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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Conservation Genetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.924
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1566-0621
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Correction to: Resolving taxonomic uncertainty in vulnerable
           elasmobranchs: are the Madeira skate ( Raja maderensis ) and the thornback
           ray ( Raja clavata ) distinct species'
    • Abstract: In the original publication, the Supplementary Table S2 was published without accession numbers
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1094-3
  • Genetic diversity and structure of the threatened striped legless lizard,
           Delma impar : management implications for the species and a translocated
    • Abstract: The striped legless lizard, Delma impar, is a specialist grassland species restricted to south-eastern Australia. Anthropogenic influences have seen the destruction of much of its habitat and the species is threatened with extinction. Known populations of D. impar in Canberra (Australia) have recently been cleared for urban development. In 2015, Bush Heritage Australia translocated 41 individuals from these populations to Scottsdale Reserve. In this study, we completed the first population genetics analysis of D. impar in Canberra, providing a baseline for assessment of the genetic success of the translocation to Scottsdale Reserve. We analysed 154 D. impar individuals from six populations in Canberra, assessing levels of genetic diversity and differentiation within and between populations, using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. High levels of genetic diversity and negligible levels of genetic differentiation were observed. Measures of allelic diversity were lower in the translocated population compared to the Canberra populations and Bayesian analysis revealed a disproportionate representation of two genetic clusters identified by STRUCTURE between the Scottsdale Reserve and Canberra populations, indicating that the initial genetic capture failed to ‘capture’ recommended levels of genetic diversity to support an ongoing population. If the species successfully establishes itself at Scottsdale Reserve, the data suggests that the population should be augmented with individuals from other sites in Canberra, with the aim of increasing genetic diversity to recommended levels (i.e. > 95% genetic variation). This will maximise resilience, adaptability and long-term survival potential of the Scottsdale Reserve population of striped legless lizards from a genetic context.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1127-y
  • Do roads act as a barrier to gene flow of subterranean small mammals'
           A case study with Ctenomys minutus
    • Abstract: Road-barrier effects can lead to population isolation, with consequent negative outcomes for individuals and populations. Small mammals have been identified as particularly vulnerable to barrier effects, yet few studies have focused on subterranean species. Given the burrowing habit of these species, we hypothesized that roads block their movement and therefore the gene flow between roadside populations. The tiny tuco-tuco (Ctenomys minutus), a small subterranean rodent that inhabits the coastal plains of southern Brazil, was used as a model species to test this hypothesis. We used 14 microsatellites to genotype 80 individuals from four colonies (n = 20 per colony). We compared the population differentiation (FST, G″ST and DEST) and population structuring (STRUCTURE and GENELAND, and discriminant analysis of principal components) of two colony pairs, one pair divided by a road, and the other with no road or other potential barrier between the colonies (control). The results indicated higher genetic differentiation and structuring between the roadside colonies than in the control sites, although less evident than initially predicted. We concluded that the road reduced but did not halt the gene flow of C. minutus. Nevertheless, in view of the rapid economic development of the region, measures to ensure long-term gene flow, i.e., installation or retrofitting of crossing structures, should be considered. This study complements previous analyses of road-barrier effects on small mammals, suggesting that subterranean species such as C. minutus can cope with these barriers, at least in conditions similar to our study area.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-01139-z
  • Comparing inferences derived from microsatellite and RADseq datasets: a
           case study involving threatened bull trout
    • Abstract: Technological advancements have allowed geneticists to exploit an increasing array of molecular markers, many of which have different properties and may provide contrasting insights into the evolutionary history and structure of populations. This has important consequences for conservation managers attempting to identify units at which to conserve intraspecific diversity. In this study we compared the inferences derived from nuclear microsatellites and restriction-site associated DNA (RADseq) data for a threatened freshwater fish, the bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. For both marker types we generated data for the same suite of individuals collected from 24 populations distributed across the species range. The RADseq data were low coverage (mean site coverage < 3X), so we implemented a probabilistic genotyping approach. We performed a comparable suite of analyses for both datasets. Both datasets revealed similar broad patterns of subdivision that reflected primary evolutionary lineages (Coastal and Interior clades). However, the RADseq more clearly and consistently identified the hierarchical phylogenetic structure. Some populations had varying assignments to these lineages depending on the dataset. RADseq data also suggested admixture has shaped the genomic character of several populations. Such a signal was not apparent with the microsatellites, suggesting that the datasets are revealing different aspects of population history. Our study provides a valuable case study in how advances in molecular technology can enhance our understanding of a relatively well-studied species. It also underscores the importance of framing findings generated with high-throughput sequencing technology within the context of past research to enhance conservation decision making.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1134-z
  • Genetic source–sink dynamics among naturally structured and
           anthropogenically fragmented puma populations
    • Abstract: Fragmentation of wildlife populations is increasing on a global scale and understanding current population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and genetic connectivity is key to informing wildlife management and conservation. We genotyped 992 pumas (Puma concolor) at 42 previously developed microsatellite loci and identified 10 genetic populations throughout the states of California and Nevada, USA. Although some genetic populations had large effective population sizes, others were small and inbred. Genetic diversity was extremely variable (heterozygosity, uHe = 0.33–0.53), with some populations nearly as low as an endangered subspecies, the Florida Panther (P. c. coryi, uHe = 0.24). Specifically, pumas in the Sierra Nevada were genetically diverse and formed the largest genetic source population in the region. In contrast, coastal and southern populations surrounded by urbanization had low genetic diversity, fragmented gene flow, and tended to be genetic sinks. The strong population genetic structuring of pumas across California (FST = 0.05–0.39) is vastly different than other genetic studies in less-urbanized states, including our analysis in Nevada, where pumas had few barriers to gene flow and weak population differentiation. Our results have far-reaching conservation and management implications for pumas and indicate large-scale fragmentation in one of North America’s most biodiverse and rapidly-urbanizing regions.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1125-0
  • Implications of introgression for wildlife translocations: the case of
           North American martens
    • Abstract: The evolutionary consequences of natural introgression provide a rare opportunity to retrospectively evaluate how the introduction of exotics or genetic rescue efforts may impact endemic faunas. Phylogeographic structure among mainland, endemic insular, and introduced North American marten (Martes americana and M. caurina) populations have been shaped by a complex history of natural, post-glacial population expansion followed by a series of anthropogenic introductions. In some cases, both natural colonization and translocations facilitated secondary contact, offering a series of replicated experiments that demonstrate how introgression, in these cases following isolation (insular and refugial), shapes genetic diversity. We test whether genetic exchange is occurring between North American marten species using mitochondrial genomes and ten nuclear loci. We present evidence of biased nuclear introgression from M. caurina into M. americana across two natural hybrid zones (insular and mainland) and found no remnant evidence of M. caurina on islands that received M. americana translocations, suggesting prior absence, potential extirpation, or genetic swamping of M. caurina from these islands. Our results highlight the importance of understanding phylogeographic variation prior to identifying source populations for wildlife translocations and caution the use of genetic rescue for North American marten populations. Although previously managed as a single species, these two species show substantial genetic divergence. When the two are placed into contact, they exhibit unidirectional, asymmetric introgression with potentially negative consequences for M. caurina, underscoring the value of mindful consideration of introgression in wildlife management.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1120-5
  • Management implications of highly resolved hierarchical population genetic
           structure in thinhorn sheep
    • Abstract: Patterns of genetic variation of a species can be shaped by events that occur at wide temporal and geographic scales. Geophysical processes, such as continental glaciations, can affect species vicariance at wide scales whereas processes that act at finer scales, such as gene flow between populations, can have more localized effects. Recent studies have shown that contemporary population structure should be interpreted within the context of historical events, such as ice-age vicariance, due to the hierarchical nature of genetic variation found in many species. The thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli) is a mountain specialist found in northwestern North America, from the Brooks Range in Alaska, east through Yukon to the Mackenzie Mountains of Northwest Territories and south to the Rocky and Coastal Mountains of British Columbia. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of thinhorn sheep in light of genetic evidence regarding the glacier driven evolution of the two thinhorn sheep subspecies, O. d. dalli and O. d. stonei, using 153 biallelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in over 2800 thinhorn rams. We found patterns of genetic variation to be generally consistent with genetic subspecies boundaries at the species-wide level, and mountain range and river valley boundaries at finer scales. By taking in account historical vicariance by conducting hierarchical analyses of population genetic structure, we revealed the presence of three previously unreported Stone’s sheep genetic clusters in the Stikine/Skeena, Cassiar and Rocky Mountains and identified a new geographic range for Stone’s sheep that is much more restricted than currently accepted subspecies maps indicate, and is almost exclusively confined within British Columbia. Our results indicate that contemporary patterns of genetic variation can be influenced by events acting over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and thus the importance of interpreting the findings of present-day genetic structure in light of the phylogeographical history of the species in question.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1123-2
  • Landscape and population genetics reveal long distance sharp-tailed grouse
           ( Tympanuchus phasianellus ) movements and a recent bottleneck in
    • Abstract: Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are an area-sensitive species that relies on open landscapes of grass and brush. These areas have become highly fragmented in the Great Lakes Region by succession to forest, agriculture, and other human land uses. We used microsatellites in a landscape-genetic approach to identify landscape features that influence movement and connectivity for sharp-tailed grouse in Minnesota, where they have a regional stronghold. Feathers from leks and hunter wing submissions resulted in 367 individuals from the northwest (NW) and 84 from the east-central (EC) management regions. Both the NW and EC regions were genetically diverse and distinct, with high connectivity between them, although it is unclear whether this connection is contemporary or historical. Our analysis indicated that sharp-tailed grouse were structured across regions by land cover or by the amount of agriculture, grasslands, shrublands, and wet meadows on the larger landscape. Numerous long distance dispersal events were detected. Population clustering analysis indicated greatest support for two genetic clusters in the NW and three clusters in the EC region; however, mapping sample locations of individuals by assigned cluster revealed panmixia of clusters in the EC region. High genetic diversity, a low inbreeding coefficient, and significant excess in heterozygosity are consistent with a recent demographic compression or bottleneck in the EC region, and also consistent with surveys indicating a recent decline there. Sustained low population size or further declines would be expected to reduce genetic diversity. We recommend increasing grassland and shrubland quantity and quality to increase population size in the EC region soon.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1128-x
  • Genetic legacies of translocation and relictual populations of American
           marten at the southeastern margin of their distribution
    • Abstract: American marten were extirpated from much of their native range in the northeastern United States as a result of land development and overharvesting before the mid-twentieth century. Based on occurrence records, recolonization in the late twentieth century was believed to have occurred via natural population expansion from two refugia: northern Maine and the eastern Adirondack Mountains of New York. Furthermore, a 1989–1991 reintroduction attempt in southern Vermont was originally declared unsuccessful, but marten have been rediscovered in southern Vermont since 2010. We used molecular techniques to resolve uncertain population histories and estimate contemporary levels of genetic variation and gene flow in marten populations in the northeastern United States. We sequenced a 320 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of mtDNA in 112 individuals and amplified 10 microsatellite loci in 111 individuals. Five genetic clusters were identified in the northeastern United States based on the microsatellite data: (1) Maine, (2) New Hampshire, (3) eastern Adirondacks (New York), (4) western Adirondacks (New York), and (5) southern Vermont. Clustering and assignment tests suggest that individuals in southern Vermont are most likely to have originated in Maine—the primary source of the reintroduction. However, we were unable to rule out the possibility of a relict population in southern Vermont. Population expansion in New Hampshire appears to be the primary source of recolonization in northeastern Vermont. Additionally, dispersers from the reintroduction attempt may have spread to northeastern Vermont. Genetic diversity is lower in the entire northeastern United States than an interior population in Ontario, Canada. This study improves our understanding of population history in the northeastern United States. Relict populations of marten may have persisted through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries where they were believed to have been extirpated. Recognizing and conserving all of the distinct subsets of native genetic diversity in the region could promote long-term population health.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1130-3
  • Introgression despite protection: the case of native brown trout in Natura
           2000 network in Italy
    • Abstract: Mediterranean brown trout is subject to several serious threats such as pollution, water abstraction, habitat alteration and especially genetic introgression with domestic strains used for stocking activities. Despite this latter issue has largely been debated by scientists, local managers and stakeholders for decades, official stocking practices with domestic trout still persists in several countries (Italy included), even if there are laws explicitly prohibiting introduction of organisms of non-local origin. Probably, the last opportunity to conserve native brown trout populations is represented by protected areas. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to verify the role of the Nature 2000 network and a national park as valid tools to guarantee the survival of native brown trout in the Apennines. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analysis and genotyping of the locus LDH-C1* and 11 microsatellites were used to investigate the genetic diversity of three rivers from central Italy. For all rivers investigated a temporal analysis of introgression was also carried out. The genetic diversity of three domestic stocks was included in the sampling design for comparison. The main results of this study indicated that: (i) the genetic diversity of brown trout in central Italy is very complex and (ii) its conservation is seriously threatened by genetic introgression phenomena still ongoing. The only samples showing no introgression or a decrease in genetic introgression were those isolated by the presence of natural and/or artificial barriers to fish movements rather than protected by inhabiting rivers within the Natura 2000 network. This observation prompts an important reflection on issues concerning fluvial continuity restoration and suggests that barrier removal should be undertaken with caution in order to avoid the concrete risk of domestic trout spreading that could promote additional loss of native brown trout biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1135-y
  • Restoration of grasslands using commercially produced seed mixtures:
           genetic variation within and among natural and restored populations of
           three common grassland species
    • Abstract: The use of commercially produced seed material is a common practice in restoration. However, the impact of sowing on genetic variation of natural populations is still unclear. Aim of this study was, therefore, to test if genetic variation within and among populations restored with local seed material corresponds to the genetic variation of neighboring natural populations. We investigated each ten natural and restored populations of three common grassland species (Knautia arvensis, Silene vulgaris and Plantago lanceolata), situated in five study regions in southeastern Germany. Our study revealed significant genetic differentiation between natural and restored populations of the insect-pollinated K. arvensis and S. vulgaris although differentiation was much stronger for K. arvensis since most restored populations contained another ploidy level than natural populations. For the wind-pollinated P. lanceolata, genetic differentiation between natural and restored populations was comparable to the genetic differentiation between its natural populations. Genetic diversity within restored populations of each species was equivalent or even higher than within natural populations. Our study provides evidence that the local genetic structure especially of common insect-pollinated grassland species may be affected by the application of regional seed mixtures in restoration. Regional admixed provenancing in seed production is an important approach to preserve regional patterns and to provide seeds for the reestablishment of genetically variable populations. The method would however be an even more powerful tool in restoration when ploidy levels would be checked before seed production and seed transfer zones would be smaller.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-01138-0
  • Genetic diversity and demographic analysis of an endangered tree species
           Diplopanax stachyanthus in subtropical China: implications for
           conservation and management
    • Abstract: With climatic change and anthropogenic activities, endangered species in subtropical China face high risk of extinction. However, many of them have received little attention in the past. In this study, three chloroplast DNA fragments (trnL–trnF, trnH–psbA, rps16) and integrated species distribution models were employed to evaluate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and distribution area changes of the endangered tree species Diplopanax stachyanthus. We identified three lineages (i.e., the eastern, central and western lineages) and high levels of genetic diversity in this species. The genetic differentiation is extremely high among the three lineages and among populations; most of the ten populations fixed private haplotype(s). Our time estimation elucidated that the splits of these lineages occurred during Pliocene to Pleistocene. Bayesian skyline plots analyses showed the change of effective population size of D. stachyanthus at ca. 0.1 Ma. Multiple interglacial refugia were inferred for D. stachyanthus in subtropical China. Climatic fluctuation and geographic changes during the Quaternary as well as habitat losses may have played important roles in driving intraspecific divergence and shaped current genetic structure of D. stachyanthus. Furthermore, there may be a major decrease in the suitable habitats for this species. Our findings would shed light on the evolutionary history of D. stachyanthus in subtropical China, and facilitate the conservation and management of this species.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1133-0
  • Genetic diversity and cryptic population re-establishment: management
           implications for the Bojer’s skink ( Gongylomorphus bojerii )
    • Abstract: Understanding genetic structure and diversity underpins the management of isolated populations. Small populations confined to islands may require effective genetic management for population persistence due to inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity. Endemic to the offshore islands of mainland Mauritius, the Bojer’s skink (Gongylomorphus bojerii) has previously been managed as two genetic units due to divergence between populations to the north and south-east. In 2009, a few individuals were discovered on the south-eastern island Ile de la Passe (IDLP), an island within its former range where the species was believed to have gone extinct. This island was later supplemented with translocations from other south-eastern islands, but individual geographic origin and the genetic consequences of these translocations remains unknown. Demographic population history and translocation events were reconstructed using a suite of microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene, assessing two northern and three south-eastern populations to infer the geographic origin of the IDLP individuals, and to assess the population’s genetic diversity and structure. Although IDLP showed significant differentiation from all other populations, all analyses indicated a south-eastern origin, possibly founded by a single gravid female. Subsequent translocations have so far failed to ameliorate IDLP’s genetic diversity. In addition, admixture analysis was used to track translocation and gene-flow in IDLP. We recommend using additional translocations from other south-eastern islands to further genetically support IDLP. Our study highlights the need to clarify cryptic population structure and utilise post-translocation genetic monitoring among similarly managed populations, particularly endangered island populations.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1119-y
  • Contemporary and historical effective population sizes of Atlantic
           sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus
    • Abstract: Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is an anadromous fish of considerable conservation concern, following its long history of overfishing and exposure to a variety of other anthropogenic stressors. Though reaching a large size, population abundances (Nc) of Atlantic sturgeon are not easily surveyed using traditional fishery methods because of their relative scarcity and their many age classes, often exhibiting extensive and differential movements that render them not readily amenable to traditional sampling efforts. A metric of their vulnerability to inbreeding and a possible alternative to Nc for abundance monitoring is effective population size (Ne). We surveyed 14 Atlantic sturgeon populations across their range using a suite of DNA microsatellite markers. Contemporary levels of Ne ranged from 1 in the St. Marys River, Florida–Georgia, to 156 in the Hudson River, New York. Historical Ne estimates averaged about 11.5 × higher than contemporary estimates, with a high of 927 for the Kennebec River population. Because of a mix of life history characteristics that make traditional Ne estimates based on imperfectly mixed year classes of juveniles questionable, we propose and provide results of a new, more robust and diagnostic approach based on sequential cohorts, termed Ne Max. Although contemporary Ne values obtained were at levels that might be considered troublesome, we suggest that the unique life history factors of this species may render it more resistant than other taxa to inbreeding effects. Because of the many differences among populations in size, age, and sex ratio and in harvest histories, we do not believe that a reliable extrapolation factor between Ne and Nc is yet possible. However, ongoing monitoring of Ne and Nc in populations might be sensitive to population changes and could form the basis of determining a relationship between Ne and Nc.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1121-4
  • A genetic analysis of the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus ): an
           applicative case study to support its eradication from Pianosa Island
           (Tuscan Archipelago)
    • Abstract: The introduction of allochthonous species represents a serious threat for the native gene pools and ecosystem biodiversity. The effect is particularly disastrous for insular biocoenoses, such as in the Tuscan archipelago, one of the most important biodiversity hotspot in the Mediterranean area. The EU tool LIFE + has funded an eradication project involving a set of allochthonous species on Pianosa Island (http://www.restoconlife.eu), including the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Since eradication projects should not leave out of consideration a genetic analysis of the target species, the aim of our study was to characterize the genetic profile of the Pianosa hedgehog population. In particular, the data obtained had to help assessing the most compatible area for the release of all captured individuals. In the present work, eleven microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene portions (COXI and 16S) were characterized in individuals of E. europaeus from Pianosa, Elba, Sardinia Islands and mainland Italy. Both mtDNA and microsatellite data confirmed that the present-day population of Pianosa has an extremely low genetic diversity and a profile very similar to that of Elba. Consequently, our results do suggest that the Pianosa hedgehogs originated from a pool of individuals moved by human from Elba in recent times and could be relocated there.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1078-3
  • The genetic structure of a mouse lemur living in a fragmented habitat in
           Northern Madagascar
    • Abstract: Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity worldwide. Madagascar is among the top biodiversity hotspots and in the past 100 years several species became endangered on the island as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. In this study, we assessed the levels of genetic diversity and variation of a population of mouse lemurs (Microcebus tavaratra) inhabiting the degraded forests of the Loky-Manambato region (Northern Madagascar). We used a panel of 15 microsatellite markers to genotype 149 individuals. Our aim was to understand if the elements contributing to the heterogeneity of the landscape, such as forest fragmentation, roads, rivers and open habitat, influence the genetic structure of this population. The results showed that geographic distance along with open habitat, vegetation type and, to some extent, the Manankolana River, seem to be the main factors responsible for M. tavaratra population structure in this region. We found that this species still maintains substantial levels of genetic diversity within each forest patch and at the overall population, with low genetic differentiation observed between patches. This seems to suggest that the still existing riparian forest network connecting the different forest patches in this region, facilitates dispersal and maintains high levels of gene flow. We highlight that special efforts targeting riparian forest maintenance and reforestation might be a good strategy to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity of extant M. tavaratra populations.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1126-z
  • Genetic structure and effective size of an endangered population of
           woodland caribou
    • Abstract: Human-driven habitat fragmentation is increasing worldwide, and consequently many wild populations are subdivided, isolated and reduced in size. These changes in population structure reduce dispersal among subpopulations, limiting gene flow, accelerating genetic differentiation, and reducing genetic diversity and effective population sizes. Habitat fragmentation is associated with a reduced ability for populations and species to respond to changing environments, exacerbating extinction risks. The Atlantic-Gaspésie population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) is isolated and genetically differentiated from other populations in Canada. It has been declining dramatically during the last century and is now considered Endangered. From a management perspective, this population is considered as a single unit of ~ 80 individuals, but GPS telemetry suggests that three subgroups use separate geographical areas and show limited dispersal. In this study, we used 16 microsatellite loci to (1) quantify and compare the genetic diversity observed within the three subgroups of the Atlantic-Gaspésie population, (2) evaluate the extent of the spatiotemporal genetic substructure among them by assessing whether the fine-scale genetic structure differs between subgroups and if it has changed over 15 years, and (3) estimate their effective population size. We found no change in genetic diversity among/within subgroups over time. We detected genetic substructure among subgroups based on their geographical locations (Logan-Albert vs. McGerrigle) and found evidence that this substructure has increased in recent years. The effective population size of this population appears to have declined by 53% over the last 15 years and is now estimated at Ne = 16 individuals. Management plans and conservation actions should consider this spatial genetic substructure to prevent further decline of this endangered population.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1124-1
  • Genetic swamping and possible species collapse: tracking introgression
           between the native Candy Darter and introduced Variegate Darter
    • Abstract: Candy Darters (Etheostoma osburni) and Variegate Darters (E. variatum) are both native to West Virginia and Virginia. The geographic ranges of these two species were historically separated by Kanawha Falls, a natural barrier to fish dispersal located at Glen Ferris, WV. In the early 1980s, Variegate Darters or putative hybrids (E. osburni × E. variatum) were first collected at locations upstream of Kanawha Falls, and have since undergone range expansion. Hybridization with the Variegate Darter was one of the threats that led to the Candy Darter being listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2018. Genetic and morphologic data were examined for individuals from the New, Gauley, and Greenbrier river drainages. Individuals were genotyped using a suite of 5 diagnostic microsatellite loci to investigate potential hybridization. Widespread hybridization was found throughout populations of Candy Darters, with the geographic range of hybridization expanding from 2004 to 2014. A hybrid zone was observed, with the highest levels of Variegate Darter introgression representing the kernel within this zone and the locations of first-generation (F1) hybrids at the periphery. F1 hybrids were morphologically intermediate within and across characters for parental species. Introgressive hybridization threatens the genetic integrity of the Candy Darter, and may lead to population extirpation or extinction.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1131-2
  • Contemporary and historical river connectivity influence population
           structure in western brook lamprey in the Columbia River Basin
    • Abstract: The western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni (WBL) is a small non-parasitic lamprey that inhabits rivers and streams from southern Alaska to northern California. WBL remain in fresh water throughout their entire life and show limited dispersal. Although adults may migrate short distances upstream to spawn, most movement likely occurs through passive drifting of larvae downstream. Genetic differentiation among populations is thus expected to be high, even within a single basin, but WBL population structure has received little attention. The present study examined population connectivity of WBL from 23 sites throughout the Columbia River Basin and coastal Washington, using eight microsatellite loci and cytochrome b sequence data. Although population structure generally corresponded to contemporary river connectivity, there were some cases where genetic patterns were better explained by historical connections. Microsatellite genetic differentiation among populations separated by < 570 km was moderate to high; FST values ranged from − 0.0026 to 0.7117 and averaged 0.2929. Tributary distance was the best predictor of FST, suggesting that most gene flow takes place in tributaries rather than through the mainstem of the Columbia River. As predicted, gene flow occurred primarily in a downstream direction, resulting in lower genetic diversity in upstream sites. WBL populations in these areas may be particularly vulnerable to local extinction. Therefore, whereas anadromous lamprey management efforts are focused on improving passage at mainstem dams, conservation of WBL will require protection of individual watersheds with particular emphasis on headwater areas.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1137-9
  • Application of microsatellite genotyping by sequencing (SSR-GBS) to
           measure genetic diversity of the East African Oreochromis niloticus
    • Abstract: Microsatellites play an important role when investigating population and ecological genetics, although high effort in development and genotyping constitute a technical constraint and remains a major bottleneck. Here we use a microsatellite genotyping approach utilizing sequences of amplicons for allele calling (SSR-GBS) based on Illumina that requires less effort and time. The approach consist of development of highly polymorphic loci, sequencing of multiplexed PCR amplified microsatellites on an Illumina Miseq PE 300 platform and bioinformatic treatment of the sequenced data using custom scripts. The procedure allows automation in allele calling, which can be more reliably replicated and thereby removes biases that might prevent concatenation of datasets from different analyses. Additionally, the methodology enhances information content in the sequenced data beyond the traditional amplicon length (AL) approaches. Using 26 newly developed microsatellite markers and SSR-GBS we investigate the population genetic assessment of anthropogenically altered populations of East African Nile tilapia to show the potential of this genotyping approach. More precisely, we compare genotypic data generated considering AL and whole amplicon information (WAI). We found that genotypes based on WAI are not only able to recover a higher number of alleles but also a more detailed genetic structure pattern. We discuss the capability and importance of WAI allele calling and show perspectives for implementation in the future conservation genetic studies. More specifically, we demonstrate how the current markers and techniques might contribute useful information for studies concerning resources sustainable exploitation and conservation using the East African Nile tilapia.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-018-1136-x
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