbations. The latter can be severe, occur at any time, and may present considerable additional challenges to homeostasis. Hormonal cascades, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA) axis, play a key role in responses to perturbations across vertebrate taxa. Glucocorticoids have been implicated in these processes in relation to energy balance that plays a role in determining responses to energetic demand (allostatic load) and influencing subsequent physiology and behavior associated with coping. Circulating glucocorticoid levels are likely regulated in part based on an individual’s proximity to energetic crisis, identified as the perturbation resistance potential (PRP). In the model of allostatic load, PRP is quantified as the difference between available resources and all energetic costs of allostatic load such as daily routines, life history stages (breeding, migration, molt and so on), and the impact of environmental perturbations. PRP can change gradually or abruptly and may be reflected by spikes in blood hormone levels. The pattern of individual responsiveness to PRP may vary and has specific implications for the activation of mineralocorticoid vs glucocorticoid-type receptors, hormone metabolizing enzymes and other downstream factors in target tissues. However, PRP is a difficult metric to measure. Here, we examine the variety of cues that animals may use to inform them about the status of their PRP and probability of energetic crisis. We consider (1) elevation in glucocorticoids as an endocrine “decision,” and (2) error management strategies in evaluating responsiveness to cues that may reflect or predict an impending energetic crisis. The potential for differential receptor activation as well as further integrative “decisions” to determine the diverse and sometimes contradictory effects of receptor activation and its downstream actions are important to the consideration of error management. This perspective offers insight into the basis of intra- and inter-individual variability in responsiveness and opens an avenue toward improving compatibility of the allostasis model with more classical views on “stress”.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of multiple cropping of farmland on the welfare level of farmers:
           Based on the perspective of poverty vulnerability

    • Authors: Jiquan Peng, Lili Chen, Bingwen Yu, Xiaohan Zhang, Zenghui Huo
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the impact of multiple cropping on farmers’ welfare level and provide the theoretical and empirical basis for solving relative poverty in rural areas in the future. The paper uses data from the field survey of 1,120 farmers in Hubei in 2018 and uses the Endogenous Transformation Regression Model (ESR) and generalized propensity score matching (GPSM) model to construct a counterfactual framework. The paper analyses the effect of multiple cropping on farmers’ relative poverty and examines its mechanism. The result shows that: Multiple cropping of farmland can reduce the relative poverty of farmers through the mechanism of yield improvement path and factor intensification path. Under the counterfactual hypothesis, the relative poverty of farmers would increase by 28.43% if the farmers who participated in the multiple cropping did not; and that the relative poverty of the farmers would decrease by 29.57% if the farmers who did not participate in the multiple cropping participated. From the perspective of multiple cropping, the poverty reduction effect of multiple cropping in paddy fields is higher than that of dry land. From the perspective of the degree of multiple cropping, the poverty reduction effects of paddy fields and dryland will experience an increasing return to scale as the multiple cropping index increases. When the household equivalent scale adjustment coefficient is not used to eliminate the impact of family population structure on the “family per capita comparable income,” the artificially high results estimated by the model cannot truly reflect the poverty-reducing effect of multi-cropping of farmland. This paper argues that the government can guide farmers to choose the suitable mode of multiple cropping to reduce farmers’ vulnerability to relative poverty.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pre-Columbian cultivation of vegetatively propagated and fruit tree
           tropical crops in the Atacama Desert

    • Authors: José M. Capriles, Magdalena García, Daniela Valenzuela, Alejandra I. Domic, Logan Kistler, Francisco Rothhammer, Calogero M. Santoro
      Abstract: South America is a megadiverse continent that witnessed the domestication, translocation and cultivation of various plant species from seemingly contrasting ecosystems. It was the recipient and supplier of crops brought to and from Mesoamerica (such as maize and cacao, respectively), and Polynesia to where the key staple crop sweet potato was exported. Not every instance of the trans-ecological expansion of cultivated plants (both domesticated and wild), however, resulted in successful farming. Here, we review the transregional circulation and introduction of five food tropical crops originated in the tropical and humid valleys of the eastern Andes—achira, cassava, ahipa, sweet potato, and pacay—to the hyper-arid coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, where they have been found in early archeological sites. By means of an evaluation of the contexts of their deposition and supported by direct radiocarbon dating, stable isotopes analyses, and starch grain analysis, we evaluate different hypotheses for explaining their introduction and adaptation to the hyper-arid soils of northern Chile, by societal groups that after the introduction of cultigens still retained a strong dependence on marine hunting, gathering and fishing ways of life based on wide variety of marine coast resources. Many of the studied plants were part of a broader package of introduced goods and technological devices and procedures, linked to food, therapeutic medicine, social and ritual purposes that transformed previous hunter-gatherer social, economic, and ideological institutions. Based on archeological data, we discuss some of the possible socio-ecological processes involved in the development of agricultural landscapes including the adoption of tropical crops originated several hundred kilometers away from the Atacama Desert during the Late Holocene.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Aerial insectivorous bats in the Brazilian-Uruguayan savanna: Modelling
           the occupancy through acoustic detection

    • Authors: Cíntia Fernanda da Costa, Maria João Ramos Pereira
      Abstract: The Pampa is the least protected and one of the least sampled for bats among the Brazilian domains. This leads to significant Linnean and Wallacean shortfalls for bats in the Brazilian-Uruguayan savanna ecoregion. Here, we aimed to model the occupancy of aerial insectivorous bats in response to landscape structure at different scales, considering the influence of microclimate on bat detection. We acoustically monitored 68 locations during the spring and summer of 2019/2020, gathering data on temperature and humidity associated with each acoustic record using data loggers. We detected at least 11 species of the Molossidae and the Vespertilionidae families, of which 9 were used in the model. The response to landscape structure was species-specific: the occupancy probability of Eptesicus brasiliensis and Molossus cf. currentium increased with landscape connectivity at the 500 m scale while Eptesicus furinalis and Histiotus cf. velatus were negatively affected by landscape connectivity at the 5.0 km scale. Molossus occupancy probability responded negatively to landscape heterogeneity at the 3.0 km scale, while Promops centralis responded positively to landscape heterogeneity at the 5.0 km scale. Molossus rufus responded negatively to native vegetation cover and positively to landscape heterogeneity at the 5.0 km scale. Myotis albescens and Molossops temminckii did not respond significantly to any of the evaluated landscape metrics. Our results show that different bat species perceive the landscape differently, regardless of the guild of use of space – edge- or open-space forager. Our estimate of projected occupancy for the areas contiguous to those sampled ranged from 0.45 to 0.70 for the whole of the bat taxa, suggesting that the landscape, particularly where it still maintains its native elements, is reasonably favourable to aerial insectivores.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Spatiotemporal analysis of land use changes and their trade-offs on the
           northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China

    • Authors: Haitao Ma
      Abstract: The unprecedented urbanization recently has inevitably intensified the changes in land use morphology. However, current studies on land use primarily analyze a single morphology, ignoring the relationships between different land use morphologies. Taking the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains (NSTM) as the study area, this article quantifies the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change, and estimates trade-offs and synergies between dominant (patch density, largest patch index, and landscape shape index) and recessive (land use efficiency, land use intensity, and agricultural non-point source pollution) morphologies to fully understand the dynamic characteristics of land use. Results showed bare areas and grassland were always predominant land use types, and land use change from 1990 to 2020 was characterized by the increase of impervious surfaces and the decrease of bare areas. The strongest trade-off was found between largest patch index and land use intensity, while the synergy between landscape shape index and land use intensity was strongest. There are significant disparities in terms of temporal and spatial patterns of trade-offs/synergies. The correlation coefficients in different study periods were much smaller than their estimations in the whole region, and the trade-offs/synergies in the eastern NSTM were basically identical with the whole relationships. The findings reveal the interactions among various land use characteristics, and provide significant references for coordinated land management and regional high-quality development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Differential sensitivity of offspring from four species of goodeine
           freshwater fish to acute exposure to nitrates

    • Authors: Ivette Marai Villa-Villaseñor, Beatriz Yáñez-Rivera, Rebeca Aneli Rueda-Jasso, Ma. Antonia Herrera-Vargas, Rubén Hernández-Morales, Esperanza Meléndez-Herrera, Omar Domínguez-Domínguez
      Abstract: Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) pollution related to anthropogenic activities is increasing in freshwater ecosystems. Knowledge about NO3-N sensitivity in freshwater wild fish is needed to understand the differential tolerance between species. Goodeinae is a subfamily of 41 endemic fishes that inhabit central Mexico, with 33 species in the IUCN red list and three extinct. Distributional patterns suggest tolerant and sensitive goodeines related to the conservation gradient of freshwater ecosystems. Four species with a differential distribution and tolerance were selected to evaluate their physiological responses to NO3-N. Fish were exposed to different NO3-N concentrations for 96 h and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined. Swimming disorders plus gill and liver histopathological indexes were estimated and incorporated into an Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) for each species. Skiffia lermae (LC50 = 474.332 mg/L) and Xenotoca variata (LC50 = 520.273 mg/L) were more sensitive than Goodea atripinnis (LC50 = 953.049 mg/L) and Alloophorus robustus (LC50 = 1537.13 mg/L). The typical histological damage produced by NaNO3-N exposure was fusion of secondary lamellae in gills. This was present in all species and cellular degeneration was observed at the highest concentrations. Secondary lamellae aneurysms were only observed in G. atripinnis. Liver alterations included vascular dilation in hepatic sinusoids, hyperemia and nuclear hypertrophy; higher concentrations produced hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolation and reduced frequency of cell nuclei. Behavioral and histopathological alterations could explain the differential species sensitivity. The results suggest that species which preserve gill function and transfer the task of detoxification to the liver might have the best chance of surviving in polluted environments. Moreover, species previously considered as tolerant may be highly susceptible to NaNO3-N exposure. Therefore, it is necessary to closely monitor NaNO3-N concentrations in freshwater ecosystems and, if possible, reduce their levels to avoid the loss of wild populations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Older males whistle better: Age and body size are encoded in the mating
           calls of a nest-building amphibian (Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    • Authors: Florina Stănescu, Rafael Márquez, Dan Cogălniceanu, Federico Marangoni
      Abstract: Courtship acoustic displays in anuran amphibians are energetically costly and risky, but have a major role in mating success since they encode relevant information regarding the caller’s identity and status. Age and size are essential traits shaping fitness, reproductive success and life-history strategies, and thus are expected to also have a role in courtship displays. We tested this assumption in a species of nest-building frogs, Leptodactylus bufonius, in northern Argentina. We conducted the first detailed quantitative description of the males’ mating calls and assessed the effects of biological traits (i.e., body size parameters and individual age) and local climate (i.e., air temperature and humidity) on the main acoustic features of these calls (i.e., call duration, inter-call duration, dominant frequency, and dominant frequency modulation). The calls were short (mean ± SE, 0.163 ± 0.004 s), whistle-like, single notes with harmonic structure. The dominant frequency (1381.7 ± 16.2 Hz) decreased with arm length (χ2 = 5.244, df = 1, p = 0.022) and had an upward modulation (456.4 ± 11.0 Hz) which increased with age (χ2 = 4.7012, df = 1, p = 0.030). Call duration and dominant frequency were the most static parameters at intra-individual level, indicating their role in individual recognition. Temperature and humidity shaped the temporal acoustic parameters, and the dominant frequency. Our findings suggest that the acoustic features of the mating calls in amphibians could promote female mate choice in relation to both size and age and open up new questions for future research: are females more attracted to older males, and what are the specific costs and benefits' We suggest that mating calls may direct female preferences toward males of certain size and age classes, ultimately shaping the life-history strategies in a given population. Finally, we found discrepancies in the mating calls of L. bufonius recorded from Corrientes and those previously described from other populations, which suggests that multiple species may have been recorded under the same name.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mapping species diversification metrics in macroecology: Prospects and
           challenges

    • Authors: Julián A. Velasco, Jesús N. Pinto-Ledezma
      Abstract: The intersection of macroecology and macroevolution is one of today’s most active research in biology. In the last decade, we have witnessed a steady increment of macroecological studies that use metrics attempting to capture macroevolutionary processes to explain present-day biodiversity patterns. Evolutionary explanations of current species richness gradients are fundamental for understanding how diversity accumulates in a region. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain the patterns we observe in nature, it is well-known that the present-day diversity patterns result from speciation, extinction, colonization from nearby areas, or a combination of these macroevolutionary processes. Whether these metrics capture macroevolutionary processes across space is unknown. Some tip-rate metrics calculated directly from a phylogenetic tree (e.g., mean root distance -MRD-; mean diversification rate -mDR-) seem to return very similar geographical patterns regardless of how they are estimated (e.g., using branch lengths explicitly or not). Model-based tip-rate metrics —those estimated using macroevolutionary mixtures, e.g., the BAMM approach— seem to provide better net diversification estimates than only speciation rates. We argue that the lack of appropriate estimates of extinction and dispersal rates in phylogenetic trees may strongly limit our inferences about how species richness gradients have emerged at spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present a literature review about this topic and empirical comparisons between select taxa with several of these metrics. We implemented a simple null model approach to evaluate whether mapping of these metrics deviates from a random sampling process. We show that phylogenetic metrics by themselves are relatively poor at capturing speciation, extinction, and dispersal processes across geographical gradients. Furthermore, we provide evidence of how parametric biogeographic methods can improve our inference of past events and, therefore, our conclusions about the evolutionary processes driving biodiversity patterns. We recommend that further studies include several approaches simultaneously (e.g., spatial diversification modeling, parametric biogeographic methods, simulations) to disentangle the relative role of speciation, extinction, and dispersal in the generation and maintenance of species richness gradients at regional and global scales.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Agriculture in the Karakum: An archaeobotanical analysis from Togolok 1,
           southern Turkmenistan (ca. 2300–1700 B.C.)

    • Authors: Traci N. Billings, Barbara Cerasetti, Luca Forni, Roberto Arciero, Rita Dal Martello, Marialetizia Carra, Lynne M. Rouse, Nicole Boivin, Robert N. Spengler
      Abstract: Southern Central Asia witnessed widespread expansion in urbanism and exchange, between roughly 2200 and 1500 B.C., fostering a new cultural florescence, sometimes referred to as the Greater Khorasan Civilization. Decades of detailed archeological investigation have focused on the development of urban settlements, political systems, and inter-regional exchange within and across the broader region, but little is known about the agricultural systems that supported these cultural changes. In this paper, we present the archaeobotanical results of material recovered from Togolok 1, a proto-urban settlement along the Murghab River alluvial fan located in southeastern Turkmenistan. This macrobotanical assemblage dates to the late 3rd - early 2nd millennia B.C., a time associated with important cultural transformations in southern Central Asia. We demonstrate that people at the site were cultivating and consuming a diverse range of crops including, barley, wheat, legumes, grapes, and possibly plums and apples or pears. This, together with the associated material culture and zooarchaeological evidence, suggest a regionally adapted mixed agropastoral economy. The findings at Togolok 1 contribute to the ongoing discussion of dietary choices, human/landscape interactions, and the adaptation of crops to diverse ecosystems in prehistoric Central Asia.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • The paleo-ecological application of mollusks in the calculation of
           saltwater encroachment and resultant changes in depositional patterns
           driven by the Anthropocene Marine Transgression

    • Authors: John F. Meeder, Nathan Adelgren, Susana L. Stoffella, Michael S. Ross, David C. Kadko
      Abstract: Numerous studies address changes in wetland deposition in response to saltwater encroachment driven by the accelerating rate of sea-level rise, by quantifying temporal changes recovered from a vertical sediment sequence. This is the first landscape scale study, based upon 10 core transects representing the heterogeneity of the Southeast Saline Everglades, Florida. By utilizing the known salinity preferences of molluscan assemblages, a Salinity Index was calculated for each core sequence and the recorded salinity changes identified and dated. Radiometric dating utilizing the 210Pb method provides the rate of sediment accumulation and the date of changes identified in the core. The core transects provide the basis for calculation of the rate of saltwater encroachment by comparing the date of saltwater encroachment and the distance between two cores. Thereby, temporal and spatial changes in other sediment parameters in a landscape can also be quantified, such as organic carbon. This paleo-ecological approach to rapidly changing coastal conditions can be utilized to provide scientists and land managers with a record of the past, rate of changing conditions and provide the basis for predicting the future trajectory of their site. Application of this paleo-ecological approach documented increasing rates of saltwater encroachment associated with accelerating rate of sea-level rise: an average rate of 49.1 between 1895 and 1940, 69.2 between 1940 and 1968, 73 between 1968 and 1995 and 131.1 m/yr between 1995 and 2015. Approximately 1.79 km of saltwater encroachment has occurred since 1995, with three partial reversals because of increased freshwater delivery. Associated with saltwater encroachment are changes in sediment organic carbon, decreasing area of marl production and increasing distribution of mangrove. Although the distance of saltwater encroachment is greater in Florida Bay, both changes in sediment organic carbon and mangrove distribution are much less than in Biscayne Bay coastal basins. This heterogeneity is likely the result of differences in tidal ingress efficiency. At the present rate of saltwater encroachment, the freshwater wetlands are predictably lost within a century.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Amount of bird suitable areas under climate change is modulated by
           morphological, ecological and geographical traits

    • Authors: Flávio Mariano Machado Mota, Neander Marcel Heming, José Carlos Morante-Filho, Daniela Custódio Talora
      Abstract: Biodiversity is already experiencing the effects of climate change through range expansion, retraction, or relocation, potentializing negative effects of other threats. Future projections already indicate richness reduction and composition modifications of bird communities due to global warming, which may disrupt the provision of key ecological services to ecosystem maintenance. Here, we systematically review the effect of morphological, ecological, and geographical traits on the amount of future suitable area for birds worldwide. Specifically, we tested whether body mass, diet, habitat type, movement pattern, range size, and biogeographic realm affect birds' suitable area. Our search returned 75 studies that modeled the effects of climate change on 1,991 bird species. Our analyses included 1,661 species belonging to 128 families, representing 83% of the total, for which we were able to acquire all the six traits. The proportion of birds' suitable area was affected by range size, body mass, habitat type, and biogeographic realm, while diet and movement pattern showed lower relative importance and were not included in our final model. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of birds' suitable area was negatively related to range size, which may be explained by higher climatic stability predicted in certain areas that harbor species with restricted distribution. In contrast, we observed that birds presenting higher body mass will show an increase of the proportion of suitable area in the future. This is expected due to the high exposure of smaller birds to environmental changes and their difficulty to keep thermoregulation. Our results also indicated a low proportion of suitable area to forest-dependent birds, which is in accordance with their higher vulnerability due to specific requirements for reproduction and feeding. Finally, the proportion of suitable area was low for birds from Oceania, which is expected since the region encompasses small islands isolated from continents, preventing their species from reaching new suitable areas. Our study highlights that different traits should be considered when assessing extinction risk of species based on future projections, helping to improve bird conservation, especially the most vulnerable to climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
 
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