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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 140 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 241)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Ecology and Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 52  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1708-3087
Published by Resilience Alliance Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Accounting for Yolŋu ranger work in the Dhimurru Indigenous
           Protected Area, Australia

    • Authors: Ayre, M. L; Yunupingu, D, Wearne, J, O'Dwyer, C, Vernes, T, Marika, M.
      Abstract: Over the past decade, there has been increased international interest in understanding and recognizing the contribution of Indigenous natural and cultural resource management, including Indigenous ranger work, to the sustainable management of social-ecological systems. In Australia, Indigenous rangers are responsible for managing land and seas that represent approximately 44% of the national protected area estate. Governments and other coinvestors seek to evaluate this ranger work and its contribution to biodiversity conservation and other public goods. However, current monitoring and evaluation approaches are based in conceptions of value and benefits and do not capture the full range of contributions and meanings associated with this work. We present an empirical case study from northern Australia in which we explore how to properly account for the full complexity and richness of Indigenous ranger work. We demonstrate that the work of being an Indigenous ranger at a Yolŋu (Indigenous people of Northeast Arnhem Land) land and sea management organization, (the Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation or Dhimurru), can be understood as three sets of knowledge practices: the practices of “knowing and being known by Yolŋu country;” the practices of “mobilizing the Dhimurru Vision Statement;” and, the practices of “being ralpa” (Ralpa is a Yolŋu concept that means being willing to work and prepared to take on leadership responsibilities.) We contend that these knowledge practices represent criteria for judging the effectiveness of Yolŋu ranger work. The Dhimurru knowledge community of senior Yolŋu landowners and their collaborators, judge the effectiveness of Yolŋu ranger work based on whether Yolŋu rangers demonstrate these practices. By integrating such criteria into Dhimurru’s formal monitoring and evaluation processes endorsed by its government funding partners, Dhimurru can more effectively and fully demonstrate the contribution of Yolŋu rangers to the Yolŋu vision for ecologically and culturally sustainable management of the Dhimurru Indigenous Protected Area in the Northern Territory as part of Australia’s national conservation estate.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Mar 2021 12:02:46 EST
       
  • Elk conflict with beef and dairy producers poses wildlife management
           challenges in northern California

    • Authors: Hanbury-Brown, A. R; Stackhouse, J. W, Macaulay, L. T.
      Abstract: Large terrestrial wildlife negatively impacts agricultural livelihoods on all continents except Antarctica. There is growing recognition of the need to reconcile these impacts to achieve socially and ecologically sustainable wildlife conservation agendas. Elk populations in northern California are estimated to have doubled in the past 35 years, marking a conservation success, but also increasing forage loss and damage to infrastructure on private land. Wildlife managers are pursuing the goal of increasing elk numbers on public lands, but elk are preferentially utilizing private pasture and rangeland, driving conflict with beef and dairy producers. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews with private landowners, primarily beef and dairy producers, in northern California to understand their experiences and reactions to elk conflict and state wildlife management. Landowners report that elk density on private rangeland has steadily increased in recent years and poses a threat to their businesses due to loss of forage, damage to fences, and the corresponding liability risk posed by breached fences and errant cattle. The absence of crop and forage loss compensation, difficulty obtaining depredation permits, and low harvest quotas for recreational hunting limit landowner mitigation options and foster resentment toward the state wildlife agency. Most landowners believe that current elk management policies, including restricted hunting opportunities, do not adequately address elk conflict, creating novel challenges for wildlife officials tasked with reconciling elk restoration goals with a variety of stakeholders experiencing economic losses and threats to rural livelihoods. We discuss these issues in the context of common wildlife management challenges, such as building social capital, defining tolerable impacts, and building institutional capacity for alternative solutions within rigid regulatory frameworks. We draw upon environmental economics and common-pool resource theory to suggest that a rethinking of elk management based on local conditions, facilitating damage compensation mechanisms while reducing transaction costs, and increasing participation of local stakeholders in decision making might improve outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Mar 2021 11:01:20 EST
       
  • Systematic learning in water governance: insights from five local adaptive
           management projects for water quality innovation

    • Authors: Kochsk?mper, E; Koontz, T. M, Newig, J.
      Abstract: Adaptive management has been proliferating since the 1970s as a policy approach for dealing with uncertainty in environmental governance through learning. Learning takes place through a cyclical approach of experimentation and (possible) adjustment. However, few empirical studies exist that cover full iterations of adaptive management cycles. We report on five adaptive management projects on water quality enhancement, of which four led to innovations in the small-scale management of waterways in northern Germany. We trace processes as well as outcomes, to identify factors affecting learning, environmental improvement, and the successful delivery of a project throughout a management cycle. Our findings point to a key difference between two kinds of uncertainty in the studied processes: ecological uncertainty (whether and how interventions will be effective in improving water quality) and what we term “social uncertainty” (how stakeholders will respond to interventions). We find that those managers performed better who addressed both kinds of uncertainty. Factors for dealing with social uncertainties were usually rather different than the ones linked to knowledge gain for the results in the rivers, and their acknowledgment was decisive for successful project delivery. On a conceptual level, our findings suggest that the model of a dual feedback cycle, including both types of uncertainties, allows for more clear-cut conceptual differentiation and empirical outcome measurement of adaptive management processes.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Mar 2021 09:49:24 EST
       
  • Global synthesis reveals that ecosystem degradation poses the primary
           threat to the world's medicinal animals

    • Authors: Short, M. L; Darimont, C. T.
      Abstract: Although overexploitation threatens some high-profile medicinal animals, little is known about global patterns in the use of—and threats to—medicinal animals. We examined data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List and a literature survey to identify a diverse catalog of medicinal animals (n = 1660). Most known species (~77%) are chordates in terrestrial habitats (~72%). Intensity of use generally maps to biodiverse regions with low human development. Most (~63%) species are decreasing, and primary threats relate to habitat loss and modification. Many (~62%) species have multiple uses, which is associated with higher endangerment and threats from exploitation than species used solely for medicine. Spiritual use medicinal species have a higher proportion of “at-risk” species (~19%) than those used otherwise (~6%), potentially owing to associations among rarity, perceived efficacy, and demand. These findings can inform spatially and taxonomically explicit biocultural strategies to safeguard not only biodiversity but also important human–animal relationships.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Mar 2021 09:16:01 EST
       
  • Management of high nature value farmland in the Republic of Ireland: 25
           years evolving toward locally adapted results-orientated solutions and
           payments

    • Authors: Moran, J; Byrne, D, Carlier, J, Dunford, B, Finn, J. A, ? hUallach?in, D, Sullivan, C. A.
      Abstract: The effective conservation of high nature value farmland (HNV) will be crucial for the conservation of European and Irish biodiversity, and to meet the growing demand for a wide range of private and public goods and services from farmland. Here, we describe the evolution of policy and management of HNV farmland in the Republic of Ireland over the last 25 years and describe the emerging locally adapted, results-based payment approach that is valorizing a broad range of ecosystem services from these areas, which helps to underpin the future social, ecological, and financial viability of HNV farmland. HNV farmland in the Republic of Ireland covers approximately 33% of the agricultural land, and 50% of these areas coincide with Natura 2000 land. A broad diversity of landscape types dominated by seminatural vegetation from upland areas to lowland areas is a key challenge when designing policy support for HNV farmland areas. To date, action-based agri-environment schemes have struggled to adapt to these conditions, and to provide sufficient incentive and flexibility to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. In response, several projects and programs have implemented results-based payments, which we illustrate using three case studies from the Burren Programme, the Results Based Agri-environment Pilot Scheme (RBAPS), and European Innovation Partnership Operational Groups: The Hen Harrier and Pearl Mussel Projects. We highlight choices in the design and implementation of these case studies that aimed to better achieve the environmental objectives. We conclude with general lessons from the Irish experience with results-based approaches, and how they may be scaled up for wider implementation.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Mar 2021 09:50:57 EST
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services within the hybrid governance model:
           evaluating policy alignment and complementarity on California rangelands

    • Authors: Buckley Biggs, N; Hafner, J, Mashiri, F. E, Huntsinger, L, Lambin, E. F.
      Abstract: Governance of global natural resources is increasingly hybrid, with complementary public and private sector initiatives layered on landscapes to improve environmental outcomes. The challenge of polycentric land use governance is alignment of goals across diverse governance mechanisms when agricultural producers, public agencies, and corporations have distinct motivations. This case study of soil carbon governance on California rangelands explores a new payment for ecosystem services (PES) initiative led by the food and agriculture industry, called the Ecosystem Services Market Consortium (ESMC). Applying hybrid governance theory to agricultural lands, we conduct an ex-ante policy evaluation of potential policy impact based on (i) alignment between corporate sustainability goals and ranchers’ priorities and (ii) complementarity of the ESMC market with existing public and private policies enabling rangeland conservation. We found corporations developing the PES market to be motivated by carbon insetting, the objectives of which converge with ranchers’ goals of preserving soils. Each policy offers distinct benefits and challenges, with synergies around climate change adaptation and soil health. As a new policy tool, carbon markets like the ESMC are positioned to meet demand for soil health financing, support resilience and ranch productivity, and improve ranchers’ access to soil health data for adaptive management. Given carbon markets’ outcome-based payment structure, we highlight the importance of complementary governance mechanisms that mitigate upfront risk with financial and technical support during the transition period, including Farm Bill cost-share programs and private sector financing tools. This policy evaluation highlights the challenges and opportunities surrounding rangelands soil carbon governance, particularly the trade-offs that ranchers, corporations, and society at large must consider for landscape-scale conservation programs.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Feb 2021 12:23:58 EST
       
  • Understanding the drivers of subsistence poaching in the Great Limpopo
           Transfrontier Conservation Area: What matters for community wildlife
           conservation'

    • Authors: Ntuli, H; Sundstr?m, A, Sj?stedt, M, Muchapondwa, E, Jagers, S. C, Linell, A.
      Abstract: Although subsistence poaching is a large threat to wildlife conservation in Southern Africa, this behavior is seldom researched. Our understanding of individual and community level factors that drive such behavior is limited because of both lack of data and the literature’s predominant focus on commercial poaching. The main objective of this study is to contribute to this scanty literature by examining the factors that are correlated to subsistence poaching in the Great Limpopo, a transfrontier reserve spanning across Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. We use collected primary data from a sample of 2282 respondents and 85 villages that are part of the transfrontier conservation area. We focus on two features, reported subsistence poaching incidences in the community and the previous hunting of individuals, a behavior that is now forbidden in this area. We find through multivariate regression analysis that the likelihood for reported poaching incidences was higher in communities with a larger proportion of young men, plenty of wildlife, and experiencing wildlife conflict. In addition, our survey results illustrate that there is less poaching in communities where local people trust each other, respect institutions, perceive that the management of the park is good, and view wildlife as an asset. Some of these variables can be influenced by appropriate interventions; our findings suggest that capacity building in local institutions, use of community-based crime prevention approaches, training related to wildlife management, and public awareness campaigns could be used by policy makers to affect individuals’ perceptions and behaviors in this context.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Feb 2021 14:14:44 EST
       
  • Lessons learned from synthetic research projects based on the Ostrom
           Workshop frameworks

    • Authors: Cox, M; Gurney, G. G, Anderies, J. M, Coleman, E, Darling, E, Epstein, G, Frey, U. J, Nenadovic, M, Schlager, E, Villamayor-Tomas, S.
      Abstract: A generalized knowledge of social-ecological relationships is needed to address current environmental challenges. Broadly comparative and synthetic research is a key method for establishing this type of knowledge. To date, however, most work on social-ecological systems has applied idiosyncratic methods to specific systems. Several projects, each based on the frameworks developed by Elinor Ostrom and colleagues, stand out for their application of consistent methods across a broad range of cases. In this paper we compare seven of these projects and draw conclusions regarding their potential benefits and the challenges that scholars can expect in conducting this type of research. The two main challenges that we identified are (1) the collective-action dilemmas that collaborators face in producing and maintaining the social and technical infrastructure that is needed for such projects; and (2) balancing complexity and comparability in the structure of the databases used and the associated methods for characterizing complex social-ecological cases. We discuss approaches for meeting these challenges, and present a guiding checklist of questions for project design and implementation to provide guidance for future broadly comparative research.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Feb 2021 12:57:47 EST
       
  • Indigenous peoples and salmon stewardship: a critical relationship

    • Authors: Carothers, C; Black, J, Langdon, S. J, Donkersloot, R, Ringer, D, Coleman, J, Gavenus, E. R, Justin, W, Williams, M, Christiansen, F, Samuelson, J, Stevens, C, Woods, B, Clark, S, Clay, P. M, Mack, L, Raymond-Yakoubian, J, Sanders, A. Akall'eq, Stevens, B. L, Whiting, A.
      Abstract: Indigenous Peoples and salmon in the lands now called Alaska have been closely entwined for at least 12,000 years. Salmon continue to be central to the ways of life of Alaska Natives, contributing to physical, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, psychological, and emotional well-being. Salmon have also become important to Alaskan settlers. Our research and advisory team conducted a synthesis of what is known about these diverse human–salmon relationships, drawing on 865 published scientific studies; Indigenous knowledge; state, federal, and tribal data; archival materials; oral histories; and cross-cultural dialogs at working group meetings. Two important socio-cultural dimensions of salmon–people systems emerged from this synthesis as fundamentally important but largely invisible outside of Indigenous communities and the social science disciplines that work closely with these communities: (1) the deep relationships between Indigenous Peoples and salmon and (2) the pronounced inequities that threaten these relationships and stewardship systems. These deep relationships are evident in the spiritual, cultural, social, and economic centrality of salmon across time and cultures in Alaska. We describe Indigenous salmon stewardship systems for the Tlingit, Ahtna, and Central Yup'ik. The inequities in Alaska's salmon systems are evident in the criminalization and limitation of traditional fishing ways of life and the dramatic alienation of Indigenous fishing rights. The loss of fish camps and legal battles over traditional hunting and fishing rights through time has caused deep hardship and stress. Statewide, the commodification and marketization of commercial fishing rights has dispossessed Indigenous communities from their human and cultural rights to fishing ways of life; as a result, many rural and Indigenous youth struggle to gain access to fishing livelihoods, leaving many fishing communities in a precarious state. These deep relationships and relatively recent fractures have motivated a concerted effort by a group of committed Indigenous and western scholars to better understand the root causes and opportunities for redress, as well as to document the breadth of research that has already been conducted, in an effort to improve the visibility of these often-overlooked dimensions of our salmon systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Feb 2021 11:00:38 EST
       
  • Grasping darkness: the dark ecological network as a social-ecological
           framework to limit the impacts of light pollution on biodiversity

    • Authors: Chall?at, S; Barr?, K, Laforge, A, Lapostolle, D, Franchomme, M, Sirami, C, Le Viol, I, Milian, J, Kerbiriou, C.
      Abstract: Artificial light at night (ALAN) is nowadays recognized as a major anthropogenic pressure on the environment on a global scale and as such is called light pollution. Through its attractive or deterrent effects, and its disruption of the biological clock for many animal and plant taxa, ALAN is increasingly recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity, which ultimately alters the amount, the quality, and the connectivity of available habitats for taxa. Biodiversity conservation tools should, therefore, include ALAN spatial and temporal effects. The ecological network, i.e., the physical and functional combination of natural elements that promote habitat connectivity, provides a valuable framework for that purpose. Understood as a social-ecological framework, it offers the opportunity to take into account the multiple uses of nocturnal spaces and times, by humans and nonhumans alike. Here we present the concept of “dark ecological network.” We show this concept is able to grasp the effects of ALAN in terms of habitat disturbances and integrates temporal dimensions of ecological processes into biodiversity conservation planning. Moreover, it is also intended to trivialize the practices of darkness protection by turning them into the ordinary practices of land use planning. From an operational point of view, the challenge is to translate the levers for reducing ALAN-induced effects into a political method for its “territorialization.” To achieve this objective, we propose a course of action that consists of building an interdisciplinary repertoire of contextualized knowledge (e.g., impacts on wildlife, human/lightscape relationship, existing legal tools, etc.), in order to deduce from it a number of practical supports for the governance of the dark ecological network in response to societal and ecological issues.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Feb 2021 11:50:24 EST
       
  • Socioeconomic impacts of resource diversification from small-scale fishery
           development

    • Authors: Purcell, S. W; Tagliafico, A, Cullis, B. R, Gogel, B. J.
      Abstract: The predicted future shortfall in seafood production from tropical small-scale fisheries demands support to help diversify income streams and food production for coastal communities. Livelihood diversification can comprise the enhancement or addition of components to existing fisheries, yet the likely socioeconomic impacts are unclear. With a long history of nondeleterious introductions, the marine snail “trochus” (Rochia nilotica) was introduced to Samoa from 2003 to 2006 to offer a new artisanal fishery resource. Some 15 years later, we surveyed 303 fishers using structured questionnaires and mixed effects models to evaluate how the fishery has contributed to fisher well-being and what factors have influenced the socioeconomic impacts. Most fishers consumed part of their catch and both fisherwomen and fishermen shared harvests informally within communities, thereby bolstering resilience of the social-ecological systems at the community level. More than one-quarter of fishers sold part of their catch and the new earnings represented 17% of their gross income from all sources. Fishing incomes were gender equitable and influenced by fishing frequency and capital assets (boats). Most fishers were satisfied with income from the relatively new fishery and improved income was reported by a majority of fishers, especially those younger and less experienced. Additional money from the fishery was most often spent on food, church tithing, and school fees. This relatively new fishery fostered positive well-being outcomes that were gender inclusive. Extrapolations of annual incomes across the fishery reveal a rapid return on investment from foreign-aid funded development. The study reveals that certain coastal artisanal fisheries can be gender equitable and that benefits are likely underestimated because of subsistence consumption and informal distribution networks. Diversifying the marine resources accessible to small-scale fishers offers a promising strategy to support coastal livelihoods and strengthen resilience of social-ecological systems.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Feb 2021 09:04:30 EST
       
  • Beyond social-ecological traps: fostering transformations towards
           sustainability

    • Authors: Eriksson, H; Blythe, J. L, ?sterblom, H, Olsson, P.
      Abstract: This Special Feature is motivated by the rigorous, and growing, theoretical and empirical body of literature on social-ecological traps. Building on the foundational literature, which describes the context in many of the places where we work, we now look forward and ask how we can better understand and enable the breaking and escaping of social-ecological traps. In this Special Feature we focus on this frontier in the field and use the trap metaphor as a unifying framework for collating empirically derived insights on overcoming challenges across diverse geographies, sectors, and social-ecological contexts. We requested contributions to this feature that, as well as possible under each context, explore tangible pathways for disrupting social-ecological traps. Thematic relevance and clear contribution to social-ecological scholarship was emphasized in the invited contributions, but authors were not constrained by methodological approach, context, geographical location, or sector. Our ambition with this editorial is to synthesize the novel insights these papers highlight and situate their contributions within the relevant literature.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Feb 2021 13:16:41 EST
       
  • Nature’s contributions to people: coproducing quality of life from
           multifunctional landscapes

    • Authors: Bruley, E; Locatelli, B, Lavorel, S.
      Abstract: Nature’s contributions to human well-being within social-ecological systems have been widely studied using multiple conceptual frameworks, yet there is a growing need to better articulate how both humans and nature contribute to quality of life. We present an operationalization of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) conceptual framework with an in-depth analysis of the coproduction of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) in a mountain social-ecological system. Based on a participatory process questioning stakeholders on nature’s contributions to their quality of life, we propose an analysis of NCP coproduction mechanisms in a multifunctional landscape. We refine the consideration of NCP coproduction in the IPBES framework by distinguishing three coproduction types at different steps of the benefits flow from ecosystems to quality of life: (1) ecosystem management; (2) mobilization, harvesting, and physical access; and (3) appropriation, social access, and appreciation. For each of these coproduction types, we describe the types of natural and human-derived capital involved. This approach highlights: nature’s key contributions to people as perceived by participants; landscape multifunctionality and interlinkages among NCP induced by their simultaneous coproduction to improve quality of life; and a gradient of natural and human-derived capital among coproduction types and among material, nonmaterial, and regulating NCP. This approach documents how NCP coproduction creates social-ecological trade-offs and synergies among multiple NCP, as well as collaborations and conflicts among beneficiaries at the landscape level. We conclude that the analysis of NCP coproduction can provide new opportunities for ecosystem services research by tackling the involvement of both humans and nature in quality of life objectives.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Feb 2021 15:12:05 EST
       
  • Meeting places and social capital supporting rural landscape stewardship:
           A Pan-European horizon scanning

    • Authors: Angelstam, P; Fedoriak, M, Cruz, F, Mu?oz-Rojas, J, Yamelynets, T, Manton, M, Washbourne, C, Dobrynin, D, Izakovičova, Z, Jansson, N, Jaroszewicz, B, Kanka, R, Kavtarishvili, M, Kopperoinen, L, Lazdinis, M, Metzger, M. J, ?z?t, D, Pavloska Gjorgjieska, D, Sijtsma, F. J, Stryamets, N, Tolunay, A, Turkoglu, T, Van der Moolen, B, Zagidullina, A, Zhuk, A.
      Abstract: Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approaches requires maintenance of several forms of social interactions and capitals. Focusing on Pan-European regions with different environmental histories and cultures, we estimate the state and trends of two groups of factors underpinning rural landscape stewardship, namely, (1) traditional rural landscape and novel face-to-face as well as virtual fora for social interaction, and (2) bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital. We applied horizon scanning to 16 local landscapes located in 18 countries, representing Pan-European social-ecological and cultural gradients. The resulting narratives, and rapid appraisal knowledge, were used to estimate portfolios of different fora for social interactions and forms of social capital supporting landscape stewardship. The portfolios of fora for social interactions were linked to societal cultures across the European continent: “self-expression and secular-rational values” in the northwest, “Catholic” in the south, and “survival and traditional authority values” in the East. This was explained by the role of traditional secular and religious local meeting places. Virtual internet-based fora were most widespread. Bonding social capitals were the strongest across the case study landscapes, and linking social capitals were the weakest. This applied to all three groups of fora. Pan-European social-ecological contexts can be divided into distinct clusters with respect to the portfolios of different fora supporting landscape stewardship, which draw mostly on bonding and bridging forms of social capital. This emphasizes the need for regionally and culturally adapted approaches to landscape stewardship, which are underpinned by evidence-based knowledge about how to sustain green infrastructures based on both forest naturalness and cultural landscape values. Sharing knowledge from comparative studies can strengthen linking social capital.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Feb 2021 10:34:32 EST
       
  • Toward an urgent yet deliberate conservation strategy: sustaining
           social-ecological systems in rangelands of the Northern Great Plains,
           Montana

    • Authors: Epstein, K; Wood, D. J. A, Roemer, K, Currey, B, Duff, H, Gay, J. D, Goemann, H. M, Loewen, S, Milligan, M. C, Wendt, J. A. F, Brookshire, E, Maxwell, B. D, McNew, L, McWethy, D. B, Stoy, P. C, Haggerty, J. H.
      Abstract: Urgency and deliberateness are often at odds when executing conservation projects, especially as the scale and complexity of objectives increases. The pace of environmental degradation supports immediate and measurable action. However, best practices for adaptive governance and building resilient social-ecological systems call for more deliberate efforts and participatory processes, which can be slow. We explore conflicts between urgency and deliberateness and the potential for their reconciliation through a case study of the challenges of conserving native rangelands in North America’s Northern Great Plains, an ecoregion targeted for global conservation initiatives. This region is undergoing a significant social-ecological transition, which underscores a need to rethink conservation strategies in light of the social-ecological system dynamics and potential future trajectories. Based on a structured narrative literature review process and iterative engagement with key regional stakeholders, we identify three interrelated factors critical to the system’s future outcomes that illustrate system complexity as well as trade-offs between urgent and deliberate action and unilateral and multilateral approaches to conservation: (1) influences of land management on biodiversity, (2) economic restructuring and shifting land use priorities, and (3) changing climate and disturbance regimes. We identify key gaps in the literature for each factor and across the factors—an effort that informs our call for research and practice agendas that address uncertainty and complexity at regional scales through more inclusive and future-oriented approaches.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Feb 2021 06:48:43 EST
       
  • Combining biophysical optimization with economic preference analysis for
           agricultural land-use allocation

    • Authors: Kaim, A; Bartkowski, B, Lienhoop, N, Schr?ter-Schlaack, C, Volk, M, Strauch, M.
      Abstract: Agricultural production provides food, feed, and renewable energy, generates economic profits, and contributes to social welfare in many ways. However, intensive farming is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity. Although current market forces and regulations such as the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy, seem to foster agricultural intensification, a socially and ecologically optimal land-use strategy should seek to reconcile agricultural production with biodiversity conservation. Research on spatial land-use allocation lacks studies that consider both aspects simultaneously. Therefore, we developed a method that finds land-use strategies with a maximum contribution to social welfare, taking into account the landscape’s biophysical potential. We applied a multiobjective optimization algorithm that identified landscape configurations that maximize agricultural production and biodiversity based on their contribution to social welfare. Social welfare was approximated by the profit contribution of agricultural production and society’s willingness to pay for biodiversity. The algorithm simultaneously evaluated the biophysical outcomes of different land uses using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and a biodiversity model. The method was applied to an agricultural landscape in central Germany. The results show that, in this area, overall social welfare can be increased compared to the status quo if both social benefits from biodiversity and economic profits from agricultural production are considered in land-use allocation. Further, the resulting optimal solutions can create win-win situations between the two, usually conflicting, objectives. The integration of preference information into the biophysical optimization allows reducing the usually large set of Pareto-optimal solutions and thus facilitates further stakeholder-based analyses. Our explorative study provides an example of how socioeconomic data and biophysical models can be combined to support decision making and the development of land-use policies.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Feb 2021 13:01:12 EST
       
  • Bogs, birds, and berries in Belarus: the governance and management
           dynamics of wetland restoration in a state-centric, top-down context

    • Authors: Dawson, L; Elbakidze, M, Schellens, M, Shkaruba, A, Angelstam, P. K.
      Abstract: Wetlands are complex social-ecological systems, which provide both important habitat for species, and multiple tangible and intangible benefits for people. Sustaining long-term benefits through restoration, conservation, and sustainable use is often linked to integrative and adaptive approaches to wetlands management. Such approaches assume democratic ideals, and require multilevel, multisector, and multiactor participation in governance and management arrangements. How then can functional wetlands be restored and sustainably managed as social-ecological systems in strongly state-centric, top-down governance contexts, such as in former Soviet republics' Using three case studies of wetland restoration and management for ecosystem functionality, biodiversity conservation, and human livelihoods, we employ a complex systems approach to analyze key governance and management dynamics underpinning initiatives toward sustainable wetlands in Belarus. We identified five core processes, namely, planning, garnering stakeholder support, obtaining key inputs (financial, human, material, technological, fixed capital), implementing core activities, and integrating learning and knowledge cycles. Key constraints concerned institutional hierarchies, onerous regulations, “negativism,” and financing difficulties. Strategies relating to perception management, risk mitigation, and learning are identified as key to enabling beneficial feedback loops relating to core processes. Although path-dependent societal dynamics of the Soviet era continue to influence wetland systems, combinations of social and ecological crises created windows of opportunity for active participation among nongovernmental actors. Major opportunities for enabling emergent management approaches included identification of confluences of interest amongst stakeholders, as well as the continued mutual integration of Belarus with the international community.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jan 2021 14:25:56 EST
       
  • Promises and limits of community-based organizations in bridging
           mismatches of scale: a case study on collaborative governance on federal
           lands

    • Authors: Lee, J; Baggio, J.
      Abstract: Federal land managers in the United States are tasked with managing a vast array of resources for current and future generations. However, coordinating action among multiple stakeholders across diverse landscapes is challenging given that the organizations and institutions set up to govern federal lands are often unable to overcome scale-related challenges. Unconventional oil and gas development is often a contentious issue on federal lands. Identifying how to bridge scale mismatches in this sector is critical for achieving management objectives. To gain a deeper understanding of the institutional landscape governing oil and gas, we took an in-depth case study approach and examined a case in the western United States where communities worked with federal land managers to cancel 25 existing oil and gas leases. We identified the most relevant scale mismatches pertaining to unconventional oil and gas development and assessed the role of community-based organizations in bridging scale mismatches to increase institutional fit. Our results demonstrate the importance of community-based organizations that can function as bridging organizations to engage a broad set of actors across scales. Our results also highlight the importance of creating shared visions across diverse stakeholder groups to foster collaboration. We conclude that overcoming scale mismatches requires a focus on shared values and the creation and maintenance of flexible governance networks.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jan 2021 10:24:12 EST
       
  • Soils, landscapes, and cultural concepts of favor and disfavor within
           complex adaptive systems and ResourceCultures: human-land interactions
           during the Holocene

    • Authors: James, B. R; Teuber, S, Miera, J. J, Downey, S, Henkner, J, Knopf, T, Correa, F. A, H?pfer, B, Scherer, S, Michaelis, A, Wessel, B. M, Gibbons, K. S, K?hn, P, Scholten, T.
      Abstract: We review and contrast three frameworks for analyzing human-land interactions in the Holocene: the traditional concept of favored and disfavored landscapes, the new concept of ResourceCultures from researchers at University of T'bingen, and complex adaptive systems, which is a well-established contemporary approach in interdisciplinary research. Following a theoretical integration of fundamental concepts, we analyze three paired case studies involving modern agriculture in Germany and Belize, prehistorical changes in land use in southwest Germany, and aquaculture on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America. We conclude that ResourceCultures and complex adaptive systems provide different but complementary strengths, but that both move beyond the favor-disfavor concept for providing a holistic, system-level approach to understanding human-land interactions. The three frameworks for understanding human responses to contemporary cultural and biophysical challenges are relevant to new thinking related to sustainability, resilience, and long-term environmental planning in the Anthropocene.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jan 2021 09:35:03 EST
       
  • Social learning for building community resilience to cyclones: role of
           indigenous and local knowledge, power, and institutions in coastal
           Bangladesh

    • Authors: Choudhury, M; Haque, C. Emdad, Nishat, A, Byrne, S.
      Abstract: Despite wide recognition of the role of social learning in building community resilience, few studies have thus far analyzed how the power–knowledge–institution matrix shapes social learning processes that in turn foster resilience outcomes. Drawing insights from the biopolitical lens of resilience, we take a critical stance on programmatic interventions for community resilience and social learning, arguing that local knowledge, beliefs, practices, and social memory (SM) are crucial elements in social learning processes for building community resilience to shocks and stresses. In addition, we explore how technologies shape social learning processes and build or strengthen community resilience. Our research, conducted in cyclone-prone coastal zones of Bangladesh, adopts a transformative interpretive framework (TIF) and a community-based participatory approach to empirical investigation. Findings of our research provide evidence that formal institutions frequently exclude indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) from social learning processes, and often subjugate communities to notions of resilience, as defined by nonlocals, that perceive people as subjects of institutional power and objects of scientific knowledge, rather than as active agents. We further found that local communities are able to obtain early warnings of cyclones through ILK of environmental phenomena, such as changing water temperature and animal behavior. Despite an abundance of ILK regarding past cyclones, the 2007 Cyclone Sidr was a surprising event to many and caused considerable loss of life and property. Much of this unpreparedness stemmed from an overall SM deficit—a key to translating knowledge into action. We recommend strengthening efforts to bridge scientific–technical knowledge and ILK to ensure effective social-learning-led resilience outcomes are achieved.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jan 2021 13:55:03 EST
       
 
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