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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Ecology and Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 52  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1708-3087
Published by Resilience Alliance Homepage  [1 journal]
  • How Mongolian herders perceive ecological change in a
           “stable” landscape

    • Authors: Gantuya, B; Bir?, M, Moln?r, ?, Avar, ?, Sharifian Bahraman, A, Babai, D, Moln?r, Z.
      Abstract: Recently, climate change has had a considerable impact on rangelands, available forage, and shifting boundaries of ecological zones in Mongolia. Additionally, long-term studies in the forest-steppe zone show that increasing livestock pressure impacts vegetation composition and cover. Evidence shows that the traditional ecological knowledge of Mongolian herders can serve as a valuable body of information relevant to observations about these ongoing ecological processes. Among other things, a deeper understanding of how herders perceive ecological changes would be useful for improving pasture management and promoting natural regeneration processes. We conducted indoor and outdoor structured and semi-structured interviews, with additional landscape walks and participatory fieldwork. In total we interviewed 33 people, all full-time herders.We found 32 indicators on how herders perceived landscape and vegetation changes for the 14 habitat types studied. Herders had deep knowledge of their landscape, and they attributed various changes to diverse drivers on their grasslands, wetlands, and forests. Among herders there was variation in the perceived importance of droughts and increasing livestock numbers. The perceived changes and indicators could be grouped into three main categories, namely long-term (decadal) trends, regenerative successions after disturbance, and recurrent fluctuations caused mainly by weather. Some of the long-term trends reported by herders are well-known, e.g., worsening of rangeland production, others, like the blackening of tussocks, or the impact of oilskin on yurt site regeneration, are rarely mentioned in the scientific literature, if at all. South-facing mountain slopes and flat areas in valleys were reported as the locations where vegetation change takes place most rapidly.To reverse adverse changes, herders wish to cooperate especially with each other to increase mobility, stop overgrazing, and help nature to regenerate their worsening pastures. We conclude that herders have a reliable and widely shared understanding of landscape and pasture changes that could help with this cooperation.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 May 2021 20:23:09 EDT
  • Assessment of urban resilience based on the transformation of
           resource-based cities: a case study of Panzhihua, China

    • Authors: Yang, Y; Fang, Y, Xu, Y, Zhang, Y.
      Abstract: Long-term development of resource utilization has caused a series of economic, social, and ecological problems in resource-based cities (RBCs). Thus, in pursuit of sustainable urban development, many RBCs have begun seriously pursuing urban transformation and have achieved good results. However, the RBCs' urban resilience also exhibits evident stage characteristics throughout the processes of urban transformation. Herein, we constructed an evaluation index system to measure the urban resilience of Panzhihua, China and analyzed the resilience time-varying characteristics and influencing factors from 2000 to 2016. The results show that: (1) after undergoing urban transformation, changes in Panzhihua's resilience can be divided into three stages consisting of a slow rising period (2000-2005), a rapidly fluctuating rising period (2006-2010), and a stable development period (2011-2016). (2) Among the four divisions of urban resilience, the largest changes were found in the infrastructure and environment, and economic and social categories; only relatively small changes were observed in health and well-being, and government management capabilities. Nevertheless, all showed an upward trend. (3) Among the 12 indicators, transportation and communication, social security, education development, and comprehensive development ability were found to be closely linked to urban resilience. (4) Under the influence of urban transformation, RBCs' resilience greatly fluctuates, likely in response to actively transitioning the urban system from its previous state to its current state. Our study demonstrates that there is a high degree of correlation between the RBCs' life cycles and adaptation cycles.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 May 2021 13:48:41 EDT
  • Integrating emotional affect into bear viewing management and bear safety

    • Authors: Nettles, J. M; Brownlee, M. T. J, Hallo, J. C, Jachowski, D. S, Sharp, R. L.
      Abstract: The popularity of viewing wildlife, specifically brown bears (Ursus arctos), is increasing rapidly throughout North America. In addition, population distributions of both humans and brown bears are expanding, creating larger areas of overlap and an increased possibility of human-bear interactions. In order to prevent negative encounters and injury to either species, park managers must continue to work to encourage appropriate behavior among local citizens as well as park visitors. Human behavior, however, is a result of many complex factors, including emotion and cognition. Despite this, the effects of emotions on human-wildlife conflict remain unstudied and therefore may limit success of any mitigation efforts. In this study we employed a quantitative self-assessment questionnaire, distributed online to a representative sample of the general U.S. public, to understand the relationship between emotion and behavior within the context of human encounters with bears. Questionnaires used video clips as visual methods to illustrate a variety of brown bear encounter scenarios based on setting, the bear’s age or sex class, and bear behavior. Following each video, respondents were asked to rate the intensity of their affective responses using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and then rate the likelihood of performing several listed actions as well as the perceived appropriateness of each action. Results demonstrate significant variation in negative affect and relative consistency in positive affect across brown bear encounter scenarios. In general, respondents seemed to be aware of appropriate behavior during encounters with brown bears, but affective responses may limit their ability to behave accordingly. Further, feelings of fear and hostility increased the impact of current emotion on in-the-moment decisions. These results and suggestions provided by respondents were then used to create a set of meaningful recommendations to improve the efficacy of current bear management and safety education.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 May 2021 10:29:57 EDT
  • Enacting shared responsibility in biosecurity governance: insights from
           adaptive governance

    • Authors: Rawluk, A; Beilin, R, Lavau, S.
      Abstract: Amidst an increasingly complex global environment of trade and travel, with heightened concerns for the unintended or deliberate spread of species and diseases, biosecurity is a key policy goal in many parts of the world. In Australia, there is concern that invasive species (plants, animals, and diseases) enter, spread, and establish, threatening local industries such as agriculture, as well as human health and biodiversity. Shared responsibility for biosecurity is a recent policy direction that has gained great traction but requires improved conceptual and practical clarity in how local citizens are co-opted into or experience biosecurity programs. In this paper, we interrogate the framing and enactment of shared responsibility for biosecurity, propose a repositioning informed by attributes of adaptive governance that involves a clearer structuring of partnerships, and illustrate this through a case example of network-based, passive surveillance. This repositioning is organized around four pillars, where biosecurity is a part of dynamic cosmopolitan territories; enacted through diverse networks; integrating with existing types of knowledge, concerns, and practices; and forming networks of partnership. We consider implications for adaptive governance more generally, centering on structure, power, and decision making.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 May 2021 09:19:36 EDT
  • Quantifying the transient shock response of dynamic agroecosystem
           variables for improved socio-environmental resilience

    • Authors: Carper, J. M; Alizadeh, M, Adamowski, J. F, Inam, A, Malard, J. J.
      Abstract: In classic resilience thinking, there is an implicit focus on controlling functional variation to maintain system stability. Modern approaches to resilience thinking deal with complex, adaptive system dynamics and true uncertainty; these contemporary frameworks involve the process of learning to live with change and make use of the consequences of transformation and development. In a socio-environmental context, the identification of metrics by which resilience can be effectively and reliably measured is fundamental to understanding the unique vulnerabilities that characterize coupled human and natural systems. We developed an innovative procedure for stakeholder-friendly quantification of socio-environmental resilience metrics. These metrics were calculated and analyzed through the application of discrete disturbance simulations, which were produced using a dynamically coupled, biophysical-socioeconomic modeling framework. Following the development of a unique shock-response assessment regime, five metrics (time to baseline-level recovery, rate of return to baseline, degree of return to baseline, overall post-disturbance perturbation, and corrective impact of disturbance) describing distinct aspects of systemic resilience were quantified for three agroecosystem variables (farm income, water-table depth, and crop revenue) over a period of 30 years (1989–2019) in the Rechna Doab basin of northeastern Pakistan. Using this procedure, we determined that farm income is the least resilient variable of the three tested. Farm income was easily diverted from the “normal” functional paradigm for the Rechna Doab socio-environmental system, regardless of shock type, intensity, or duration combination. Crop revenue was the least stable variable (i.e., outputs fluctuated significantly between very high and very low values). Water-table depth was consistently the most robust and resistant to change, even under physical shock conditions. The procedure developed here should improve the ease with which stakeholders are able to conduct quantitative resilience analyses.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 May 2021 08:32:09 EDT
  • Investing in the commons: transient welfare creates incentives despite
           open access

    • Authors: Ziegler, J. P; Jardine, S. L, Jones, S. E, Van Poorten, B. T, Janssen, M. A, Solomon, C. T.
      Abstract: Local users may invest in managing common pool resources, thereby promoting social and ecological resilience. Institutional or economic limits on access are regarded as essential preconditions for incentivizing local investments, but we show that investment incentives can exist even under open access. We modeled a recreational harvest fishery in which local or centralized managers invest in fish stocking to maximize social welfare. Although classic open access dissipation of rents occurs at equilibrium, the sluggish response of fishing effort to changing conditions allows welfare to accrue in transition to equilibrium. This transient welfare creates persistent incentives to invest. Empirical observations showed that stocking by local collective action groups occurred at rates similar to model-predicted optima, while centralized stocking occurred at rates greater than predicted optima. Our results emphasize the potential benefits of local involvement in managing the commons, even under conditions that were previously thought to preclude effective collective action.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 16:40:01 EDT
  • Mitigating the impacts of fragmented land tenure through community-based
           institutional innovations: two case study villages from Guinan County of
           Qinghai Province, China

    • Authors: Gongbuzeren, ; Zhang, J, Zhuang, M, Zhang, J, Huntsinger, L.
      Abstract: The privatization of collectively used rangelands results in fragmentation of land use in pastoral areas. This affects pastoralists’ grazing strategies and results in new institutional arrangements for addressing changing social-ecological systems. Two main systems of grazing management have emerged in the pastoral regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that offer new perspectives on addressing rangeland fragmentation. One allows the renting of parcels of allocated grazing land to or from others (RTS) and is based on having fenced contracted parcels for each household. The other is a community-based grazing quota system (GQS) in which a grazing use quota is allocated to each household, while the community maintains collective use of the rangeland. We compare two case study villages implementing these two different management systems, operating across household and community scales, and analyze vegetation composition, above-ground biomass, and soil properties as indicators of impacts. Transects reveal that aboveground biomass was higher under the RTS than under the GQS, but species composition shifted to dominance by non-palatable forbs and graminoids. The RTS grasslands had lower carbon and nitrogen density compared to GQS-managed grasslands. These differences are consistent with the herder’s perceptions of ecological changes. The general improvement of rangeland conditions under the GQS may be linked to greater herd mobility and the control of livestock numbers through the establishment of community-enforced grazing quotas. Mobility under the RTS is limited to a few parcels, and local regulation of stocking rates is minimal because the system relies on external intervention. The case of GQS suggests that addressing rangeland fragmentation with improved vegetation conditions requires institutions operating at both household and community scales allowing for mobility and regulation of stocking rates.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 16:05:30 EDT
  • Ecological and financial strategies provide complementary benefits for
           smallholder climate resilience: insights from a simulation model

    • Authors: Williams, T. G; Dressler, G, Stratton, A, M?ller, B.
      Abstract: Researchers and development organizations regularly grapple with competing ecological and financial strategies for building climate resilience in smallholder agricultural systems, but rarely are such approaches considered in tandem. Using a social-ecological simulation model, we explored how different combinations of legume cover cropping, an ecological insurance, and index-based crop insurance, a financial insurance, affect the climate resilience of mixed crop-livestock smallholder farmers over time. The model simulates interactions between soil nutrient dynamics, crop yields, and household wealth, which is carried solely in the form of livestock. We assume legume cover cropping provides biological nitrogen fixation, thereby increasing soil fertility and productivity over time, whereas microinsurance gives payouts in drought years that provide ex-post coping benefits. Our model results indicate that the benefits of cover cropping to mean household income strongly complement the shock-absorbing benefits of microinsurance. Specifically, we found: (1) insurance always provides larger benefits during and in the wake of a drought, while cover cropping progressively reduces poverty in the medium- to long-term; (2) the use of crop insurance solely as an ex-post coping strategy may not reduce the incidence of poverty; and (3) legume cover cropping offers larger relative benefits in more degraded environments and for poor farmers. These results underscore the complementary roles that ecological and financial strategies could play in building resilience in smallholder agricultural systems. The stylized model constitutes an important social-ecological foundation for future empirical research to inform agricultural innovation and sustainable development priorities.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 10:25:49 EDT
  • Semi-natural habitats in boreal Europe: a rise of a social-ecological
           research agenda

    • Authors: Herzon, I; Raatikainen, K. J, Wehn, S, Rūsiņa, S, Helm, A, Cousins, S. A. O, Rašomavičius, V.
      Abstract: The European continent contains substantial areas of semi-natural habitats, mostly grasslands, which are among the most endangered habitats in Europe. Their continued existence depends on some form of human activity, for either production or conservation purposes, or both. We examined the share of semi-natural grasslands within the general grassland areas in boreal Europe. We reviewed research literature across the region to compile evidence on semi-natural grasslands and other semi-natural habitats, such as wooded pastures, in respect to a range of topics such as ecology, land-use change, socioeconomics, and production. We also explored drivers of the research agenda and outlined future research needs. Challenges are faced when defining and quantifying semi-natural habitats even across a restricted region. Agricultural development and other policies clearly impact the research agenda in various countries. There are recent signs of a shift from classical ecological studies toward more multidisciplinary and integrated research. To sufficiently address the threats faced by semi-natural habitats, political and research frameworks in the European Union should pay more attention to the social-ecological complexity inherent in their management and should support the engagement of various actors into participatory governance processes. This is in line with a full-farm approach implicit in high nature value farming systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 19:27:01 EDT
  • Payments for ecosystem services: a review of definitions, the role of
           spatial scales, and critique

    • Authors: Kaiser, J; Haase, D, Krueger, T.
      Abstract: The economic conservation instrument of payments for ecosystem services (PES) enjoys an increasing popularity among scientists, politicians, and civil society organizations alike, while others raise concerns regarding the ecological effectiveness and social justice of this instrument. In this review article, we showcase the variety of existing PES definitions and systematically locate these definitions in the range between Coasean conceptualizations, which describe PES as conditional and voluntary private negotiations between ES providers and ES beneficiaries, and much broader Pigouvian PES understandings that also assign government-funded and involuntary schemes to the PES approach. It turns out that the scale at which PES operate, having so far received very little attention in the literature, as well as critique of PES must be considered in the context of the diversity of definitions to ensure the comparability between studies researching PES programs. Future research should better target linkages between global, regional, and local scales for the development of PES programs, while taking local collective governance systems for a sustainable use of resources into account more seriously.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 17:46:07 EDT
  • Making adaptive governance work in biodiversity conservation: lessons in
           invasive alien aquatic plant management in Lake Biwa, Japan

    • Authors: Miyanaga, K; Nakai, K.
      Abstract: Invasive alien species are a serious threat to freshwater ecosystems and overall biodiversity. Although invasive alien species management in the form of environmental governance has often been practiced under an adaptive governance scheme, prevailing theoretical and practical difficulties must be solved to enhance policy effectiveness and outcomes. Our objective was to clarify how it is possible to make adaptive governance work in biodiversity conservation, especially invasive alien species management in freshwater ecosystems. To fulfill this objective, we investigated two analytical concepts—invasion management and adaptive governance—and studied a case of invasive alien aquatic plant management in Lake Biwa, Japan. The conclusion of our analysis and the lessons learned can be summarized as the following three points: First, whether learning processes are properly equipped by local environmental governance is critical for adaptive governance. We provide insights into three aspects of learning: the system where scientific knowledge is produced and shared for policy preparation, implementation, and evaluation; where social learning and processes that support social learning occur; and where a process of organizational learning occurs. Second, we discuss the role and function of government in adaptive governance, which indicates that interactive governance is possible even when a government initiates a governing process, and that an interactive governing structure would be fundamental for addressing social-ecological complexities and uncertainties. Third, the transition from symptomatic treatments toward precautionary actions for invasive alien species, which is essential for policy effectiveness and outcomes, can be fostered by an interactive governing structure. In addition, organizational learning can induce the transition, through which the competency trap caused by conformity bias in invasive alien species management could be avoided.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 14:38:24 EDT
  • How do structural and agent-based factors influence the effectiveness of
           incentive policies' A spatially explicit agent-based model to optimize
           woodland-for-water PES policy design at the local level

    • Authors: Baulenas, E; Baiges, T, Cervera, T, Pahl-Wostl, C.
      Abstract: A key factor in the resilience of water and forest ecosystems in the face of climate variability is the management decisions taken by the individuals responsible for them, from public officials to private owners. The presence of economic and other non-material incentives can modify the decision-making processes of these individuals and thereby avoid current socioeconomic trends in Mediterranean forested areas such as land abandonment and its detrimental consequences for both social and ecological systems. In this article, we created a spatially explicit agent-based model to observe the effects of the implementation of a woodland-for-water payment for ecosystem services scheme in a local area in Catalonia (NE Spain). The results of the model show that the policy design that supports recurrent management practices obtains the same results at the 25-year mark that other policy designs at the end of the modeled period in number of managed hectares. This design entails the presence of a local intermediary, financial coverage of the management changes to improve water conditions, and the targeting of only one environmental goal, thereby avoiding the ecosystem trade-offs that can arise when two or more goals are targeted. In this design, the first generation of forest owners engaging in behavior change would benefit from their actions, which is also key for maintaining their engagement with the payments for ecosystem services scheme.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 10:25:24 EDT
  • Human securities, sustainability, and migration in the ancient U.S.
           Southwest and Mexican Northwest

    • Authors: Ingram, S. E; Patrick, S. M.
      Abstract: In the U.S. Southwest and Mexican Northwest region, arid-lands agriculturalists practiced sedentary agriculture for at least four thousand years. People developed diverse lifeways and a repertoire of successful dryland strategies that resemble those of some small-scale agriculturalists today. A multi-millennial trajectory of variable population growth ended during the early 1300s CE and by the late 1400s population levels in the region declined by about one-half. Here we show, through a meta-analysis of sub-regional archaeological studies, the spatial distribution, intensity, and variation in social and environmental conditions throughout the region prior to depopulation. We also find that as these conditions, identified as human insecurities by the UN Development Programme, worsened, the speed of depopulation increased. Although these conditions have been documented within some sub-regions, the aggregate weight and distribution of these insecurities throughout the Southwest/Northwest region were previously unrecognized. Population decline was not the result of a single disturbance, such as drought, to the regional system; it was a spatially patterned, multi-generational decline in human security. Results support the UN’s emphasis on increasing human security as a pathway toward sustainable development and lessening forced migration. Through these results and the approach demonstrated here, we aim to stimulate collaborations between archaeologists and others in service of modern sustainability planning.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 19:43:42 EDT
  • The role of incentive-based instruments and social equity in conservation
           conflict interventions

    • Authors: Rakotonarivo, S. O; Bell, A. Reid, Abernethy, K, Minderman, J, Duthie, A. Bradley, Redpath, S, Keane, A, Travers, H, Bourgeois, S, Moukagni, L, Cusack, J. J, Jones, I. L, Pozo, R. A, Bunnefeld, N.
      Abstract: Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and other human activities are multifaceted. Understanding farmer preferences for various conflict mitigation strategies is therefore critical. We developed a novel interactive game around farmer land management decisions across 18 villages in Gabon to examine responses to three elephant conflict mitigation options: use of elephant deterrent methods, flat-rate subsidy, and agglomeration payments rewarding coordinated action for setting land aside for elephants. We found that all three policies significantly reduced participants’ inclinations to engage in lethal control. Use of deterrents and agglomeration payments were also more likely to reduce decisions to kill elephants in situations where levels of social equity were higher. Only the two monetary incentives increased farmers’ predisposition to provide habitats for elephants, suggesting that incentive-based instruments were conducive to pro-conservation behavior; different subsidy levels did not affect responses. Likewise, neither participants’ socioeconomic characteristics nor their real-life experiences of crop damage by elephants affected game decisions. Killing behavior in the games was 64% lower in villages influenced by protected areas than in villages surrounded by logging concessions, highlighting the need to address conservation conflicts beyond protected areas. Our study shows the importance of addressing underlying social conflicts, specifically equity attitudes, prior to, or alongside addressing material losses.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 18:25:32 EDT
  • Using dialogue to contextualize culture, ecosystem services, and cultural
           ecosystem services

    • Authors: Allen, K. E; Castellano, C, Pessagno, S.
      Abstract: We propose an alternative methodology for engaging with multifaceted cultural ecosystem services (CES) in the Global South. We explore the use of dialogue as a tool for understanding CES in situ, while developing shared action steps toward CES conservation among stakeholders. We held six dialogue workshops in the rural Central Pacific region of Costa Rica that were designed to foster understanding of shared community values for ecosystem services and associated conservation challenges. In two of the workshops, we employed model-based reasoning through which we used maps as boundary negotiating objects to nurture dialogue on CES values, observations, and concerns. In four of the workshops, we used photovoice to elicit reflection and dialogue on CES values and changes in ecosystem services in the region. Observations and surveys of workshop participants revealed that the process engendered reflection on ecosystem service values, and community support and enthusiasm for future communal efforts. These workshops demonstrated how dialogue can elucidate local values for CES, while strengthening support across stakeholders for improved conservation actions. We propose that this methodology is applicable in various contexts for improved CES assessment across diverse stakeholders.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 14:23:08 EDT
  • Historical Indigenous Land-Use Explains Plant Functional Trait Diversity

    • Authors: Armstrong, C; Miller, J. E. D, McAlvay, A. C, Ritchie, P, Lepofsky, D.
      Abstract: Human land-use legacies have long-term effects on plant community composition and ecosystem function. While ancient and historical land use is known to affect biodiversity patterns, it is unknown whether such legacies affect other plant community properties such as the diversity of functional traits. Functional traits are a critical tool for understanding ecological communities because they give insights into community assembly processes as well as potential species interactions and other ecosystem functions. Here, we present the first systematic study evaluating how plant functional trait distributions and functional diversity are affected by ancient and historical Indigenous forest management in the Pacific Northwest. We compare forest garden ecosystems - managed perennial fruit and nut communities associated exclusively with archaeological village sites - with surrounding periphery conifer forests. We find that forest gardens have substantially greater plant and functional trait diversity than periphery forests even more than 150 years after management ceased. Forests managed by Indigenous peoples in the past now provide diverse resources and habitat for animals and other pollinators and are more rich than naturally forested ecosystems. Although ecological studies rarely incorporate Indigenous land-use legacies, the positive effects of Indigenous land use on contemporary functional and taxonomic diversity that we observe provide some of the strongest evidence yet that Indigenous management practices are tied to ecosystem health and resilience.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 08:26:03 EDT
  • Filmmaking as a source of enhanced knowledge and transformation in
           conflicts over small-scale fisheries: the case of Colombia

    • Authors: Rodriguez-Labajos, B; Saavedra-D?az, L. M, Botto-Barrios, D.
      Abstract: Small-scale fisheries (SSF) harvesting on coastal and inland aquatic ecosystems sustain the livelihood of hundreds of millions around the world. In Colombia, as in many other developing countries, SSF suffer from multiple pressures and conflicts. Yet the research on SSF conflicts is scarce and the typology of these conflicts is poorly systematized and understood. Existing studies lack the necessary interdisciplinary integration to address social-ecological processes involved in SSF. Moreover, scientific research requires building trust with fishers in order to gain an accurate picture of relevant intra-community processes and values. In face of this situation, we compiled information from nonfiction films about fishing conflicts, with the double aim of underpinning scientific knowledge on conflicts over SSF and analyzing the use of the films to promote transformations in these conflicts. Our empirical evidence relies on the organization of an ad hoc docu-conference where filmmakers, fishers, and the general public engaged in a meaningful discussion on the issues affecting SSF communities in Colombia. Films represent the range of conflicts over SSF in 31 locations of 16 Colombian departments and provide data about types of actors involved in the conflicts, types of conflicts and their causes, and possible courses of action. We gained insights into fishing conflicts as processes of change that involve drivers and impacts with common patterns in both inland waters, and marine and coastal environments but evolve in diverging responses or calls for action. Beyond the variables emerging in the films, audiovisual content supports stakeholders in their pursuit of knowledge sharing, political mobilization, and social functioning. Films about SSF conflicts expand knowledge and relatedness that propel intellectual processes tending to exacerbate the conflict and/ or stimulate sense of place, enhance governance, and give a boost to alternatives. Research participants (filmmakers, fishers, and the public) discussed advantages and limitations of using films to tackle the SSF crisis in Colombia. We demonstrate the value of films in social-ecological research and provide evidence of how they can support and bring about transformative change.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Apr 2021 09:54:20 EDT
  • Participatory assessment of sustainability and resilience of three
           specialized farming systems

    • Authors: Paas, W; Coopmans, I, Severini, S, Van Ittersum, M. K, Meuwissen, M. P. M, Reidsma, P.
      Abstract: There is a need for participatory methods that simultaneously assess agricultural sustainability and resilience at farming system level, as resilience is needed to deal with shocks and stresses on the pathways to more sustainable systems. We present the Framework of Participatory Impact Assessment for Sustainable and Resilient FARMing systems (FoPIA-SURE-Farm). FoPIA-SURE-Farm investigates farming system functioning, dynamics of main indicators, and specifies resilience for different resilience capacities, i.e., robustness, adaptability, and transformability. Three case studies with specialized farming systems serve as an example for the used methodology: starch potato production in Veenkoloni'n, The Netherlands; dairy production in Flanders, Belgium; and hazelnut production in Lazio, Italy. In all three farming systems, functions that related to food production, economic viability, and maintaining natural resources were perceived as most important. Perceived overall performance of system functions suggest moderate sustainability of the studied farming systems. In the studied systems, robustness was perceived to be stronger than adaptability and transformability. This indicates that finding pathways to higher sustainability, which requires adaptability and transformability, will be a challenging process. General characteristics of farming systems that supposedly convey general resilience, the so-called resilience attributes, were indeed perceived to contribute positively to resilience. Profitability, having production coupled with local and natural resources, heterogeneity of farm types, social self-organization, and infrastructure for innovation were assessed as being important resilience attributes. The relative importance of some resilience attributes in the studied systems differed from case to case, e.g., heterogeneity of farm types. This indicates that the local context in general, and stakeholder perspectives in particular, are important when evaluating general resilience and policy options based on resilience attributes. Overall, FoPIA-SURE-Farm results seem a good starting point for raising awareness, further assessments, and eventually for developing a shared vision and action plan for improving sustainability and resilience of farming systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 12:25:16 EDT
  • Measures against the abandonment of common property summer pastures:
           experimental evidence from joint appropriation–provision games

    • Authors: Baur, I; Nax, H. H.
      Abstract: Common property summer pastures constitute longstanding evidence that the tragedy of the commons can be prevented through self-organization. As a byproduct of their sustainable governance, high nature value farming systems with well-integrated patchy landscapes have existed for centuries. These common pool resources—which have historically needed protection from overexploitation—today suffer from underutilization, and their continued use is often contingent on government subsidies. The current study sought to identify which user, institutional, and resource attributes contribute to the sustainable use of high nature value summer pastures. Taking as our point of departure a recent field study of Swiss Alpine grazing lands, we set out to experimentally identify the most promising mechanisms for successful resource management in this context. To do so, we implement a controlled experiment that closely mirrors our field observations ("field-in-the-lab"), and parametrize our experiment to replicate field data. Our focus is on the institutional linkage of provision and appropriation. Our treatments varied across a range of parameters, ceteris paribus, to isolate which governance elements are most relevant; we did so to identify which policy options and scenarios should be prioritized in practical policy evaluations. It turns out that underappropriation appears to be the main management challenge for Swiss common property pastures today. Our analytical results suggest that current governance institutions—and, more specifically, how they link appropriation to provision requirements—might need to be overhauled. The most promising avenues for doing so appear to be increased provision requirements, incentivized overprovision, and appropriation subsidies. Thus, our study highlights promising institutional adaptations at various governance levels that potentially counteract the decreasing use of high nature value common property pastures in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 12:02:48 EDT
  • Assessing impacts of social-ecological diversity on resilience in a
           wetland coupled human and natural system

    • Authors: Van Schmidt, N. D; Oviedo, J. L, Hruska, T, Huntsinger, L, Kovach, T. J, Kilpatrick, A, Miller, N. L, Beissinger, S. R.
      Abstract: Theory posits that resilience of ecosystems increases when there is a diversity of agents (e.g., species) and linkages between them. If ecosystems are conceptualized as components of coupled human and natural systems, then a corollary would be that novel types of human-induced diversity may also foster resilience. We explored this hypothesis by studying how socially created diversity mediated the impact of a historically severe drought on a network of wetlands in the foothills of the California Sierra Nevada containing a metapopulation of the threatened California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). We examined how (1) diversity in motivations for land ownership affected use of irrigation water and response to drought; (2) differences in natural and irrigated water sources affected wetland drying in response to drought; and (3) these processes affected the persistence of rails and the transmission risk of West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging infectious disease that threatens people and rails. Wetlands were mostly fed by inefficiencies and leaks from the irrigation system. Wetlands with both natural and irrigated water sources were larger, wetter, and likelier to persist through drought because these two sources showed response diversity by drying at different times. Wetlands with diverse water sources also provided the best habitat for the California Black Rail, and irrigation appeared responsible for its persistence through the drought. Irrigation increased WNV transmission risk by increasing the quantity, but not the quality, of wetland habitats for mosquitoes. The impacts of social diversity were more ambiguous, with redundancy prevalent. However, profit-motivated landowners provided wetlands more irrigation during nondrought conditions, whereas other landowner types were more likely to continue providing irrigation during drought. Our results highlight that conservation in social-ecological systems requires assessing not only the value of historic ecological diversity, but also how novel types of socially induced diversity may benefit ecosystems.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Apr 2021 11:57:11 EDT
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