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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Conservation Genetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.924
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1566-0621
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Parentage assignment reveals multiple paternity in the
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Within captive management programs for species of conservation concern, understanding the genetic mating system is of fundamental importance, given its role in generating and maintaining genetic diversity and promoting opportunities for sperm competition. If a goal of a conservation program is reintroduction, knowledge of the mating system may also inform prediction models aimed at understanding how genetic diversity may be spatially organized, thus informing decisions regarding where and which individuals should be released to maximize genetic diversity in the wild population. Within captive populations, such information may also influence how animals are maintained in order to promote natural behaviors. Here we investigate the genetic mating system of the Guatemalan beaded lizard, Heloderma charlesbogerti, a member of an entire clade lacking such information. A group of adult male and female H. charlesbogerti co-habited a large outdoor enclosure for five years during the species’ perceived breeding season. Through genomic parentage analysis, 50% of clutches comprising multiple offspring were found to result from multiple paternity, with up to three males siring offspring within single clutches. Both males and females were observed to produce offspring with multiple partners within a given year. As such, within this captive environment, where opportunities existed for mating with multiple partners, the genetic mating system was found to be highly polygamous, with multiple paternity common within clutches. These findings are novel for the family Helodermatidae, and the results have broader implications about how reproductive opportunities should be managed within captive conservation programs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Assessing the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation on the
           federally threatened cheat mountain salamander (Plethodon nettingi): a
           comparative, multi-locus approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Comparative population genetic studies of closely related taxa provide a powerful framework for evaluating if and to what degree a species of conservation concern has been negatively impacted by factors such as habitat fragmentation, decreased population connectivity, inbreeding and genetic drift. In this study, we take advantage of a paired sampling strategy to compare the population genetics of the geographically restricted, federally threatened Cheat Mountain salamander (Plethodon nettingi) to those of its partially sympatric, but much more widely distributed congener, the red-backed salamander (P. cinereus), where the two species overlap in the Appalachian mountains of West Virginia. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity were lower in P. nettingi, as were a variety of metrics of nuclear genetic diversity estimated from microsatellite data. Population differentiation and structuring were greater in P. nettingi, suggesting reduced gene flow following fragmentation. Significant inbreeding and evidence of recent population bottlenecks were also seen in P. nettingi and estimated population sizes were smaller. Estimates of contemporary gene flow, as measured through kinship, also showed more restricted gene flow in P. nettingi. Overall, our comparative study provides strong evidence that the small and highly fragmented nature of its geographic distribution has resulted in a suite of negative genetic consequences for the federally threatened Cheat Mountain salamander. Management efforts aimed at enhancing the genetic health and long-term viability of this species should focus on increasing population connectivity through establishment of forest habitat corridors where possible and exploring the potential merits of translocations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Population genomics study for the conservation management of the
           endangered shrub Abeliophyllum distichum

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural monuments are IUCN Category III protected areas that play an important role in biodiversity conservation as they provide species refuge and allow species migration. Despite their status, natural monuments are often confined to cultural and fragmented landscapes due to anthropogenic land-use demands. In this population genomic study, we surveyed 11 populations of the endemic shrub Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (Oleaceae), including five natural monument habitats, covering its range-wide distribution in South Korea. Using 2,254 SNPs as markers, our results showed a mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.319, with populations in the central distribution showing significantly higher He than those at the periphery. There was no significant heterozygote deficiency and inbreeding among studied populations overall (FIS = −0.098), except for a single natural monument population (GS-NM147). Population structure and differentiation was moderate to high (FST = 0.196), while recent gene flow between populations appeared weak, which can be attributed to the fragmented distribution and the outcrossing mating system of the heterostylous plant. Based on these findings, we provide suggestions for the population conservation and management of this endangered species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
       
  • Transcriptome annotation reveals minimal immunogenetic diversity among
           Wyoming toads, Anaxyrus baxteri

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      Abstract: Abstract Briefly considered extinct in the wild, the future of the Wyoming toad (Anaxyrus baxteri) continues to rely on captive breeding to supplement the wild population. Given its small natural geographic range and history of rapid population decline at least partly due to fungal disease, investigation of the diversity of key receptor families involved in the host immune response represents an important conservation need. Population decline may have reduced immunogenetic diversity sufficiently to increase the vulnerability of the species to infectious diseases. Here we use comparative transcriptomics to examine the diversity of toll-like receptors and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) sequences across three individual Wyoming toads. We find reduced diversity at MHC genes compared to bufonid species with a similar history of bottleneck events. Our data provide a foundation for future studies that seek to evaluate the genetic diversity of Wyoming toads, identify biomarkers for infectious disease outcomes, and guide breeding strategies to increase genomic variability and wild release successes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Inbreeding is associated with shorter early-life telomere length in a wild
           passerine

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      Abstract: Abstract Inbreeding can have negative effects on survival and reproduction, which may be of conservation concern in small and isolated populations. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying inbreeding depression are not well-known. The length of telomeres, the DNA sequences protecting chromosome ends, has been associated with health or fitness in several species. We investigated effects of inbreeding on early-life telomere length in two small island populations of wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) known to be affected by inbreeding depression. Using genomic measures of inbreeding we found that inbred nestling house sparrows (n = 371) have significantly shorter telomeres. Using pedigree-based estimates of inbreeding we found a tendency for inbred nestling house sparrows to have shorter telomeres (n = 1195). This negative effect of inbreeding on telomere length may have been complemented by a heterosis effect resulting in longer telomeres in individuals that were less inbred than the population average. Furthermore, we found some evidence of stronger effects of inbreeding on telomere length in males than females. Thus, telomere length may reveal subtle costs of inbreeding in the wild and demonstrate a route by which inbreeding negatively impacts the physiological state of an organism already at early life-history stages.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
       
  • Investigations on origin and status of a Faxonius crayfish population in
           the upper James River Basin, Virginia

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      Abstract: Abstract Freshwater crayfish are an ecologically important component of freshwater ecosystems. A combination of factors, including high levels of species diversity, endemism, and limited morphological divergence among species have created a situation where taxonomy, accurate geographic ranges, and species identifications are in flux. We used genetic data to investigate the origin and status of a species of Faxonius (Cambaridae) in the upper James and Roanoke rivers in western Virginia. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests that this species, F. ozarkae, is native to streams in the Ozarks of Missouri and Arkansas, and has been introduced into Virginia recently. Details of the initial introduction are not known, but may plausibly be connected to commercial fish stocking.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Range-wide genomic scans and tests for selection identify non-neutral
           spatial patterns of genetic variation in a non-model amphibian species
           (Pelobates cultripes)

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      Abstract: Abstract Adaptive genetic diversity is a key factor in conservation planning as it relates to the evolutionary potential of populations and their responses to environmental change. Developments in landscape genomics have fostered a proliferation of tests for selection that aim to identify candidate adaptive markers in natural populations. However, these tests rely on different assumptions and may produce contrasting results. Here we applied six tests for selection in a range-wide genomic scan of an Iberian amphibian, Pelobates cultripes, which shows spatially structured genetic variation across its range, encompassing different bioclimatic zones. As a cursory scan for selection, one test identified candidate markers that describe a pattern of putatively adaptive genetic variation, highlighting coastal Atlantic localities as exhibiting putatively non-neutral patterns of genetic variation. While generalized genomic scans for selection in non-model species have limitations, exploratory searches can highlight areas to guide subsequent hypothesis-driven studies and conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Genetic and conservation significance of populations at the polar vs.
           equatorial range limits of the Pacific coastal dune endemic Abronia
           umbellata (Nyctaginaceae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Whether geographically peripheral populations are worth conserving has been hotly debated yet remains unresolved. This is especially relevant in high-latitude countries where, within their political jurisdictions, many species reach their range limits as peripheral isolates and require conservation attention, even if they are common elsewhere. In Canada, ~ 77% of “at-risk” plant species are at their northern range limit in southern Canada but more common south of the Canada-USA border. Peripheral populations might contain little genetic variation, suffer low fitness and be prone to extinction, or they might be adapted to extreme range-edge environments and thus well-poised to participate in range shifts during climate change. Abronia umbellata is endemic to coastal dunes from Baja California, Mexico to Oregon, USA but also occurs as disjunct populations designated “at-risk” in Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. Based on sequence variation at nine single-copy nuclear genes assayed for 94 individuals from 25 populations across the species range, these disjunct populations were very similar to range edge populations 350 and 650 km to the south in Oregon, and likely arose through recent, long-distance dispersal or fragmentation of a recently expanded range. In contrast, southern-edge populations in Baja, though not disjunct, were genetically unique and unexpectedly diverse, may currently be in decline yet receive no conservation protection. In this case, the conservation significance of range edge populations depends on which edge, and the unprotected southern edge populations seem a higher priority than those benefitting from special status at the northern range limit.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Population genetic and genomic analyses of Western Massasauga (Sistrurus
           tergeminus ssp.): implications for subspecies delimitation and
           conservation

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      Abstract: Abstract The Western Massasauga (Sistrurus tergeminus) is a small North American rattlesnake found west of the Mississippi River. Sistrurus tergeminus has previously been divided into two putative subspecies, Desert (S. t. edwardsii) and Prairie Massasaugas (S. t. tergeminus) based upon qualitative variation in morphology, coloration, and habitat. The Desert Massasauga subspecies has been formally petitioned for federal listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our overarching goal was to evaluate genetic structure and genomic differentiation between specimens of the two putative subspecies in an effort to inform ongoing conservation assessments. To that end, we generated whole genome sequence data for both putative taxa and then developed nearly 200 genetic markers from different fractions of the genome (~ 50 intergenic and ~ 50 genic markers from each of the two subspecies) to test for population structure across much of the Western Massasauga range. Mean genomic divergence between subspecies was 0.0041 ± 0.0080 (Kimura’s 2-parameter distance) for nuclear sequences and 0.0175 ± 0.0031 for mitochondrial sequences, both exceedingly low values which approach the minimum of zero. Admixture analyses and F-statistics both indicated that regardless of how the markers were partitioned, genetic structure was oriented far more along a geographic axis (isolation-by-distance) than a taxonomic axis (i.e., between putative subspecies). Overall, our analyses provide little support that formal protection of the purported Desert Massasauga is warranted based on the homogeneity of the collective Western Massasauga gene pool.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Landscape and stocking effects on population genetics of Tennessee Brook
           Trout

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      Abstract: Abstract Throughout their range, Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) occupy thousands of disjunct drainages with varying levels of disturbance, which presents substantial challenges for conservation. Within the southern Appalachian Mountains, fragmentation and genetic drift have been identified as key threats to the genetic diversity of the Brook Trout populations. In addition, extensive historic stocking of domestic lineages of Brook Trout to augment fisheries may have eroded endemic diversity and impacted locally adapted populations. We used 12 microsatellite loci to describe patterns of genetic diversity within 108 populations of wild Brook Trout from Tennessee and used linear models to explore the impacts of land use, drainage area, and hatchery stockings on metrics of genetic diversity, effective population size, and hatchery introgression. We found levels of within-population diversity varied widely, although many populations showed very limited diversity. The extent of hatchery introgression also varied across the landscape, with some populations showing high affinity to hatchery lineages and others appearing to retain their endemic character. However, we found relatively weak relationships between genetic metrics and landscape characteristics, suggesting that contemporary landscape variables are not strongly related to observed patterns of genetic diversity. We consider this result to reflect both the complex history of these populations and the challenges associated with accurately defining drainages for each population. Our study highlights the importance of genetic data to guide management decisions, as complex processes interact to shape the genetic structure of populations and make it difficult to infer the status of unsampled populations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Genetic signature of immigrants and their effect on genetic diversity in
           the recently established Scandinavian wolf population

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      Abstract: Abstract Transboundary connectivity is a key component when conserving and managing animal species that require large areas to maintain viable population sizes. Wolves Canis lupus recolonized the Scandinavian Peninsula in the early 1980s. The population is geographically isolated and relies on immigration to not lose genetic diversity and to maintain long term viability. In this study we address (1) to what extent the genetic diversity among Scandinavian wolves has recovered during 30 years since its foundation in relation to the source populations in Finland and Russia, (2) if immigration has occurred from both Finland and Russia, two countries with very different wolf management and legislative obligations to ensure long term viability of wolves, and (3) if immigrants can be assumed to be unrelated. Using 26 microsatellite loci we found that although the genetic diversity increased among Scandinavian wolves (n = 143), it has not reached the same levels found in Finland (n = 25) or in Russia (n = 19). Low genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian wolves, complicated our ability to determine the origin of immigrant wolves (n = 20) with respect to nationality. Nevertheless, based on differences in allelic richness and private allelic richness between the two countries, results supported the occurrence of immigration from both countries. A priori assumptions that immigrants are unrelated is non-advisable, since 5.8% of the pair-wise analyzed immigrants were closely related. To maintain long term viability of wolves in Northern Europe, this study highlights the potential and need for management actions that facilitate transboundary dispersal.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Genome-wide assessment of population structure in Florida’s coastal
           seaside sparrows

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      Abstract: Abstract The distribution and genetic relatedness of subspecies among the populations of seaside sparrow (Ammospiza maritima [Wilson 1810]) along the coast of Florida are poorly understood. We evaluated genetic support for three defined Florida Gulf coast subspecies, as well as a fourth subspecies on the Atlantic coast, and assessed whether genetic clusters corresponded geographically with the defined ranges of subspecific designations. Data generated using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) suggest that the Florida endemics, A. m. peninsulae and A. m. juncicola, are genetically indistinguishable, but that the third Gulf coast subspecies, A. m. fisheri, and the Atlantic coast subspecies, A. m. macgillivraii, are genetically distinct units. These three distinct genetic groups were identified in three main geographic areas within the state of Florida, USA: (1) Florida’s panhandle (2) Florida’s Gulf coast peninsula, and (3) the Atlantic coast. Admixture was detected between genetic clusters in sites near the transition zone between the Florida panhandle and peninsula. Geographic distributions of genetic clusters on the Gulf coast do not match currently defined subspecific ranges for A. m. fisheri and A. m. peninsulae.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Variation in the PRNP gene of Pere David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus)
           may impact genetic vulnerability to chronic wasting disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by prions that has spread across cervid species in North America since the 1960s and has recently been detected in Eurasian cervids. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) considers CWD to be of major concern for cervids in AZA-accredited facilities because of the indirect transmission risk of the disease and the impact of CWD regulatory protocols on captive breeding programs. Vulnerability to CWD is affected by variation in the PRNP gene that encodes the prion protein. We therefore sequenced PRNP in Pere David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus), a species that was extinct in the wild for more than a century and descends from ca. 11 founders. In 27 individuals, we detected two PRNP haplotypes, designated Elad1 (51 of 54 sequences) and Elad2 (3 of 54 sequences). The two haplotypes are separated by four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three of which are non-synonymous. Both Elad1 and Elad2 have polymorphisms that in other cervid taxa are associated with reduced vulnerability to CWD. The two haplotypes are more similar in sequence to PRNP in other cervids than to each other. This suggests that PRNP in cervids may have been under long-term balancing selection, as has been shown for PRNP in non-cervid taxa, and which could account for the presence of multiple haplotypes among founders. There may be a fitness benefit in maintaining both PRNP haplotypes in the species because variation in the prion protein amino acid sequence can limit transmission of CWD.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Genetic management on the brink of extinction: sequencing microsatellites
           does not improve estimates of inbreeding in wild and captive Vancouver
           Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis)

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      Abstract: Abstract Captive breeding is often a last resort management option in the conservation of endangered species which can in turn lead to increased risk of inbreeding depression and loss of genetic diversity. Thus, recording breeding events via studbook for the purpose of estimating relatedness, and facilitating mating pair selection to minimize inbreeding, is common practice. However, as founder relatedness is often unknown, loss of genetic variation and inbreeding cannot be entirely avoided. Molecular genotyping is slowly being adopted in captive breeding programs, however achieving sufficient resolution can be challenging in small, low diversity, populations. Here, we evaluate the success of the Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis; VIM; among the worlds most endangered mammals) captive breeding program in preventing inbreeding and maintaining genetic diversity. We explored the use of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of microsatellite regions to assay greater genetic variation in both captive and wild populations than traditional length-based fragment analysis. Contrary to other studies, this method did not considerably increase diversity estimates, suggesting: (1) that the technique does not universally improve resolution, and (2) VIM have exceedingly low diversity. Studbook estimates of pairwise relatedness and inbreeding in the current population were weakly, but positively, correlated to molecular estimates. Thus, current studbooks are moderately effective at predicting genetic similarity when founder relatedness is known. Finally, we found that captive and wild populations did not differ in allelic frequencies, and conservation efforts to maintain diversity have been successful with no significant decrease in diversity over the last three generations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Population genetic structure of the Natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita) in
           Ireland: implications for conservation management

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      Abstract: Abstract Molecular methods can play a crucial role in species management and conservation. Despite the usefulness of genetic approaches, they are often not explicitly included as part of species recovery plans and conservation practises. The Natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita) is regionally Red-Listed as Endangered in Ireland. The species is declining and is now present at just seven sites within a highly restricted range. This study used 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to analyse the population genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was high with expected heterozygosity between 0.55 and 0.61 and allelic richness between 4.77 and 5.92. Effective population sizes were small (Ne < 100 individuals), but not abnormal for pond breeding amphibians. However, there was no evidence of historical or contemporary genetic bottlenecks or high levels of inbreeding. We identified a positive relationship between Ne and breeding pond surface area, suggesting that environmental factors are a key determinant of population size. Significant genetic structuring was detected throughout the species’ range, and we identified four genetic entities that should be considered in the species’ conservation strategies. Management should focus on preventing further population declines and future loss of genetic diversity overall and within genetic entities while maintaining adequate local effective population size through site-specific protection, human-mediated translocations and head-start programs. The apparent high levels of genetic variation give hope for the conservation of Ireland’s rarest amphibian if appropriately protected and managed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Contextualizing enigmatic extinctions using genomic DNA from
           fluid-preserved museum specimens of Desmognathus salamanders

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      Abstract: Abstract Species that went extinct prior to the genomic era are often considered out-of-reach for modern phylogenetic studies. This is particularly limiting for conservation studies, as genetic data from such taxa may be key to understanding extinction risks and causes of decline that can inform the management of related, extant populations. Fortunately, continual advances in biochemistry and DNA sequencing offer increasing ability to recover DNA from historical fluid-preserved museum specimens. Here, we report on success in recovering nuclear and mitochondrial data from the putative subspecies Desmognathus fuscus carri Neill 1951, a plethodontid salamander from spring runs in central Florida that is apparently extinct. The two ethanol-preserved topotypic specimens we studied are 50 years old and were likely fixed in unbuffered formalin, but application of a recently derived extraction procedure yielded usable DNA and partially successful Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing. These data suggest that D. f. carri from peninsular Florida is conspecific with the D. auriculatus A lineage as suggested by previous authors, but may have represented an ecogeographically distinct population segment that has now been lost. Genetic data from this enigmatic disappearance thus confirm the geographic extent of population declines and extirpations as well as their ecological context, suggesting a possibly disproportionate loss from sandy-bottom clearwater streams compared to blackwater swamps. Success of these laboratory methods bodes well for large-scale application to fluid-preserved natural history specimens from relevant historical populations, but the possibility of significant DNA damage and related sequencing errors remains a hurdle to overcome.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Conservation genomics of federally endangered Texella harvester species
           (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangodidae) from cave and karst habitats of
           central Texas

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      Abstract: Abstract Genomic-scale data for non-model taxa are providing new insights into landscape genomic structuring and species limits, leading to more informed conservation decisions, particularly in taxa with extremely restricted microhabitat preferences and small geographic distributions. This study applied sequence capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to gather genomic-scale data for two federally endangered Texella harvester species distributed in Edwards Formation cave and karst habitats of central Texas, near Austin. We gathered UCE data for 51 T. reyesi specimens from 46 different caves, seven T. reddelli specimens from five caves, and from relevant outgroup species. For these UCE data we applied a combination of phylogenomic, multispecies coalescent phylogenetic, and single-nucleotide polymorphism machine-learning analyses. We found that samples of T. reddelli and T. reyesi together form a single clade in phylogenetic analyses, but that T. reddelli samples are not recovered as monophyletic. Instead, T. reddelli samples from three northern caves are embedded within a larger T. reyesi genetic clade. Significantly, the genetic structuring of all samples closely follows geologic barriers defined for the region and formalized as karst fauna regions (KFRs). One exception is the Jollyville Plateau KFR, which includes two divergent, non-sister genetic lineages. Levels of troglomorphy, here assessed by a simple scoring of corneal and retinal development, also closely follows clade (and geographic) boundaries, implying that divergent genetic lineages might also have distinct ecologies. Overall, our study has important taxonomic implications, is the first to explore (and validate) regional KFR boundaries using intraspecific genetic data, and provides essential data for future management decisions involving these federally endangered species.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Population genomics of Monadenia (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora:
           Xanthonychidae) land snails reveals structuring but gene-flow across
           distinct species and morphotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract Establishing conservation priorities requires an understanding of the diversity within and among taxa. Land snails in the subgenus Monadenia consist of six species, three of which are recognized in Oregon, M. fidelis, M. chaceana and a recently discovered M. infumata found north of its presumed range limits in Northern California. Further, M. fidelis is composed of at least six named subspecies, one of which is a candidate for federal listing, and extensive sampling and expert assessments of shell morphology have uncovered even more distinct forms. Still, it is unknown if these morphological variants are truly distinctive units of diversity or rather reflect environmentally driven plasticity. Here we investigate whether there are multiple, structured units of diversity in Washington, Oregon, and California Monadenia. We used COI, a mitochondrial barcode gene, a ddRAD-based genome-wide SNP dataset, along with expert-assessment of morphology, to better delimit diversity of Monadenia in Oregon and in parts of Washington and California to inform conservation strategies for this group. Morphological analyses confirm the existence of distinctive morphotypes, but genomic data show widespread admixture, even at the species level. Still, we do find limited geographic structuring between samples collected in the northern versus southern portions of the study area and possibly weak structuring between populations in the Coast Ranges compared to the Cascade Mountains. Genetic differentiation was similar among the morphotypes in the north–south grouping, but pairwise estimates of differentiation were much greater among some morphotypes and species. Our finding of admixture and gene flow across Monadenia, even at the species level, complicates assessment of individuated units of diversity critical for establishing conservation prioritization. Further work is still necessary, such as including more Monadenia taxa, in order to evaluate species limits and investigate mechanisms underlying the morphological diversity in this group.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • New developments in the field of genomic technologies and their relevance
           to conservation management

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      Abstract: Abstract Recent technological advances in the field of genomics offer conservation managers and practitioners new tools to explore for conservation applications. Many of these tools are well developed and used by other life science fields, while others are still in development. Considering these technological possibilities, choosing the right tool(s) from the toolbox is crucial and can pose a challenging task. With this in mind, we strive to inspire, inform and illuminate managers and practitioners on how conservation efforts can benefit from the current genomic and biotechnological revolution. With inspirational case studies we show how new technologies can help resolve some of the main conservation challenges, while also informing how implementable the different technologies are. We here focus specifically on small population management, highlight the potential for genetic rescue, and discuss the opportunities in the field of gene editing to help with adaptation to changing environments. In addition, we delineate potential applications of gene drives for controlling invasive species. We illuminate that the genomic toolbox offers added benefit to conservation efforts, but also comes with limitations for the use of these novel emerging techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Hidden diversity of the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)
           from Angola, West Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) occupies a wide range within the tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Atlantic Oceans. Although occurring in large numbers, the IUCN status for this species is "vulnerable" due to existing threats in their nesting sites. We report the first genetic data on L. olivacea from Palmeirinhas-Onça beach, Angola, West Africa. Genetic diversity based on a 400 bp-fragment of the mitochondrial control region of 39 individuals indicated low nucleotide and haplotype diversities compared to other Atlantic populations. We detected a new haplotype present in two individuals from Angola, while the remaining specimens shared a haplotype that is distributed in both sides of the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean, suggesting connectivity between these populations. The baseline data we are generating have a broader significance for characterizing intraspecific biodiversity in the olive ridley sea turtle, which is vital for developing effective conservation policies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
 
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