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Ethnobiology and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.817
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2238-4782 - ISSN (Online) 2238-4782
Published by Universidade Estadual da Paraíba Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Use of firewood for artisanal ceramic production in a context of forest
           scarcity in Northeastern Brazil

    • Authors: Maria Madelena Soares da Silva, Ivanilda Soares Feitosa, Ramon Salgueiro Cruz, Vânia Aparecida de Sá, Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva
      Abstract: In this study, we sought to examine firewood use patterns in artisanal ceramic production by a quilombola community in the context of forest scarcity in Northeastern Brazil. This article aimed to answer the following questions: (1) Is the firing of ceramic products related to the perceived quality, diversity, or plant part used as firewood' (2) Does the diversity of plants used as firewood vary according to the age and gender of artisan potters' (3) What are the physical and energetic properties of the species most commonly used as firewood' Our main findings were that resource availability and accessibility seem to be the determining factors of firewood use. Exotic species were widely used. Variables commonly described as predictors of firewood diversity, such as age and gender, were not relevant in the context of forest scarcity. The most used exotic species have good physicochemical properties and can be a viable alternative to meet the firewood demand of ceramic production. However, the results showed that these species are more readily available to potters who have access to private woodlands. Therefore, in the studied context, we suggest the need for conservation strategies that foster the creation of energy forests composed of exotic species and, in parallel, promote conservation and reforestation actions aimed at native species.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-11-12.23-1-14
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Hybridization between biomedicine and alternative medicine in COVID-19
           care in a neo-rural population of Córdoba, Argentine

    • Authors: Flavia Rosa Santoro, Leonardo da Silva Chaves, Bárbara Arias Toledo
      Abstract: We propose to investigate if the use and knowledge of medicinal plants and alternative medicine influence the adoption of biomedical strategies in dealing with COVID-19 - such as the use of masks, social isolation, and vaccination - in a context of a neo-rural population. We collected data through online questionnaires, using the Google Forms platform in the “Paravachasca Valley”, Córdoba, Argentine. The questionnaires, anonymous, contained multiple choice questions about attitudes and opinions concerning prophylactic strategies against COVID-19. To test whether the use or knowledge of medicinal plants is associated with trust in the efficiency and adoption of biomedical strategies, we used a chi-square test of independence. We saw that this neo-rural population does not differ from urban populations in terms of the proportion of people who deny biomedical strategies to prevent COVID-19. Furthermore, we verified that the knowledge about medicinal plants is related to distrust and reluctance to the adoption of the use of masks, social isolation, and vaccination. Also, our results suggest that alternative medicine users are afraid of the vaccine effects. In this plural medical context of a neo-rural population, belief in alternative medicines for the treatment of COVID-19 can be an obstacle to immunization programs.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-11-12.22-1-25
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Comparison of local ecological knowledge versus camera trapping to
           establish terrestrial wildlife baselines in community hunting territories
           within the Yangambi landscape in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    • Authors: Nathalie van Vliet, Francesco Rovero, Jonas Muhindo, Jonas Nyumu, Emmanuela Mbangale, Sagesse Nziavake, Paolo Cerutti, Robert Nasi, Simon Quintero
      Abstract: Baseline population data are fundamental to the development of wildlife management plans and are usually generated based on field surveys using sampling tools such as camera traps (CT). However, this method can be costly and ineffective with rare species or in wildlife-depleted areas. An alternative is to complement baseline wildlife population data with Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK)-based methods. We compared LEK and CT surveys in terms of their capacity to assess the status of terrestrial mammal species (richness, abundance, distribution) in the Yangambi landscape of the Democratic Republic of Congo. This region is heavily hunted and wildlife population densities are low. Species not captured by CT included naturally rare and endangered species that were instead recorded by interviewed hunters. LEK and CT abundance metrics were positively related for all species. For all medium- and large-sized species, the number of positive sites from LEK outnumbered the number of positive sites from the CT survey, indicating that hunters detected species over larger areas. Overall, our comparison suggests that LEK and CT methods can be used interchangeably to provide reliable information on relative abundance. Nevertheless, LEK appears as a more cost- effective alternative to camera trapping, particularly for hunted and depleted tropical forests.
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-09-12.19-1-14
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Como inserir mais sociobiodiversidade na alimentação escolar na
           Amazônia brasileira'

    • Authors: Daniel Tregidgo, Juliana Kelly da Silva Maia, Elenilma Barros da Silva, Jessica Cardoso Lopes, Juliana Rodrigues Larrosa Oler, Fernanda Maria de Freitas Viana, Neide Rigo, João Valsecchi, Valdinei Lemos Lopes, Elias Jacob de Menezes Neto, Michelle Cristine Medeiros Jacob
      Abstract: Despite its rich sociobiodiversity, the Amazon faces significant challenges regarding food security. The Brazilian National School Feeding Programme (PNAE) emerges as a strategic opportunity to address the issue of food insecurity and to synergistically contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and the strengthening of local economic development. Although PNAE encourages the presence of regional foods and sociobiodiversity in school meals, the effective inclusion of these foods remains a challenge. In this policy brief, we summarize recommendations to promote the effective inclusion of sociobiodiversity in school meals in six strategies. We believe that the stakeholders directly involved in the PNAE decision-making can benefit from these recommendations, including public officials responsible for ensuring the human right to adequate food, as well as the institutions regulating the activities of nutritionists who serve as technical experts for the program.
      PubDate: 2023-10-14
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-09-12.21-1-7
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Management of captive Passeriformes in eastern Amazonia: the bird keepers

    • Authors: Samantha Silva, Brenda Braga, Juliane da Silva Costa, Marília da Costa Ribeiro, Deise Lima Cardoso, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo, Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior, Diva Anelie de Araújo Guimarães
      Abstract: The interactions between avifauna and the environment, including relationships with humans and their role in cultural practices, are part of ethnoornithological studies. The main objective of this study was to describe the ex situ management of passerines by bird keepers for recreational and commercial purposes in a municipality in the Brazilian Amazon. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 62 farmers who had 279 wild birds belonging to 23 species in captivity. These animals were kept in cages of different sizes. The birds’ diets were obtained from specialized commercial stores and offered daily to the animals according to age group and reproductive stage. The animals were kept in environments with good air flow, and the cages were cleaned, and the water was changed daily. Worming of birds was a routine practice, but infestations and some diseases were noted. Medications for treatment were obtained from local specialized stores. The reproductive management of passerine birds, especially Sporophila angolensis and Sporophila maximiliani, was performed by only three breeders. The results provide relevant empirical knowledge about the ex situ management of passerines, which is part of local cultural habits. However, this study indicates that there may be negative effects of maintaining these birds in captivity, such as the capture of free-ranging wild animals. Socio-educational measures are necessary to improve awareness of the sustainable use of environmental resources and encourage legalized breeding of passerines to help conserve the species.
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-07-12.16-1-14
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Hunting in Indonesian New Guinea: dogs, conservation and culture

    • Authors: Freddy Pattiselanno, Janice K F lloyd, Douglas Sheil, Andrew Krockenberger, Agustina Yohana Setyarini Arobaya
      Abstract: Hunting has a complex and contested relationship with conservation: it can deplete and threaten vulnerable wildlife but can also motivate protection and good stewardship. This study aims to advance the ethnographic information of hunting with dogs, in particular, the increasing use of dogs in hunting, as such practice is a particular concern among conservationists. We present a case study from the lowland costal forest of Tambrauw in West Papua Province – Indonesian New Guinea using information gathered by assessing the activities and success of thirty-three hunters. The hunters identified 301 successful kills in a total of 654 hours of hunting. Five different prey species were reported across the study sites in a 7-month time period. Interestingly, active hunting without dogs had a higher yield (kills per hour) than hunting with them (0.700 versus 0.38 kills per hour), especially for deer, but hunting with dogs is the only method that seems to favour the capture of pigs over deer. Dogs are not valued for their role in hunting alone but also have less tangible cultural values also protect hunters and also their families from animals and spirits. We conclude that hunting with dogs is the only method that seems to favour the capture of pigs over deer. We find that dogs can provoke social conflicts and other problems. More attention should be given to local hunting and the methods used. Hunting with dogs impacts the quantity and composition of the hunt, this requires a careful appraisal, as dogs also provide wider cultural and protective roles.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-09-12.20-1-11
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Engaging with Indigenous Water Realities: Agricultural Cycle Rituals and
           Oral Tradition

    • Authors: Jahzeel Aguilera Lara, Andrés Camou-Guerrero, David Montoya, Alejandro Casas, Victor M Toledo
      Abstract: The Nahua communities in the Central Highlands of Guerrero have a ritual-agricultural cycle closely related to seasonality, environmental processes, agriculture, and landscape. The most important celebrations in the region are those asking for a good rainy season, for the rain to end, and to thank for the harvest. Building upon the ethnoecological framework, the article explores ritual-agricultural practices and the water realities these practices make, as well as their implications in the conservation and management of water.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-08-12.18-1-15
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Perceived efficiency and local consensus as factors shaping medicinal
           plant knowledge

    • Authors: Daniel Carvalho Pires Sousa, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Yasmim Antonio Costa dos Santos, Joelson Moreno Brito de Moura, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
      Abstract: Environmental perception goes through physiological, psychological, and cultural filters and can influ- ence the selection and usage of species. Additionally, sharing cultural information is a crucial social strategy for our species’ survival. From this standpoint, knowledge that aligns with the local context is typically the most widely "expressed" and/or "replicated" by individuals. Building upon this premise, our objective was to investigate whether knowledge about local medicinal plants is influenced by certain adaptive factors, such as perceived efficacy, perceived availability, and perceived frequency of diseases. The study was conducted with 73 individuals from five rural communities in Vale do Catimbau Na- tional Park, Buíque, Pernambuco, Brazil. A free list of medicinal plants and their therapeutic uses was employed. Using these free lists, we employed a salience index to determine consensus within the local diversity. We employed a generalized linear model with a binomial distribution to ascertain whether perceived efficacy, perceived availability, and perceived disease frequency account for the local consen- sus. Of the three variables analyzed, only perceived efficiency explained the local consensus on the use of medicinal plants (p < 0.002). This result indicates that perceived efficiency is the key factor deter- mining the most popular medicinal plant when requested for memory recall, regardless of the perceived availability of the plant or the perceived frequency of diseases it treats. However, looking through the evolutionary perspective, the main question is to understand whether this factor is the only determi- nant in explaining the nature of the generation of medicinal plants’ salience, or if other ’cofactors’ of the social-ecological systems act together in an important way to guide this process as well.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-08-12.17-1-20
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Wild food plants with the potential to improve food and nutrition security
           may be threatened by timber extraction: A systematic review of the
           Brazilian context

    • Authors: Roberta Caetano, Élida Monique da Costa Santos, Richard Zago Poian, Adriana Rosa Carvalho, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva, Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros
      Abstract: Wild food plants can contribute to improving the food and nutrition security of local populations by promoting diet diversification and increasing the intake of micro- and macronutrients. However, many of these plants are also used as timber. Wild food species need to be identified and their food–wood use interactions need to be well understood for the development of conservation strategies, as species with the potential to improve food and nutrition security may be threatened by destructive extraction. This systematic review recorded and compiled nutritional information on woody plant species native to Brazil that are used by local populations for food and timber purposes, seeking to identify which species have a high overlap between food and timber uses as well as a high nutritional potential. A total of 635 woody species with timber and/or food uses were identified. Of this total, at least 42 species find application in all timber use categories analyzed in this study, being considered versatile. Comparison of ethnobiological and nutritional data revealed nine versatile species for which nutritional composition information was available, among which three stood out in terms of macronutrient contents, namely Anacardium occidentale L., Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud., and Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. Many versatile species classified as threatened or in decline have not been the focus of nutritional studies, which signals the need for greater nutritional research efforts. It is also necessary to investigate whether food importance exerts any protective effect on these species, reducing timber use pressure (protection hypothesis). 
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-07-12.15-1-35
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Patterns of knowledge and use of tropical plants in homegardens of
           Southern Morelos, Mexico

    • Authors: Amanda Ortiz-Sánchez, Angélica Romero-Manzanares, Columba Monroy-Ortiz, Mario Luna Cavazos
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the patterns of use and knowledge of plant species growing in selected tropical homegardens in southern Morelos, Mexico. The method consisted of obtaining informed consent, interviews with homegarden managers, recording socioeconomic data, visits to the interior of each selected homegarden, and personal observations. Data were analyzed through multivariate analyses. The results included a floristic composition (132 species) and eight types of use. Grouping of homegardens by type of use differentiated two main groups: homegardens where principal use is for food plants, and others mainly for ornamental plants. Were found significant differences between homegardens by the number of species and type of use. The grouping of species by number of uses revealed two groups; the patterns of use of plants in homegardens differed according to the user’s preferences; multiuse species were appreciated in group two, which dominated the ornamentals. It was found a significant correlation between age and number of plants known for the owners of the homegardens; while occupation, schooling, and income had no correlation. In conclusion, we rejected the hypothesis of nullity due to differences between richness and the preference of species, the management of homegardens, and by the null influence of the socioeconomic factors studied, with the exception of the age owners and their knowledge of the species.
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.12-1-21
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Wild fauna as roadkill on a highway in the semiarid region of northeastern

    • Authors: Erly de Lima Ferreira, Silvio Lima, J. Weverton S. Souza, Paulo Roberto Medeiros
      Abstract: The death of wild vertebrates run over by motor vehicles on highways is one of the main causes of the loss of wildlife diversity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity of wild fauna in roadkill incidents on a stretch of highway in the semiarid region of Brazil. The survey was conducted between March 2020 and May 2021 through active searches using a motorcycle. Killed vertebrates were analyzed and photographed in situ. Wild fauna was studied based on ecological descriptors, speed of movement and average rate of roadkill incidents. We compared total observed richness to that expected using nonparametric estimators. A total of 464 road-killed vertebrates were represented by two species of amphibians, 17 reptiles, 17 birds and 10 mammals. Amphibians were the most affected, totaling 245 individuals. Colubridae was the family with the largest number of species affected. Boiruna sertaneja and Boa constrictor were the only medium-size to large snakes killed. Herpailurus yagouaroundi and Leopardus tigrinus are respectively categorized as “least concern” and “vulnerable” according to the IUCN. The species accumulation curves continued to rise, showing no sign of approaching to an asymptote. Chao 2 and Jack 2 were the main estimators for road-killed wild vertebrates considering total richness. The diversity reported here is considered to be underestimated and greater monthly sampling efforts are required. Conservation strategies are urgently needed for the protection of wild vertebrate fauna to mitigate the staggering loss of biodiversity caused by the construction and operation of roads and highways in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.13-1-25
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Perception and attitudes of local communities towards vertebrate fauna in
           the Andes of Colombia: Effects of gender and the urban/rural setting

    • Authors: Maria Camila Moreno-Rubiano, Juan Diego Moreno-Rubiano, Daniel Robledo-Buitrago, Miguel Antonio De Luque-Villa, J. Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Hernan Dario Granda-Rodriguez
      Abstract: This study sought to evaluate the perception and attitudes of the inhabitants of an Andean region of Colombia towards 17 native terrestrial vertebrate species and their relationships with sociodemographic factors such as gender and locality (town or country). Data were collected through semi-structured surveys of 100 participants. Five variables measuring people's perceptions (level of liking, medicinal use, detrimental to daily activity, disease transmission, and folklore traditions) were statistically evaluated using a Likert scale ranging. To measure attitudes, respondents were asked whether they would agree that the government should protect or eradicate some of the species in the region. The respondents' level of liking and their folklore (legend and myth-type superstitions) only varied for the owl between town and country. Native rat, bat, and snake species had the highest frequency of negative perceptions among people that varied according to locality and gender, in contrast to birds such as the canary and hummingbird species where positive perceptions predominated. The species that presented the greatest diversity of folklore traditions were owl, snake, and the bat species, all mainly associated with death and bad luck. Most respondents considered conserving all species, with a preference for birds and some mammals and reptiles. However, they considered eliminating species such as native rat, snake, and bat species from the region. Wildlife conservation initiatives must understand people's perceptions for using charismatic species, while implementing awareness campaigns on the ecological importance of species that are less liked by local communities. We discussed local people's perceptions and medicinal uses of wildlife species.
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.09-1-20
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Hypothesis Testing in Ethnobotany: 30 years After Phillips &
           Gentry's Seminal Work

    • Authors: Ulysses Albuquerque, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.14-1-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Exploring biocultural diversity in urban ecosystems: an ethnobiological

    • Authors: Ulysses Albuquerque, Ana Ladio, Emmanuel Almada, Ina Vandebroek, María Teresa Pulido Silva, Viviane Stern Fonseca-Kruel
      Abstract: Urban ecosystems differ from non-urban ones in the strong and rapid biocultural dynamics generated by the interactions between people from different cultures, at large spatial and temporal scales, and very fast rates. This opinion piece explores the concept of urban ethnobiology as a critical field of research that investigates the complex and dynamic biocultural systems that exist in urban environments. We argue that interactions between humans and other life forms in urban ecosystems are influenced by a characteristic set of social, cultural, and political factors that are linked to urban environments, such as infrastructure development, population density, and governance structures. We emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary approach that brings together experts from different fields to study the inherent complexity of these systems. By examining the sociocultural dynamics that shape the way urban biodiversity is perceived, used, and managed, we can gain deeper insights into the different dimensions of socio-cultural biodiversity in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.10-1-12
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Can the traditional use of native plant species in rural communities in
           the Brazilian semi-arid region be affected by global warming'

    • Authors: José Ribamar Farias Lima, Thamires Kelly Nunes Carvalho, Ramon Santos Souza, Robbie Hart, Rainer W. Bussmann, Henrique Fernandes Magalhães, Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena
      Abstract: Extreme climate change events are capable of modifying the physiognomy of landscapes, impacting millions of people around the world. Consequently, the traditional knowledge of people residing in these regions about local natural resources may also be affected. To identify how the traditional use of native plant species can be influenced by a change in the availability of these species in a rural community in a semi-arid region, in a scenario of climatic extremes, we developed a Pressure Indicator for Use Preference (PIUP), seeking to identify the species under the greatest pressure of use. The study was carried out in the São Francisco Rural Community, in the Cabaceiras Municipality, in the semi-arid region of the Paraíba State, with 42 local informants. The species with the highest PIUP had their potential distribution for the year 2050 modeled using the HadGEM2-ES climate model under the RCP4.5 scenario, as an optimistic forecast, and the RCP8.5 scenario, as a pessimistic forecast. The construction of the models identified a potential increase in the coverage area of ​​all analyzed species, with a greater territorial extension for the RCP8.5 scenario. Myracrodoun urundeuva, Mimosa tenuiflora and Croton blanchetianus were the species with the lowest potential area growth for the year 2050. The high use of species, especially M. urundeuva, associated with reduced growth in a more arid environment is a worrying factor for the population structure of the species, as well as for rural communities that make representative use of the species.
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-06-12.11-1-21
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Knowledge, use and traditional management of wildlife in the community of
           Zoquital, Morelos, Mexico

    • Authors: Mónica Bello Román, Alejandro García Flores, José Manuel Pino Moreno
      Abstract: Through their traditional productive activities, peasant and indigenous communities have generated knowledge on the use and management of wildlife to satisfy their needs for food, medicine or even to complement their basic food basket through the marketing of the species. The objective of this research was to analyze the knowledge, use and traditional management of wildlife in a rural community in the southwestern part of the state of Morelos, Mexico. The methodology included participant observation, semistructured interviews and guided tours and methods for obtaining and analyzing quantitative data “such as analysis of variance, a Mann‒Whitney U test and X2 test”. The interviewees recognized a total of 57 species of wildlife, of which 22 are used as food, medicine, ornament, amulets, furs and agricultural tools in four traditional production units. In addition, eight species were reported in the oral tradition. Four hunting techniques and five weapons were documented, with the shotgun being the most commonly used. Two factors regulate hunting in the community: the closed season and religion. A total of 62,454 kg of useful biomass was recorded, with mammals being the group that contributed the most kilograms, followed by reptiles and birds. There were no significant differences in species consumption, across months or rainy and dry seasons due to factors regulating hunting. Based on the total value index of the species, Odocoileus virginianus was the most important for the inhabitants of the community.
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.08-1-18
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Forest species for biocultural restoration in eastern Amazon, Brazil

    • Authors: Vivian do Carmo Loch, Danielle Celentano, Raysa Valeria Carvalho Saraiva, Swanni T. Alvarado, Flávia de Freitas Berto , Raymony Tayllon Serra, João Castro Barroso, Tatuxa'a Awa Guajá, Guillaume Xavier Rousseau
      Abstract: Amazon deforestation damages nature, people, and their closer biocultural relationship, eroding fundamental elements for its reproduction. The recognition and use of traditional knowledge to plan and implement restoration efforts are essential to its success. This study identified forest tree species of biocultural value for indigenous communities, quilombolas, and settled farmers in Maranhão state, eastern Brazilian Amazon. Semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, Free Lists, and guided walks were carried out in three different landscapes to identify species with ecological importance and/or use-value according to local communities’ perceptions. Eight categories of species use were defined (food, woody, medicinal, income, cultural, hunting, honey, and energy); and the Smith Salience Index (S) was utilized to identify species with higher importance. A total of 58 native trees (S > 0.1) were listed as biocultural species, five of which were cited for ecological importance only, without a use-value associated. The highest number of species with cultural salience (S > 0.1) was reported in the indigenous group (47), followed by settlers (11) and quilombolas (9). Among the indigenous, we identified a higher number of uses for the same species, and a remarkable spiritual relationship with plants from their cosmological vision. The reproduction of biocultural values in societies needs to receive more attention in the restoration science and praxis. The identification of species of biocultural value can serve as an important ally for the assertive design of conservation and restoration initiatives.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.03-1-15
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Applying the World-System theory in the conservation sciences to
           understand COVID-19 pandemic as a socio-environmental synergy

    • Authors: María Hirschfeld, Luiz Roberto R Faria, Gabriel de Siqueira Gil, Carlos Roberto Fonseca
      Abstract: The pandemic of COVID-19 caused a global epidemiological, economic and social crisis. In the conservation sciences, several studies have focused efforts on understanding the effects of declining human activities on biodiversity, understanding the pandemic as an anthropogenic "pause"of global scale. But the impact of the pandemic was not the same for everyone. Different impacts are consequences of political and ethical questions about who and what can pause or be paused, according to what authority and under what conditions. Therefore, the historical asymmetrical relations of power in the World System are crucial to understanding environmental impacts and thinking about solutions in the post-pandemic world. This article discusses why historical local-global inequalities should be an indispensable reference variable for examining the different experiences caused by the pandemic in biodiversity, aiming at advancing the discussion about the society-nature relationship that the pandemic has spurred. To do so, we use the World-System Theory, initially proposed by Wallerstein, whose analytical categories allow us to situate nature conservation within broader economic, historical, and contemporary contexts. We argue for the understanding of biodiversity conservation in the context of the historical-sociological and global-local relations of the World-System. Finally, we discuss that the COVID-19 pandemic should be understood as an emergent phenomenon of the society-nature dynamic of the world-system.
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.02-1-16
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Human consumption of meat from roadkilled animals in the southwestern

    • Authors: Marcela Alvares Oliveira, Raul Afonso Pommer-Barbosa, Rômulo Romeu Nobrega Alves, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria
      Abstract: The harvest of meat from wild animals is essential for the nutrition of many human populations in the Neotropics. Specific techniques are used to access wild meat, but collecting meat from road killed animals, or purposely run over animals to kill and consume the meat have not been documented so far. In this study we interviewed four residents of the state of Rondônia who claimed to consume roadkilled animals. Respondents cited only medium and large mammals (10 species in total) as the group from which wild meat is harvested, with one respondent claiming to intentionally run over the animals. The interviewees analyse the smell/putrefaction, swelling and exposure of viscera as criteria for not collecting the meat. The meat from roadkilled animals may pose a risk to the health of humans who consume it due to the foodborne diseases it may spread after the decomposition process. In addition, the practice of running over animals for consumption of their meat can cause potential impacts to the fauna and humans since it can reduce animal numbers and also cause serious accidents. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this is widespread phenomenon occurring in other places of the Amazon and of the Neotropics.
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-03-12.07-1-9
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Conhecimento Pesqueiro e o Defeso: Preenchendo uma Lacuna Necessária

    • Authors: Vitor Renck, David Ludwig, Irael de Jesus Santos, Valdemir Celestino dos Santos, Francisco de Assis da Conceição, Nelson Amado de Araújo, Clecio Cardoso dos Santos, Valdomiro José de Oliveira, Paride Bollettin, José Amorim Reis-Filho, Luana Poliseli, Charbel El-Hani
      Abstract: No Brasil, o estabelecimento da política de defeso não tem levado em conta os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, que são, comumente, marginalizados e não reconhecidos perante às políticas públicas que os atingem. Em nossos estudos, encontramos uma marcada incompatibilidade entre o conhecimento de pescadores artesanais do estuário do rio Itapicuru, litoral norte da Bahia, sobre o período reprodutivo de algumas espécies marinhas utilizadas como recursos pesqueiros e os períodos de defeso estabelecidos em lei. Os conhecimentos dos pescadores sugerem que duas espécies de robalo bem como quatro espécies de camarão estão sendo protegidas em períodos do ano dissonantes da época reprodutiva percebida pelos pescadores. Propomos, assim, uma mudança nos procedimentos de tomada de decisão subjacentes às legislações de defeso, assim como a revisão da legislação específica para robalos e camarões, levando-se em conta o conhecimento de especialistas tradicionais. Especialmente na formulação de novas políticas de defeso, consideramos fundamental a participação destes últimos. Para alcançar uma compreensão mais robusta e precisa da situação, propomos colocar em diálogo o conhecimento científico acadêmico e os conhecimentos de pescadores artesanais, em uma abordagem de pesquisa participativa. Processos participativos, como os que propomos aqui, e, eventualmente, de coprodução do conhecimento não só permitem melhorar as práticas de gestão e conservação ambiental e formulação de políticas públicas, mas também podem desempenhar um papel de empoderamento para comunidades pesqueiras, assim como para outros povos do campo e povos indígenas.
      PubDate: 2023-02-17
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.04-1-8
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Social perceptions of ecosystem services delivered by coastal wetlands:
           their value and the threats they face in northwestern Mexico

    • Authors: Aimée Cervantes Escobar, Arturo Ruiz-Luna, César Alejandro Berlanga Robles
      Abstract: Wetlands are recognized for their socio-environmental value and capacity to provide ecosystem services (ES) that are currently threatened by diverse drivers, including those derived from climate change. These changes in the ES delivery may not be recognized by their users, and to determine the extent to which communities are aware of the presence and importance of coastal wetlands, participatory workshops were held in four coastal communities in northwestern Mexico following the Metaplan methodology. The effects produced by extreme rainfall events (as a manifestation of climate change) on wetlands and their ES, were also analyzed. Four coastal wetlands (estuaries, saltmarshes, mangroves, and lagoons) were among the most important ecosystems, while poor fishing practices, mangrove deforestation, and pollution, were identified as their main threats. Climate change, land use changes and water mismanagement, also threat wetlands. There were a few differences among communities, mostly related to the number of ES and their categories; nonetheless, saltmarshes and mangroves were priority wetlands in the communities included in this study, recognizing the ES they provide. Most of the participants in all communities coincided on the main threats and pressures facing wetlands and their ES, particularly those related to climate change, which also affect their livelihoods. But, despite the awareness, regional coastal wetlands continue to decline, considering that participatory processes are necessary for establishing the importance of wetlands while incorporating traditional knowledge, alternative actions, and novel solutions into management actions that may be scaled from the community level into regional development strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.06-1-15
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Food Biodiversity as an Opportunity to Address the Challenge of Improving
           Human Diets and Food Security

    • Authors: Michelle Jacob, Alice Medeiros Souza, Aline Martins de Carvalho, Carlos Frederico Alves de Vasconcelos Neto, Daniel Tregidgo, Danny Hunter, Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira, Guilhermo Ros Brull, Harriet V. Kunhlein, Lara Juliane Guedes da Silva, Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabr, Mariana de Paula Drewinski, Nelson Menolli Jr, Patricia Carignano Torres, Pedro Mayor, Priscila F. M. Lopes, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos da Silva, Sávio Marcelino Gomes, Juliana Kelly da Silva-Maia
      Abstract: Scientists have warned for several years that food systems have become major drivers of environmental degradation, malnutrition, and food insecurity. In this paper, we present arguments from specialists that suggest that, in the transition to more sustainable food systems, biodiversity and food security can be mutually supportive, rather than conflicting goals. We have divided the opinions of these scientists into two "Big Topics". First, they examine the synergies and challenges of the intersection of biodiversity and food security. In the second section, they explain how various forms of food biodiversity, such as mushrooms, terrestrial wild animals, aquatic animals, algae, and wild plants, can contribute to food security. Finally, we present three main pathways that, according to these experts, could guide the transition toward biodiversity and food security in food systems.
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-02-12.05-1-14
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
  • Stage-based model of population dynamics and harvest of Broad-snouted
           caiman (Caiman latirostris) under different management scenarios

    • Authors: Evangelina V. Viotto, Joaquín L. Navarro, Melina S. Simoncini, Carlos Piña
      Abstract: We created a matrix model structured by stages (divided into 5 stages) to evaluate the population dynamics of Caiman latirostris and the population behavior at different management intensities through ranching and hunting of adult individuals. We generated 5000 matrices by sampling the mean and variance values of survivals (pi) and hatching for each stage. For each matrix, we obtained the growth rate λ and performed elasticity analyses. Modifying the mean matrix obtained from the previous analysis, we evaluated different scenarios of ranching, reintroduction, and hunting of adult females of the last two stages (E) raised here (class III animals, > 60 cm snout-vent length, divided into two: E4 and E5). We obtained a mean λ of 1.035 (range 0.88 − 1.12), and 11.9% of the simulations had λ < 1. The vital rate with the highest elasticity and variance was that of the adult females of the last stage. Natural populations can tolerate a maximum of 5% adult female hunting, and ranching can extract 55% of nests from the wild without reintroduction or 80% of nest harvest, returning to the wild at least 3% of hatched animals in the ranching programs. Our model showed that hunting and ranching with reintroduction are feasible strategies to be applied without threatening natural populations. Increasing reintroduction makes it possible to extract more adult individuals and maintain the species’ populations at sustainable levels.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.15451/ec2023-01-12.01-1-20
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2023)
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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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