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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 245)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Ecology and Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 52  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1708-3087
Published by Resilience Alliance Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Semi-natural habitats in boreal Europe: a rise of a social-ecological
           research agenda

    • Authors: Herzon, I; Raatikainen, K. J, Wehn, S, Rūsiņa, S, Helm, A, Cousins, S. A. O, Rašomavičius, V.
      Abstract: The European continent contains substantial areas of semi-natural habitats, mostly grasslands, which are among the most endangered habitats in Europe. Their continued existence depends on some form of human activity, for either production or conservation purposes, or both. We examined the share of semi-natural grasslands within the general grassland areas in boreal Europe. We reviewed research literature across the region to compile evidence on semi-natural grasslands and other semi-natural habitats, such as wooded pastures, in respect to a range of topics such as ecology, land-use change, socioeconomics, and production. We also explored drivers of the research agenda and outlined future research needs. Challenges are faced when defining and quantifying semi-natural habitats even across a restricted region. Agricultural development and other policies clearly impact the research agenda in various countries. There are recent signs of a shift from classical ecological studies toward more multidisciplinary and integrated research. To sufficiently address the threats faced by semi-natural habitats, political and research frameworks in the European Union should pay more attention to the social-ecological complexity inherent in their management and should support the engagement of various actors into participatory governance processes. This is in line with a full-farm approach implicit in high nature value farming systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 19:27:01 EDT
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services: a review of definitions, the role of
           spatial scales, and critique

    • Authors: Kaiser, J; Haase, D, Krueger, T.
      Abstract: The economic conservation instrument of payments for ecosystem services (PES) enjoys an increasing popularity among scientists, politicians, and civil society organizations alike, while others raise concerns regarding the ecological effectiveness and social justice of this instrument. In this review article, we showcase the variety of existing PES definitions and systematically locate these definitions in the range between Coasean conceptualizations, which describe PES as conditional and voluntary private negotiations between ES providers and ES beneficiaries, and much broader Pigouvian PES understandings that also assign government-funded and involuntary schemes to the PES approach. It turns out that the scale at which PES operate, having so far received very little attention in the literature, as well as critique of PES must be considered in the context of the diversity of definitions to ensure the comparability between studies researching PES programs. Future research should better target linkages between global, regional, and local scales for the development of PES programs, while taking local collective governance systems for a sustainable use of resources into account more seriously.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 17:46:07 EDT
       
  • Making adaptive governance work in biodiversity conservation: lessons in
           invasive alien aquatic plant management in Lake Biwa, Japan

    • Authors: Miyanaga, K; Nakai, K.
      Abstract: Invasive alien species are a serious threat to freshwater ecosystems and overall biodiversity. Although invasive alien species management in the form of environmental governance has often been practiced under an adaptive governance scheme, prevailing theoretical and practical difficulties must be solved to enhance policy effectiveness and outcomes. Our objective was to clarify how it is possible to make adaptive governance work in biodiversity conservation, especially invasive alien species management in freshwater ecosystems. To fulfill this objective, we investigated two analytical concepts—invasion management and adaptive governance—and studied a case of invasive alien aquatic plant management in Lake Biwa, Japan. The conclusion of our analysis and the lessons learned can be summarized as the following three points: First, whether learning processes are properly equipped by local environmental governance is critical for adaptive governance. We provide insights into three aspects of learning: the system where scientific knowledge is produced and shared for policy preparation, implementation, and evaluation; where social learning and processes that support social learning occur; and where a process of organizational learning occurs. Second, we discuss the role and function of government in adaptive governance, which indicates that interactive governance is possible even when a government initiates a governing process, and that an interactive governing structure would be fundamental for addressing social-ecological complexities and uncertainties. Third, the transition from symptomatic treatments toward precautionary actions for invasive alien species, which is essential for policy effectiveness and outcomes, can be fostered by an interactive governing structure. In addition, organizational learning can induce the transition, through which the competency trap caused by conformity bias in invasive alien species management could be avoided.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 14:38:24 EDT
       
  • How do structural and agent-based factors influence the effectiveness of
           incentive policies' A spatially explicit agent-based model to optimize
           woodland-for-water PES policy design at the local level

    • Authors: Baulenas, E; Baiges, T, Cervera, T, Pahl-Wostl, C.
      Abstract: A key factor in the resilience of water and forest ecosystems in the face of climate variability is the management decisions taken by the individuals responsible for them, from public officials to private owners. The presence of economic and other non-material incentives can modify the decision-making processes of these individuals and thereby avoid current socioeconomic trends in Mediterranean forested areas such as land abandonment and its detrimental consequences for both social and ecological systems. In this article, we created a spatially explicit agent-based model to observe the effects of the implementation of a woodland-for-water payment for ecosystem services scheme in a local area in Catalonia (NE Spain). The results of the model show that the policy design that supports recurrent management practices obtains the same results at the 25-year mark that other policy designs at the end of the modeled period in number of managed hectares. This design entails the presence of a local intermediary, financial coverage of the management changes to improve water conditions, and the targeting of only one environmental goal, thereby avoiding the ecosystem trade-offs that can arise when two or more goals are targeted. In this design, the first generation of forest owners engaging in behavior change would benefit from their actions, which is also key for maintaining their engagement with the payments for ecosystem services scheme.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 10:25:24 EDT
       
  • Human securities, sustainability, and migration in the ancient U.S.
           Southwest and Mexican Northwest

    • Authors: Ingram, S. E; Patrick, S. M.
      Abstract: In the U.S. Southwest and Mexican Northwest region, arid-lands agriculturalists practiced sedentary agriculture for at least four thousand years. People developed diverse lifeways and a repertoire of successful dryland strategies that resemble those of some small-scale agriculturalists today. A multi-millennial trajectory of variable population growth ended during the early 1300s CE and by the late 1400s population levels in the region declined by about one-half. Here we show, through a meta-analysis of sub-regional archaeological studies, the spatial distribution, intensity, and variation in social and environmental conditions throughout the region prior to depopulation. We also find that as these conditions, identified as human insecurities by the UN Development Programme, worsened, the speed of depopulation increased. Although these conditions have been documented within some sub-regions, the aggregate weight and distribution of these insecurities throughout the Southwest/Northwest region were previously unrecognized. Population decline was not the result of a single disturbance, such as drought, to the regional system; it was a spatially patterned, multi-generational decline in human security. Results support the UN’s emphasis on increasing human security as a pathway toward sustainable development and lessening forced migration. Through these results and the approach demonstrated here, we aim to stimulate collaborations between archaeologists and others in service of modern sustainability planning.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 19:43:42 EDT
       
  • The role of incentive-based instruments and social equity in conservation
           conflict interventions

    • Authors: Rakotonarivo, S. O; Bell, A. Reid, Abernethy, K, Minderman, J, Duthie, A. Bradley, Redpath, S, Keane, A, Travers, H, Bourgeois, S, Moukagni, L, Cusack, J. J, Jones, I. L, Pozo, R. A, Bunnefeld, N.
      Abstract: Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and other human activities are multifaceted. Understanding farmer preferences for various conflict mitigation strategies is therefore critical. We developed a novel interactive game around farmer land management decisions across 18 villages in Gabon to examine responses to three elephant conflict mitigation options: use of elephant deterrent methods, flat-rate subsidy, and agglomeration payments rewarding coordinated action for setting land aside for elephants. We found that all three policies significantly reduced participants’ inclinations to engage in lethal control. Use of deterrents and agglomeration payments were also more likely to reduce decisions to kill elephants in situations where levels of social equity were higher. Only the two monetary incentives increased farmers’ predisposition to provide habitats for elephants, suggesting that incentive-based instruments were conducive to pro-conservation behavior; different subsidy levels did not affect responses. Likewise, neither participants’ socioeconomic characteristics nor their real-life experiences of crop damage by elephants affected game decisions. Killing behavior in the games was 64% lower in villages influenced by protected areas than in villages surrounded by logging concessions, highlighting the need to address conservation conflicts beyond protected areas. Our study shows the importance of addressing underlying social conflicts, specifically equity attitudes, prior to, or alongside addressing material losses.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 18:25:32 EDT
       
  • Using dialogue to contextualize culture, ecosystem services, and cultural
           ecosystem services

    • Authors: Allen, K. E; Castellano, C, Pessagno, S.
      Abstract: We propose an alternative methodology for engaging with multifaceted cultural ecosystem services (CES) in the Global South. We explore the use of dialogue as a tool for understanding CES in situ, while developing shared action steps toward CES conservation among stakeholders. We held six dialogue workshops in the rural Central Pacific region of Costa Rica that were designed to foster understanding of shared community values for ecosystem services and associated conservation challenges. In two of the workshops, we employed model-based reasoning through which we used maps as boundary negotiating objects to nurture dialogue on CES values, observations, and concerns. In four of the workshops, we used photovoice to elicit reflection and dialogue on CES values and changes in ecosystem services in the region. Observations and surveys of workshop participants revealed that the process engendered reflection on ecosystem service values, and community support and enthusiasm for future communal efforts. These workshops demonstrated how dialogue can elucidate local values for CES, while strengthening support across stakeholders for improved conservation actions. We propose that this methodology is applicable in various contexts for improved CES assessment across diverse stakeholders.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 14:23:08 EDT
       
  • Historical Indigenous Land-Use Explains Plant Functional Trait Diversity

    • Authors: Armstrong, C; Miller, J. E. D, McAlvay, A. C, Ritchie, P, Lepofsky, D.
      Abstract: Human land-use legacies have long-term effects on plant community composition and ecosystem function. While ancient and historical land use is known to affect biodiversity patterns, it is unknown whether such legacies affect other plant community properties such as the diversity of functional traits. Functional traits are a critical tool for understanding ecological communities because they give insights into community assembly processes as well as potential species interactions and other ecosystem functions. Here, we present the first systematic study evaluating how plant functional trait distributions and functional diversity are affected by ancient and historical Indigenous forest management in the Pacific Northwest. We compare forest garden ecosystems - managed perennial fruit and nut communities associated exclusively with archaeological village sites - with surrounding periphery conifer forests. We find that forest gardens have substantially greater plant and functional trait diversity than periphery forests even more than 150 years after management ceased. Forests managed by Indigenous peoples in the past now provide diverse resources and habitat for animals and other pollinators and are more rich than naturally forested ecosystems. Although ecological studies rarely incorporate Indigenous land-use legacies, the positive effects of Indigenous land use on contemporary functional and taxonomic diversity that we observe provide some of the strongest evidence yet that Indigenous management practices are tied to ecosystem health and resilience.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 08:26:03 EDT
       
  • Filmmaking as a source of enhanced knowledge and transformation in
           conflicts over small-scale fisheries: the case of Colombia

    • Authors: Rodriguez-Labajos, B; Saavedra-D?az, L. M, Botto-Barrios, D.
      Abstract: Small-scale fisheries (SSF) harvesting on coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems sustain the livelihood of hundreds of millions around the world. In Colombia, as in many other developing countries, SSF suffer from multiple pressures and conflicts. Yet the research on SSF conflicts is scarce and the typology of these conflicts is poorly systematized and understood. Existing studies lack the necessary interdisciplinary integration to address social-ecological processes involved in SSF. Moreover, scientific research requires building trust with fishers in order to gain an accurate picture of relevant intra-community processes and values. In face of this situation, we compiled information from nonfiction films about fishing conflicts, with the double aim of underpinning scientific knowledge on conflicts over SSF and analyzing the use of the films to promote transformations in these conflicts. Our empirical evidence relies on the organization of an ad hoc docu-conference where filmmakers, fishers, and the general public engaged in a meaningful discussion on the issues affecting SSF communities in Colombia. Films represent the range of conflicts over SSF in 31 locations of 16 Colombian departments and provide data about types of actors involved in the conflicts, types of conflicts and their causes, and possible courses of action. We gained insights into fishing conflicts as processes of change that involve drivers and impacts with common patterns in both inland waters, and marine and coastal environments but evolve in diverging responses or calls for action. Beyond the variables emerging in the films, audiovisual content supports stakeholders in their pursuit of knowledge sharing, political mobilization, and social functioning. Films about SSF conflicts expand knowledge and relatedness that propel intellectual processes tending to exacerbate the conflict and/ or stimulate sense of place, enhance governance, and give a boost to alternatives. Research participants (filmmakers, fishers, and the public) discussed advantages and limitations of using films to tackle the SSF crisis in Colombia. We demonstrate the value of films in social-ecological research and provide evidence of how they can support and bring about transformative change.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Apr 2021 09:54:20 EDT
       
  • Participatory assessment of sustainability and resilience of three
           specialized farming systems

    • Authors: Paas, W; Coopmans, I, Severini, S, Van Ittersum, M. K, Meuwissen, M. P. M, Reidsma, P.
      Abstract: There is a need for participatory methods that simultaneously assess agricultural sustainability and resilience at farming system level, as resilience is needed to deal with shocks and stresses on the pathways to more sustainable systems. We present the Framework of Participatory Impact Assessment for Sustainable and Resilient FARMing systems (FoPIA-SURE-Farm). FoPIA-SURE-Farm investigates farming system functioning, dynamics of main indicators, and specifies resilience for different resilience capacities, i.e., robustness, adaptability, and transformability. Three case studies with specialized farming systems serve as an example for the used methodology: starch potato production in Veenkoloni'n, The Netherlands; dairy production in Flanders, Belgium; and hazelnut production in Lazio, Italy. In all three farming systems, functions that related to food production, economic viability, and maintaining natural resources were perceived as most important. Perceived overall performance of system functions suggest moderate sustainability of the studied farming systems. In the studied systems, robustness was perceived to be stronger than adaptability and transformability. This indicates that finding pathways to higher sustainability, which requires adaptability and transformability, will be a challenging process. General characteristics of farming systems that supposedly convey general resilience, the so-called resilience attributes, were indeed perceived to contribute positively to resilience. Profitability, having production coupled with local and natural resources, heterogeneity of farm types, social self-organization, and infrastructure for innovation were assessed as being important resilience attributes. The relative importance of some resilience attributes in the studied systems differed from case to case, e.g., heterogeneity of farm types. This indicates that the local context in general, and stakeholder perspectives in particular, are important when evaluating general resilience and policy options based on resilience attributes. Overall, FoPIA-SURE-Farm results seem a good starting point for raising awareness, further assessments, and eventually for developing a shared vision and action plan for improving sustainability and resilience of farming systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 12:25:16 EDT
       
  • Measures against the abandonment of common property summer pastures:
           experimental evidence from joint appropriation–provision games

    • Authors: Baur, I; Nax, H. H.
      Abstract: Common property summer pastures constitute longstanding evidence that the tragedy of the commons can be prevented through self-organization. As a byproduct of their sustainable governance, high nature value farming systems with well-integrated patchy landscapes have existed for centuries. These common pool resources—which have historically needed protection from overexploitation—today suffer from underutilization, and their continued use is often contingent on government subsidies. The current study sought to identify which user, institutional, and resource attributes contribute to the sustainable use of high nature value summer pastures. Taking as our point of departure a recent field study of Swiss Alpine grazing lands, we set out to experimentally identify the most promising mechanisms for successful resource management in this context. To do so, we implement a controlled experiment that closely mirrors our field observations ("field-in-the-lab"), and parametrize our experiment to replicate field data. Our focus is on the institutional linkage of provision and appropriation. Our treatments varied across a range of parameters, ceteris paribus, to isolate which governance elements are most relevant; we did so to identify which policy options and scenarios should be prioritized in practical policy evaluations. It turns out that underappropriation appears to be the main management challenge for Swiss common property pastures today. Our analytical results suggest that current governance institutions—and, more specifically, how they link appropriation to provision requirements—might need to be overhauled. The most promising avenues for doing so appear to be increased provision requirements, incentivized overprovision, and appropriation subsidies. Thus, our study highlights promising institutional adaptations at various governance levels that potentially counteract the decreasing use of high nature value common property pastures in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 12:02:48 EDT
       
  • Assessing impacts of social-ecological diversity on resilience in a
           wetland coupled human and natural system

    • Authors: Van Schmidt, N. D; Oviedo, J. L, Hruska, T, Huntsinger, L, Kovach, T. J, Kilpatrick, A, Miller, N. L, Beissinger, S. R.
      Abstract: Theory posits that resilience of ecosystems increases when there is a diversity of agents (e.g., species) and linkages between them. If ecosystems are conceptualized as components of coupled human and natural systems, then a corollary would be that novel types of human-induced diversity may also foster resilience. We explored this hypothesis by studying how socially created diversity mediated the impact of a historically severe drought on a network of wetlands in the foothills of the California Sierra Nevada containing a metapopulation of the threatened California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). We examined how (1) diversity in motivations for land ownership affected use of irrigation water and response to drought; (2) differences in natural and irrigated water sources affected wetland drying in response to drought; and (3) these processes affected the persistence of rails and the transmission risk of West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging infectious disease that threatens people and rails. Wetlands were mostly fed by inefficiencies and leaks from the irrigation system. Wetlands with both natural and irrigated water sources were larger, wetter, and likelier to persist through drought because these two sources showed response diversity by drying at different times. Wetlands with diverse water sources also provided the best habitat for the California Black Rail, and irrigation appeared responsible for its persistence through the drought. Irrigation increased WNV transmission risk by increasing the quantity, but not the quality, of wetland habitats for mosquitoes. The impacts of social diversity were more ambiguous, with redundancy prevalent. However, profit-motivated landowners provided wetlands more irrigation during nondrought conditions, whereas other landowner types were more likely to continue providing irrigation during drought. Our results highlight that conservation in social-ecological systems requires assessing not only the value of historic ecological diversity, but also how novel types of socially induced diversity may benefit ecosystems.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 11:57:11 EDT
       
  • Harnessing the potential of vulnerability assessments for managing
           social-ecological systems

    • Authors: Thiault, L; Jupiter, S. D, Johnson, J. E, Cinner, J. E, Jarvis, R. M, Heron, S. F, Maina, J. M, Marshall, N. A, Marshall, P. A, Claudet, J.
      Abstract: The concept of vulnerability has broadened from initial applications in the fields of risk and hazards, human ecology and resilience to include the management of social-ecological systems (SES). We review how this concept has been operationalized in various contexts and identify opportunities and challenges to apply vulnerability assessments to SES management in the face of social, environmental, and climatic changes. We synthesize these lessons into a 12-step framework to help practitioners scope, design, operationalize, and implement vulnerability assessments that can effectively minimize exposure, reduce sensitivity, and enhance adaptive capacity. We describe the rationale, assumptions, and implications that underlie each step and highlight future directions that are critically needed to further enable vulnerability assessments to address real-world sustainability challenges. These include applying biocultural approaches, building knowledge about SES vulnerability to nonclimate stressors, and anticipating potential trade-offs and maladaptation. The framework presented provides a roadmap for the development of integrated vulnerability assessments that are robust, context-specific, and relevant to the management of SES.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 11:48:47 EDT
       
  • The social dynamics of basins of attraction

    • Authors: Van der Leeuw, S; Folke, C.
      Abstract: In this paper we conceptualize transformations as societal shifts from one basin of attraction to another. Such shifts occur when a society’s information processing system is no longer fit to deal with the dynamics with which the society is involved. To understand when this might be the case, we conceive of a dynamic interaction between two domains, the cognitive one (containing a society’s knowledge, values, language, customs, technology etc. that structure information processing) and the environmental one (consisting of the dynamics of the environment within which a society is embedded), which interact through resonance. The two domains are interdependent and coevolve to shape both the information-processing of a society (its culture) and the environment with which it interacts. Crucial in this dynamic is the process of category formation. We used a model that distinguishes between “closed” and “open” categories, which allows us to dynamically relate, but distinguish, a certainty sphere (closed categories dominate), a possibility sphere (open categories dominate), and a problem sphere (absence of categories). Narratives anchor societies’ values and dynamics and shape the wider culture of society, making phenomena comprehensible. To foster cultural transitions, narratives need to be modified. To do so, one has to search for narratives in which open categories dominate, and then insert new elements in them. This requires an analysis of the narratives to determine their degree of openness. A tentative approach to such an analysis is offered.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Mar 2021 09:46:06 EDT
       
  • Transition

    • Authors: Janssen, M. A; Allen, C. R, Gunderson, L.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Mar 2021 12:14:51 EDT
       
  • Demographic and psychographic drivers of public acceptance of novel
           invasive pest control technologies

    • Authors: Eppink, F; Walsh, P. J, MacDonald, E.
      Abstract: Invasive mammals are a primary threat to New Zealand’s endemic species. In remote areas, aerial delivery of poison is the preferred method of pest management, although it faces some public backlash. Novel pest control technologies are currently being investigated as alternatives but may face similar concerns. To investigate potential social and demographic determinants of public perceptions of new methods for pest control, we conducted a national choice experiment, focused on several novel technologies: gene drives, Trojan females, and species-specific poisons. We found that preferences strongly depend on the type of technology, with Trojan female technology strictly preferred to the other two. Although several characteristics affected preferences in predictable ways—education, trust in science, and liberal political leaning increased acceptance—the same did not hold with preferences for aerial delivery. Our results are useful for targeting future engagement campaigns and leveraging existing efforts.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Mar 2021 11:58:24 EDT
       
  • Spiritual values shape taxonomic diversity, vegetation composition, and
           conservation status in woodlands of the Northern Zagros, Iran

    • Authors: Shakeri, Z; Mohammadi-Samani, K, Bergmeier, E, Plieninger, T.
      Abstract: Sacred groves are under-researched in Muslim countries so that their overall contribution to biodiversity conservation remains unknown. We studied 22 sacred groves and 45 surrounding woodlands in Northern Zagros, Iran, to compare taxonomic diversity, vegetation composition, and the conservation status of plant species. Sacred groves had higher taxonomic diversity and a more valuable species pool by sheltering numerous endangered plant species. Multivariate analysis indicated a substantial difference in the vegetation composition of sacred groves and surrounding woodlands. Traditional deliberate protection (because of religious values) plus some environmental variables were the main drivers of the distinct vegetation composition of sacred groves. Sacred groves are the only remains of old-growth forests in the border regions of Iran and Iraq and they are important refuges of biocultural diversity. To better link the conservation of nature and culture, we recommend encouraging local people to preserve spiritual values, myths, and taboos around sacred groves.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Mar 2021 13:20:27 EDT
       
  • What does success look like' An indicative rubric to assess and guide
           the performance of marine participatory processes

    • Authors: Le Heron, E; Allen, W, Le Heron, R, Logie, M, Glavovic, B, Greenaway, A, Hikuroa, D, Davies, K. K, Blackett, P.
      Abstract: Multistakeholder participatory processes are essential decision-making elements in contemporary contested marine spaces. Such processes have long time horizons, diverse interests, and complex objectives. Their complex and evolving nature make it difficult for participatory process proponents and participants to adequately plan their processes and to assess performance quality. We position the findings of this paper in the context of participation as place-based, long-term, emergent, and complex processes in Aotearoa New Zealand. We pose the question “what does success look like'” in marine participatory processes. We provide an indicative answer in the form of a rubric, which outlines key components for navigating participatory processes through ongoing formative evaluation. The relationship between criteria and phases of participatory processes is stressed as “success” challenges, and achievements are unlikely to be stable from phase to phase. The notion of “whose success” is critically reflected upon, as the politics and power of success discourses shape what might be considered success in any given context, marine space, or participatory process. We argue that self-defined, ongoing learning evaluation, where criteria are debated and created by participatory process users, contributes to an empowering notion of success. Success as seen in this way is not an externally imposed set of standards to achieve but cocreated by those involved to best meet their needs. In this way, metaphors of success can be recognized, negotiated, circulated, and institutionalized. The authors’ journey to developing the rubric helps unpack the key components of participatory processes and outlines its relationship to evaluation literature. Finally, we touch on the tension involved in creating a rubric for both practice and as a high-level discursive artifact.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Mar 2021 11:14:39 EDT
       
  • What do people value in urban green' Linking characteristics of urban
           green spaces to users’ perceptions of nature benefits, disturbances,
           and disservices

    • Authors: Palliwoda, J; Priess, J. A.
      Abstract: Now, and in the future, the majority of the world’s population is and will be living in cities. Thus, efficient urban green spaces (UGS), such as urban parks providing ecosystem services, are essential for human well-being. Besides their location, the characteristics of UGS, for example, size, availability of facilities (such as sports infrastructure or benches), and green characteristics, can determine the benefits derived or disturbances and disservices perceived by visitors. Knowing which components of UGS contribute to which benefits can help to meet the various demands of urban dwellers.The objective of this research is to present positive and negative aspects (benefits and disturbances/disservices, respectively) of UGS that people perceive and the difference in these perceptions across age groups and UGS. We surveyed more than 1700 users of 18 urban parks and 18 brownfields in Leipzig, Germany. Benefits related to natural elements and landscape aesthetics were most important especially for older age groups. Younger people placed more importance on size, availability, and location as well as sports facilities. The most frequently mentioned disturbance/disservice in urban parks was litter followed by the undesirable activities of other users. Tree cover, sports facilities, seating possibilities, and inhabitant density in the neighborhood influenced the perception of parks providing regulating services (noise mediation and shade provision) and social and cultural interactions. Brownfields were often appreciated as additional UGS close to people’s homes and for their wilderness aspects. Implementing specific facilities and varying tree cover can influence perceived benefits from UGS. Adapted management measures can therefore increase multiple benefits and minimize trade-offs between UGS users and uses, for example, the integration of wild areas into UGS including low or near-natural management areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Mar 2021 13:13:32 EDT
       
  • Do fodder import and credit loans lead to climate resiliency in the
           pastoral social-ecological system of Inner Mongolia'

    • Authors: Li, Y; Li, W.
      Abstract: Mainstream policies encourage pastoralists to apply credit loans and input exogenous fodder to alleviate the stress caused by climatic variability and uncertainty. Such external inputs induce new driving forces to the coupled pastoral social-ecological system (SES), but their long-term impacts are not fully understood. Taking Sonid Left Banner of Inner Mongolia as a case study area, we applied an agent-based model and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the impacts of fodder import and credit loans on the resilience of pastoral SES in terms of pastoralist household livelihood, livestock production, and rangeland health. The results showed that the strategy of importing fodder only in natural disaster years could make the pastoral SES more resilient to climatic variability, while frequent importing of fodder in climatically normal years would increase the vulnerability of the pastoral SES. Credit loans could enhance the resilience of the pastoral SES in general if fodder is not imported or only imported in disaster years, but could reduce the resilience if fodder is imported frequently. Our findings revealed several differences with previous research on fodder input and credit loan effects, indicating that relevant policies should be holistically evaluated from the perspective of social-ecological systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Mar 2021 12:38:24 EDT
       
 
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