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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.582
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0954-6324 - ISSN (Online) 2052-6458
Published by Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Eileen Rees
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Sixty years later: Emsland still without wildfowl'

    • Authors: Helmut Kruckenberg
      Abstract: After the Second World War, G.L. Atkinson-Willes was stationed as an army officer in northwest Germany, where he studied waterbirds in the vicinity of Leer. On returning to the UK, he published a report about his observations at the Emsland (Atkinson-Willes 1961), having been deeply impressed not only by the birds but also by the scenery, and in his paper he made a call for the preservation of this threatened landscape and its avifauna. Sixty years later, weekly monitoring of waterbirds carried out in winters 2012/13–2019/20 provides an opportunity to verify whether his fears at that time were justified. In fact, during the second half of the 20th century the area largely lost its importance for wintering waterbirds, but when two flood polders were established in the late 1990s the area revived. Although not recapturing its pre-war significance, it is now once more of international importance for Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons, Greylag Geese A. anser and Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis, as well as for Bewick’s Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii. For a further 13 species, including Ruff Philomachus pugnax, Great White Egret Egretta alba, Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus and some duck species, the lowlands achieve national importance levels. Whilst the data in Atkinson-Willes’ publication were rather vague, it is evident that, although no longer the large-scale waterbird Eldorado of earlier times which he reported, nevertheless, the Emsland has regained importance for waterbirds during the last 20 years.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • The Icelandic Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus population: current status and
           long-term (1986–2020) trends in its numbers and distribution

    • Authors: Kane Brides, Kevin A. Wood, Colette Hall, Brian Burke, Graham McElwaine, Ólafur Einarsson, Neil Calbrade, Oisín Hill, Eileen C. Rees
      Abstract: The eighth international census of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain, Ireland and Iceland (also including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands) took place in January 2020, to update the estimates of the size, mid-winter distribution, habitat use and breeding success of the Icelandic Whooper Swan population. The total of 43,255 swans counted represented a 27.2% increase in numbers since the previous census in 2015. Overall, 36.8% of the population (15,927 birds) was recorded in England, 33.4% (14,467) in the Republic of Ireland, 11.7% (5,052) in Scotland, 10.7% (4,644) in Northern Ireland and 6.8% (2,923) in Iceland, with < 1% (242) in Wales, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands combined. Despite numbers increasing in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 2015, the proportion of the total population in the Republic of Ireland was significantly lower in 2020 and no significant difference was detected for Northern Ireland, whereas proportions in England and Scotland were significantly higher in 2020 and lower in Iceland. Breeding success was not associated with temperatures on either the breeding or wintering grounds. It also showed no clear trend over time, suggesting that increased survival may be the demographic driver of the population growth.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Factors influencing Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus numbers on the Isle of
           Tiree, Argyll, Scotland

    • Authors: John Bowler
      Abstract: Annual peak counts of Icelandic Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus on the mesotrophic lochs of the Isle of Tiree in winters 2001/02–2020/21 varied between 106 and 502 birds in autumn and between 45 and 186 in January, with no significant trends over time. Swans were present in nationally important and sometimes internationally important numbers at Loch a’ Phuill during 2001–2018 but counts dropped below the 1% threshold of nationally important numbers when this figure was revised upwards in 2019. Peak numbers of swans in both autumn and winter were significantly negatively correlated with recent rainfall. Periods of dry weather reduced loch levels by up to 0.5 m, which improved the swans’ access to submerged macrophyte food supplies. A significant positive correlation between summer rainfall and peak autumn counts implied that autumn macrophyte food supplies were lower after dry summers, in which large parts of the lochs dried out completely. The annual proportion of cygnets recorded ranged from 5.6% to 29.9% and did not differ significantly from the rest of the UK. The proportion of cygnets did not correlate with peak swan numbers in either autumn or January, reinforcing the view that variation in swan numbers on the island was affected by external factors such as food supply, rather than annual variation in demographics.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • First record of synthetic micro-fibre ingestion by Mute Swans Cygnus olor
           and Whooper Swans C. cygnus

    • Authors: Neil E. Coughlan, Connie Baker-Arney, Kane Brides, Jaimie T.A. Dick, Rose M. Griffith, Craig Holmes, Ryan Johnston, Thomas C. Kelly, Linda Lyne, Eoghan M. Cunningham
      Abstract: Despite an acute focus on the ingestion of large and small synthetic debris by seabirds, scant consideration has been given to their occurrence in other avian species inhabiting coastal and inland wetland areas. Here, we assess ingestion of synthetic micro-fibres (i.e. microplastics and other non-natural fibres, 0.5–5 mm in size) by Mute Swans Cygnus olor inhabiting a large freshwater reservoir (n = 12 faecal samples), and from Whooper Swans C. cygnus wintering on a remote offshore Atlantic island (n = 11 faecal samples). Samples were chemically digested to eliminate labile organic matter including natural fibres. In total, 79 synthetic micro-fibres were recovered at frequencies of 4.2 ± 0.8 and 2.6 ± 0.7 (mean ± s.e.) per sample, ranging from 0–10 and 0–7 micro-fibres per sample, for Mute Swan and Whooper Swan faecal samples, respectively. The number of synthetic micro-fibres recovered did not differ significantly between species or sites. Similarly, there was no difference in the number of synthetic micro-fibres detected per gram of faecal sample. Overall, our preliminary data further bolster emerging records for the ingestion of synthetic debris by non-marine waterbirds inhabiting freshwater and coastal areas.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Seasonal changes in the diet of Mute Swans Cygnus olor in the recently
           colonised eastern Gulf of Finland

    • Authors: Sergei A. Kouzov, Yulia I. Gubelit, Anna V. Kravchuk, Elena M. Koptseva, Elmira M. Zaynagutdinova, Valentina N. Nikitina
      Abstract: Mute Swans Cygnus olor have expanded their Russian breeding range since the 1950s, and first colonised the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland in 1987. Diet analysis showed that the pre-breeding and breeding season diet of Mute Swans in this region consists entirely of soft aquatic plants. In late winter and early spring (prior to active vegetation growth) the birds fed on the previous year’s growth of green filamentous algae Chladophora sp., which had been displaced by currents and storms from wintering mats on the bottom substrate. Diatoms were an increasingly important component of the swans’ diet during the pre-nesting period, from a month before egg-laying and also during egg-laying, when diatom abundance was peaking but the growth of vascular aquatic plants and algae had yet to commence. Later, during egg-laying and incubation, Mute Swans began to feed on the new season’s growth of aquatic vascular plants and filamentous algae. Given the timing of diatom intake, we suggest that diatoms can play a significant role in enabling Mute Swans in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland to accumulate the protein and energy reserves required for reproduction.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Seasonal changes of roosting and foraging areas for Lesser White-fronted
           Geese Anser erythropus wintering in Japan

    • Authors: Yusuke Sawa, Colette Hall, Chieko Tamura, Noboru Nakamura
      Abstract: Despite the recent decline in the Eastern Palearctic population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus (LWfG), numbers wintering in Japan have increased modestly since the 2000s. There have, however, been no systematic studies of the wintering ecology of the species previously conducted in Japan. In this study, count surveys were made of roosting and foraging sites, directed by tracking data from a GPS-tagged bird, to describe the movements of a wintering flock. The home range of the tagged LWfG during the 2020/21 winter was 9,120 ha (core area: 2,080 ha), and the distance between roosting and foraging sites ranged from 1.95–3.64 km. A change in the foraging and roost sites used by the geese was associated with low temperatures in mid-winter. This study provides preliminary information on the movements and habitat use by LWfGs in Japan, but further studies are required to improve our understanding of their wintering ecology, including their feeding habits and energy budgets, in relation to the quality and quantity of food resources available.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Habitat selection and foraging strategy of American Black Ducks Anas
           rubripes wintering in Tennessee, USA

    • Authors: Joshua M. Osborn, Heath M. Hagy, Matthew D. McClanahan, J. Brian Davis, Matthew J. Grey
      Abstract: American Black Duck Anas rubripes populations in North America have declined over the last 20 years, especially in the Mississippi Flyway. The Tennessee River Valley of west-central Tennessee historically has been an important winter terminus for Black Ducks in the Mississippi Flyway, but there is limited information on habitat resource selection during winter to guide management for this species. Available habitat resources and Black Duck behaviour were studied at the Tennessee and Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuges during December–February in winters 2011/12–2012/13, and the Black Ducks’ activities were compared to a broader community of dabbling ducks Anatini sp. wintering in the same area. Black Ducks used wooded wetlands and flooded agriculture at a greater relative frequency than other available wetland types throughout winter, but foraged more in moist-soil and mudflats than in other wetland types. They selected foraging patches independent of measured food densities, but the density of food at selected foraging sites did not decline throughout winter in line with resources available in the larger landscape, indicating that the ducks may have selected foraging patches at densities above critical food densities rather than distributing optimally according to total food densities. Factors other than absolute food abundance likely influence resource selection by Black Ducks and, despite some use of flooded agricultural fields, their behaviour and use of resources indicate that they are not likely food-limited during winter at these refuges. Management for Black Ducks in western Tennessee should include a complex of natural wetland types, including forested and moist-soil wetlands, within sanctuaries where disturbance is limited.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Assessing the current status of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina in

    • Authors: Karen Aghababyan, Anush Khachatryan, Sevak Baloyan, Asya Ghazaryan, Victorya Gevorgyan
      Abstract: The national conservation status of the globally threatened Common Pochard Aythya ferina has not previously been assessed in Armenia. Monitoring of the species in 2003–2019 shows that the Pochard breeds in the wetlands of the Ararat Plain, on the Shirak and Lori Plateaus, and at Lake Sevan, c. 800–2,040 m above sea level. It occurs in a core area of c. 64 km2, but defining a minimum area polygon that includes all known breeding sites extends to over c. 14,887 km2. In 2019, the total number of breeding Pochard pairs in Armenia was estimated at 1,917 (95% CI = 1,186–2,647) with a mean breeding density of 30.4 (± 5.91 s.e.) pairs/km2 (95% CI = 18.8–42.0 pairs). TRIM analysis of available count data found a moderate decline in the breeding population during 2003–2019, with Pochard numbers diminishing by 33% over the 17-year period, and by 16% in the last ten years. Numbers recorded in winter ranged from 34 birds in 2008 to 3,421 in 2015, with the variation apparently attributable to whether water bodies were frozen. A review of the potential threats to the species in Armenia showed that the primary threats are from habitat loss and/or degradation following changes in fish farm management, and also hunting pressure resulting from poor recognition of game species by hunters and a lack of control of hunting regulations. Pochard in Armenia should be considered as Vulnerable under International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria, and two main measures are recommended to improve the conservation status of the species: better control of hunting and poaching nationally, and protection and improved management of key habitats used by the Pochard. Continued monitoring of the species is also essential, for assessing future population changes and to evaluate the efficacy of conservation interventions.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Consequences of fish farming cessation on carrying capacity for ducks
           breeding on French fishponds

    • Authors: Joël Broyer, Laurence Curtet, Gilles Chavas
      Abstract: The demise of fish farming is one of several hypotheses proposed to explain the decline of Common Pochard Aythya ferina (hereafter Pochard) in Europe. Here we study habitat changes at Pochard breeding sites in Forez, central-eastern France, where traditional fish farming has been abandoned at many ponds since the 1990s. We compared variation in water and sediment physicochemical characteristics in ponds stocked with Common Carp Cyprinus carpio, versus ponds abandoned by fish farmers for ≥ 5 years, during early April to July 2016, as well as contrasting development of phytoplankton (measured as chlorophyll a), macrophytes, duck pair density and the brood:pair ratio. Carp stocking (biomass density usually ≥ 200 kg/ha) was associated with elevated June phosphate (PO4) pond water concentrations and with a decreased nitrogen loading, while PO4 and nitrogen levels remained stable in abandoned ponds throughout the study period. Carp stocking was also linked to lower phytoplankton density (chlorophyll a) in June and higher macrophyte cover, together with higher diving duck pair density and a higher duck brood:pair ratio. Such results suggest that bioturbation of pond sediment by foraging carp may favour macrophyte development by mobilising sediment phosphorus into pond water, thereby improving primary productivity of the aquatic ecosystem, and thus habitat conditions for ducks breeding at these sites.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Strong evidence for two disjunct populations of Black Scoters Melanitta
           americana in North America

    • Authors: Timothy D. Bowman, Scott G. Gilliland, Jason L. Schamber, Paul L. Flint, Daniel Esler, W. Sean Boyd, Daniel H. Rosenberg, Jean-Pierre L. Savard, Matthew C. Perry, Jason E. Osenkowski
      Abstract: Black Scoters Melanitta americana were marked with satellite transmitters on Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America to examine continental-scale population delineation. Scoters marked on the different coasts did not overlap at any stage of the annual cycle, suggesting that birds in the two regions could be monitored and managed as separate populations: 1) an Atlantic population, which winters along the Atlantic coast and Great Lakes and breeds from northeast continental Canada westward to the Northwest Territories, and 2) a Pacific population, which winters along the Pacific coasts of Alaska, British Columbia and the Pacific northwest states, and breeds in western Alaska. Range maps for Black Scoter could reflect these distributions revealed by satellite telemetry. Our data provide new information on the distribution of Black Scoters in North America, which can be used to improve the design of future surveys.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Variability in remigial moult chronology and nutrient dynamics of Surf
           Scoters Melanita perspicillata

    • Authors: Scott G. Gilliland, Jean-Pierre L. Savard
      Abstract: Little is known of the moulting ecology of the Surf Scoter Melanita perspicillata. In this study, we quantify the age and sex composition of moulting flocks, determine moulting chronology and consistency between years, and assess the body condition of scoters moulting along the coast of Labrador, Canada, during 2004–2007. Flocks of moulting scoters were comprised mainly of adult male Surf Scoters and the proportion of adults and sub-adults varied among years. Adult and sub-adult males had similar structural size and body mass but differed in bill morphology. The forecrown patch was a good indicator of age in males during moult, being fully developed in adult males and partially developed in sub-adults. Female Surf Scoters moulted later than males and adult males moulted slightly earlier than sub-adult males. We estimated that Surf Scoters were able to fly when their primaries reached 80% of their full growth, which yielded a flightless period of at least 35 days. We did not find any changes in leg, breast and liver lipid and proteins, but did observe a slight increase in total lipid levels as moult progressed.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Seasonal abundance and breeding biology of the Velvet Scoter Melanitta
           fusca at Lake Tabatskuri, Georgia

    • Authors: Nika Paposhvili
      Abstract: Velvet Scoters Melanitta fusca from the disjunct Turkey, Georgia and Armenia nesting population were studied during 2017–2020 at what is now their last known breeding site, at Tabatskuri Lake in southern Georgia. Paired birds returned to the lake soon after thaw in April and females and young remained into November in some years. Early failing females and most males migrate to moult elsewhere in late July, although 11–19 males remained to moult on the lake each year, departing in late September/ early October. Annual summer maxima ranged from 77–92 individuals, typically comprised of 43–55% females during April–August (although inevitably fewer during incubation). Nests were totally confined to one island, where the number of breeding pairs recorded ranged from 23–33 (in 2018 and 2019, respectively). Nest success (at least one duckling hatched) varied from 74% (in 2018 and 2020) to 52% (2019), recorded for 23 (2018), 33 (2019) and 31 nests (2020), although more females were present early in the season in each year. Camera traps monitoring 11 nests recorded egg predation by Marsh Harriers Circus aerginosus on two occasions. Hatching success for all eggs laid was 54% (in 2018), 36% (2019) and 49% (2020), with overall survival of the eggs to fledging ranging from 2% (in 2018 and 2019) to 13% (in 2020). Duckling mortality was likely due to predation by Armenian Gulls Larus armenicus soon after hatching and to drowning in fishing nets. Local community engagement has stopped egg collecting on the island and contributed to reduced fishing disturbance for Velvet Scoters in the ducklings’ nursery areas, when newly-hatched young are most vulnerable to gull predation. Additionally, gull numbers were lower in 2020, which also likely contributed to the improved breeding success in that year. We urge continued vigilance and further research to confirm the direct causes of the Velvet Scoters’ poor breeding success at the site, to improve the conservation status of the species in the region.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • How aggressive are Egyptian Geese Alopochen aegyptiaca' Interactions
           with Greylag Geese Anser anser and other birds in an urban environment

    • Authors: Rieke Hohmann, Friederike Woog
      Abstract: Under European Union legislation, the Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca is listed as an invasive species of concern to member states, because of the adverse impacts which it has on native species. One of the reasons for this classification is interspecific competition, and the supposed aggressiveness of Egyptian Geese towards other birds, yet there are few data published on this behaviour. Here we compare the agonistic behaviour of Egyptian Geese with that of resident Greylag Geese Anser anser in a recently colonised urban area of southern Germany. For both species, aggression consisted mostly of a threat posture with extended neck (95.8% of Greylag Goose threats; 97.8% of Egyptian Goose threats), whilst hissing regardless of neck posture occurred only occasionally (3.8% in Greylag Geese; 1% in Egyptian Geese). Threatened birds mostly avoided the opponent, and encounters rarely resulted in a physical fight (0.4% in Greylag Geese; 2.4% in Egyptian Geese). Intraspecific aggression was significantly more frequent among Egyptian Geese than among Greylag Geese occurring in the same area, but the overall frequency of interspecific aggression did not differ between the two species. There were, however, differences in the species affected: among Greylag Geese, the most frequent targets of interspecific aggression were Egyptian Geese, whereas Mallard Anas plathyrhynchos were most frequently targeted by Egyptian Geese.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Comparing behavioural responses of Greylag Geese Anser anser and Egyptian
           Geese Alopochen aegyptiaca to human disturbance in an urban setting

    • Authors: Rieke Hohmann, Friederike Woog
      Abstract: When animals first colonise urban areas, they may perceive disturbance from humans and their pets as a novel form of predation risk. Adaptation to predation risk is important in an evolutionary sense: caution could be beneficial for reducing the risk of injury and mortality; on the other hand, reacting too soon and too often can cause stress, costs energy and may lower survival. This study compares the extent of tolerance to human disturbance in two introduced but established waterfowl species, Greylag Geese Anser anser (Anserinae) and Egyptian Geese Alopochen aegyptiaca (Tadorninae). After their recent colonisation of the city of Stuttgart in southwest Germany, Greylag Geese first hatched a brood in 1995, while Egyptian Geese only latterly colonised the city (first successfully fledged brood in 2010), but subsequently showed exponential population increase. There are many potential reasons for this; they may have a broader ecological niche (i.e. are able to use a wider array of available nesting sites), and have larger broods with higher fledging rates, but Egyptian Geese may also show higher tolerance towards disturbance than Greylag Geese in an urban setting. We investigated the last of these hypotheses by comparing variation between the two species in their reaction to disturbance stimuli between 5 June and 22 August 2018. Our behavioural observations showed that Egyptian Geese reacted to disturbance stimuli > 50% more frequently than Greylag Geese, and with more intense behaviours. In addition to species-specific differences, we found that reaction to disturbance also varied with location, the type of disturbance, social status, time of day and ambient temperature. Both species reacted most strongly (i.e. were alerted or displaced at greater distances) when disturbed by dogs. Egyptian Geese were generally more cautious than Greylag Geese to equivalent stimuli from human presence. Such cautiousness may, in addition to ecological differences, partly explain the greater success of Egyptian Geese as an invading species in novel environments. Alternatively, this difference between the two species may reflect a longer habituation period, or perhaps genetic adaptation to disturbance stimuli by Greylag Geese.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Modifying capture techniques for wild Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis

    • Authors: James H. Breeden; Jr., Kelly L. Goodale
      Abstract: The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago with wild populations currently occurring on Laysan Island, Midway Atoll and Kure Atoll. Previous Laysan Teal translocations expanded their range by establishing new populations to reduce extinction risk. In 2015 the House Mouse Mus musculus was documented feeding on live Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis and a plan was developed to eradicate mice from the atoll. To protect Laysan Teal from non-target mortality during a mouse eradication, new capture techniques were developed to move and isolate Laysan Teal temporarily on a mouse-free island within Midway Atoll until the ducks were no longer at risk of secondary and primary poisoning. Here we describe modifications to techniques previously used for the capture of Laysan Teal. These techniques can be applied to the other waterfowl and adapted for other species.
      Issue No: Vol. 71
  • Instructions for Authors

    • Authors: Eileen Rees
      Issue No: Vol. 71
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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