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Ideas in Ecology and Evolution
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1918-3178
Published by Queen's University Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Screen adaptation theory for humans

    • Authors: CJ Lortie
      Abstract: Screens are an ineliminable component of contemporary society for most humans. Consequently, tools and ideas that provide a heuristic and support for conceptually mitigating and balancing the costs of screen times at an individual level are critical. Here, screen adaptation theory (SAT) is proposed as a shorthand tool to frame the wealth of research examining human-screen interactions. Screens are best conceptualized as a place. Adaptation (to screens) are acquired or cultivated traits that enable us to not only survive with screens but potentially thrive—provided that we leverage research on costs and benefits. Adaptive behavioral traits suggest that we approach these interactions with purposeful intent. Finally, the theory associated with humans with screens is rich and interdisciplinary. We must design and adopt principles from theory relevant to our work, leisure, and individual choices to use screens as we move from tolerance to adaptation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.24908/iee.2022.15.2.e
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
  • Think like a Bayesian and avoid pitfalls from our frequentist past

    • Authors: Jason Doll, Zachary Feiner
      Abstract: Bayesian inference is a powerful tool that is increasingly being used by ecologists. This is largely due to the flexibility in model specification and improvements in software that makes this tool easier to use. However, with increasing ease of use comes a risk of misuse or abuse. We review four major issues we have identified in the use of Bayesian methods and offer reminders and suggestions that will improve the application and reporting of Bayesian inference while at the same time, hopefully, avoiding the pitfalls that have plagued null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST). These issues include; 1) understanding software and model specification; 2) use of prior probability distributions; 3) maximizing utility of posterior probability distributions; and 4) avoiding dichotomous thinking (i.e., the NHST pitfall). We suggest ecologists should strive for openness in their use of statistical software by understanding their model and providing the full computer code used, develop reasonable and informative priors, and make full use of posterior information that Bayesian methods provide. At the same time, ecologists should avoid dichotomizing results into significant/ non-significant boxes, eliminate null hypothesis tests (including probability intervals for hypothesis testing), and use clear language when describing results. Finally, quantitative training should be expanded in undergraduate curricula to provide students with a larger suite of foundational core concepts that extend beyond NHST.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.24908/iee.2022.15.1.c
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2022)
       
 
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