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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 170)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 45  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-701X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Self-Domestication Underground' Testing for Social and Morphological
           Correlates of Animal Personality in Cooperatively-Breeding Ansell’s
           Mole-Rats (Fukomys anselli)

    • Authors: Sabine Begall, Lea Bottermann, Kai Robert Caspar
      Abstract: Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are sexually dimorphic subterranean rodents that live in families consisting of a single breeding pair and their late-dispersing non-breeding offspring. Most individuals exhibit a conspicuous white head patch, which results from integumental depigmentation. Alongside other morphological, physiological, and social characteristics, skin depigmentation in these social rodents mirrors traits that presumably evolved as byproducts from selection against aggression in domestic animals, making them a potential candidate species for a self-domesticated wild mammal. Here we explored whether the expression of the white head patch, sexual dimorphism, and reproductive division of labor are reflected by different personalities in Ansell’s mole-rats. We tested locomotory activity and risk-taking as well as aggression and affiliative behavior in 51 individuals originating from nine captive families in various experimental set-ups. In line with the concept of animal personality, we recovered consistent individual responses over time. While sex had no influence on any tested variable, reproductive status was found to affect risk-taking behavior but not other personality dimensions. Discriminant function analysis revealed that family members clustered more closely together than expected by chance, suggesting that group affiliation rather than sex or social status determines behavioral profiles in this species. Finally, we failed to recover any consistent correlation between head patch expression and behavior, which conflicts with predictions of the self-domestication hypothesis. We argue that many domestication-like traits in Ansell’s mole-rat and its congeners evolved in the framework of subterranean adaptation and call for a cautious application of the self-domestication concept to wild mammals.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Two Sides of the Same Desert: Floristic Connectivity and Isolation Along
           the Hyperarid Coast and Precordillera in Peru and Chile

    • Authors: Jonathan Ruhm, Tim Böhnert, Jens Mutke, Federico Luebert, Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée, Maximilian Weigend
      Abstract: In this study we aim at refining our understanding of the floristic connectivity of the loma- and precordillera floras of southern Peru and northern Chile and the parameters determining vegetation cover in this region. We used multivariate analyses to test for floristic- and environmental similarity across 53 precordillera and loma locations in Peru and Chile. We propose the use of predictive modeling in estimating the extent of desert vegetation as a complementary method to remote sensing. We created habitat suitability models for the vegetation on the coast and in the precordillera based on a combination of latent bioclimatic variables and additional environmental predictors using Maxent. We found Peruvian and Chilean lomas to be strongly floristically differentiated, as are the Chilean precordillera and lomas. Conversely, there is clear connectivity between both the Peruvian loma- and precordillera floras on the one hand and the Peruvian and Chilean precordillera floras on the other. Divergent environmental conditions were retrieved as separating the precordillera and lomas, while environmental conditions are not differentiated between Peruvian and Chilean lomas. Peruvian and Chilean precordilleras show a gradual change in environmental conditions. Habitat suitability models of vegetation cover retrieve a gap for the loma vegetation along the coast between Peru and Chile, while a continuous belt of suitable habitats is retrieved along the Andean precordillera. Unsuitable habitat for loma vegetation north and south of the Chilean and Peruvian border likely represents an ecogeographic barrier responsible for the floristic divergence of Chilean and Peruvian lomas. Conversely, environmental parameters change continuously along the precordilleras, explaining the moderate differentiation of the corresponding floras. Our results underscore the idea of the desert core acting as an ecogeographic barrier separating the coast from the precordillera in Chile, while it has a more limited isolating function in Peru. We also find extensive potentially suitable habitats for both loma- and precordillera vegetation so far undetected by methods of remote sensing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Spatial Scaling Effects to Enhance the Prediction for the Temporal Changes
           of Soil Nitrogen Density From 2007 to 2017 in Different Climatic Basins

    • Authors: Haoxi Ding, Wei Hu, Hongfen Zhu, Rutian Bi
      Abstract: Soil nitrogen density (SND), which is influenced by environmental factors operating at different spatial scales and intensities, is critical for agricultural production and soil quality. Although the spatiotemporal distribution of top-layer SND has been well explored, the scale effects of environmental factors on the temporal changes of SND (SNDT) are poorly studied, which might promote the predictive accuracy of SNDT. Thus, SNDT during a certain period was calculated to explore the multiscale effects of environmental factors on it. In the study, three sampling transects under the basins of warm-temperate, mid-temperate, and warm-temperate zones were established with 200 km long and 1 km intervals to explore the spatial variation of SNDT, examine the multiscale effect of environmental factors on it, construct the predicting models based on its scale-specific relations with environmental factors, and validate the models in each basin or in other climate-zone basins. The results indicated that the increment of SND during a certain period was the greatest in the mid-temperate basin, and the variation of SNDT was ranked as cool-temperate> mid-temperate> warm-temperate basins. Under different soil types, the spatial characteristics of SNDT were different in different climate-zone basins, but the average SNDT under cropland was the greatest in each basin. Considering the influencing factors (climatic, topographic, and vegetation factors), they had controls on SNDT operating at different spatial scales. In regard to the prediction of SNDT, the method of partial least square regression (PLSR) combined with a multiscale analysis was found to be more preferable for dependent SNDT prediction than the traditional method of stepwise multiple linear regression but could not be validated for the independent validation data in other basins. Thus, the spatial multiscale relations of SNDT with environmental factors could provide more information for each basin, and the integration of the extra information decomposed by wavelet transform into the method of PLSR could enhance the SNDT prediction for dependent datasets. These findings are of great significance for future studies in the spatial modeling of SND temporal dynamics under the influence of environmental changes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Longevity in Cave Animals

    • Authors: Enrico Lunghi, Helena Bilandžija
      Abstract: An extraordinary longevity has been observed in some cave species, and this raised the hypothesis that a longer lifespan may be considered one of the characteristic traits of these animals. However, only a few cave species have been studied thus far, and a firm conclusion remains to be drawn. Here we review the available knowledge on the longevity of subterranean species, point out the limitations of previous studies, and provide suggestions for future studies to answer important questions regarding the longevity in cave animals, its adaptive value and the related promoting factors. We also argue that studying the longevity in cave animals will contribute to the field of aging, especially to understanding the evolution of this phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Remote Sensing of Floral Resources for Pollinators – New Horizons
           From Satellites to Drones

    • Authors: Dunia Gonzales, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, Karen Anderson
      Abstract: Insect pollinators are affected by the spatio-temporal distribution of floral resources, which are dynamic across time and space, and also influenced heavily by anthropogenic activities. There is a need for spatial data describing the time-varying spatial distribution of flowers, which can be used within behavioral and ecological studies. However, this information is challenging to obtain. Traditional field techniques for mapping flowers are often laborious and limited to relatively small areas, making it difficult to assess how floral resources are perceived by pollinators to guide their behaviors. Conversely, remote sensing of plant traits is a relatively mature technique now, and such technologies have delivered valuable data for identifying and measuring non-floral dynamics in plant systems, particularly leaves, stems and woody biomass in a wide range of ecosystems from local to global scales. However, monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant floral resources has been notably scarce in remote sensing studies. Recently, lightweight drone technology has been adopted by the ecological community, offering a capability for flexible deployment in the field, and delivery of centimetric resolution data, providing a clear opportunity for capturing fine-grained information on floral resources at key times of the flowering season. In this review, we answer three key questions of relevance to pollination science – can remote sensing deliver information on (a) how isolated are floral resources' (b) What resources are available within a flower patch' And (c) how do floral patches change over time' We explain how such information has potential to deepen ecological understanding of the distribution of floral resources that feed pollinators and the parameters that determine their navigational and foraging choices based on the sensory information they extract at different spatial scales. We provide examples of how such data can be used to generate new insights into pollinator behaviors in distinct landscape types and their resilience to environmental change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Soil Microbial Distribution Depends on Different Types of Landscape
           Vegetation in Temperate Urban Forest Ecosystems

    • Authors: Qiang Fu, Yizhen Shao, Senlin Wang, Fengqin Liu, Guohang Tian, Yun Chen, Zhiliang Yuan, Yongzhong Ye
      Abstract: Although soil microbes play an important role in the functioning of the forest ecosystem, our understanding of the spatial distribution characteristics of soil microbes among different vegetation types in urban forest ecosystems is poor. In this study, with the help of high-throughput sequencing, we examined the vegetation type preferences of soil microbes (fungi and bacteria) and then analyzed the microbe–environment (plant community, light availability, soil properties) relations in a temperate urban forest in China. Our results showed that the soil microbial (bacterial and fungal) richness of deciduous forest was higher than that of evergreen, and mixed forests. The spatial distribution of fungi was more specialized than that of bacteria among different vegetation types. The driving forces of environmental factors on soil bacteria and fungi were different. Our findings suggest that different vegetation types favor the occurrence of different microbes, and the relationships between soil microbes and environmental factors depend on different vegetation types in this temperate urban forest. These findings shed new light on the biodiversity conservation of microbes in temperate urban forests and point to the potential importance of vegetation types for microbe formation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Functional Responses Shape Node and Network Level Properties of a
           Simplified Boreal Food Web

    • Authors: Jenilee Gobin, Thomas J. Hossie, Rachael E. Derbyshire, Samuel Sonnega, Tucker W. Cambridge, Lee Scholl, Nicolas Diaz Kloch, Arthur Scully, Kiefer Thalen, Graeme Smith, Carly Scott, Francis Quinby, Jordan Reynolds, Hannah A. Miller, Holly Faithfull, Owen Lucas, Christopher Dennison, Jordan McDonald, Stan Boutin, Mark O’Donoghue, Charles J. Krebs, Rudy Boonstra, Dennis L. Murray
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluating the Cumulative Effects of Livestock Grazing on Wildlife With an
           Integrated Population Model

    • Authors: Megan C. Milligan, Lance B. McNew
      Abstract: Livestock grazing can shape temperate grassland ecosystems, with both positive and negative effects on wildlife documented depending on a variety of grazing and site factors. Historically, research investigating the impacts of livestock grazing on wildlife has been limited by a narrow focus on simple “grazed” vs. “ungrazed” treatments or examining how grazing affects only a single vital rate in isolation. To overcome these limitations, we used a two-stage class, female-based integrated population model (IPM) to examine whether three grazing management regimes (season-long, rest-rotation, and summer rotation) differentially impacted population growth rates of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanachus phasianellus) in eastern Montana and western North Dakota. We estimated 14 vital rates related to survival and fecundity and examined whether subtle cumulative effects of livestock grazing were present but not detected in prior analyses focused on single vital rates. While the management regimes did not differentially impact survival or fecundity of female grouse in our study system, we found evidence for significant cumulative impacts of grazing regime on population growth rates that were only apparent when all vital rates were evaluated concurrently. Population growth rates were higher in areas managed with season-long livestock grazing. The IPM framework encourages comprehensive investigations into the influence of covariates on critical components of species life histories and can assist in guiding management decisions in a world of limited resources. This integrated approach allowed us to more efficiently use multiple data types to provide a more complete picture of the effects of management on an important indicator species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Citizen Science Helps Uncover the Secrets to a Bat-Friendly Swimming Pool
           in an Urban Environment

    • Authors: Victoria J. Bennett, Elizabeth J. Agpalo
      Abstract: For urban environments to support bat communities, resources need to be readily available. For example, bats typically use urban water sources such as drainage ditches and ponds; however, these sources can be ephemeral. During these periods, bats have utilized residential swimming pools, although they only appear to drink at pools when access to more natural equivalents are limited. This posed the question “can we make residential swimming pools friendlier for a diversity of bat species'” Using citizen science to determine which pool characteristics influenced bat activity, we distributed a questionnaire to residents in a suburban neighborhood in Fort Worth, TX, United States. It focused on observations of bat activity and the features of the pools and immediate surroundings. We distributed the questionnaire through social media, local presentations, and by mail throughout 2019 and 2020. We then used classification trees to determine which characteristics in combination influenced bat activity at the pools. We generated three different trees for bats observed (1) flying around the property and backyard, (2) above the swimming pool, and (3) drinking at the pool. We found that more bats were observed at unlit pools without bush or shrub borders. Furthermore, among pools with borders, activity was lowest at pools with textured interiors and ≥6 trees visible. The presence of features, such as fountains, then contributed to a reduction in bat observations in backyards and the presence of pets appeared to further reduce activity specifically over the pools. Where bats were observed drinking, this activity was reported the least at pools with bush or shrub borders, textured interiors, and trees 10 m from the edge of the pools. Our study revealed that certain characteristics of residential swimming pools encouraged bat activity, while others discouraged them. Thus, it may be possible to make swimming pools more bat-friendly. For example, turning lights off in the evening when backyards are not in use and reducing clutter around pools could have an immediate positive impact on local bat populations. The implementation of such recommendations could improve urban habitats for bats overall and alleviate some of the negative implications of continued urbanization.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
  • Zambian Mole-Rats: 33 Years on the Scene and What We Still Do Not Know and
           How We Could Learn It

    • Authors: Hynek Burda
      Abstract: This article surveys more than three decades of research on Zambian mole-rats (genus Fukomys, Bathyergidae), pointing out some unanswered questions and untested hypotheses and suggesting approaches to address them. These research proposals range from sensory ecology topics, the main research field, covering different (even not yet identified) senses, orientation in time and space, communication, studies on aging, population dynamics, and the survival strategies of mole-rats during yearly floodings in the Kafue Flats. Discussion includes cryptozoological investigation into the existence of strange mole-rat species in some Zambian localities as reported by local communities, the study of mole-rats in assumed contact (hybrid') zones of special interest, (cyto)genetic studies of hybrids of selected species, and a non-invasive study of population and family structure and dynamics with help of endoscopes. In each case, there is a rationale, reasoning, hypothesis, and suggested methodical approach.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • The Evolution of the Spiracular Region From Jawless Fishes to Tetrapods

    • Authors: Zhikun Gai, Min Zhu, Per E. Ahlberg, Philip C. J. Donoghue
      Abstract: The spiracular region, comprising the hyomandibular pouch together with the mandibular and hyoid arches, has a complex evolutionary history. In living vertebrates, the embryonic hyomandibular pouch may disappear in the adult, develop into a small opening between the palatoquadrate and hyomandibula containing a single gill-like pseudobranch, or create a middle ear cavity, but it never develops into a fully formed gill with two hemibranchs. The belief that a complete spiracular gill must be the ancestral condition led some 20th century researchers to search for such a gill between the mandibular and hyoid arches in early jawed vertebrates. This hypothesized ancestral state was named the aphetohyoidean condition, but so far it has not been verified in any fossil; supposed examples, such as in the acanthodian Acanthodes and symmoriid chondrichthyans, have been reinterpreted and discounted. Here we present the first confirmed example of a complete spiracular gill in any vertebrate, in the galeaspid (jawless stem gnathostome) Shuyu. Comparisons with two other groups of jawless stem gnathostomes, osteostracans and heterostracans, indicate that they also probably possessed full-sized spiracular gills and that this condition may thus be primitive for the gnathostome stem group. This contrasts with the living jawless cyclostomes, in which the mandibular and hyoid arches are strongly modified and the hyomandibular pouch is lost in the adult. While no truly aphetohyoidean spiracular gill has been found in any jawed vertebrate, the recently reported presence in acanthodians of two pseudobranchs suggests a two-step evolutionary process whereby initial miniaturization of the spiracular gill was followed, independently in chondrichthyans and osteichthyans, by the loss of the anterior pseudobranch. On the basis of these findings we present an overview of spiracular evolution among vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Do Freshwater Turtles Use Rainfall to Increase Nest Success'

    • Authors: Gregory A. Geller, J. Sean Doody, Simon Clulow, Richard P. Duncan
      Abstract: Rainfall following turtle nest construction has long been believed to increase nest survival by its effects on reducing the location cues used by nest predators. However, it is unclear if this is generally the case and if nesting turtles actively use this mechanism to increase their reproductive fitness by deliberately timing nesting to occur before or during rainfall. To address this question, we reviewed studies that examined freshwater turtle nesting behavior and nest predation rates in relation to rainfall. We supplemented our review with data on rainfall and nesting patterns from a 12-year study of two nesting populations of Ouachita Map Turtles (Graptemys ouachitensis). Our review revealed a diversity of responses in rainfall effects on predation and in the propensity for turtles to nest in association with rain. Our mixed findings could reflect a diversity of species- or population-specific responses, local adaptations, species composition of predator community, confounding abiotic factors (e.g., temperature decreases after rainfall) or methodology (e.g., most studies did not quantify rainfall amounts). Our case study on map turtles found very high yearly predation rates (75–100%), precluding our ability to rigorously analyze the association between nest predation and rainfall. However, close examination of the exact timing of both rainfall and predation revealed significantly lower predation rates when rain fell within 24 h after nesting, indicating that rainfall during or after nesting may reduce nest predation. Despite this effect, the best fitted model explaining the propensity to nest found that map turtles were more likely to nest after dry days than after days with rainfall, suggesting that rainfall was not a major factor driving turtles to nest in our populations. In both our review and in our map turtle populations there was little evidence that turtles can anticipate rainfall and nest prior to it occurring (e.g., in response to falling barometric pressure).
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Thermal Stress Has Minimal Effects on Bacterial Communities of
           Thermotolerant Symbiodinium Cultures

    • Authors: Erika M. Díaz-Almeyda, Tyrone Ryba, Aki H. Ohdera, Shannon M. Collins, Natali Shafer, Caroline Link, Marcela Prado-Zapata, Cara Ruhnke, Meredith Moore, A. M. González Angel, F. Joseph Pollock, Monica Medina
      Abstract: Algae in the dinoflagellate family Symbiodiniaceae are endocellular photosymbionts of corals and other cnidarians. This close relationship is disrupted when seawater temperature increases, causing coral bleaching eventually affecting entire coral reefs. Although the relationship between animal host and photosymbiont has been well-studied, little is known about the bacterial community associated with Symbiodiniaceae in culture. We compared the microbial communities of three isolates from different species of the genus Symbiodinium (formerly known as Symbiodinium clade A) with different ecophysiology, levels of interaction with the animal host, and thermal adaptations. Two species, Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Symbiodinium necroappettens, exhibit intermediate thermotolerance, with a decrease of both growth rate and photochemical efficiency with increased temperature. The third species, Symbiodinium pilosum, has high thermotolerance with no difference in growth rate or photochemical efficiency at 32°C. Microbial communities were characterized after 27 days of growth under control (26°C) and high temperature (32°C). Data shows stronger grouping of bacterial assemblages based on Symbiodinium species than temperature. Microbial communities did not group phylogenetically. We found a shared set of fifteen ASVs belonging to four genera and three families that remained in all three Symbiodiniaceae species. These included Labrenzia, Phycisphaeraceae (SM1A02), Roseovarius, and Muricauda, which are all commonly associated with corals and Symbiodiniaceae cultures. Few ASVs differed significantly by temperature within species. S. pilosum displayed significantly lower levels of microbial diversity and greater individual variability in community composition at 32°C compared to 26°C. These results suggest that bacteria associated or co-cultured with thermotolerant Symbiodinium might play an important role in thermotolerance. Further research on the functional metabolic pathways of these bacteria might hold the key to understanding Symbiodinium’s ability to tolerate thermal stress.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Artificial Intelligence-Aided Meta-Analysis of Toxicological Assessment of
           Agrochemicals in Bees|Systematic Review Registration

    • Authors: Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes, Lorena Lisbetd Botina, Renan dos Santos Araújo, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, Maria Augusta Pereira Lima
      Abstract: The lack of consensus regarding pollinator decline in various parts of the planet has generated intense debates in different spheres. Consequently, much research has attempted to identify the leading causes of this decline, and a multifactorial synergism (i.e., different stressors acting together and mutually potentiating the harmful effects) seems to be the emerging consensus explaining this phenomenon. The emphasis on some stressor groups such as agrochemicals, and pollinators such as the honey bee Apis mellifera, can hide the real risk of anthropogenic stressors on pollinating insects. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify general and temporal trends in publications, considering the different groups of pollinators and their exposure to agrochemicals over the last 76 years. Through an artificial intelligence (AI)-aided meta-analysis, we quantitatively assessed trends in publications on bee groups and agrochemicals. Using AI tools through machine learning enabled efficient evaluation of a large volume of published articles. Toxicological assessment of the impact of agrochemicals on insect pollinators is dominated by the order Hymenoptera, which includes honey bees. Although honey bees are well-explored, there is a lack of published articles exploring the toxicological assessment of agrochemicals for bumble bees, solitary bees, and stingless bees. The data gathered provide insights into the current scenario of the risk of pollinator decline imposed by agrochemicals and serve to guide further research in this area.Systematic Review Registrationhttps://asreview.nl/.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Collapse of Breeding Success in Desert-Dwelling Hornbills Evident Within a
           Single Decade

    • Authors: Nicholas B. Pattinson, Tanja M. F. N. van de Ven, Mike J. Finnie, Lisa J. Nupen, Andrew E. McKechnie, Susan J. Cunningham
      Abstract: Rapid anthropogenic climate change potentially severely reduces avian breeding success. While the consequences of high temperatures and drought are reasonably well-studied within single breeding seasons, their impacts over decadal time scales are less clear. We assessed the effects of air temperature (Tair) and drought on the breeding output of southern yellow-billed hornbills (Tockus leucomelas; hornbills) in the Kalahari Desert over a decade (2008–2019). We aimed to document trends in breeding performance in an arid-zone bird during a time of rapid global warming and identify potential drivers of variation in breeding performance. The breeding output of our study population collapsed during the monitoring period. Comparing the first three seasons (2008–2011) of monitoring to the last three seasons (2016–2019), the mean percentage of nest boxes that were occupied declined from 52% to 12%, nest success from 58% to 17%, and mean fledglings produced per breeding attempt from 1.1 to 0.4. Breeding output was negatively correlated with increasing days on which Tmax (mean maximum daily Tair) exceeded the threshold Tair at which male hornbills show a 50% likelihood of engaging in heat dissipation behavior [i.e., panting (Tthresh; Tair = 34.5°C)] and the occurrence of drought within the breeding season, as well as later dates for entry into the nest cavity (i.e., nest initiation) and fewer days post-hatch, spent incarcerated in the nest by the female parent. The apparent effects of high Tair were present even in non-drought years; of the 115 breeding attempts that were recorded, all 18 attempts that had ≥ 72% days during the attempt on which Tmax> Tthresh failed (equivalent to Tmax during the attempt ≥ 35.7°C). This suggests that global warming was likely the primary driver of the recent, rapid breeding success collapse. Based on current warming trends, the Tmax threshold of 35.7°C, above which no successful breeding attempts were recorded, will be exceeded during the entire hornbill breeding season by approximately 2027 at our study site. Therefore, our findings support the prediction that climate change may drive rapid declines and cause local extinctions despite the absence of direct lethal effects of extreme heat events.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Infanticide by Adult Females Causes Sexual Conflict in a Female-Dominated
           Social Mammal

    • Authors: Marion L. East, Dagmar Thierer, Sarah Benhaiem, Sonja Metzger, Heribert Hofer
      Abstract: Infanticide by adult females includes any substantial contribution to the demise of young and inevitably imposes fitness costs on the victim’s genetic fathers, thereby generating sexual conflict with them. Few if any studies have quantified the impact of infanticide by females on male reproductive success, the magnitude of sexual conflict this causes and possible counterstrategies males use against infanticidal females. We examine these topics in spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) clans, where females socially dominate breeding males and strong female mate-choice is independent of male social status. We consider two causes of infanticide by females, violent attacks on cubs and fatal maternal neglect. Violent attacks are predicted during periods of social instability at the top of the female linear dominance hierarchy and victims are expected to predominantly have mothers above median rank. Fatal maternal neglect, when starving litters are abandoned, is associated with monopolization of food in clan territories by high-ranking females, and victims are predicted to have mothers below median rank. Female perpetrators of violent attacks are expected to reduce the reproductive success of the fathers of their victims more than perpetrators of fatal maternal neglect. We tested these predictions using 30 + years of data (54 recorded violent attacks, 43 cases of fatal maternal neglect, DNA profiling of 1,671 individuals). Using long-term observations at communal dens we investigated whether males use counterstrategies against infanticide reported in other mammals. Due to female social dominance over breeding males, strong female mate-choice and prolonged offspring dependence on lactation in spotted hyenas, we predicted that these counterstrategies were unlikely to be used by males against females, thus no incidences of them were likely to be observed. Our results revealed that breeding males lost cubs to violent attacks at all stages of their reproductive tenure and to perpetrators with whom they did not sire offspring. Amongst known sources of paternity loss, violent attacks comprised 12.2% and maternal neglect 9.8% of cases. Violent attacks significantly reduced offspring production rates of breeding males, suggesting that infanticide by females generates sexual conflict. As predicted, no evidence of males using counterstrategies against infanticide by females were observed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Use of Molasses-Based Blocks to Modify Grazing Patterns and Increase
           Highland Cattle Impacts on Alnus viridis-Encroached Pastures

    • Authors: Mia Svensk, Ginevra Nota, Pierre Mariotte, Marco Pittarello, Davide Barberis, Michele Lonati, Eric Allan, Elisa Perotti, Massimiliano Probo
      Abstract: Alnus viridis is a pioneer species that has expanded in Central Europe in the last decades, causing a series of negative agro-environmental impacts. Robust livestock grazing could be used as a targeted tool to reduce its encroachment, but more information is needed to find the best approach to achieve this goal. In this study, we assessed the potential of molasses-based blocks (MB) to lure Highland cattle into A. viridis-encroached areas and monitored impacts on the vegetation after grazing. In 2019 and 2020, two Highland cattle herds equipped with GPS collars were placed in three paddocks in the Swiss and Italian Alps, differing in the degree of A. viridis encroachment. In 2020, MB were added to highly encroached areas within each paddock to attract the herds to feed on A. viridis. Botanical surveys were carried out before and after grazing, around MB and control areas. Highland cattle grazed significantly more around MB (up to 50 m from the MB) compared to the previous year (i.e., same area without MB) and compared to control areas. The increased targeted grazing around MB led to a significant decrease in herbaceous cover and an increase in bare soil compared to control areas. Livestock grazing and trampling significantly reduced the cover of ferns, tall herbs, medium and small herbs, and woody species around MB compared to control areas. A. viridis leaves and branches were significantly removed and damaged up to 10 m from the MB, due to the more intense livestock grazing. Such results highlight the potential of this management regime to effectively reduce A. viridis encroachment in montane grasslands.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Developmental Integration of Endosymbionts in Insects

    • Authors: Ab. Matteen Rafiqi, Priscila G. Polo, Nihan Sultan Milat, Zelal Özgür Durmuş, Birgül Çolak-Al, Mauricio E. Alarcón, Fatma Zehra Çağıl, Arjuna Rajakumar
      Abstract: In endosymbiosis, two independently existing entities are inextricably intertwined such that they behave as a single unit. For multicellular hosts, the endosymbiont must be integrated within the host developmental genetic network to maintain the relationship. Developmental integration requires innovations in cell type, gene function, gene regulation, and metabolism. These innovations are contingent upon the existing ecological interactions and may evolve mutual interdependence. Recent studies have taken significant steps toward characterizing the proximate mechanisms underlying interdependence. However, the study of developmental integration is only in its early stages of investigation. Here, we review the literature on mutualistic endosymbiosis to explore how unicellular endosymbionts developmentally integrate into their multicellular hosts with emphasis on insects as a model. Exploration of this process will help gain a more complete understanding of endosymbiosis. This will pave the way for a better understanding of the endosymbiotic theory of evolution in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Multiple Lines of Ecological Evidence Support Ancient Contact Between the
           African Wild Dog and the Dhole

    • Authors: Rita Gomes Rocha, João Gonçalves, Pedro Tarroso, Pedro Monterroso, Raquel Godinho
      Abstract: Genomic tools have greatly enhanced our ability to uncover ancient interspecific gene flow, including cases involving allopatric lineages and/or lineages that have gone extinct. Recently, a genomic analysis revealed the unexpected gene flow between the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and the dhole (Cuon alpinus). The two species have currently highly disjunct and patchy distributions in Africa and Asia, respectively, which are remnants of a much wider past distribution. Yet, no reported evidence of their past contact has ever been documented. By hindcasting the past potential distribution of both species during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Last Interglacial, validating paleoclimatic reconstructions with fossil evidence, quantifying the intersection of their bioclimatic niches, and assessing interspecific compatibility, we investigate the location and favorable conditions for such contact and its ecological validity. We were able to identify the Levant region in Eastern Mediterranean during the Last Interglacial as the most suitable spatio-ecological context for the co-occurrence of the two canids, and to provide evidence of a highly significant overlap of the African wild dog niche with the wider niche of the dhole. These results, combined with ecologic traits, including key compatibility features such as cooperative breeding and hunting, provide consistent support for the potential co-occurrence of both canids. We suggest that the ranges of these canids came into contact multiple times during periods resembling the Last Interglacial, eventually facilitating gene flow between the African wild dog and the dhole in their post-divergence history. Our results are highly supportive of the key role of the Levant region in providing connectivity between African and Eurasian faunas and provide further impetus to combine different tools and approaches in advancing the understanding of species evolutionary histories.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Review of the Impact of Whale Fall on Biodiversity in Deep-Sea Ecosystems

    • Authors: Qihui Li, Yaping Liu, Guo Li, Zhikai Wang, Zheng Zheng, Yuyang Sun, Ningfei Lei, Qi Li, Weizhen Zhang
      Abstract: “Whale Fall” is a collective term for the whale carcass, the process of dead whale fall, and the formed deep-sea ecosystem. The whale fall process produces a lot of unstable organic matter that has a significant impact on deep-sea ecosystems. Scientists speculate that organic matter input is the source of energy and material for organisms in deep-sea ecosystems. In the seafloor of the North Pacific, whale fall supports the survival of at least 12,490 organisms of 43 species, contributing to the prosperity of deep-sea life. Due to the specificity of the time and space of the formation of whale fall, there are few studies on whale fall and its impact on the deep-sea ecosystem. This article summarizes and analyses the current research status on the distribution of whale fall and its impact on the deep-sea ecosystem at home and abroad. The results show that the current distribution of whale fall is mainly concentrated in the Pacific and Atlantic regions, and the research on the impact of whale fall on deep-sea ecosystems focuses on the formation process, degradation rate and impact on deep-sea biological systems. This article has some significance to the understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem succession in the deep-sea “desert area.”
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
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