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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Nature Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.614
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 35  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1314-6947 - ISSN (Online) 1314-3301
Published by Pensoft Homepage  [58 journals]
  • What shapes the mammal species poaching in protected areas: biophysical
           or anthropogenic factors' A case study in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 149-160
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.68243
      Authors : Finagnon Galvius Degbelo, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre Djagoun, Sêwanoudé Scholastique Mireille Toyi, Elie A. Padonou, Méryas Kouton, Nathan Gichohi, Philip Muruthi, Brice Sinsin : Understanding what shapes the mammal species poaching in protected areas is critical to developing targeted management strategies for reducing poaching. We collected the data for poaching incidents on the GPS coordinates from 2011 to 2017 to map poaching incidents in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve. Poaching incidents were then related to environmental and anthropogenic variables using regression analyses. The study shows that poaching is more concentrated along the main river in the Pendjari National Park. Only nearest distance to the main river significantly predicted the location of high poaching incidents. These results could be used as the starting point by the park managers when planning the anti-poaching activities. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 13:13:40 +030
  • Potential for informal guardianship in community-based wildlife crime
           prevention: Insights from Vietnam

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 123-147
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.81635
      Authors : Julie Viollaz, Jessica Bell Rizzolo, Barney Long, Cao Tien Trung, Josh Kempinski, Benjamin M. Rawson, Danielle Reynald, Hoang Xuan Quang, Nguyen Ngoc Hien, Cao Tien Dung, Hoang Thuong Huyen, Nguyen Thi Thuy Dung, Meredith L. Gore : The notion that indigenous people and local communities can effectively prevent conservation crime rests upon the assumption that they are informal guardians of natural resources. Although informal guardianship is a concept typically applied to “traditional” crimes, urban contexts, and the global North, it has great potential to be combined with formal guardianship (such as ranger patrols) to better protect wildlife, incentivize community participation in conservation, and address the limitations of formal enforcement in the global South. Proactive crime prevention is especially important for illegal snare hunting, a practice that has led to pernicious defaunation and which has proved difficult to control due to its broad scope. This paper uses interview data with community members in protected areas in Viet Nam where illegal snare hunting is commonplace to 1) analyze the conditions for informal guardianship in the study locations; 2) explore how community members can become more effective informal guardians; and 3) examine how formal and informal guardianship mechanisms can be linked to maximize deterrence and limit displacement of illegal snaring. Results indicate that conditions for informal guardianship exist but that respondent willingness to intervene depends upon the location, offender activity, and type of offender (outsider versus community member). While respondents generated numerous strategies for wildlife crime prevention, they also listed crime displacement mechanism offenders used to avoid detection. We discuss how informal guardianship can be integrated with formal guardianship into an overall model of situational crime prevention to protect wildlife and incentivize community-led deterrence of illegal snaring. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 12:05:51 +030
  • Harvest quotas, free markets and the sustainable trade in pythons

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 99-121
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.80988
      Authors : Vincent Nijman : Assessing the sustainability of the harvest of animals can be done by obtaining data from processing facilities and establishing that vital attributes of the harvested animals (e.g., size, age structure, sex ratio) do not change over time. This model works if the traders operate in a free market without any regulations on what can be harvested, processed or exported, and when harvest methods and harvest areas do not change between assessment periods. Several studies assessed the harvest effects on blood pythons (Python brongersmai) in North Sumatra, Indonesia seemingly under a free market scenario, with some concluding that trade was sustainable and the others hinting at an overharvest. Indonesia has established harvest and export quotas and, internationally, trade in blood pythons is regulated through CITES, and the blood python trade clearly does not operate in a free market. Data suggest that the three (or four) slaughterhouses included in these studies processed ~27,000 blood pythons a year against a quota of 18,000. There is a risk that data from traders alone purporting to show that harvest is sustainable will lead to an increase of quotas or an abandonment of quotas altogether. There is no conclusive data to support that the harvest of blood pythons in North Sumatra is sustainable but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that a substantial part of this trade is illegal. Likewise, at a global level there are clear indications of misdeclared, underreported and illegal trade involving 10,000 s of blood pythons. While important biological information can be obtained from harvested animals, to assess whether harvest is sustainable there is no substitute for monitoring wild populations. After decades of international trade in blood pythons from Indonesia, during which at least half a million blood pythons were exported, it is all the more urgent that systematic monitoring of wild populations commences. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 16:41:26 +030
  • Strict laws fail to deter illegal trade of China’s largest and most
           endangered freshwater turtle

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 95-97
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.84287
      Authors : Shijia Hu, Tien Ming Lee, Hai-Tao Shi : In May 2021, a number of people were arrested for the illegal poaching and trade of one of the most endangered freshwater turtle species in China. The large female Pelochelys cantorii individual was poached from a strict protected area, sold, and was publicly advertised on social media despite being a Class I protected species (no trade allowed) for over 30 years and in a country with one of the strictest penalties for IWT worldwide. We discuss and call for more conservation efforts to prevent the illegal poaching and trade of this threatened species. We argue that unless China meets the urgent conservation needs of this iconic species, the impending extinction of this species cannot be reversed. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 11:00:01 +030
  • A rare shrub species as flagship for conserving desert steppe in
           arid Inner Mongolia

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 83-93
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.79902
      Authors : Hongxiao Yang, Changhui Xu, Jianmin Chu, Jiawei Chen, Honghao Gan, Zhenfeng Zhou : The rare species Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. (Rosaceae) in arid northern China is endangered to the point of extinction. Determined to save it, the local government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region encouraged the herdsmen to limit grazing activities. Here, we are testing if this species could be considered as a conspicuous flagship for restoring and conserving wind-sensitive arid lands as desert steppe in northern China. We examined statistically the growing states and environmental roles of A. pedunculata populations under the comparative conditions of free and limited grazing in winter since the year 2001. This species was observed to play a critical role in preventing wind erosion and stabilising the lands, as was indicated by the formation of micro-dunes under the shrubs. This role can be attributed mainly to the crown diameters or cover from the shrubs. Under the grazing limitation condition, accompanying species and plants around the shrubs increased significantly. Regardless of free or limited grazing conditions, the shrubs were not observed to inhibit the occurrence or growth of other plants. The grazing limitation over a period of 20 years has caused the effective revival of the rare A. pedunculata species, with statistically larger and taller A. pedunculata individuals than under the free grazing condition, as well as a slightly higher population density and total crown cover. The grazing limitation policy for saving A. pedunculata is believed to be effective and the rare A. pedunculata shrub is a conspicuous flagship for helping to conserve wind-sensitive desert steppe in terms of ecosystem integrity and authenticity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 09:47:03 +030
  • Not only range, but quality: human influence and protected areas within
           the distribution of mammal species subject to use in the Department of
           Cundinamarca, Colombia

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 57-81
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.77722
      Authors : Lizeth Aguirre Sierra, Diego A. Zárrate-Charry, Leonardo Lemus-Mejía, Jessica Morales-Perdomo, José F. González-Maya : Mammal conservation in transformed landscapes depends heavily on the role of protected areas, especially for species used by local communities both within and around these areas. We evaluated the level of representation and the magnitude of the influence of humans, via human footprint, across the range of mammals used by local communities in the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. We emphasised the differences of the human influence at a department scale and inside Protected Areas (PA). The definition of species used by local communities refers to using a resource for its economic, religious and/or traditional value. Specifically, we addressed whether there is a difference between the magnitude of human influence inside and outside the PAs and if the impact is greater on threatened species, species with greater or lesser representation or according to their use. We found 43 species subject to use in our analysis, with low values of representation when compared with global targets (X̄ ± CD = 10.69% ± 4.99) and with high values of vulnerability, based on the mean value of the Spatial Human Footprint Index (HSFI) (57 ± 2.74). We found a difference of 10.72 points between the average HSFI of the Department and that of the PAs (X̄ ± CD = 10.73 ± 5.98%). This shows that the status of each species’ habitats is less impacted by human activities within PAs and that the conservation areas for all species depend largely on their presence in largely transformed landscapes. Although this seems an expected outcome, the Department of Cundinamarca is one of the less represented on PAs at a national level and has suffered from severe fragmentation; thus, our results highlight the need for improving and expanding the current PA system as most species, especially those subject to use, will depend on their existence for their conservation on the long run. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 7 Apr 2022 09:40:24 +0300
  • Environmental citizen science in Greece: perceptions and attitudes
           of key actors

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 31-56
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.79936
      Authors : Chrysostomos Galanos, Ioannis N. Vogiatzakis : Citizen Science (CS), the voluntary participation of lay people in scientific work, is well-established in the fields of nature conservation and biodiversity monitoring due to its potential to create large environmental datasets. This study aims to understand the familiarity, perceptions and attitudes towards CS of the key environmental actors in Greece. The target group consisted of employees and/or representatives of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs), scientists and civil servants related to nature conservation. Quantitative data were collected using an electronic questionnaire, 178 fully completed questionnaires and subsequently eight semi-structured interviews with experts were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the familiarity and attitude of the actors, as well as the obstacles to the development of CS in Greece. We used Cronbach’s test to measure the reliability of the used Likert scale and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to identify significant differences amongst the three groups of actors. Qualitative data were analysed following a Thematic Analysis methodology. The results show that ca. 40% of the key actors are familiar with the terms and CS practice while over 65% with the concept. The general attitude of the actors towards CS is positive although concerns about data quality collected were highlighted. “Lack of cooperation culture”, “Ignorance of the existence of the phenomenon” and “Lack of know-how” emerged as the most important obstacles to CS development in Greece. Although CS is present in Greece, it is not visible enough. The main reasons are that relevant projects employ different terms, are under-represented in the formal literature and include limited, if at all, project dissemination. There are significant differences regarding familiarity and the attitude towards CS between actors, but also similarities concerning the main obstacles. The study sets a baseline which can be employed to improve and further expand Environmental Citizen Science (ECS) in Greece. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 7 Apr 2022 09:35:48 +0300
  • Temporal and spatial changes of biodiversity in Caverns of Heaven and
           Places of Blessing, Zhejiang Province, China from 1990 to 2020

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 48: 1-29
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.48.76273
      Authors : Yuanna Zhu, Hexian Jin, Le Zhong : Caverns of Heaven and Places of Blessing (CHPB) are the earliest Ecological Reserve in China, but in recent years, due to the accelerated process of urbanization and weak protection, the Chinese traditional ecological reserve represented by CHPB has been damaged to a certain extent. How to accurately measure the dynamic changes of ecological value in existing ecological protection and construct is an initial topic of CHPB protection. To understand the temporal and spatial changes characteristics of biodiversity in CHPB, this paper selects three-time nodes in 1990, 2005, and 2020, and takes CHPB in Zhejiang Province as an example, comprehensive three influencing factors: habitat quality, landscape pattern, and nighttime-light. To provide a relevant theoretical basis for the protection of CHPB, this paper quantitatively analyzes the changes of ecological environment and biodiversity in recent 30 years. The results showed that from 1990 to 2020, the biodiversity of CHPB in Zhejiang Province showed a positive change, the decline in Caverns of Heaven overall area slowed down, and the core area rebounded. The spatial distribution change of biodiversity is highly consistent with the land-use changes. The low value regions of biodiversity are mainly concentrated in the regions with intensive human activities, and the area decreases with the expansion of construction land. The core areas are primary areas with high biodiversity and overlap with nature reserves, natural parks, Scenic and Historic Interest Area, and other protected areas. In a word, CHPB still plays a vital role in ecological and environmental protection. In the future development, we should still pay attention to its biodiversity protection, and give full play to its role in ecological and environmental protection, and realize the contemporary application of CHPB’s traditional ecological knowledge. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 5 Apr 2022 14:40:26 +0300
  • Preliminary results on the bird protection effectiveness of animal
           deflectors on railway overhead lines based on electrical current

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 317-333
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.70704
      Authors : Stefan Kornhuber, Hans-Peter Pampel, Jana Görlich, Marion Leiblein-Wild, Christoph Jöckle : In contrast to other transportation systems, railway systems feature special characteristics, which may cause specific hazards to birds. Among other things, there is the risk of electrocutions resulting from short circuits. To protect the birds and minimize these short circuit events, the DB Netz AG has installed so-called animal deflectors on the insulators of the overhead lines. Since this effort, the number of short-circuit events in the respective sections has decreased, according to DB Netz AG. The principal mechanism of action of the animal deflectors is based on mechanical defense, combined with electrostatic discharge on contact. Although the number of short circuit events has been reduced by using animal deflectors, the detailed function of the animal deflector in different environmental conditions has not been investigated up to now. This research project aims to determine whether, and to what extent, the use of animal deflectors in retrofitting overhead lines may contribute to bird protection and which currents can be measured at retrofitted insulators under different environmental conditions. Hence the current should be measured when using animal deflectors on railway overhead lines for different isolator states and body resistances (5 kΩ, 3 kΩ, 1kΩ, 0.5 kΩ). The results show an influence of measured current depending on the insulator state. Our preliminary results indicate that the use of an animal deflector (KTA) to the tested polymeric insulator and pollution severity can be recommended, since, based on the investigations, no danger to small birds and small animals can be identified. However, the use of the animal deflector (KTA) for the tested porcelain insulator and pollution severity should not be recommended as they showed high animal hazards during pollution and fog conditions. However, these results cannot be transferred to other different insulator types and pollution severities. Investigating the electrical current to the type of insulator used and the expected pollution severity is recommended. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:17 +020
  • A test of wildlife warning reflectors as a way to reduce risk of
           wildlife-train collisions

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 303-316
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.73052
      Authors : Karolina D. Jasińska, Joanna Babińska-Werka, Dagny Krauze-Gryz : Looking for an effective method to reduce risk of animal-train collisions, we tested the system of wildlife warning reflectors, a method usually used on roads. The research was conducted in central Poland, along a 2.1 km stretch of the E65 railway line near Warsaw, during eight months, in the years 2010–2011. For six months of a test period, the reflectors were uncovered (active) and, for the next two months of the control period, they were covered (non-active). Digital cameras were used to register animal reactions to trains 24-hours per day. We compared the probability of escape (escape = 1; no reaction = 0) from an oncoming train during test and control periods of the research, in different parts of a day (i.e. day vs. night) and compared escape time of roe deer between day and night and with reflectors covered and uncovered. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) were observed most often (702 observations in total). The status of reflectors (covered/uncovered) did not influence the probability of animals’ escape from an oncoming train. The only factors that affected the probability of escape were animal species and time of a day. Of the three species, roe deer was most likely to escape from an oncoming train (89% of probability at day and 52% during night, pooled data for covered and uncovered reflectors). Timing of roe deer escape from an oncoming train did not differ between day (6.4 seconds) and night, with either reflectors covered (7.5 seconds) or uncovered (4.6 seconds). The results indicated that wildlife warning reflectors were not effective to modify animal behaviour and to reduce risk of animal-train collisions. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:16 +020
  • Implementing wildlife fences along highways at the appropriate spatial
           scale: A case study of reducing road mortality of Florida Key deer

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 283-302
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.72321
      Authors : Marcel P. Huijser, James S. Begley : Florida Key deer mortality data (1966–2017) showed that about 75% of all reported deer mortalities were related to collisions with vehicles. In 2001–2002, the eastern section of US Hwy 1 on Big Pine Key (Florida, USA) was mitigated with a wildlife fence, 2 underpasses, and 4 deer guards. After mitigation, the number of reported Key deer road mortalities reduced substantially in the mitigated section, but this was negated by an increase in collisions along the unmitigated section of US Hwy 1 on Big Pine Key, both in absolute numbers and expressed as a percentage of the total deer population size. The data also showed that the increase in Key deer collisions along the unmitigated highway section on the island could not be explained through an increase in Key deer population size, or by a potential increase in traffic volume. The overall Key deer road mortality along US Hwy 1 was not reduced but was moved from the mitigated section to the nearby unmitigated section. Thus, there was no net benefit of the fence in reducing collisions. After mitigation, a significant hotspot of Key deer-vehicle collisions appeared at the western fence-end, and additional hotspots occurred further west along the unmitigated highway. Exploratory spatial analyses led us to reject the unmitigated highway section on Big Pine Key as a suitable control for a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) analysis into the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing deer-vehicle collisions. Instead, we selected highway sections west and east of Big Pine Key as a control. The BACI analysis showed that the wildlife fence and associated mitigation measures were highly effective (95%) in reducing deer-vehicle collisions along the mitigated highway section. Nonetheless, in order to reduce the overall number of deer-vehicle collisions along US Hwy 1, the entire highway section on Big Pine Key would need to be mitigated. However, further mitigation is complicated because of the many buildings and access roads for businesses and residences. This case study illustrates that while fences and associated measures can be very effective in reducing collisions, wildlife fences that are too short may result in an increase in collisions in nearby unmitigated road sections, especially near fence-ends. Therefore it is important to carefully consider the appropriate spatial scale over which highway mitigation measures are implemented and evaluated. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:15 +020
  • Effectiveness of wire netting fences to prevent animal access to road
           infrastructures: an experimental study on small mammals and amphibians

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 271-281
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.71472
      Authors : Antonin Conan, Julie Fleitz, Lorène Garnier, Meven Le Brishoual, Yves Handrich, Jonathan Jumeau : Transport infrastructures, such as highways, disrupt animal migrations and cause roadkill. To mitigate the latter problem, fences have been built but their effectiveness has rarely been tested under controlled conditions. Here, we tested the effectiveness of the most commonly used fence in France and probably in Europe (wire netting fence) to block animals. We tested the wire netting fence, with and without a structural modification (i.e. an overhang), with three small mammalian species (the European hamster: Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus, 1758; the common vole: Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778 & the wood mouse: Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758) and two amphibian species (the marsh frog: Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 & the European green toad: Bufotes viridis Laurenti, 1768). During testing, all small vertebrate species tested were placed into an arena, from which they could only escape by crossing the wire netting fence. Without an overhang, almost all adult individuals of all tested species were able to climb over a 30 to 40 cm high wire netting fence. Furthermore, the addition of an 8 cm long overhang at the top of the fence stopped the amphibian species tested but not the most agile mammalian species, such as the hamster and the wood mouse. Based on these results, we do not support the construction of wire netting fences along roads as a measure to stop small animals from crossing. We recommend the use of more effective and durable fences, which, in addition, can be associated with wildlife passages to reconnect isolated populations. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:14 +020
  • Co-use of existing crossing structures along roads by wildlife and
           humans: Wishful thinking'

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 235-270
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.73060
      Authors : Kendra Warnock-Juteau, Valérie Bolduc, Daniella LoScerbo, Michelle Anderson, Caroline Daguet, Jochen A. G. Jaeger : This study assesses existing human-purpose underpasses below an unfenced high-traffic 4-lane highway in the Appalachian region of Quebec, Canada, as potential crossing structures for native mammal species. Eight underpasses of three types (five water culverts with minimum height and width of 1.8 m, one low-use gravel road byway, and two railroad underpasses) were continuously monitored by motion-detection infrared camera traps for time periods spanning up to 778 days (September 2016 to November 2018). We asked how the ratios of successful crossings through the structures (termed full crossings) and aversions to the structures (termed aversions) differed between species and we explored the influence of human activity levels on the use of these structures by wildlife. All monitored crossing structures had low human observations (with averages of less than 35 human activities per day). Our results provide evidence that 21 species of mammals in the study area successfully crossed through at least one of the eight observed underpasses on a minimum of one occasion. Some species were observed crossing through some of the underpasses on a regular basis, namely raccoon, red fox, and white-tailed deer. We propose a classification of mammal species into five human co-use classes (no or low co-use to very high co-use) to explore the relationship between mammal use of the structures and human presence. We found that humans and mammals were observed sharing passages for the four mammal species identified as tolerant of human co-use (high and very high co-use classes), but co-use was observed to be limited or not occurring for most other species. The strengths of this study include the length of time during which monitoring took place, as well as the placement of four cameras at each structure (two facing inward and two facing outward) to determine whether individuals successfully crossed through the structures or displayed avoidance behaviour. The results suggest select species of mammals show some co-use with humans at existing underpasses. The activity patterns of mammals documented over the two-year study can assist with future estimates of highway permeability. Further, measurements of human and mammal co-use have species-specific implications for retrofitting existing structures and constructing wildlife fences and purpose-built wildlife passages. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:13 +020
  • Sensitivity mapping informs mitigation of bird mortality by collision
           with high-voltage power lines

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 215-233
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.73710
      Authors : Jean-Yves Paquet, Kristijn Swinnen, Antoine Derouaux, Koen Devos, Dominique Verbelen : Mapping the relative risk of impact on nature by a human infrastructure at a landscape scale (“sensitivity mapping”) is an essential tool for minimising the future impact of new development or for prioritising mitigation of existing impacts. High-voltage power lines (“transmission lines”) are known to increase bird mortality by collision. Here we present a method to derive a high resolution map of relative risk of transmission line impacts across one entire country, Belgium, from existing bird distribution data. First, all the bird species observed in Belgium were systematically assessed using literature and casualty records to select those to be included in the sensitivity map. Species were selected on the basis of their intrinsic susceptibility to collision and the conservation relevance of avoiding additional mortality for that species in Belgium. Each of the selected species was included in one or several spatial layer constructed from existing data, emerging from citizen science bird monitoring schemes. The resulting 17 layers were then combined into one final sensitivity map, where a “risk score” estimates the relative collision risk across Belgium at a 1×1 km resolution. This risk score is relatively robust to the subtraction of any of the 17 layers. The map identifies areas where building new transmission lines would create high risk of collision and, if overlapped with existing power lines, helps to prioritise spans where mitigation measures should be placed. Wetlands and river valleys stand out as the most potentially dangerous areas for collision with transmission lines. This sensitivity map could be regularly updated with new bird data or adapted to other countries where similar bird data are available. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:12 +020
  • Are several small wildlife crossing structures better than a single
           large' Arguments from the perspective of large wildlife conservation

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 197-213
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.67979
      Authors : Jan Olof Helldin : Crossing structures for large wildlife are increasingly being constructed at major roads and railways in many countries and current guidelines for wildlife mitigation at linear infrastructures tend to advocate for large crossing structures sited at major movement corridors for the target species. The concept of movement corridors has, however, been challenged and pinching animal movements into bottlenecks entails risks. In this paper, I address the SLOSS dilemma of road ecology, i.e. the discussion whether a Single Large Or Several Small crossing structures along a linear barrier would produce the most benefit for wildlife, using the case of crossing structures for large wildlife in Sweden. I point out risks, ecological as well as practical, with investing in one large crossing structure and list a number of situations where it may be more beneficial to distribute the conservation efforts in the landscape by constructing several smaller crossing structures; for example, when the ecological knowledge is insufficient, when animal interactions are expected to be significant, when the landscape changes over time or when future human development cannot be controlled. I argue that such situations are often what infrastructure planning faces and that the default strategy, therefore, should be to distribute, rather than to concentrate passage opportunities along major transport infrastructures. I suggest that distributing passage opportunities over several smaller crossing structures would convey a risk diversification and that this strategy could facilitate the planning of wildlife mitigation. What to choose would however depend on, inter alia, landscape composition and ecology and on relationships amongst target species. A single large structure should be selected where it is likely that it can serve a large proportion of target animals and where the long-term functionality of the crossing structure can be guaranteed. New research is needed to support trade-offs between size and number of crossing structures. Cost-effectiveness analyses of wildlife crossing structures are currently rare and need to be further explored. Camera trapping and video surveillance of crossing structures provide opportunities to analyse details concerning, for example, any individual biases according to sex, age, status and grouping and any antagonism between species and individuals. Wildlife ecology research needs to better address questions posed by road and railway planning regarding the importance of specific movement routes and movement distances. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:11 +020
  • The effect of habitat reduction by roads on space use and movement
           patterns of an endangered species, the Cabrera vole Microtus cabrerae

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 177-196
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.71864
      Authors : Nelson Fernandes, Eduardo M. Ferreira, Ricardo Pita, António Mira, Sara M. Santos : Roads are among the most widespread signs of man’s presence around the globe. From simple low traffic trails to wide and highly used highways, roads have a wide array of effects on wildlife. In the present study, we tested how habitat reduction by roads may affect the space use and movement patterns of the Cabrera vole (Microtus cabrerae), a near-threatened Iberian endemism, often living on road verges. A total of 16 voles were successfully radio-tracked in two habitat patches with different size and proximity to roads. Results showed that individuals from the smaller patch (Verge patch) had smaller and less complex home-ranges than those from the larger patch (Meadow patch). Movement patterns were significantly influenced by the day period but only in individuals from the Verge patch. There was evidence of a barrier effect in both habitat patches, being this effect much more noticeable in the verge population. Overall, this study shows that space use and movement patterns of Cabrera voles near roads may be affected by the degree of habitat reduction imposed by these infrastructures. This suggests that species space use and movement patterns at fine-scale should be accounted for in road planning, even for species that may benefit from road verge habitats as refuges. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:10 +020
  • Assessing behaviour states of a forest carnivore in a road-dominated
           landscape using Hidden Markov Models

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 155-175
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.72781
      Authors : Eduardo M. Ferreira, Francesco Valerio, Denis Medinas, Nelson Fernandes, João Craveiro, Pedro Costa, João Paulo Silva, Carlos Carrapato, António Mira, Sara M. Santos : Anthropogenic infrastructures and land-use changes are major threats to animal movements across heterogeneous landscapes. Yet, the behavioural consequences of such constraints remain poorly understood. We investigated the relationship between the behaviour of the Common genet (Genetta genetta) and road proximity, within a dominant mixed forest-agricultural landscape in southern Portugal, fragmented by roads. Specifically, we aimed to: (i) identify and characterise the behavioural states displayed by genets and related movement patterns; and (ii) understand how behavioural states are influenced by proximity to main paved roads and landscape features. We used a multivariate Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to characterise the fine-scale movements (10-min fixes GPS) of seven genets tracked during 187 nights (mean 27 days per individual) during the period 2016–2019, using distance to major paved roads and landscape features as predictors. Our findings indicated that genet’s movement patterns were composed of three basic behavioural states, classified as “resting” (short step-lengths [mean = 10.6 m] and highly tortuous), “foraging” (intermediate step-lengths [mean = 46.1 m] and with a wide range in turning angle) and “travelling” (longer step-lengths [mean = 113.7 m] and mainly linear movements). Within the genet’s main activity-period (17.00 h-08.00 h), the movement model predicts that genets spend 36.7% of their time travelling, 35.4% foraging and 28.0% resting. The probability of genets displaying the travelling state was highest in areas far away from roads (> 500 m), whereas foraging and resting states were more likely in areas relatively close to roads (up to 500 m). Landscape features also had a pronounced effect on behaviour state occurrence. More specifically, travelling was most likely to occur in areas with lower forest edge density and close to riparian habitats, while foraging was more likely to occur in areas with higher forest edge density and far away from riparian habitats. The results suggest that, although roads represent a behavioural barrier to the movement of genets, they also take advantage of road proximity as foraging areas. Our study demonstrates that the HMM approach is useful for disentangling movement behaviour and understanding how animals respond to roadsides and fragmented habitats. We emphasise that road-engaged stakeholders need to consider movement behaviour of genets when targeting management practices to maximise road permeability for wildlife. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:09 +020
  • ‘Animals under wheels’: Wildlife roadkill data collection by citizen
           scientists as a part of their nature recording activities

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 121-153
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.72970
      Authors : Kristijn R. R. Swinnen, Annelies Jacobs, Katja Claus, Sanne Ruyts, Diemer Vercayie, Jorg Lambrechts, Marc Herremans : ‘Animals under wheels’ is a citizen science driven project that has collected almost 90,000 roadkill records from Flanders, Belgium, mainly between 2008 and 2020. However, until now, the platform and results have never been presented comprehensively to the scientific community and we highlight strengths and challenges of this system. Data collection occurred using the subsite www.dierenonderdewielen.be (‘animals under wheels’) or the multi-purpose biodiversity platform observation.org and the apps, allowing the registration of roadkill and living organisms alike. We recorded 4,314 citizen scientists who contributed with at least a single roadkill record (207-1,314 active users per year). Non-roadkill records were registered by 85% of these users and the median time between registration of the first and last record was over 6 years, indicating a very high volunteer retention. Based on photographs presented with the roadkill records (n = 7,687), volunteer users correctly identified 98.2% of the species. Vertebrates represent 99% of all roadkill records. Over 145,000 km of transects were monitored, resulting in 1,726 mammal and 2,041 bird victims. Carcass encounter rates and composition of the top 10 detected species list was dependent on monitoring speed. Roadkill data collected during transects only represented 6% of all roadkill data available in the dataset. The remaining 60,478 bird and mammal roadkill records were opportunistically collected. The top species list, based on the opportunistically collected roadkill data, is clearly biased towards larger, enigmatic species. Although indirect evidence showed an increase in search effort for roadkill from 2010-2020, the number of roadkill records did not increase, indicating that roadkills are diminishing. Mitigation measures preventing roadkill could have had an effect on this, but decrease in population densities was likely to (partially) influence this result. As a case study, the mammal roadkill data were explored. We used linear regressions for the 17 most registered mammal species, determining per species if the relative proportion per year changed significantly between 2010 and 2020 (1 significant decrease, 7 significant increases). We investigated the seasonal patterns in roadkill for the 17 mammal species, and patterns per species were consistent over the years, although restrictions on human movement, due to COVID-19, influenced the seasonal pattern for some species in 2020. In conclusion, citizen scientists are a very valuable asset in investigating wildlife roadkill. While we present the results from Flanders, the platform and apps are freely available for projects anywhere in the world. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:08 +020
  • Exploring 15 years of brown bear (Ursus arctos)-vehicle collisions in
           northwestern Greece

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 105-119
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.71348
      Authors : Maria Psaralexi, Maria Lazarina, Yorgos Mertzanis, Danai-Eleni Michaelidou, Stefanos Sgardelis : Road networks provide several benefits to human societies; however, they are also one of the major drivers of fragmentation and habitat degradation. Their negative effects include wildlife-vehicle collisions which are associated with increased barrier effects, restricted gene flow, and increased local extinction risk. Large carnivores, such as the brown bear (Ursus arctos), are vulnerable to road mortality while they also put human safety at risk in every collision. We recorded approximately 100 bear-vehicle collisions during the last 15 years (2005–2020) in northwestern Greece and identified common aspects for collisions, i.e., spatial, or temporal segregation of collision events, road features, and age or sex of the involved animals. We recorded collisions in both the core distribution area of brown bears, as well as at the periphery, where few individuals, mostly males, disperse. According to our findings, there are four collision hotspots which include ca. 60% of total collisions. Bear-vehicle collisions occurred mostly in periods of increased animal mobility, under poor light conditions and low visibility. In most cases, we deem that a collision was unavoidable at the time of animal detection, because the driver could not have reacted in time to avoid it. Appropriate fencing, in combination with the retention of safe passages for the animals, can minimize collisions. Therefore, such mitigation measures, wildlife warning signs and other collision prevention systems, such as animal detection systems, should be adopted to decrease the number of bear-vehicle collisions and improve road safety. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:07 +020
  • Speed thrills but kills: A case study on seasonal variation in roadkill
           mortality on National highway 715 (new) in Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong
           Landscape, Assam, India

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 87-104
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.73036
      Authors : Somoyita Sur, Prasanta Kumar Saikia, Malabika Kakati Saikia : Animal-vehicle collision on the roads is a major cause of mortality of a wide range of animal taxa both within and around protected areas. This study has been conducted in the National Highway 715 (new) covering a continuous stretch of 64 km that passes through Kaziranga National Park (KNP) of Assam (India). The area falls between the boundary of KNP on its north and North Karbi Anglong Wildlife sanctuary on the south. The survey concentrated on the mortality study of four groups of vertebrates viz., amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals resulting from collisions with vehicles from October 2016 through September, 2017. A total of 6036 individual roadkills were registered, belonging to 53 species, 23 other taxa and 30 families of vertebrates, with herpetofauna being the most affected group followed by birds and mammals. The study evaluated seasonal variation in the overall roadkill pattern with highest mortality in the monsoon season 38.27% (n = 2310) and with peak casualties starting with the onset of rainfall (February and March) and during monsoons (July and August). The amphibian mortality was also found to be highest during the monsoon with 43.28% (n = 1575) of kills, as compared to the other three groups. NH-715 (new), therefore serves as a challenging passage for the animals, forming a major barrier for the faunal component of the Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong landscape. This study thus tried to reflect the often overlooked issue of roads and highways in terms of direct mortality of animals due to traffic and thereby can be helpful in understanding the seriousness of the situation and identifying prospective measures to be taken for sustainable coexistence of both animals and human. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:06 +020
  • Do the roadkills of different mammal species respond the same way to
           habitat and matrix'

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 65-85
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.73010
      Authors : Douglas William Cirino, Artur Lupinetti-Cunha, Carlos Henrique Freitas, Simone Rodrigues de Freitas : While road network expansion connects human settlements between themselves, it also leads to deforestation and land use changes, reducing the connectivity between natural habitat patches, and increasing roadkill risk. More than 30% of registered mammal roadkills in Brazil are concentrated in four species: Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox); Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo); Tamandua tetradactyla (collared anteater) and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), the latter being categorized as vulnerable by IUCN redlist. Our aim was to understand how these animals’ roadkills could be related to the land use proportions on landscapes all over the Brazilian territory, and investigate if the roadkill patterns differ among species. We collected secondary data on mammal roadkills (N = 2698) from several studies in different regions of Brazil. Using MapBiomas’ data on land use and land cover, we extracted landscape composition around each roadkill sample. Through the proportion of land use and land cover in the area of influence where the roadkill occurred, we built binomial GLM models and selected the best ones by Akaike Information Criteria. For crab-eating fox and the six-banded armadillo, the best models include matrix coverage resulting in increased roadkill risk, while both anteaters’ species have a habitat and a matrix component in their best models, with an interaction between the variables. These four species seem to be roadkilled in different landscape arrangements, but in all scenarios, anthropic areas had an important influence over the models. For habitat-dependent and more sensible species, such as Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, the amount of matrix influencing the roadkill risk depends on habitat availability in the landscape. It changes the strength and direction of the effect according to the proportion of natural areas in the region, while with generalist species such as Cerdocyon thous and Euphractus sexcinctus, the quantity of human-modified coverage increases the risk. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:05 +020
  • Rapid linear transport infrastructure development in the Carpathians: A
           major threat to the integrity of ecological connectivity for large

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 35-63
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.71807
      Authors : Cristian-Remus Papp, Ivo Dostál, Václav Hlaváč, Gavril Marius Berchi, Dušan Romportl : The development of sustainable transport is a key challenge in societies where there is an accelerated need for socio-economic development. This is the case for seven countries from central and south-eastern Europe that share the Carpathian Mountains. The challenge of developing sustainable transport requires transdisciplinary, or at least cross-sectoral cooperation, between the transport development and nature conservation sectors. Such cooperation is not in the culture of the Carpathian countries, which together host some of the most remarkable biodiversity values in Europe, including the largest populations of brown bear, grey wolf and Eurasian lynx. The overall length of motorways in these countries more than quintupled in the last 30 years and the rapid expansion of Linear Transport Infrastructure (LTI) continues at exacerbating rates. The rich biodiversity habitats are being fragmented and the concept of ecological connectivity is poorly understood and implemented by the national authorities. Ecological networks for large carnivores are not defined nor officially recognised in the Carpathian countries, with little exceptions. The legislation is not consistent across the strands of ecological connectivity and is not harmonised between the countries to effectively support transnational conservation efforts. Thus, the critical intersections between planned or even existing LTI and ecological corridors for large carnivores cannot be identified, in most cases leading to increasing habitat fragmentation and isolation of wildlife populations in the region. We summarised all this key context-related information for the Carpathians in relation to LTI development and ecological connectivity. To counteract this trend in the Carpathian ecoregion, we propose a set of recommendations to: improve and harmonise the legislation; develop and endorse methodologies for designating ecological corridors; address the cumulative impact on ecological connectivity; define other threats on landscape permeability; improve stakeholder engagement, cooperation and communication; develop comprehensive and transparent biodiversity and transport databases; monitor wildlife and transport for implementing most appropriate mitigation measures and strategies; build capacity to address the issue of sustainable transportation; and foster transnational cooperation and dialogue. Bringing these elements together will support the design of ecological networks in a way that considers the needs and location of both current and future habitats and contribute to efforts to address the climate crisis. These specific recommendations are relevant also for other areas of the world facing similar problems as the Carpathians. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:04 +020
  • Germany’s federal waterways – A linear infrastructure network for
           nature and transport

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 15-33
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.70732
      Authors : Volker Steege, Dirk Engelbart, Nicole T. Hädicke, Kai Schäfer, Jennifer K. Wey : Major rivers are unique linear structures because they serve different purposes simultaneously: A habitat and dispersal route for flora and fauna as well as a navigation route, the site for recreational and economic activities and a source for drinking water and irrigation. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that waterways must be developed in an environmentally and economically sustainable and socially responsible manner. The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) and its specialised agencies – the Waterways and Shipping Administration of the German Federal Government (WSV), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) and the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) – are aiming to achieve this goal by integrating environmental issues into the development and maintenance of waterways. This paper aims to fill the gap on the one hand between scientific analyses of ecological freshwater status and proposals for its improvement, and, on the other hand, bringing this knowledge into practical realisation. Recent activities at the German federal waterways are exemplarily reviewed on the basis of applied research projects, local projects, political programmes and progressive legislation. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:03 +020
  • Promoting ecological solutions for sustainable infrastructure

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 9-13
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.81621
      Authors : Anders Sjölund, Yannick Autret, Marita Boettcher, Julie de Bouville, Lazaros E. Georgiadis, Elke Hahn, Agnès Hallosserie, Adam Hofland, Jean-François Lesigne, Antonio Mira, Charlotte Navarro, Carme Rosell, Tony Sangwine, Andreas Seiler, Paul Wagner : Linear infrastructure networks such as roads, railways, navigation and irrigation canals, and power lines have grown exponentially since the mid-20th century. Most of these networks built before the 1990s have a significant impact on the environment. While there is no doubt that humanity needs infrastructure to ensure safe, secure and sufficient access to food, water and energy, it is essential to prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystems which are also at the basis of the provision of such fundamental services. Those complex, interconnected issues cannot be tackled without research and innovation, both in the fields of biodiversity and of infrastructure.IENE (Infrastructure Ecology Network Europe) was set up in 1996 to meet this need. Its mission is to promote the exchange of knowledge, experience and best practice in safe and sustainable pan-European transport infrastructure. With a status of an association today, this independent network has more than 400 members consisting of researchers, engineers, decision makers and infrastructure operators. IENE functions as an international and interdisciplinary forum. It supports cross-border cooperation in research, mitigation, planning, design, construction and maintenance in the field of biodiversity and transport infrastructure.Every two years, IENE organises an international conference to present cutting-edge research, identify pressing issues and problems, discuss effective solutions and map out future activities in the field of transport ecology and infrastructure. We are very glad to present you in this special issue some of the best scientific outcomes of the IENE 2020 conference, hoping that it will contribute to further breakthroughs in science and uptake in policy-making and practices on the ground. We commend the organising team of the University of Evora, Portugal, for their excellent programming of the conference and for having gathered exceptional scientists on the topic of biodiversity and infrastructure. They managed to host a high-quality event, despite the many adjustments that had to be done because of the covid-19, including postponing the conference to January 2021 and holding it entirely online.The topic of IENE conference 2020 was “Linear Infrastructure Networks with Ecological Solutions” and the motto was “working together”. This means that every stakeholder has a role to play, and that biodiversity should be considered at all governance scales and during all phases of the set-up of infrastructure. The papers selected here are of particular interest to follow the path set forth in the conference’s final declaration, that is included in this issue. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:02 +020
  • Ecological Solutions for Linear Infrastructure Networks: The key to
           green infrastructure development

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 47: 1-8
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.47.81795
      Authors : Sara Santos, Clara Grilo, Fraser Shilling, Manisha Bhardwaj, Cristian Remus Papp : HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 15:00:01 +020
  • Drivers of snow leopard poaching and trade in Pakistan and
           implications for management

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 46: 49-62
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.46.76036
      Authors : Jaffar Ud Din, Fathul Bari, Hussain Ali, Ejaz ur Rehman, Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli, Nurul Ashikin Abdullah, Yusoff Norma-Rashid, Muhammad Kabir, Shoaib Hameed, Doost Ali Nawaz, Muhammad Ali Nawaz : The snow leopard is one of the highly valued species from high-altitude mountain ecosystems of Central and Southeast Asia, including Pakistan. This keystone species is facing a myriad of conventional and emerging threats, including poaching and trade, that are poorly documented in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics and drivers of the poaching and trading of snow leopards in Pakistan, we investigated the issue in depth through a multifaceted survey in the snow leopard range of the country. We recorded 101 snow leopard poaching incidences from 11 districts during 2005–2017. The reported poaching incidences varied spatially (x̄ = 9 ± 2.6 [95% Cl: 3–15]) and temporally (x̄ = 7.8 ± 1.09) and accounted for 2–4% annual population loss (n = 200–420) in a period of 13 years. Poaching and trade together constituted 89% of the total incidence reported and animals were mostly shot (66%), poisoned (12%), snared (12%) and captured (4%), respectively. Only a fraction (3%) of the incidences were reported to the relevant law enforcement agencies. Trade routes included large cities and neighbouring countries, even the Middle East and Europe. The average base and end prices for each item were 245 ± 36 USD and 1,736 ± 520 USD, respectively, while maximum monetary fines set as per the law were 275 USD. Our results establish the need for developing multi-stakeholder coordination mechanisms at regional, national and international levels and information sharing to curb this menace. Improving the existing laws and surveillance system, while taking the local communities onboard, will further help to this end. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Mar 2022 09:48:32 +0200
  • Online trade as a serious additional threat to the Critically
           Endangered silvery pigeon Columba argentina in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 46: 41-48
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.46.80064
      Authors : Simon Bruslund, Boyd Leupen, Chris R. Shepherd, S. Sunny Nelson : The elusive and Critically Endangered silvery pigeon Columba argentina is only found on small offshore islands in western Indonesia and Malaysia. Historically, trade records have suggested that, in addition to habitat degradation and invasive predators, commercial exploitation could be a threat to the species. The current study confirms this to be the case, with a relatively high volume of silvery pigeons found offered for sale on social media platforms in Indonesia between October and December 2021. The trade numbers (at least 10 individuals) observed within this short period exceeded 20% of the global silvery pigeon population according to the latest Red List assessment, suggesting that actual population numbers may be larger than previously thought but also confirming that trade poses a considerable threat. Some of the recorded posts were in new areas within the species’ presumed range, further suggesting that the population may be slightly larger than hitherto assessed. The reported trade observations are reason for grave concern, particularly given the potential interest of international collectors which could further drive demand and increase prices. Due to the locations of the observed online trade we recommend timely field surveys to confirm the species’ presence and current status, particularly in the Riau-Lingga island group, as well as the development of a species conservation action plan to catalyse local and regional efforts to tackle the current illegal trade and work towards the regulation of international trade. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Feb 2022 10:19:25 +020
  • Conservation biology meets medical science

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 46: 39-40
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.46.79204
      Authors : Dirk S. Schmeller : In my letter I refer to publications around syndemics, and link them up to other health concepts, calling for a stronger link between medical, social and environmental sciences to advance the global management of pandemic threats. Calling for close collaboration of ecological and conservation sciences with medical sciences is very timely. This letter will raise awareness that concepts like EcoHealth, OneHealth and medical terms such as Syndemics are largely overlapping and that only a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach will move our understanding forward on the inextricable link of human health and environmental health. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 1 Feb 2022 10:45:30 +0200
  • Dissecting the illegal pangolin trade in China: An insight from
           seizures data reports

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 46: 17-38
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.45.57962
      Authors : James Kehinde Omifolaji, Alice C. Hughes, Abubakar Sadiq Ibrahim, Jinfeng Zhou, Siyuan Zhang, Emmanuel Tersea Ikyaagba, Xiaofeng Luan : Wildlife trafficking poses a major threat to global biodiversity. Species such as pangolins are particularly vulnerable and trade continues almost unabated despite numerous interventions aimed at eradicating illegal wildlife trade. Despite restrictions on the pangolin trade, thousands of pangolins continue to be intercepted annually. We focused on China because of the recent delisting of pangolins from the Chinese pharmacopeia, and their removal from healthcare insurance, despite deeply ingrained traditions of having pangolins for ethno-medicinal use. We collated pangolin interception data from public online media seizure reports to characterize the pangolin trade within China, and found that a total of 326 independent seizures equivalent to 143,130 pangolins (31,676 individuals and 222,908 kg of scale) were reported in 26 provinces. Pangolin domestic seizures are greatest in the southern cities of Dehong, Fangchenggang, and Guangzhou. Also, we found 17 countries within the global pangolins range which were the major source of the pangolin shipments to China. The number of arrests and convictions was much lower than the number of pangolin incidents reported. Our results show a significant increase in the volume of scales and number of live pangolin seizures after amended endangered species law came into effect in 2018, and recorded the highest number of individual pangolin interceptions. China has shown increasing wildlife seizures over time, owing partly to emergent trends in the international wildlife trade as well as increasing global demand for ethnomedicine. The future eradication of illegal wildlife trade in China is dependent not only on stringent border control and offender prosecution but also the; removal of other threatened species from the pharmacopeia and healthcare insurance which includes wildlife derivatives. Furthermore, our work highlights importance of current policy intervention to combat the pangolin trade within China, and the need for further interventions both within China and in export countries. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jan 2022 11:03:29 +020
  • Comparison of methods to estimate the size of Indian pangolin (Manis
           crassicaudata) scale seizures using species-specific conversion parameters

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 46: 1-16
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.46.71109
      Authors : Hirusha Randimal Algewatta, Priyan Perera : The absence of robust species-specific methods to estimate the number of animals in seizures of pangolin scales is a major barrier to effective law enforcement. Therefore, studies focused on developing methods to establish accurate conversion parameters are a priority. This study proposes improved methods to estimate the number of pangolins in the illegal trade to inform law-enforcing authorities. Based on the observations of 25 specimens, Indian pangolins were on average found to possess 511 scales. Three morph-types of scales were identified: broad rhombic (n=411), elongated kite shape (n=69), and folded scales (n=31). The mean dry weight of the three-scale morph-types was 7.5 g, 4.9 g, and 6.2 g. Based on the average frequency and mean dry weight of each scale morph type, the species-specific dry weight of scales for Indian pangolins was 3.6 kg. Accordingly, we propose new and improved methods based on scale morph-type frequencies and species-specific dry weight of scales to estimate the number of Indian pangolins from quantities of scales. Their accuracy was compared with current methods, and the improved methods were found to be more accurate. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 11:00:46 +020
  • Risks and opportunities of assisted colonization: the perspectives
           of experts

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 45: 63-84
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.45.72554
      Authors : Irma Kracke, Franz Essl, Klaus Peter Zulka, Stefan Schindler : Owing to climate change and other anthropogenic environmental changes, the suitability of locations is changing for many biota that consequently have to adapt in situ or to move to other areas. To mitigate the effects of such pressures, assisted colonization is a conservation tool developed to reduce extinction risks by intentionally moving and releasing an organism outside its native range, and thus, to facilitate tracking changing environmental conditions. This conservation tool has been proposed for threatened animals or plants that presumably cannot adapt in situ or follow environmental changes by dispersal or migration. However, there have been contentious debates about the shortcomings and risks of implementing assisted colonization. For this reason, we evaluated the specific opinions of global experts for assisted colonization on potential risks and opportunities that this approach offers. For this purpose, we used an online survey targeted at authors of scientific publications on assisted colonization. The majority (82%) of the 48 respondents were in favor of applying assisted colonization for species that are at risk of global extinction due to anthropogenic environmental change. Most respondents agreed that assisted colonization should be considered only when other conservation tools are not available and that certain preconditions must be met. Some of these were already highlighted in the IUCN guidelines for assisted colonization and include a completed risk assessment, clearly defined management plans and secured political as well as financial support. The advocacy of assisted colonization in response to anthropogenic global environmental changes was only weakly dependent on the geographic origin of the experts and their working background. Regarding possible risks, most of the respondents were concerned about consequences like failure of the long-term establishment of the translocated species and the transmission of diseases and invasiveness potentially endangering native biota. To keep these risks as low as possible most of the experts agreed that a target area must have a reasonable carrying capacity to sustain a minimum viable population and that adaptive management should be implemented. Careful evaluation of assisted colonization projects is required to generate further evidence that needs to be considered for further developing conservation tools for the Anthropocene. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 11:33:43 +020
  • Waterbird assemblages of inland wetlands in Chile: A meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 45: 41-61
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.45.74062
      Authors : María L. Miranda-García, Andrés Muñoz-Pedreros, Heraldo V. Norambuena : Chile has a large number of wetlands that offer a wide variety of refuges and food to waterbird assemblages. This research hypothesises that these assemblages differ according to the structural characteristics of each type of inland wetland. The object is to identify the structure of these assemblages, evaluating their richness, alpha α diversity and some ecological characteristics, taxonomic structures and trophic guilds. We performed a meta-analysis by submitting pre-selected articles to multivariate reliability analysis. The selected articles were used to characterise the assemblages by alpha α diversity: species richness, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou’s Evenness Index, relative abundance and taxonomic distinctiveness Δ + and beta β diversity: Bray-Curtis with analysis of similarity percentage. Diversity and evenness differed in the seven wetlands studied, among 12 to 45 species, Shannon-Wiener index H’= 0.08 to 0.94 bits and Pielou’s Evenness Index J’= 0.06 to 0.71. Four wetlands were below and three above the expected value for taxonomic distinctiveness (Δ +) (73.2 units). Two clusters were identified using the β diversity: one consisting of the High-Andean wetlands (Huasco and Negro Francisco); and the other of El Peral lagoon, the Cruces River wetlands complex and the Tranque San Rafael man-made wetland. The most remarkable dissimilarity was provided by three species (Cygnus melancoryphus, Phoenicoparrus jamesi and Phoenicoparrus andinus). Zoophagous species that eat invertebrates by the first choice are the dominant group, while in lagoon wetlands phytophages and omnivores are more evenly represented. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 11:33:16 +020
  • Tropical Important Plant Areas, plant species richness and conservation
           in the British Virgin Islands

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 45: 11-39
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.45.73544
      Authors : Michele Dani Sanchez, Colin Clubbe, Nancy Woodfield-Pascoe, Sara Bárrios, Joseph Smith Abbott, Thomas Heller, Natasha Harrigan, Keith Grant, Cassander Titley-O'Neal, Martin Allen Hamilton : The global loss of biodiversity is a pressing and urgent issue and halting loss is the focus of many international agreements and targets. However, data on species distribution, threats and protection are limited and sometimes lacking in many parts of the world. The British Virgin Islands (BVI), part of the Puerto Rican Bank Floristic Region in the Caribbean Biodiversity Hotspot, is rich in plant diversity and regional endemism. Despite the established network of National Parks in the BVI and decades of botanical data from international collaboration between the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands, there was a need for consolidated data on species distribution across the archipelago and national lists for threatened and rare plants of conservation concern. The process of identifying the network of 18 Tropical Important Plant Areas (TIPAs) in the BVI, completed in 2018, delivered national lists and accurate data for all 35 Species of Conservation Concern. These data (3688 georeferenced records) are analysed here to reveal species distribution across the archipelago, within the TIPAs network and the National Parks System. The TIPAs network contained all 35 Species of Conservation Concern and 91% of all the records, as expected. Ten out of the 21 National Parks had one or more of the species present. Most species occur across the archipelago, while some are restricted range and/or endemics. These new data will help management of plant conservation efforts and resources in the BVI, contributing to the revision of the Protected Areas System Plan and local environmental policies and have relevance to the wider Caribbean Region. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 8 Dec 2021 11:19:38 +0200
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of vegetation conservation on a sacred
           mountain in western China

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 45: 1-9
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.45.72215
      Authors : Zhaoyang Cao, Liang Dou, Nan Yang, Kai Zhang, Bin Wang, Yu Xu, Jianghong Ran : Sacred natural sites, as probably the oldest form of habitat reserve for religious or cultural causes worldwide, are suggested to have an important role in conserving vegetation; however, there are insufficient data supporting the detailed implications of such sites for vegetation conservation. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of vegetation conservation on a Tibetan sacred mountain in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, by investigating species richness and the structural attributes of higher vascular plant communities on and around the sacred mountain from April to June 2009. The results showed that the number of tree species on the sacred mountain was significantly higher than that in the surrounding area, but there were no notable differences in the numbers of shrub and grass species between the two sites. The sacred mountain harbored a greater number of small, short trees compared with the surrounding area, wherein the low-shrub and grass understory was relatively dense. We conclude that the sacred mountain has a positive impact on indigenous vegetation protection, but disparities in the management of the allowed uses of such sites could reduce their conservation effectiveness. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Nov 2021 16:40:32 +020
  • Soundscapes and protected area conservation: Are noises in nature making
           people complacent'

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 177-195
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.69578
      Authors : Andrea Ednie, Trace Gale : This study explores how existing connections to natural places may affect PA visitors’ experiences and perceptions within the PA. Specifically, outside-the-PA soundscape perceptions are examined to better understand how their experiences outside the PA may affect perceptions of PA soundscapes and visitors’ ability to effectively contribute to conservation monitoring. Survey research (n=389) of recent urban visitors to the Chilean Coyhaique National Reserve (CNR) in Patagonia unpacked perceptions of the acoustic environments within the places where participants felt most connected to nature, including landscape features, favorite and prevalent sounds, and acceptability of particular anthrophonic sounds. Favorite and prevalent sounds were open-coded, and anthrophonic sounds were rated for prevalence and acceptability. The mountain landscape features and sounds (‘wind’, ‘running water’,‘ birds’) participants described as prominent within the places where they felt most connected to nature aligned well with CNR characteristics. Participants who ‘sometimes’‘/often’ heard certain anthropogenic sounds (vehicles, aircraft, machines, city sounds), within the places where they felt most connected to nature, rated those sounds as more acceptable than participants who reported ‘never’ hearing them, raising concerns about complacency toward anthrophony in natural settings. Continued research efforts are warranted to better understand visitors’ frames of reference, their influence on the reliability of social norm data for PA soundscape monitoring, and their influence on PA managers’ ability to protect conservation values. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 16:01:09 +020
  • India’s use of CITES Appendix III

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 163-176
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.63688
      Authors : Sarah Heinrich, Lalita Gomez : India is one of the few countries to have made extensive use of Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), compared to other Parties to the Convention. Here we examine India’s use of Appendix III and illustrate its benefits and limitations, using examples of species listed by India in Appendix III. Since its ratification of CITES in 1976, India has listed 39 taxa in Appendix III, 27 species and six subspecies listings of which are still current. Through the listings, important international trade data was gathered, some of which have supported the decision for application to a different CITES Appendix with stricter trade controls. However, the majority of the species have been listed for more than 30 years and a re-evaluation of their listing status and suitability for Appendix III may be warranted. The same applies to the reservations entered by several Parties. We provide recommendations on how to make some of the current listings more effective and encourage other Parties to evaluate their native, non-CITES listed species and, if warranted, to make use of Appendix III to contribute to the conservation of their native wildlife. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Oct 2021 11:19:02 +030
  • Distribution range and population viability of Emys orbicularis in
           Slovakia: a review with conservation implications

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 141-161
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.69644
      Authors : Enikő Horváth, Martina Martvoňová, Stanislav Danko, Peter Havaš, Peter Kaňuch, Marcel Uhrin : The European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) is the only native freshwater turtle species in Slovakia. Due to watercourse regulations in the middle of the 20th century, its range became fragmented and, currently, there are only two isolated populations. From a total of 1,236 historical records in Slovakia, most observations (782 records) came from the area of the Tajba National Nature Reserve (NNR). Three of the population viability analysis models (‘baseline’, ‘catastrophe’, ‘nest protection during a catastrophe’) indicated the extinction of the population in Tajba, with the highest probability of extinction occurring during a catastrophic event (probability of extinction 1.00). We also evaluated information about the activity patterns of seven radio-tracked individuals and about the number of destroyed nests from the area. During the period 2017–2021, we recorded only two turtles leaving the aquatic habitat of Tajba. An alarming fact is the massive number of destroyed nests found in the area during the study period (Tajba 524; Poľany 56). Our results indicate that the population in the Tajba NNR require immediate application of management steps to ensure its long-term survival. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 13:27:56 +030
  • Economic effects of climate change on global agricultural production

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 117-139
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.64296
      Authors : Dániel Fróna, János Szenderák, Mónika Harangi-Rákos : Climate change seems to be larger, more complex and more unpredictable than any other environmental problem. This review deals with the economic effects of climate change on global agricultural production. The causes and consequences of climate change are very diverse, while populations in low-income countries are increasingly exposed to its negative effects. Supplying the population with food is possible with increased agricultural production, but this often occurs under unsustainable circumstances. Increased agricultural production is also one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. In this research we highlight some of the important connections between climate change, population growth and agricultural production. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Sep 2021 17:55:45 +0300
  • Structural diversity and conservation implications of Parrotia subaequalis
           (Hamamelidaceae), a rare and endangered tree species in China

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 99-115
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.69404
      Authors : Jie Liu, Guang-Fu Zhang, Xue Li : Parrotia subaequalis (H. T. Chang) R.M. Hao & H.T. Wei is a rare and endangered Tertiary relict tree that is endemic to subtropical China. However, little is known about its growth condition and relationship with associated tree species. Here, for the first time we measured the structural diversity of P. subaequalis communities at three representative sites in eastern China using four structural indices, including mingling, tree-tree distance, and diameter and tree height differences. The results showed that: 1) Collectively, most P. subaequalis and associated tree species were small and mid-sized classes in tree height, and small-sized class in diameter; 2) There were two or more other tree species around most of P. subaequalis individuals across the three sites; 3) Overall, the mean distance between reference trees and their neighbors was mainly 1–2 m. Our results indicated that a strong interspecific competition existed between P. subaequalis and its associated tree species. Meanwhile, although the reference tree P. subaequalis had slight advantages in both horizontal and vertical planes, we think that it is necessary to take some effective measures to reduce the interspecific competition and thereby keep it at a proper successive stage. In addition, we also discuss the protection level of P. subaequalis in China, and propose to keep this species at the First-Grade State Protection. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Aug 2021 13:43:05 +030
  • Development evaluation of nature reserves under China’s forestry
           department: A spatiotemporal empirical study at the province level

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 81-97
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.65488
      Authors : Xin Zhao, Jie Zhang, Hui Guo : It is important to evaluate the development level of nature reserves. In this study, we aimed to assess the development level of nature reserves under the administration of China’s forestry department in 31 provincial-level regions from 2005 to 2017 (excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Province). For this purpose, we analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution of nature reserve development in different regions using projection pursuit and spatial econometric methods. In terms of temporal distribution, the development level of nature reserves has been steadily improving, and the growth rate showed the trend of “strong fast” and “weak slow”. However, the development gap among different provinces is large. In terms of spatial distribution, the development of nature reserves presented the characteristics of “high in the west and low in the east” and “high in the north and south and low in the middle.” The endowment of natural resources, scientific research, and investment has a considerable effect on the development level of nature reserves. This study provides suggestions for the differential construction and sustainable development of nature reserves in China. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jul 2021 09:30:02 +030
  • Zoos consenting to the illegal wildlife trade – the earless monitor
           lizard as a case study

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 69-79
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.65124
      Authors : Vincent Nijman : The illegal wildlife trade has direct relevance for zoo management, animal acquisition and disposition and it has no place in modern zoo management. Zoos must not only act within the law of the country in which it is based, but they should also follow the rules and intentions of international trade regulations and, where relevant, domestic laws of the animal’s country of origin. After its rediscovery in 2012, zoos in Asia and Europe started displaying Bornean earless monitor lizards (Lanthanotus borneensis), the ‘Holy Grail of Herpetology’. Earless monitor lizards have been legally protected in each of its three range countries for over four decades and, over this period, no specimen has ever been legally exported. However, the illicit trade in the species is thriving and individuals become more affordable. Using publicly available data, I present a timeline of how and from where a total of 16 zoos acquired their earless monitor lizards, including from private individuals and non-accredited zoos. Apart from one zoo in Japan (since 2012) and one zoo in the USA (since 2021), all non-range country zoos that currently display the species are based in Europe. Their absence prior to 2021 in US zoos (despite an increasing illegal trade) could be explained as the acquisition of earless monitor lizards would have been in violation of the Lacey Act (1900) that requires buyers to ensure that imported or purchased wildlife has not been taken in violation of any foreign law. While there is no evidence that any of the zoos, their directors or their staff have broken any laws – no-one in the zoo community has been convicted for illegally trading earless monitor lizards – with more zoos speaking out against the illegal wildlife trade, it is imperative that zoos behave in an exemplary manner and set high standards. At present, some zoos do not meet this standard. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jun 2021 09:55:26 +030
  • Recreation effects on wildlife: a review of potential quantitative

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 51-68
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.63270
      Authors : Jeremy S. Dertien, Courtney L. Larson, Sarah E. Reed : Outdoor recreation is increasingly recognised for its deleterious effects on wildlife individuals and populations. However, planners and natural resource managers lack robust scientific recommendations for the design of recreation infrastructure and management of recreation activities. We reviewed 38 years of research on the effect of non-consumptive recreation on wildlife to attempt to identify effect thresholds or the point at which recreation begins to exhibit behavioural or physiological change to wildlife. We found that 53 of 330 articles identified a quantitative threshold. The majority of threshold articles focused on bird or mammal species and measured the distance to people or to a trail. Threshold distances varied substantially within and amongst taxonomic groups. Threshold distances for wading and passerine birds were generally less than 100 m, whereas they were greater than 400 m for hawks and eagles. Mammal threshold distances varied widely from 50 m for small rodents to 1,000 m for large ungulates. We did not find a significant difference between threshold distances of different recreation activity groups, likely based in part on low sample size. There were large gaps in scientific literature regarding several recreation variables and taxonomic groups including amphibians, invertebrates and reptiles. Our findings exhibit the need for studies to measure continuous variables of recreation extent and magnitude, not only to detect effects of recreation on wildlife, but also to identify effect thresholds when and where recreation begins or ceases to affect wildlife. Such considerations in studies of recreation ecology could provide robust scientific recommendations for planners and natural resource managers for the design of recreation infrastructure and management of recreation activities. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 28 May 2021 10:19:18 +030
  • Plant diversity assessment of karst limestone, a case study of
           Malaysia’s Batu Caves

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 21-49
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.60175
      Authors : Ruth Kiew, Rafidah Abdul Rahman : Batu Caves hill is typical of karst hills in Peninsular Malaysia due to its small size and high biodiversity. It harbours 366 vascular plant species that represent about 25% of the Peninsula’s limestone flora. Five species are endemic to Batu Caves and 23 are threatened species. This high biodiversity is the result of many microhabitats, each with their own assemblages of species. Threats are especially severe as the area of Batu Caves is surrounded by urbanisation that encroaches to the foot of cliffs, is vulnerable to fire, habitat disturbance and, formerly, by quarrying. Assigning a Conservation Importance Score (CIS) to all species is quantitative and accurate, can be implemented rapidly and produces reproducible results. Species with highest CIS are native species of primary vegetation, restricted to limestone substrates, endangered conservation status and, in this case, endemic to Batu Caves. It allows not only species, but microhabitats, sites within a hill and different hills to be compared. By identifying and surveying all microhabitats and focusing on locating endemic and threatened species, maximum biodiversity can be captured. Of the 16 microhabitats identified, the most threatened were the buffer zone, lower levels of steep earth-covered slopes and cave entrances. Application of this method provides a scientific basis for balancing the need to protect microhabitats and sites with the highest CIS, with their multiple uses by various stakeholders, which, at Batu Caves, include the activities of cave temples and eco-recreation. It also provides a scientific quantitative method to compare hills to ensure that those hills with highest CIS are not released for mining. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 11 May 2021 10:06:30 +030
  • The contribution to wildlife conservation of an Italian Recovery Centre

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 44: 1-20
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.44.65528
      Authors : Gabriele Dessalvi, Enrico Borgo, Loris Galli : Wildlife recovery centres are widespread worldwide and their goal is the rehabilitation of wildlife and the subsequent release of healthy animals to appropriate habitats in the wild. The activity of the Genoese Wildlife Recovery Centre (CRAS) from 2015 to 2020 was analysed to assess its contribution to the conservation of biodiversity and to determine the main factors affecting the survival rate of the most abundant species. In particular, the analyses focused upon the cause, provenance and species of hospitalised animals, the seasonal distribution of recoveries and the outcomes of hospitalisation in the different species. In addition, an in-depth analysis of the anthropogenic causes was conducted, with a particular focus on attempts of predation by domestic animals, especially cats. Significantly, 96.8% of animals hospitalised came from Liguria, the region in north-western Italy where CRAS is located, with 44.8% coming from the most populated and urbanised areas of Genoa, indicating a positive correlation between population density and the number of recoveries. A total of 5881 wild animals belonging to 162 species were transferred to CRAS during the six years study period. The presence of summer migratory bird species and the high reproductive rates of most animals in summer resulted in a corresponding seasonal peak of treated animals. Birds represented 80.9% of entries; mammals accounted for 18.6% of hospitalisations; and about 0.5% of the entries were represented by reptiles and amphibians. Species protected by CITES and/or in IUCN Red List amounted to 8% of the total number of individuals. Consistent with results recorded elsewhere from Italy and other European countries, 53.9% of the specimens treated were released in nature; 4.7% were euthanised and 41.4% died. There was a significant difference between taxa in the frequency of individuals that were released, died or euthanised due to the intrinsic characteristics of species (more resistant or more adaptable to captivity than others) and/or to the types of debilitative occurrences common to each species (e.g. infections, wounds, traumas, fractures). A total of 14.2% of wildlife recovery was from injuries caused with certainty by people or domestic animals (human impact), with 54.3% of these hospitalised animals having been victims of predation attempts by domestic animals, mainly cats. The percentage of release in nature of animals hospitalised following human impact was significantly lower than overall cases (31.2% vs. 53.9%) due to the greater severity of the injuries. The percentage of animals released showed a further reduction to 27.1% amongst victims of predation attempts by pets. The work of Rehabilitation/Recovery Centres contributes to wildlife conservation. In particular, the CRAS in Genoa is a Centre with an increasing level of activity concerning the rehabilitation of species under CITES protection and/or included on the IUCN Red List. The contribution and experience of CRAS operators is critical for the success of ‘information campaigns’ aimed at limiting the number of stray dogs and cats because of their impact on wildlife. Therefore, the activity of a properly-managed CRAS can significantly contribute both directly and indirectly to wildlife conservation, resulting in important territorial safeguards for the protection of biodiversity. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 10 May 2021 08:47:19 +030
  • Genetic variability and conservation of the endangered Pannonian root vole
           in fragmented habitats of an agricultural landscape

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 167-191
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.58798
      Authors : Krisztina A. Kelemen, Felicita Urzi, Elena Buzan, Győző F. Horváth, Filip Tulis, Ivan Baláž : The distribution of the endangered glacial relict subspecies, the Pannonian root vole Alexandromys oeconomus mehelyi Éhik, 1928, is restricted to scattered localities in south-western Slovakia, which belong to the north-eastern zone of its range. Human-induced changes and fragmentation of the landscape have led to the gradual loss of suitable habitats and threaten its long-term survival. The study area in the Danubian Lowland is characterised by small habitat fragments and temporal fluctuations of the habitat area. Root voles were sampled at nine sites to study the level of genetic variability and structure of local subpopulations by scoring 13 microsatellite loci in 69 individuals. Genetic differentiation varied amongst local populations and we did not find a significant isolation-by-distance pattern. Bayesian clustering analysis suggested that dispersal effectively prevents marked genetic subdivision between studied habitat fragments. Significant pairwise differentiation between some subpopulations, however, may be the result of putatively suppressed gene flow. Low genetic diversity in the recent populations probably reflects the isolated location of the study area in the agricultural landscape, suggesting that long-term survival may not be assured. In order to maintain genetic diversity, it is essential to preserve (or even restore) habitats and ensure the possibility of gene flow; habitat protection is, therefore, recommended. Continuous assessment is necessary for effective conservation management and to predict the long-term survival chances of the Pannonian root vole in the study area. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 7 May 2021 10:04:41 +0300
  • Potential changes in the distribution of Delphinium bolosii and related
           taxa of the series Fissa from the Iberian Peninsula under future climate
           change scenarios

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 147-166
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.63876
      Authors : Rubén Ramírez-Rodríguez, Manuel Melendo-Luque, Juan Diego Rus-Moreno, Francisco Amich : A particular threat posed by climate change for biodiversity conservation, one which has scarcely been studied, is the overlap of the potential distribution areas in phylogenetically closely related species. In this study, Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) was used to investigate the potential changes in the distribution of Delphinium bolosii and D. fissum subsp. sordidum under future climatic scenarios. These two closely related and endangered endemic species from the Iberian Peninsula do not have complete reproductive barriers between them. The two models selected different predictors with a similar effect in the biological cycle. Both taxa need low winter temperatures to break seed dormancy and sufficient rainfall to complete the flowering and fruiting stages. The current potential distribution areas of both taxa do not currently overlap. However, the results showed that potential changes may take place in the species’ distribution range under future climate scenarios. The models predict a reduction of the potential distribution area of D. bolosii while, conversely, the potential distribution area of D. fissum subsp. sordidum increased. In both cases, the predicted contraction in range is very high, and loss of habitat suitability in some current localities is worrying. Notwithstanding, the models do not predict overlaps of potential areas under climate change scenarios. Our findings can be used to define areas and populations of high priority for conservation or to take action against the impacts of climate change on these endangered species. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Apr 2021 09:52:06 +030
  • Genetic diversity and morphological characterisation of three turbot
           (Scophthalmus maximus L., 1758) populations along the Bulgarian Black Sea

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 123-146
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.64195
      Authors : Petya Ivanova, Nina Dzhembekova, Ivan Atanassov, Krasimir Rusanov, Violin Raykov, Ivelina Zlateva, Maria Yankova, Yordan Raev, Galin Nikolov : Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L., 1758) is a valuable commercial fish species classified as endangered. The conservation and sustainability of the turbot populations require knowledge of the population’s genetic structure and constant monitoring of its biodiversity. The present study was performed to evaluate the population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast using seven pairs of microsatellites, two mitochondrial DNA (COIII and CR) and 23 morphological (15 morphometric and 8 meristic) markers. A total of 72 specimens at three locations were genotyped and 59 alleles were identified. The observed number of alleles of microsatellites was more than the effective number of alleles. The overall mean values of observed (Ho) and expected heterogeneity (He) were 0.638 and 0.685. A high rate of migration between turbot populations (overall mean of Nm = 17.484), with the maximum value (19.498) between Shabla and Nesebar locations, was observed. This result corresponded to the low level of genetic differentiation amongst these populations (overall mean Fst = 0.014), but there was no correlation between genetic and geographical distance. A high level of genetic diversity in the populations was also observed. The average Garza-Williamson M index value for all populations was low (0.359), suggesting a reduction in genetic variation due to a founder effect or a genetic bottleneck. Concerning mitochondrial DNA, a total number of 17 haplotypes for COIII and 41 haplotypes for CR were identified. The mitochondrial DNA control region showed patterns with high haplotype diversity and very low nucleotide diversity, indicating a significant number of closely-related haplotypes and suggesting that this population may have undergone a recent expansion. Tajima’s D test and Fu’s FS test suggested recent population growth. Pairwise Fst values were very low. The admixture and lack of genetic structuring found pointed to the populations analysed probably belonging to the same genetic unit. Therefore, a proper understanding and a sound knowledge of the level and distribution of genetic diversity in turbot is an important prerequisite for successful sustainable development and conservation strategies to preserve their evolutionary potential. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Apr 2021 14:02:24 +030
  • Termites’ diversity in a protected park of the northern Sudanian
           savanna of Togo (West Africa)

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 79-91
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.59474
      Authors : Toblie Quashie Effowe, Boris Dodji Kasseney, Abdoulaye Baïla Ndiaye, Bassan Banibea Sanbena, Komina Amevoin, Isabelle Adolé Glitho : Termites occur in many ecosystems throughout tropical and subtropical areas. Their distribution is driven by several factors, including landscape and some soil characteristics. This study aims to determine soil organic matter’s role on termites’ diversity in a shrubby savanna park. Termites were sampled across transects in 3 sites of Galangashi park (northern part of Togo). The soil in which termites were harvested was analyzed to check organic matter’s influence on termites’ species richness. A total of 28 termite species belonging to 14 genera and 6 subfamilies were identified. Feeding group II (all fungus-growing termites, grass feeders, and wood feeders) was the most important among the three identified groups. Nine species (with two potentially new species for sciences: Amitermes sp and Eremotermes sp) were recorded for the first time in the country. A strong correlation was found between species richness, total organic matter, and total organic carbon, suggesting the influence of soil richness on termite distribution. The occurrence of the unique member of the feeding group I, Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri, 1912, as well as the occurrence of Fulleritermes tenebricus Silvestri, 1914 (both wood-dwelling termites), was certainly due to the vegetation. The relatively higher species richness as well as the correlation between the species richness and the organic matter of shrub savanna, suggest a better conservation of this landscape. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 9 Apr 2021 10:46:03 +0300
  • Natural strongholds for red squirrel conservation in Scotland

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 93-108
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.62864
      Authors : Andrew Slade, Andy White, Kenny Kortland, Peter W. W. Lurz : The Eurasian Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is under threat from the invasive North American eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with 80% of the remaining red squirrel populations in the British Isles found in Scotland. In this study we develop a spatially explicit mathematical model of the red and grey squirrel system and use it to assess the population viability of red squirrels across Scotland. In particular, we aim to identify existing forests – natural strongholds for red squirrels – that can successfully support red squirrels under UK Forestry Standard management and protect them from potential disease-mediated competition from grey squirrels. Our model results indicate that if current levels of grey squirrel control, which restrict or reduce the distribution of grey squirrels, are continued then there will be large expanses of forests in northern Scotland that support viable red squirrel populations. Model results that represent (hypothetical) scenarios where grey squirrel control no longer occurred indicated that grey squirrel range expansion and the process of red squirrel replacement would be slow. Model results for an assumed worst-case scenario where grey squirrels have expanded to all regions in Scotland identified forest regions – denoted natural strongholds – that could currently support red squirrels under UK Forestry Standard management practice. The results will be used to inform forest management policy and support a strategic review of red squirrel management by land management agencies and other stakeholders. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 9 Apr 2021 10:02:13 +0300
  • The illegal hunting and exploitation of porcupines for meat and medicine
           in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 109-122
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.62750
      Authors : Lalita Gomez : Indonesia is home to five species of porcupines, three of which are island endemics. While all five species are currently assessed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, impacts of harvest and trade have not been factored in. To gain a fuller understanding of the porcupine trade in Indonesia, this study examines seizure data of porcupines, their parts and derivatives from January 2013 to June 2020. A total of 39 incidents were obtained amounting to an estimated 452 porcupines. Various confiscated commodities revealed porcupines are traded for consumption, traditional medicine, trophies/charms as well as for privately run wildlife/recreational parks. Targeted hunting of porcupines for commercial international trade was also evident. Porcupines are also persecuted as agricultural pests and wildlife traffickers take advantage of such situations to procure animals for trade. What clearly emerges from this study is that porcupines are being illegally hunted and exploited throughout their range in Indonesia facilitated by poor enforcement and legislative weakness. Porcupines are in decline due to habitat loss, retaliatory killings and uncontrolled poaching. It is therefore crucial that effective conservation measures are taken sooner rather than later to prevent further depletion of these species. Including all porcupines as protected species under Indonesian wildlife laws and listing them in Appendix II of CITES to improve regulation, enforcement and monitoring of domestic and international trade trends involving porcupines in Indonesia would contribute significantly towards this end. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 9 Apr 2021 09:00:33 +0300
  • How do red deer react to increased visitor numbers' A case study on
           human-deer encounter probability and its effect on cortisol stress

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 55-78
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.56266
      Authors : Gabriel Dixon, Andrew S. Marriott, Graham Stelfox, Chris Dunkerley, Sven P. Batke : The numbers of visitors to greenspaces in the United Kingdom has increased over the last few years as the health benefits of spending time in greenspaces have become better known. This has led to problems for conservation ecologists due to increased numbers of reported human-wildlife encounters. Deer are often found in public spaces and are of particular concern. Previous research suggests elevated levels of stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) in deer is a result of increased human activity. This has been linked to several negative effects on the deer’s health. From a practitioner’s point of view, it is therefore important to implement effective management strategies that are based on scientific evidence to help ensure the welfare of managed deer populations. In an effort to identify the impact of visitor numbers on faecal cortisol concentrations, samples from 2 red deer (Cervus elaphus) herds in Lyme Park (Cheshire), United Kingdom, were collected and analysed. A predictive spatial model was developed based on logistic regression to identify areas within the park of low and high human-deer encounter probability. The faecal cortisol levels were found to be significantly higher on days with a high number of visitors. In addition, landscape features such as buildings and roads increased the probability of human-deer encounters, whereas woodland and scrub decreased the probability. However, human-deer encounter probability changed with distance to the features. By providing local park managers with this scientific data, these findings can directly inform current management efforts to reduce deer stress levels in Lyme Park. In addition, the spatial modelling method has the capacity to be implemented in other parks across the country with minimal cost and effort. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Feb 2021 14:23:03 +020
  • Community perceptions towards nature conservation in the Eastern Cape
           Province, South Africa

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 41-53
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.57935
      Authors : Daniel Angwenyi, Martin Potgieter, James Gambiza : Relationships between protected area managers and adjacent communities, as well as communities’ attitudes, views and perceptions of these areas, are critical for the success of conservation efforts. It is important for protected area managers and administrators to understand how local communities view these areas and their management, so that they can build sustainable working rel ationships. This paper is based on a survey of 375 semi-structured questionnaires administered to household heads, living at distances ranging from the edge of the reserves to 50 km away from the reserve boundary across the Great Fish River, Mkambati, Hluleka, and Tsolwana nature reserves in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The paper provides a longitudinal assessment of households’ knowledge about the role of reserves and the reserves’ impacts on livelihood assets. In addition to households’ knowledge about the role of reserves, the paper also provides an assessment of people’s attitudes towards their location and management, as well as views on the best way to manage the reserves. For 79% of community members, reserves were important as they were seen to conserve biodiversity and valuable ecological systems necessary for sustaining life. Most (75%) respondents indicated that closely located reserves gave them opportunities to learn about nature conservation and to subsidize their incomes through tourism ventures. However, 58% had a problem with reserves’ staff, due to restrictions on resource use, which negatively impacted their livelihoods. Over half (51%) of the households argued that sustainable conservation can only be achieved through an integrated approach where conservation and local communities’ needs are given equal weight. We concluded that reserve managers should look at communities as active partners in the management of protected areas if sustainable conservation objectives are to be realised. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Feb 2021 11:07:36 +020
  • The illegal exploitation of the Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and
           Sunda Clouded Leopard (Neofelis diardi) in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 25-39
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.59399
      Authors : Lalita Gomez, Chris R. Shepherd : Indonesia is home to the Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and the Sunda Clouded Leopard (Neofelis diardi), both of which are threatened by habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict issues and the illegal wildlife trade. Leopards and clouded leopards are threatened by the illegal wildlife trade across their range, however, very little is known of the illegal trade in these two species in Indonesia, or of the efforts made to tackle this crime. Both the Javan Leopard and Sunda Clouded Leopard are protected species in Indonesia and both species are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), meaning commercial international trade is generally prohibited. To better understand the trade, and efforts to end this trade, we collected records of seizures and prosecutions relating to Javan Leopards and Sunda Clouded Leopards in Indonesia for the period 2011–2019. Despite both species being protected by law, this study reveals the prevalence of extensive poaching, illegal domestic trade and international trafficking of both species. A total of 41 seizure records were obtained from 2011 to 2019, which was estimated to amount to approximately 83 animals, which likely represents only a fraction of the total number of cases and therefore the risk may be substantially greater. Approximately half of the cases resulted in successful prosecution and of these, the highest sentence given was 2 years in jail and a fine of IDR50mil (~USD3300). The majority of the penalties handed down for these crimes were far below the maximum potential penalties and are unlikely to be effective deterrents. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Feb 2021 09:33:49 +020
  • Predicting the effects of climate change on future freshwater fish
           diversity at global scale

    • Abstract: Nature Conservation 43: 1-24
      DOI : 10.3897/natureconservation.43.58997
      Authors : Ana Manjarrés-Hernández, Cástor Guisande, Emilio García-Roselló, Juergen Heine, Patricia Pelayo-Villamil, Elisa Pérez-Costas, Luis González-Vilas, Jacinto González-Dacosta, Santiago R. Duque, Carlos Granado-Lorencio, Jorge M. Lobo : The aim of the present study was to predict future changes in biodiversity attributes (richness, rarity, heterogeneity, evenness, functional diversity and taxonomic diversity) of freshwater fish species in river basins around the world, under different climate scenarios. To do this, we use a new methodological approach implemented within the ModestR software (NOO3D) which allows estimating simple species distribution predictions for future climatic scenarios. Data from 16,825 freshwater fish species were used, representing a total of 1,464,232 occurrence records. WorldClim 1.4 variables representing average climate variables for the 1960–1990 period, together with elevation measurements, were used as predictors in these distribution models, as well as in the selection of the most important variables that account for species distribution changes in two scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 6.0). The predictions produced suggest the extinction of almost half of current freshwater fish species in the coming decades, with a pronounced decline in tropical regions and a greater extinction likelihood for species with smaller body size and/or limited geographical ranges. HTML XML PDF
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jan 2021 10:50:18 +020
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