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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 194)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Intervención     Open Access  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Conservation Genetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.924
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1566-0621
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Cores, edges and beyond: insights into the phylogeography of frigatebirds
           with a focus on ultraperipheral and endemic populations

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present context of the ramping up of the global biodiversity crisis, improving our understanding on the genetic and biogeographic patterns of ill-known taxa is central to conservation planning. This is especially relevant for geographically isolated populations that suffer from little or no gene flow and an increased extinction risk. The few studies available on the molecular phylogeny and phylogeographic diversity of Frigatebirds have only focused on populations of three species, Fregata magnificens, F. andrewsi from Christmas Islands and F. minor in the Galapagos. To improve our knowledge on these tropical seabirds, our study aimed at assessing worldwide phylogeographic patterns and relationships among all five extant species of the genus Fregata. To accomplish it, we sampled museum specimens corresponding to 18 frigatebird populations spatially distributed by Brazil, Mexico, Ascension Islands, Cabo Verde and the Indo-Pacific region, and fresh samples from Cabo Verde, and amplified them for a mtDNA cytochrome b fragment. We complemented our dataset with previously available data representing a total of 36 populations in this study. Similar to the well-known endemic populations of the Galapagos and Christmas Island, the isolated ultraperipheral populations in the Atlantic were shown to be genetically divergent from their main populations for the three widespread species, F. magnificens, F. ariel and F. minor. We provide the first genetic data for F. ariel, whilst building upon the existing knowledge of the genetic patterns of F. magnificens, F. aquila and F. minor. Furthermore, our molecular data comes in support of most but not all the morphologically recognized frigatebird subspecies. This study provides important genetic insights into the evolutionary history of the genus Fregata and acts as a baseline for future molecular work and conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Global phylogeography of ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys spp.):
           evolution, demography, connectivity, and conservation

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally distributed marine taxa are well suited for investigations of biogeographic impacts on genetic diversity, connectivity, and population demography. The sea turtle genus Lepidochelys includes the wide-ranging and abundant olive ridley (L. olivacea), and the geographically restricted and ‘Critically Endangered’ Kemp’s ridley (L. kempii). To investigate their historical biogeography, we analyzed a large dataset of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from olive (n = 943) and Kemp’s (n = 287) ridleys, and genotyped 15 nuclear microsatellite loci in a global sample of olive ridleys (n = 285). We found that the ridley species split ~ 7.5 million years ago, before the Panama Isthmus closure. The most ancient mitochondrial olive ridley lineage, located in the Indian Ocean, was dated to ~ 2.2 Mya. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed significant structure for olive ridleys between Atlantic (ATL), East Pacific (EP), and Indo-West Pacific (IWP) areas. However, the divergence of mtDNA clades was very recent (< 1 Mya) with low within- clade diversity, supporting a recurrent extinction-recolonization model for these ocean regions. All data showed that ATL and IWP groups were more closely related than those in the EP, with mtDNA data supporting recent recolonization of the ATL from the IWP. Individual olive ridley dispersal between the ATL, EP, and IN/IWP could be interpreted as more male- than female-biased, and genetic diversity was lowest in the Atlantic Ocean. All populations showed signs of recent expansion, and estimated time frames were concordant with their recent colonization history. Investigating species abundance and distribution changes over time is central to evolutionary biology, and this study provides a historical biogeographic context for marine vertebrate conservation and management.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Genetic dynamics of a 11-year ex situ managed Itasenpara bitterling
           population

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      Abstract: Abstract EX situ conservation management is an effective method that conserves endangered species that are on the decline owing to anthropogenic alteration of natural habitats. This entails the management of a captive population while maintaining its genetic variability and preventing its adaptation to the captive environment. However, implementation of such efforts is largely limited to experimental animals and zoo-managed animals with pedigree information. In this study, ex situ management of endangered Itasenpara bitterling (Acheilognathus longipinnis) was conducted, while practicing recommended conservation procedures, for the purpose of conserving this species. In this 11 year long study, we conducted multi-locus microsatellite DNA analyses to evaluate the genetic dynamics of an ex situ captive population of A. longipinnis, as well as the wild A. longipinnis population of the Kiso River. Genetic diversity generally varied between yearly cohorts in each of the captive sub-populations, and some showed a stable increasing trend with generations. When all sub-populations were considered as one population, genetic diversity was maintained at a high value, while effective population size generally reached target values, thereby preventing inbreeding. These results were achieved by maintaining multiple captive sub-populations and exchanging individuals between them. Simultaneously, the introduction of additional individuals from the wild population produced genetic variability in the captive population. These fluctuating patterns of genetic diversity in the captive A. longipinnis population were desirable compared to previously predicted values. Consequently, these findings show that the current ex situ conservation program is suitable for maintaining the genetic composition of the captive population of A. longipinnis.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • The genetic structure and connectivity in two sympatric rodent species
           with different life histories are similarly affected by land use
           disturbances

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      Abstract: Abstract The negative impact of habitat fragmentation due to human activities may be different in different species that co-exist in the same area, with consequences on the development of environmental protection plans. Here we aim at understanding the effects produced by different natural and anthropic landscape features on gene flow patterns in two sympatric species with different specializations, one generalist and one specialist, sampled in the same locations. We collected and genotyped 194 wood mice (generalist species) and 199 bank voles (specialist species) from 15 woodlands in a fragmented landscape characterized by different potential barriers to dispersal. Genetic variation and structure were analyzed in the two species, respectively. Effective migration surfaces, isolation-by-resistance (IBR) analysis, and regression with randomization were used to investigate isolation-by-distance (IBD) and the relative importance of land cover elements on gene flow. We observed similar patterns of heterozygosity and IBD for both species, but the bank vole showed higher genetic differences among geographic areas. The IBR analysis suggests that (i) connectivity is reduced in both species by urban areas but more strongly in the specialist bank vole; (ii) cultivated areas act as dispersal corridors in both species; (iii) woodlands appear to be an important factor in increasing connectivity in the bank vole, and less so in the wood mouse. The difference in dispersal abilities between a generalist and specialist species was reflected in the difference in genetic structure, despite extensive habitat changes due to human activities. The negative effects of fragmentation due to the process of urbanization were, at least partially, mitigated by another human product, i.e., cultivated terrains subdivided by hedgerows, and this was true for both species.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Capturing conservation in the post-genomics era: a book review of
           “Conservation and Genomics of Populations.”

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      Abstract: Abstract Conservation genetics is a relatively new discipline, and yet has rapidly evolved in the last decade with massive advances in sequencing technologies. Here, we review the newest edition of an influential textbook in the field, “Conservation and the Genomics of Populations”, which seeks to bridge the transition from population genetics to genomics and its application to conservation management. This textbook—complete with 24 chapters (one completely new), 25 guest boxes, and two new authors over the previous edition—navigates the rich and sometimes complex history of conservation and population genetics, while also providing a comprehensive catalog of how genomics broadens our understanding of diversity in a changing world. Despite some sections requiring an advanced understanding of population genetic theory, we foresee this text being used as a reference for conservation geneticists and for teaching upper level undergraduate or graduate students. While we anticipate the field of conservation genetics will continue to rapidly advance with new technologies, this textbook provides a strong foundation of population genetics, while also celebrating the new horizon of genomics for conservation management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
       
  • High genetic diversity in American chestnut (Castanea dentata) despite a
           century of decline

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      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge of the magnitude and geographic patterns of genetic diversity is instrumental for recovery of endangered tree species whose persistence is limited by genetic variation. One such species is American chestnut (Castanea dentata), which has experienced a dramatic reduction in population size in North America in association with the spread of the parasitic fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, causing chestnut blight. To examine the impact of the bottleneck and role of genetic diversity on population dynamics and recovery, we conducted a population genetic assessment of native American chestnut populations in the understudied northern range in Canada and along a transect towards the center of the U.S. range. Leaf tissue from 13 natural populations in Canada (N = 7) and northern U.S. (N = 6) were genetically characterized using 16 microsatellite loci and compared to a sample of reference Castanea species. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed within and among populations to determine population connectivity and the presence of admixture with other Castanea spp. Populations throughout the range displayed high genetic diversity and significant inbreeding, with no significant difference in diversity between those at the center and edge of the range. We found evidence of infrequent interspecific hybridization in some Canadian populations but no relationship between admixture and tree health, assessed in a previous demographic survey. Unexpectedly, Canadian populations clustered separately from U.S. populations. American chestnut appears to have retained substantial genetic diversity following the population bottleneck, which is at odds with the limited incidence of blight resistance/tolerance in extant populations.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Not all is black and white: phylogeography and population genetics of the
           endemic blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)

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      Abstract: Abstract Genetic diversity of organisms is an indicator of their long-term survival and can potentially be shaped by the extent of geneflow between populations. Geographical features and anthropogenic interferences can both obstruct and also facilitate animal movement, directly or indirectly. Such patterns have not been extensively studied across grasslands in the Indian subcontinent which is a mosaic of both natural and man-made topography. This study looks at genetic variation in an endemic ungulate, the Antilope cervicapra or blackbuck, throughout its distribution range. Using mitochondrial and nuclear (microsatellite) information, we find that different markers shed light on different aspects of their evolutionary history. Absence of robust geographical clustering in mitochondrial DNA indicate recent isolation in these populations, while lack of shared haplotypes between sampling locations suggests female philopatry. Nuclear data shows the presence of three genetic clusters in this species, pertaining to the Northern, Southern and Eastern regions of India. Our study also shows that an ancestral stock separated into two groups that gave rise to the North and South clusters and the East population was derived from the South at a later time period. Both microsatellite and mitochondrial data indicate that the population from the Eastern part of India is genetically distinct and the species as a whole shows signatures of having undergone recent genetic expansion. In spite of immense losses in grassland habitats across India, blackbucks seem to have well-adapted to human altered landscapes and their numbers are beginning to show an upward trend.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Reproductive biology and population structure of the endangered shrub
           Grevillea bedggoodiana (Proteaceae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Narrowly endemic species are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic events. Compared to widespread species, they may also be less capable of adapting to shifts in environmental pressures as a result of specialisation on a narrow range of local condition and limited ability to disperse. However, life-history traits, such as preferential outcrossing and high fecundity can maintain genetic diversity and evolutionary potential, and boost species resilience. The endangered Grevillea bedggoodiana (Enfield Grevillea) is an understorey shrub restricted to an area of ca. 150 km2 in south-eastern Australia with a legacy of large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Prior to this study little was known about its biology and population structure. Here, its breeding system was assessed through a controlled pollination experiment at one of its central populations, and eight populations were sampled for genetic analysis with microsatellite markers. The species was found to be preferentially outcrossing, with no evidence of pollination limitation. In most populations, allelic richness, observed heterozygosity and gene diversity were high (Ar: 3.8–6.3; Ho: 0.45–0.65, He: 0.60 − 0.75). However, the inbreeding coefficients were significant in at least four populations, ranging from Fi -0.061 to 0.259 despite high outcrossing rates. Estimated reproductive rates varied among sampled populations but were independent of gene diversity and inbreeding. Despite its small geographic range, the species’ populations showed moderate differentiation (AMOVA: FST = 0.123), which was largely attributable to isolation by distance. We interpret these results as suggesting that G. bedggoodiana is reproductively healthy and has maintained high levels of genetic diversity despite recent disturbance.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • Phylogeography and population genetics of a headwater-stream adapted
           crayfish, Cambarus pristinus (Decapoda: Cambaridae), from the Cumberland
           Plateau in Tennessee

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      Abstract: Abstract Assessments of genetic diversity for imperiled species can provide a baseline for determining the relative impacts of contemporary anthropogenic threats (e.g., habitat fragmentation) on population connectivity and identify historical factors contributing to population structure. We conducted a population genetics and phylogeographic assessment of the imperiled Pristine Crayfish (Cambarus pristinus) sampled throughout its range encompassing two morphologically distinct forms. Pristine Crayfish exhibit a disjunct distribution throughout lower order tributaries suggesting they are headwater-adapted species. The two morphologically distinct forms of the Pristine Crayfish are found in the upper Caney Fork (nominal Caney Fork form) and the Big Brush Creek and Cane Creek systems (Sequatchie form). We used 19 microsatellite loci and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to assess population connectivity and genetic diversity of the Pristine Crayfish. Haplotypes recovered from the COI gene revealed that historic connectivity was maintained within each form of the Pristine Crayfish. However, the divergence between forms was higher (2.3%) than within forms (< 2.0%), suggesting each form is on an independent evolutionary trajectory, supporting recognition of the Sequatchie form as a distinct taxon. Microsatellite analyses for the Caney Fork form recovered a high degree of population isolation and support for six genetically isolated population. In addition, genetic diversity metrics per population and for the Caney Fork form were low suggesting that the Caney Fork form is at an increased risk of extinction under anthropogenic disturbances. We suggest that each form receive continued listing protection and conservation resources and that the Sequatchie form be treated as a unique taxon.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
       
  • Conservation genetics of Phlox hirsuta, a serpentine endemic

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      Abstract: Abstract Identifying units for appropriate management and conservation of rare species is an important and challenging process, and population genetics can inform this decision making. Using Phlox hirsuta, a rare species restricted to serpentine soils in Northern California and with a geographic range of less than 15 km, we examined genetic variation within and among populations, using tunable Genotyping-by-Sequencing (tGBS) to generate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as 11 microsatellite loci, to identify population structure, patterns of migration and selection, and units for conservation. Multiple methods recognized three geographically structured population clusters. The species has undergone a recent genetic bottleneck, and the increase in population size may be influenced by the changing climate. Patterns of gene flow are greater from south to north than in the opposite direction. Some of the genes under selection are putatively involved in adaptation to edaphic conditions, and genes under selection differ among the populations. Four population units were identified as suitable for conservation purposes based on various partitions of the SNPs.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Bidirectional hybridisation and introgression between introduced European
           brown hare, Lepus europaeus and the endemic Irish hare, L. timidus
           hibernicus

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      Abstract: Abstract Introduced non-native species can threaten native species through interspecific hybridisation and genetic introgression. We assessed the prevalence of hybridisation and introgression between introduced European brown hare, Lepus europaeus, and the endemic Irish hare, L. timidus hibernicus. Roadkill hares (n = 56) were sequenced for a 379bp section of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop and a 474bp segment of the nuclear transferrin (Tf) gene. A species-specific indel in the transferrin gene was present in L.t. hibernicus and absent in L. europaeus. Excluding three hares from which molecular data could not be recovered, 28 hares (53%) were native L.t. hibernicus, 7 (13%) were non-native L. europaeus and 18 (34%) were hybrids; of which 5 (28%) were first generation (F1) involving bidirectional crosses with mismatched nuclear and mtDNA (3 ♂ europaeus x ♀ hibernicus and 2 ♂ hibernicus x ♀ europaeus). Mixed nuclear transferrin sequences suggested 13 (72%) of hybrids were at least 2nd generation (F2) with 9 (69%) possessing L.t. hibernicus and 4 (31%) L. europaeus mtDNA (the latter indicative of hybrid backcrossing with the non-native). The prevalence of hybridisation at similar mountain-brown hare contact zones throughout Europe is notably lower (4–16%) and typically unidirectional (♂ europaeus x ♀ timidus). A high prevalence of bidirectional hybridisation and introgression (in association with projected climate change) may favour the introduced species over the native. Genetic surveillance and population monitoring are needed to further explore the potential conservation implications of European brown hare in Ireland.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Population structure of threatened caribou in western Canada inferred from
           genome-wide SNP data

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      Abstract: Abstract Within-species, biodiversity can be organized in units, ranging from subspecies to evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), populations and social groups. To define ESUs, researchers often focus on the concordant distribution of traits that exhibit likely adaptive significance, including genetic and ecological variation. Caribou is a Species at Risk in Canada, and are conserved at the level of both subspecies and designatable units (DUs), which are conceptually similar to ESUs. However, the use of genomics has been suggested to provide better delineation of units that are based upon variation of genes—not just neutral genetic markers. Here, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 190 caribou belonging to two recognized subspecies and four DUs found throughout western Canada. We confirmed two major genetic clusters, which we refer to as the Northern Caribou and Southern Caribou, characterized by divergence at numerous SNPs and genes with known functions in other mammals. Notably, the distribution of these two clusters did not fully overlap with currently recognized subspecies. A discrepancy with current classification was detected for Mountain DUs, which were thought to belong to the Woodland subspecies, but with significant northern-type ecological traits described in the literature, indicating more work is needed to refine our understanding of this transitional zone. We also detected genetic signals of male-biased dispersal, which may be natural or affected by habitat fragmentation effects on females. This work illustrates the value of genomics in rethinking subspecies and conservation unit designations and better conserve biodiversity within terrestrial species at risk.
      PubDate: 2022-10-16
       
  • Strong bidirectional gene flow between fish lineages separated for over
           100,000 years

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      Abstract: Abstract Restoring levels of genetic diversity in small and declining populations is increasingly being considered in biodiversity conservation. Evidence-based genetic management requires assessment of risks and benefits of crossing populations. Because risks are challenging to assess experimentally, e.g. through multi-generational crosses, decision-support approaches utilize proxy risk factors such as time since separation of lineages. However, the paucity of empirical datasets on fitness consequences of longer separation times tends to favour crossing lineages with conservatively short separations, restricting wildlife managers’ options. Here, we assessed the genetic outcomes of interbreeding in the wild between lineages of a threatened Australian freshwater fish (Macquarie perch) separated by an estimated 119,000–385,000 years of evolution in distinct environments. Fish belonging to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) lineage escaped from Cataract Dam—into which they were translocated in ~ 1915—into the Cataract River, where they interbred with the local Hawkesbury-Nepean Basin (HNB) lineage. Analyses of reduced-representation genomic data revealed no evidence of genetic incompatibilities during interbreeding of the two lineages in the Cataract River: assignment to genotypic clusters indicated a spectrum of hybrid types including second generation hybrids and backcrosses to both parental lineages. Thus, no adverse effects were detected from genetic mixing of populations separated by > 100,000 years. We are not advocating purposely crossing the two lineages for management purposes under present cost–benefit considerations, because there are currently sufficient intra-lineage source populations to beneficially mix. Instead, this study presents a useful calibration point: two morphologically different lineages evolved in different habitats for 119,000–385,000 years can successfully interbreed.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
       
  • DNA-typing surveillance of the bushmeat in Côte d'Ivoire: a multi-faceted
           tool for wildlife trade management in West Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Surveying and quantifying the bushmeat crisis in Africa requires up-front, reliable species-level identification. We conducted a comprehensive survey of 31 trading places where bushmeat are sold in Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) and two seizures from Europe, using a multi-gene DNA-typing approach and a dedicated species-assignment pipeline (DNAbushmeat). We identified 47 wild and five domestic species-level taxa from 348 collected carcasses, including mammals (15 Cetartiodactyla, 10 Rodentia, seven Carnivora, seven Primates, two Pholidota, two Lagomorpha, one Hyracoidea, one Chiroptera), reptiles (two Squamata), birds (one Bucerotiformes, one Galliformes, one Otidiformes) and fish (one Perciformes). Our DNA-based approach allowed the detection of two separate lineages of red-flanked duikers (Cephalophus rufilatus), a yet unreferenced cane rat (but possibly Thryonomys gregorianus) and two cryptic species of Gambian rat (Cricetomys). We also observed important levels of intraspecific diversity in several mammals and squamates, suggesting additional cryptic diversity within bushmeat species from Côte d’Ivoire. More than half of the bushmeat carcasses were inaccurately identified, with European customs peaking at 100% inaccuracy. Our study also explored the use of diversity indices among bushmeat markets to identify ‘hotspot’ market places where biodiversity would be the most impacted. Overall, 12 protected species (including pangolins, crocodiles, primates and antelopes) were impacted by the bushmeat trade in Côte d’Ivoire, indicating weak law enforcement related to game protection. We suggest that the recognition of the bushmeat sector by the state and its DNA-based surveillance is necessary to reach a sustainable management of the bushmeat trade in Côte d’Ivoire.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Evaluation of proposed genetic goals and targets for the Convention on
           Biological Diversity

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      Abstract: Abstract In the current negotiations regarding revision of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) proposals have been made to strengthen the genetic goals, indicators, and targets for wild species in natural habitats by specifying “tolerable” losses of genetic diversity. However, they have not been subjected to evaluations of their continued use over 100 years, a common conservation time frame. I evaluated six scenarios (3, 5 or 10% loss of genetic diversity [heterozygosity] over 8 or 32 years) proposed as targets for revision of genetic indicators in CBD by predicting their consequences on genetic diversity, inbreeding, fitness, and evolutionary potential when applied at the same rate for 100 years. All proposals lead to substantial genetic harm to species when continued for 100 years that will compromise species persistence, especially in the context of environmental change. Consequently, none of the proposals are suitable for inclusion in the CBD. However, alternative indicators are proposed that would reflect improvements in the genetic status of populations and species, namely (1) the number of species and their populations being maintained at sizes sufficient to retain evolutionary potential in perpetuity, and (2) the number of species for which population genetic connectivity has been improved.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01459-1
       
  • Population genetic structure and demographic history of Rhodeus atremius
           suigensis, an endangered bitterling in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Demographic events can shape genetic diversity through genetic drift, often leaving a persistent signal in the genetic characteristics of species. Rhodeus atremius suigensis is an endangered bitterling fish endemic to the Okayama Plain, Japan. In this study, we inferred its demographic history and genetic structure using a comprehensive analysis of the mtDNA ND1 gene, microsatellite markers (MS) and MHC class IIB gene. Based on mtDNA, R. a. suigensis included two sublineages; A and B. While the former was widely distributed, the latter was restricted to eastern populations that were monomorphic in MHC. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that R. a. suigensis, together with R. a. atremius, experienced a substantial bottleneck in the middle Pleistocene. In MS and MHC, genetic diversity was low in all populations; ranked as the lowest among bitterling species. Bayesian clustering suggested that two clusters of MS had been widely introgressed in the centre of its distribution. These clusters seem to have been formed by the disruption of the distribution in the last Pleistocene, and later admixed by a large-scale reclamation in the Okayama Plain since the sixteenth century, which triggered a decline in effective population size (Ne) in many populations. Based on coalescence analysis, all populations reached their lowest Ne around the middle of the twentieth century. Accordingly, R. a. suigensis seems to have experienced two large bottlenecks in the past. While the first bottleneck was probably due to climatic changes in the middle Pleistocene, the second is due to anthropogenic degradation and fragmentation of habitats in recent years.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01461-7
       
  • Islands in the desert: assessing fine scale population genomic variation
           of a group of imperiled desert fishes

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      Abstract: Abstract The genus Crenichthys (Teleostei: Goodeidae) is an imperiled group of desert spring specialist fishes currently containing two species and five subspecies, found within only a few of the relictual springs distributed throughout the Great Basin of North America. Threatened by multiple forms of human disturbance, including habitat destruction, invasive species, and pollution, the need to better understand their population structure is immediate. This is further emphasized by previous research that demonstrated that the current taxonomy of Crenichthys needs re-evaluation and that genetic substructure may be present. The genus also represents a perfect opportunity to better understand desert spring habitats. These unique ecosystems often contain a suite of endemics, trapped within individual isolated springs distributed throughout a desert. The assumption is often that each spring will contain genetically distinct populations, however, this is not always true. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to describe the genetic diversity and structure among populations of the genus Crenichthys with the intent to better understand the patterns of diversity within desert endemic fishes. Our results corroborated previous research suggesting genetic divergence between two groups within both C. baileyi and C. nevadae. It further demonstrated that many of the populations are genetically similar, likely due to a combination of short divergence time and possible past admixture.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01457-3
       
  • Genetic structure and diversity of amphidromous sculpin in Shiretoko, a
           mountainous peninsula in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite the global crisis facing migratory benthic fishes, conservation genetic knowledge of these species remains scarce. In this study, we conducted a population genetic analysis using seven microsatellite loci to obtain basic information for determining conservation units and priorities of Cottus hangiongensis in Shiretoko, a mountainous peninsula where sculpin habitats are thought to be in decline throughout the region. The genetic structure was clearly divided between west and east coastal populations, and there was little recent migration between them. The western populations, which are closer to the center of the species’ range, had significantly higher genetic diversity than the eastern populations. However, a bottleneck analysis and the inference of demographic history using approximate Bayesian computation showed that only the west group had experienced a significant recent bottleneck, probably due to recent habitat losses. These results suggest that the western and eastern populations should be different conservation units and that the western populations should be prioritized for conservation despite their high genetic diversity. This study contributes to the conservation genetics of diadromous sculpin and reiterates the importance of analyzing not only the current levels but also temporal changes in assessing genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01472-4
       
  • Conservation genetics of three Rafflesia species in Java Island, Indonesia
           using SNP markers obtained from MIG-seq

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      Abstract: Abstract Rafflesia species (Rafflesiaceae) are among the flagship plants of South-East Asian countries in which they occur. Three species of Rafflesia, i.e. Rafflesia patma, R. rochussenii, and R. zollingeriana, are known from Java, Indonesia. All three species are threatened with extinction due to human activities that cause habitat loss and fragmentation. Conservation efforts such as determining conservation units for prioritization of those species have been difficult due to the lack of data on their population genetics. Availability of genetic information is important to develop appropriate conservation measures. Our study evaluates genetic diversity and structure of the three Rafflesia species using a total of 166 samples across the island. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained via MIG-seq. The three species of Rafflesia in Java bear much lower genetic diversity compared to what was previously shown for R. speciosa and R. lagascae on Borneo, the Philippines and the Malayan Peninsula. Low genetic diversity within the Javanese Rafflesia species, particularly in R. patma and R. zollingeriana, is attributed to bottleneck events and population expansion in the past. We also provide evidence of clonality and existence of different genotypes within Tetrastigma host plants in two species of Rafflesia. Scattered and fragmented populations as reconstructed in the genetic structure analyses are important to be considered in designing appropriate conservation strategies. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the establishment of Rafflesia ex-situ collections can conserve genetic diversity that may no longer be present in nature and could be used in future reintroduction programs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01470-6
       
  • A range-wide analysis of population structure and genomic variation within
           the critically endangered spiny daisy (Acanthocladium dockeri)

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding population structure and genetic diversity is important for designing effective conservation strategies. As a critically endangered shrub, the six remaining extant populations of spiny daisy (Acanthocladium dockeri) are restricted to country roadsides in the mid-north of South Australia, where the species faces many ongoing abiotic and biotic threats to survival. Currently the spiny daisy is managed by selecting individuals from the extant populations and translocating them to establish insurance populations. However, there is little information available on the genetic differentiation between populations and diversity within source populations, which are essential components of planning translocations. To help fill this knowledge gap, we analysed population structure within and among all six of its known wild populations using 7,742 SNPs generated by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Results indicated that each population was strongly differentiated, had low levels of genetic diversity, and there was no evidence of inter-population gene flow. Individuals within each population were generally closely related, however, the Melrose population consisted entirely of clones. Our results suggest genetic rescue should be applied to wild spiny daisy populations to increase genetic diversity that will subsequently lead to greater intra-population fitness and adaptability. As a starting point, we suggest focussing on improving seed viability via inter-population crosses such as through hand pollination experiments to experimentally assess their sexual compatibility with the hope of increasing spiny daisy sexual reproduction and long-term reproductive fitness.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10592-022-01468-0
       
 
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