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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 184)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 96)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 45  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-701X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Body Size and Symmetry Properties of Termite Soldiers Under Two
           Intraspecific Competition Scenarios

    • Authors: Daniel Aguilera-Olivares, Bárbara Torres-Guzmán, Alberto Arab, Luis Flores-Prado, Hermann M. Niemeyer
      Abstract: Single-piece nesting termites live and forage in the same piece of wood throughout their life, which limit their colony size. In certain species, more than one colony thrive in a given piece of wood (multicolonial substrate) and intraspecific competition become important in this limited resource, as has been reported in Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen, 1858) and Neotermes chilensis (Blattodea: Kalotermitidae) (Blanchard, 1851). The effects of such competition have been described mainly at population and colony levels rather than at the individual level. In eusocial insects such as termites, intraspecific competition constitutes a stress factor imposed to a colony as a whole and should also cause developmental instability in soldiers produced under such conditions. Investment in the production of soldiers involves a trade-off between colony maintenance costs and defense benefits. Hence, we hypothesize that body size and fluctuating asymmetry, two indicators of developmental instability, will increase when two or more colonies of N. chilensis share a piece of wood (high intraspecific competition scenario). Our results showed that soldiers developing in multicolonial substrates were indeed larger and more asymmetric than soldiers developing in unicolonial substrates. The large body size in a soldier could improve its chance to win a physical contest with a non-nestmate opponent; thus, despite the high cost to produce large soldiers in small colonies, larger soldier production could be an adaptative strategy to avoid being outcompeted. However, the effects of deviations from perfect symmetry on soldier performance are not clear.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Insulin-Like Growth
           Factor-1 Reaction Norms

    • Authors: Zsófia Tóth, Katharina Mahr, Gyula Ölveczki, Levente Őri, Ádám Zoltán Lendvai
      Abstract: Most organisms have to cope with unpredictable environmental challenges such as fluctuations in nutritional resources. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an evolutionarily conserved hormone that is highly sensitive to the individual nutritional status and regulates major life-history traits including lifespan and reproduction across vertebrates. We investigated the role of IGF-1 during periods of food shortages by altering between two feeding regimes (110 and 70% of daily food intake) after a period of ad libitum feeding in captive bearded reedlings (Panurus biarmicus). Each dietary treatment was repeated twice. Birds lost mass under food restriction, but the magnitude of mass change depended on the preceding dietary conditions. Moreover, bearded reedlings showed large, repeatable individual differences in their IGF-1 reaction norms with some individuals increasing IGF-1 levels in response to a restricted diet, whereas others showed no responses or decreased IGF-1 levels. This variation was explained by differences in average body mass: heavier individuals had higher IGF-1 levels during the control treatment and were more likely to decrease IGF-1 levels in response to the dietary restriction than did lighter ones. This result uncovers an individual by environment interaction (I × E) and may have important implications for the evolution of IGF-1 related hormonal phenotypes in this species.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Similarities and Differences in Fish Community Composition Accessed by
           Electrofishing, Gill Netting, Seining, Trawling, and Water eDNA
           Metabarcoding in Temperate Reservoirs

    • Authors: Amin Golpour, Marek Šmejkal, Martin Čech, Rômulo A. dos Santos, Allan T. Souza, Tomáš Jůza, Carlos Martínez, Daniel Bartoň, Mojmír Vašek, Vladislav Draštík, Tomáš Kolařík, Luboš Kočvara, Milan Říha, Jiří Peterka, Petr Blabolil
      Abstract: It is difficult to understand the composition and diversity of biological communities in complex and heterogeneous environments using traditional sampling methods. Recently, developments in environmental DNA metabarcoding have emerged as a powerful, non-invasive method for comprehensive community characterization and biodiversity monitoring in different types of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, water eDNA targeting fish (wf-eDNA) and four traditional fish sampling methods (electrofishing, gill netting, seining, trawling) were compared to evaluate the reliability and efficiency of wf-eDNA (vertebrate mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as an alternative approach to assess the diversity and composition of freshwater fish communities. The results of wf-eDNA showed a consistency between the traditional sampling methods regarding species detection. However, some fish species detected using wf-eDNA assay were not detected using traditional sampling methods and vice versa. Comparison of wf-eDNA and traditional sampling methods revealed spatial homogeneity in fish community composition in all reservoirs. Ordination analysis showed that the wf-eDNA approach covers all traditional sampling methods and occupies an intermediate position. In addition, based on the Shannon diversity index, we found that in one reservoir the wf-eDNA method yielded similar fish community diversity to traditional sampling methods. However, in other reservoirs, the calculated Shannon diversity index of the wf-eDNA method was significantly higher than traditional sampling methods. In general, significant positive correlations were found between the wf-eDNA method and almost all traditional sampling methods. We conclude that wf-eDNA seems to be a reliable and complementary approach for biomonitoring and ecosystem management of freshwater ichthyofauna.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variations of Human Pressure on Key Biodiversity Areas in
           the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: A Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Yuxi Zeng, Ling-en Wang, Linsheng Zhong
      Abstract: A key biodiversity area (KBA) is one of the important emerging area-based conservation measures that is being implemented recently in China; however, the human pressure faced by a KBA is still unclear. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of human pressure on KBAs from 1990 to 2017 and compared it with the human pressure on national natural reserves (NNRs) through a case study of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. In addition, changes in the trend of human pressure before and after 2010 were analyzed to examine the influence of conservation policies on human pressure. Results showed that human pressure on KBAs and NNRs gradually increased from 1990 to 2017. Furthermore, the growth rates and mean values of human pressure in KBAs were higher than those in NNRs. After the implementation of conservation policies in 2010, the growth rates of human pressure on both KBAs and NNRs have significantly slowed, and the areas with negative growth in both KBAs and NNRs have gradually expanded. In addition to providing an understanding of the changing spatiotemporal trends of human pressure on KBAs, this study can serve as a reference to formulate policies for the improvement of the effectiveness of conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Theropod Tridactyl Tracks Across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary in
           Southern Africa: Implications for Pedal Morphology Evolution

    • Authors: Miengah Abrahams, Emese M. Bordy, Fabien Knoll, James O. Farlow
      Abstract: The end-Triassic mass extinction events mark a pivotal period in archosaur history, and have been proposed to contribute to the rise and dominance of dinosaurs throughout the Mesozoic. In southern Africa, the Triassic–Jurassic boundary is contained within the richly fossiliferous fluvio-lacustrine-aeolian deposits of the upper Stormberg Group in the main Karoo Basin. Due to an absence of high-resolution radioisotopic age constraints, the exact placement of the boundary remains difficult. The Stormberg Group theropod osteological record is limited to scarce, fragmentary material; therefore, the abundant Norian–Pliensbachian tridactyl tracks attributed to theropods are vital for unraveling theropod dinosaur evolutionary trends in southwestern Gondwana. This study considers over 200 upper Stormberg Group tridactyl tracks assigned to the Kayentapus-Grallator-Anchisauripus-Eubrontes (K-GAE) plexus, to quantify their morphological variation across a time span of ∼35 million years. Our findings show that within the upper Stormberg Group, and across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary, the younger tracks become larger, have a decreased mesaxony and a reduced digit III projection. This reduced emphasis of the medial digit is also observed across the K-GAE plexus, and for the individual ichnotaxa across time in the main Karoo Basin, e.g., Eubrontes tracks become less mesaxonic and have a reduced digit III projection higher up in the stratigraphy. This suggests that these morphological trends are not simply linked to size but may reflect a change in autopod morphology through time, which has implications for pedal functionality. Furthermore, being morphologically distinct from contemporaneous North American K-GAE tracks (e.g., reduced elongation and mesaxony, no correlation between digit divarication angles and size), these southern African footprints warrant further investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Genomic Insights Into the Demographic History of the Southern Chinese

    • Authors: Xiufeng Huang, Zi-Yang Xia, Xiaoyun Bin, Guanglin He, Jianxin Guo, Atif Adnan, Lianfei Yin, Youyi Huang, Jing Zhao, Yidong Yang, Fuwei Ma, Yingxiang Li, Rong Hu, Tianle Yang, Lan-Hai Wei, Chuan-Chao Wang
      Abstract: Southern China is the birthplace of rice-cultivating agriculture and different language families and has also witnessed various human migrations that facilitated cultural diffusions. The fine-scale demographic history in situ that forms present-day local populations, however, remains unclear. To comprehensively cover the genetic diversity in East and Southeast Asia, we generated genome-wide SNP data from 211 present-day Southern Chinese and co-analyzed them with ∼1,200 ancient and modern genomes. In Southern China, language classification is significantly associated with genetic variation but with a different extent of predictability, and there is strong evidence for recent shared genetic history particularly in Hmong–Mien and Austronesian speakers. A geography-related genetic sub-structure that represents the major genetic variation in Southern East Asians is established pre-Holocene and its extremes are represented by Neolithic Fujianese and First Farmers in Mainland Southeast Asia. This sub-structure is largely reduced by admixture in ancient Southern Chinese since > ∼2,000 BP, which forms a “Southern Chinese Cluster” with a high level of genetic homogeneity. Further admixture characterizes the demographic history of the majority of Hmong–Mien speakers and some Kra-Dai speakers in Southwest China happened ∼1,500–1,000 BP, coeval to the reigns of local chiefdoms. In Yellow River Basin, we identify a connection of local populations to genetic sub-structure in Southern China with geographical correspondence appearing > ∼9,000 BP, while the gene flow likely closely related to “Southern Chinese Cluster” since the Longshan period (∼5,000–4,000 BP) forms ancestry profile of Han Chinese Cline.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Taxonomic Identification of Two Poorly Known Lantern Shark Species Based
           on Mitochondrial DNA From Wet-Collection Paratypes

    • Authors: Stefanie Agne, Gavin J. P. Naylor, Michaela Preick, Lei Yang, Ralf Thiel, Simon Weigmann, Johanna L. A. Paijmans, Axel Barlow, Michael Hofreiter, Nicolas Straube
      Abstract: Etmopteridae (lantern sharks) is the most species-rich family of sharks, comprising more than 50 species. Many species are described from few individuals, and re-collection of specimens is often hindered by the remoteness of their sampling sites. For taxonomic studies, comparative morphological analysis of type specimens housed in natural history collections has been the main source of evidence. In contrast, DNA sequence information has rarely been used. Most lantern shark collection specimens, including the types, were formalin fixed before long-term storage in ethanol solutions. The DNA damage caused by both fixation and preservation of specimens has excluded these specimens from DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses so far. However, recent advances in the field of ancient DNA have allowed recovery of wet-collection specimen DNA sequence data. Here we analyse archival mitochondrial DNA sequences, obtained using ancient DNA approaches, of two wet-collection lantern shark paratype specimens, namely Etmopterus litvinovi and E. pycnolepis, for which the type series represent the only known individuals. Target capture of mitochondrial markers from single-stranded DNA libraries allows for phylogenetic placement of both species. Our results suggest synonymy of E. benchleyi with E. litvinovi but support the species status of E. pycnolepis. This revised taxonomy is helpful for future conservation and management efforts, as our results indicate a larger distribution range of E. litvinovi. This study further demonstrates the importance of wet-collection type specimens as genetic resource for taxonomic research.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Maximizing Molecular Data From Low-Quality Fluid-Preserved Specimens in
           

    • Authors: Justin M. Bernstein, Sara Ruane
      Abstract: Over the past decade, museum genomics studies have focused on obtaining DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for sequencing from fluid-preserved natural history specimens, primarily to be used in systematic studies. While these studies have opened windows to evolutionary and biodiversity knowledge of many species worldwide, published works often focus on the success of these DNA sequencing efforts, which is undoubtedly less common than obtaining minimal or sometimes no DNA or unusable sequence data from specimens in natural history collections. Here, we attempt to obtain and sequence DNA extracts from 115 fresh and 41 degraded samples of homalopsid snakes, as well as from two degraded samples of a poorly known snake, Hydrablabes periops. Hydrablabes has been suggested to belong to at least two different families (Natricidae and Homalopsidae) and with no fresh tissues known to be available, intractable museum specimens currently provide the only opportunity to determine this snake’s taxonomic affinity. Although our aim was to generate a target-capture dataset for these samples, to be included in a broader phylogenetic study, results were less than ideal due to large amounts of missing data, especially using the same downstream methods as with standard, high-quality samples. However, rather than discount results entirely, we used mapping methods with references and pseudoreferences, along with phylogenetic analyses, to maximize any usable molecular data from our sequencing efforts, identify the taxonomic affinity of H. periops, and compare sequencing success between fresh and degraded tissue samples. This resulted in largely complete mitochondrial genomes for five specimens and hundreds to thousands of nuclear loci (ultra-conserved loci, anchored-hybrid enrichment loci, and a variety of loci frequently used in squamate phylogenetic studies) from fluid-preserved snakes, including a specimen of H. periops from the Field Museum of Natural History collection. We combined our H. periops data with previously published genomic and Sanger-sequenced datasets to confirm the familial designation of this taxon, reject previous taxonomic hypotheses, and make biogeographic inferences for Hydrablabes. A second H. periops specimen, despite being seemingly similar for initial raw sequencing results and after being put through the same protocols, resulted in little usable molecular data. We discuss the successes and failures of using different pipelines and methods to maximize the products from these data and provide expectations for others who are looking to use DNA sequencing efforts on specimens that likely have degraded DNA.Life Science Identifier (Hydrablabes periops)urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F2AA44 E2-D2EF-4747-972A-652C34C2C09D.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Does Different Cropland Expansion Trajectories Affect Cropland
           Fragmentation' Insights From Three Urban Agglomerations in Yangtze
           River Economic Belt, China

    • Authors: Liye Wang, Siyu Zhang, Yifan Xie, Yanfang Liu, Yaolin Liu
      Abstract: A clear understanding of cropland expansion dynamics and their effects is vital for cropland protection and food security. However, the trajectories of cropland expansion have been less discussed. This study referred to the modes of landscape expansion and assessed the cropland expansion trajectory in three urban agglomerations in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and its impact on cropland fragmentation. Specifically, we identified three cropland expansion trajectories using the landscape expansion index, namely, infilling, edge-expansion, and outlying. Moreover, the surface relief amplitude model was employed to characterize the relief amplitude effect on cropland expansion trajectories. By coupling landscape metrics (e.g., patch density, landscape shape index, the largest patch index, and aggregation index) and Spearman correlation analysis, the relationship between cropland expansion trajectories and cropland fragmentation was assessed. Results show that (1) three urban agglomerations experience cropland expansion, in which the edge-expansion trajectory is primary, followed by infilling and outlying trajectories; (2) the cumulative frequency curve indicates that infilling and edge-expansion trajectories are likely to be distributed in low topographic relief amplitude regions, while the outlying trajectory is located in relatively higher topographic relief amplitude regions; and (3) infilling and edge-expansion trajectories contribute to a significantly positive relationship with the decrease of cropland fragmentation, while the outlying trajectory has a negative relationship with cropland fragmentation. This research highlights that cropland protection policies should considerably focus on the trajectory of cropland expansion, not only request the total area of cropland in a dynamic balance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Phylogeography of Tridentiger bifasciatus (Gobiidae) in the Northwestern
           Pacific

    • Authors: Junjie Wang, Kui-Ching Hsu, Yue-Hua Chen, Jun Zhao, Wen-Qiao Tang, Dong Liu, Jin-Quan Yang, Hung-Du Lin
      Abstract: The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) is native to marine, brackish, and fresh waters along the coasts of the northwest Pacific. Our study examined the population genetic structure, diversity, and demography of T. bifasciatus in the China Seas, including the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea, using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and d-loop region] and nuclear DNA [nuDNA ryanodine receptor 3 (Ryr3) gene]. The mtDNA dataset revealed a significant population differentiation, but the nuDNA dataset displayed the absence of genetic differentiation. The discordance between these two datasets was accounted for by population admixture, selection, and incomplete lineage sorting. Although the mtDNA and nuDNA displayed a discordant population structure, these genetic markers revealed the same population history: (1) the populations retreated into two refugia during glaciations and (2) the populations declined recently. Our study revealed that after glaciations, the re-flooding in Taiwan Strait did not shape the migrations of the southern lineage from the South China Sea to the East China Sea, and displayed that two mtDNA lineages have diverged before they migrated southward during glaciations. These results offer important resources for the further study of conservation genetics.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Evaluation of Cropland System Resilience to Climate Change at Municipal
           Scale Through Robustness, Adaptability, and Transformability: A Case Study
           of Hubei Province, China

    • Authors: Mingyan Yan, Bohan Yang, Siyu Sheng, Xiangyu Fan, Xiaoyun Li, Xinhai Lu
      Abstract: A cropland system is one of the most sensitive socio-ecological systems to climate change, such as drought and flood. Facing frequent extreme weather events worldwide, how to improve cropland system resilience to climate change (CSRCC) and thus ensure food production has been concerned. Although a small number of studies have attempted to evaluate CSRCC through single or multiple indicators, few studies have considered the perspective of the three basic capacities of resilience (i.e., robustness, adaptability, and transformability), which could ignore the dynamic characteristics of cropland system resilience against shocks within a certain period. Therefore, this study first constructs an evaluation index system from the three capacities of system resilience. Then, taking Hubei province, China, as a case and comprehensively using the methods of Delphi, AHP, and TOPSIS to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of CSRCC at the municipal scale from 2011 to 2018. On this basis, the regional disparities of CSRCC are analyzed by using the Theil coefficient. The results show that the CSRCC of Hubei province fluctuates on a downward trend, with the lowest in 2017 and the highest in 2013. Most municipalities have witnessed a pattern of fluctuated decline, except for a few ones in the plains, such as Wuhan and Jingmen. Generally, municipalities in the plains have greater scores, while some municipalities in the southern and eastern hilly regions show higher adaptability and transformability. In addition, adaptability contributes the least to the CSRCC at the municipal scale. At last, indicator selection against different research objects, influencing mechanism of CSRCC, and policy implications are discussed. This study is expected to provide a reference for the practice in sustainable management and utilization of cropland systems.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Reproductive Senescence in Two Lemur Lineages

    • Authors: Peter M. Kappeler, Leonie Pethig, Lea Prox, Claudia Fichtel
      Abstract: The relationship between age and reproductive performance is highly variable across species. Humans and some cetaceans exhibit an extreme form of reproductive senescence in that female reproduction ceases years or even decades before average life expectancy is reached. However, neither the existence of reproductive senescence in some taxa nor its absence in others is fully understood. Comparative data from other long-lived mammals may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of menopause, but data from wild primates, in particular, are scarce. We therefore investigated age-related female reproductive performance in two wild sympatric populations of Malagasy primates: Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) and redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons), which have a maximal longevity of more than 20 years. Based on 25 years of long-term demographic data, we extracted information on reproductive output of 38 female Verreaux’s sifakas and 42 female redfronted lemurs. We modeled variation in female reproductive performance and interbirth intervals as a function of age, the number of adult females within a group to account for female competition, and rainfall as a proxy for annual variation in food availability. We also compared our results for these two species with data on captive populations of the same two genera that are buffered from fluctuations in environmental variables. Our analyses disclosed statistical evidence for reproductive senescence in three out of four populations (captive Coquerel’s sifakas, wild redfronted lemurs, and captive red lemurs) but not for wild Verreaux’s sifakas. Compared to wild populations, reproductive senescence was therefore not less pronounced in captive animals, even though the latter are buffered from environmental adversities. In wild redfronted lemurs, mothers were more likely to give birth in years with more rainfall, but neither the number of co-resident females, nor annual rainfall did predict variation in the probability of giving birth in wild Verreaux’s sifakas. Thus, our study contributes valuable comparative information on reproductive senescence in a basal group of primates, and offers insights into the modulating effects of environmental, social and phylogenetic factors on patterns and dynamics of age-specific female reproduction.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Variation Among Species and Populations, and Carry-Over Effects of Winter
           Exposure on Mercury Accumulation in Small Petrels

    • Authors: Petra Quillfeldt, Yves Cherel, Joan Navarro, Richard A. Phillips, Juan F. Masello, Cristián G. Suazo, Karine Delord, Paco Bustamante
      Abstract: Even in areas as remote as the Southern Ocean, marine organisms are exposed to contaminants that arrive through long-range atmospheric transport, such as mercury (Hg), a highly toxic metal. In previous studies in the Southern Ocean, inter-specific differences in Hg contamination in seabirds was generally related to their distribution and trophic position. However, the Blue Petrel (Halobaena caerulea) was a notable exception among small seabirds, with higher Hg levels than expected. In this study, we compared the Hg contamination of Blue Petrels and Thin-billed Prions (Pachyptila belcheri), which both spend the non-breeding season in polar waters, with that of Antarctic Prions (Pachyptila desolata), which spend the winter in subtropical waters. We collected body feathers and blood samples, representing exposure during different time-frames. Hg concentrations in feathers, which reflect contamination throughout the annual cycle, were related to δ13C values, and varied with ocean basin and species. Blue Petrels from breeding colonies in the southeast Pacific Ocean had much higher feather Hg concentrations than expected after accounting for latitude and their low trophic positions. Both Hg concentrations and δ15N in blood samples of Blue Petrels were much lower at the end than at the start of the breeding period, indicating a marked decline in Hg contamination and trophic positions, and the carry-over of Hg burdens between the wintering and breeding periods. Elevated Hg levels may reflect greater reliance on myctophids or foraging in sea-ice environments. Our study underlines that carry-over of Hg concentrations in prey consumed in winter may determine body Hg burdens well into the breeding season.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Anthropogenic Induced Beta Diversity in Plant–Pollinator Networks:
           Dissimilarity, Turnover, and Predictive Power

    • Authors: Cian D. White, Marcus J. Collier, Jane C. Stout
      Abstract: Biogeography has traditionally focused on the distribution of species, while community ecology has sought to explain the patterns of community composition. Species interactions networks have rarely been subjected to such analyses, as modeling tools have only recently been developed for interaction networks. Here, we examine beta diversity of ecological networks using pollination networks sampled along an urbanization and agricultural intensification gradient in east Leinster, Ireland. We show, for the first time, that anthropogenic gradients structure interaction networks, and exert greater structuring force than geographical proximity. We further showed that species turnover, especially of plants, is the major driver of interaction turnover, and that this contribution increased with anthropogenic induced environmental dissimilarity, but not spatial distance. Finally, to explore the extent to which it is possible to predict each of the components of interaction turnover, we compared the predictive performance of models that included site characteristics and interaction properties to models that contained species level effects. We show that if we are to accurately predict interaction turnover, data are required on the species-specific responses to environmental gradients. This study highlights the importance of anthropogenic disturbances when considering the biogeography of interaction networks, especially in human dominated landscapes where geographical effects can be secondary sources of variation. Yet, to build a predictive science of the biogeography of interaction networks, further species-specific responses need to be incorporated into interaction distribution modeling approaches.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Spatial and Ecological Scaling of Stability in Spatial Community Networks

    • Authors: Javier Jarillo, Francisco J. Cao-García, Frederik De Laender
      Abstract: There are many scales at which to quantify stability in spatial and ecological networks. Local-scale analyses focus on specific nodes of the spatial network, while regional-scale analyses consider the whole network. Similarly, species- and community-level analyses either account for single species or for the whole community. Furthermore, stability itself can be defined in multiple ways, including resistance (the inverse of the relative displacement caused by a perturbation), initial resilience (the rate of return after a perturbation), and invariability (the inverse of the relative amplitude of the population fluctuations). Here, we analyze the scale-dependence of these stability properties. More specifically, we ask how spatial scale (local vs. regional) and ecological scale (species vs. community) influence these stability properties. We find that regional initial resilience is the weighted arithmetic mean of the local initial resiliences. The regional resistance is the harmonic mean of local resistances, which makes regional resistance particularly vulnerable to nodes with low stability, unlike regional initial resilience. Analogous results hold for the relationship between community- and species-level initial resilience and resistance. Both resistance and initial resilience are “scale-free” properties: regional and community values are simply the biomass-weighted means of the local and species values, respectively. Thus, one can easily estimate both stability metrics of whole networks from partial sampling. In contrast, invariability generally is greater at the regional and community-level than at the local and species-level, respectively. Hence, estimating the invariability of spatial or ecological networks from measurements at the local or species level is more complicated, requiring an unbiased estimate of the network (i.e., region or community) size. In conclusion, we find that scaling of stability depends on the metric considered, and we present a reliable framework to estimate these metrics.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Life Cycle of the Bacterial-Feeding Nematode Diplolaimella stagnosa
           and Its Population Growth in Response to Temperature and Food Availability
           

    • Authors: Jingchao Zhao, Jun Zhang, Xueli Zhu, Jianbo Lu, Binsong Jin, Huili Chen
      Abstract: Diplolaimella is a ubiquitous cosmopolitan genus, but information on the life cycles of its species is limited. Here, we describe the life cycle of a free-living bacterivorous nematode, Diplolaimella stagnosa, and report the effects of temperature and food availability on its population dynamics. Specimens were primarily collected from the intertidal zone of Hangzhou Bay Wetland, China and culture experiments were conducted in nutrient agar media with habitat water at 20°C. The nematode primarily fed on an unidentified bacterium that it carried. Under these conditions, both males and females matured in 16 days. Reproduction was by gamogenesis and gravid females normally carried 7–8 eggs. Embryogenesis was completed in 58 h, and the entire life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in 16–18 days. During juvenile development, body lengths of worms increased linearly up to the 16th day, and then remained constant. Body lengths of males and females were 898.1 ± 6.0 μm and 1039.7 ± 14.7 μm, respectively. Nematodes kept at 25°C had a greater population increase than those at 20°C, and the population growth of nematodes was substantially higher in microcosms with abundant bacteria supplied by leaves of Phragmites australis than in microcosms without plant litter. Based on its life strategy and the influence of food availability and temperature on population growth, D. stagnosa was allocated to group c-p 2, suggesting its potential use as a model organism in toxicological studies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Movement of Western Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) Among U.S. States
           and Territories: History, Benefits, Risks, and Mitigation Strategies

    • Authors: Jose Marcelino, Charles Braese, Krisztina Christmon, Jay D. Evans, Todd Gilligan, Tugrul Giray, Anthony Nearman, Elina L. Niño, Robyn Rose, Walter S. Sheppard, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, James D. Ellis
      Abstract: Beekeeping is a cornerstone activity that has led to the human-mediated, global spread of western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) outside their native range of Europe, western Asia, and Africa. The exportation/importation of honey bees (i.e., transfer of honey bees or germplasm between countries) is regulated at the national level in many countries. Honey bees were first imported into the United States in the early 1600’s. Today, honey bee movement (i.e., transport of honey bees among states and territories) is regulated within the United States at the state, territory, and federal levels. At the federal level, honey bees present in the country (in any state or territory) can be moved among states and territories without federal restriction, with the exception of movement to Hawaii. In contrast, regulations at the state and territory levels vary substantially, ranging from no additional regulations beyond those stipulated at the federal level, to strict regulations for the introduction of live colonies, packaged bees, or queens. This variability can lead to inconsistencies in the application of regulations regarding the movement of honey bees among states and territories. In November 2020, we convened a technical working group (TWG), composed of academic and USDA personnel, to review and summarize the (1) history of honey bee importation into/movement within the United States, (2) current regulations regarding honey bee movement and case studies on the application of those regulations, (3) benefits associated with moving honey bees within the United States, (4) risks associated with moving honey bees within the United States, and (5) risk mitigation strategies. This review will be helpful for developing standardized best practices for the safe movement of honey bees between the 48 contiguous states and other states/territories within the United States.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T12:52:45Z
       
  • Effects of Small Hydropower Stations Along Rivers on the Distribution of
           Aquatic Biodiversity

    • Authors: Peng Gu, Zhaochang Zhang, Jing Liu, Tao Wang, Yunxing Xiao, YangJinzhi Yu, Hengfeng Miao, Yumiao Zhang, Fei Liao, Kunlun Yang, Qi Li
      Abstract: At present, there is little research on the impact of small hydropower stations on aquatic biodiversity. In order to investigate whether the existence of small hydropower stations has a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity of their watersheds, we conducted a systematic study on the abundance of plankton, benthic animal, fish and microorganism in the watersheds of 15 small hydropower stations in Qionglai City. The results showed that 59 species of phytoplankton from 3 divisions, 16 species of zooplankton from 4 categories, 25 species of benthic animal from 3 phyla and 30 species of fish were found in the study basin. The analysis of the physical and chemical indicators of water bodies and the distribution characteristics of aquatic organisms found that the operation of small diversion-type power stations in Qionglai City changed part of the aquatic habitat in the basin, with a greater impact on the activities of large aquatic animals (fish) and a smaller impact on plankton and microorganism, and the intensity of the impact was shown as fish > benthic animal > plankton > microorganism. The small hydropower stations in this study have an impact but not significant on the aquatic biodiversity in the Baimo and Wenjing River in the Qionglai City, and this study provides a data reference for the comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact of small hydropower stations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Do Livelihood Strategies Affect the Livelihood Resilience of Farm
           Households in Flooded Areas' Evidence From Hubei Province, China

    • Authors: Xin Luo, Chongmei Zhang, Jiahao Song, Zishan Qiu, Wenzhuo Li, Wei Wang
      Abstract: Hubei Province, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, is a complex area of fragile ecological environment and traditional agricultural production in China. With the further intensification of the impact of global warming, flood disasters have brought a more severe threat to the sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods. This paper therefore examines the livelihood resilience of farmers with different livelihood strategies in the region by constructing a livelihood resilience evaluation system based on three target levels: buffering capacity, Adaptation and restoration, and using a contribution model to identify the main contributing factors affecting the livelihood resilience of fa rmers. The following three conclusions were found: (1). The overall level of livelihood resilience of farmers in flood-affected areas in Hubei Province is not high, and the difference in livelihood resilience indices between farmers with different livelihood strategies is large; (2). Farming-led farmers and part-time balanced farmers can better adapt to external shocks brought about by floods; (3). The main contributing factors affecting the livelihood resilience of various types of farmers have Convergence.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Uniparental Genetic Analyses Reveal Multi-Ethnic Background of Dunhuang
           Foyemiaowan Population (220–907 CE) With Typical Han Chinese
           Archaological Culture

    • Authors: Jianxue Xiong, Yichen Tao, Minxi Ben, Yishi Yang, Panxin Du, Edward Allen, Hui Wang, Yiran Xu, Yao Yu, Hailiang Meng, Haoquan Bao, Boyan Zhou, Guoke Chen, Hui Li, Shaoqing Wen
      Abstract: The relationship between archeological culture and ethnicity is invariably complex. This is especially the case for periods of national division and rapid inter-ethnic exchange, such as China’s Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439 CE) and Northern and Southern Dynasties (420–589 CE). Going by tomb shape and grave goods, the Foyemiaowan cemetery at Dunhuang exhibits a typical third–tenth century Han style. Despite this, the ethnic makeup of the Foyemiaowan population has remained unclear. We therefore analyzed 485 Y-chromosomal SNPs and entire mitochondrial genomes of 34 Foyemiaowan samples. Our study yielded the following discoveries: (1) principal component analysis revealed that the Foyemiaowan population was closely clustered with Tibeto-Burman populations on the paternal side and close to Mongolic-speaking populations on the maternal side; (2) lineage comparisons at the individual level showed that the Foyemiaowan population consisted of primarily Tibeto-Burman and Han Chinese related lineages (Oα-M117, 25%;Oβ-F46, 18.75%), partially Altaic speaking North Eurasian lineages (N-F1206, 18.75%) and a slight admixture of southern East Asian lineages (O1b1a2-Page59, 6.25%; O1b1a1-PK4, 3.13%). Similarly, the maternal gene pool of Foyemiaowan contained northern East Asian (A, 4.17%; CZ, 16.67%; D, 20.83%; G, 4.17%; M9, 4.17%), southern East Asian (B, 12.51%; F, 20.83%) and western Eurasian (H, 4.17%; J, 4.17%) related lineages; (3) we discovered a relatively high genetic diversity among the Foyemiaowan population (0.891) in our ancient reference populations, indicating a complex history of population admixture. Archeological findings, stable isotope analysis and historical documents further corroborated our results. Although in this period China’s central government had relinquished control of the Hexi Corridor and regional non-Han regimes became the dominant regional power, Foyemiaowan’s inhabitants remained strongly influenced by Han culture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
 
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