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ISSN (Print) 1803-8417 - ISSN (Online) 1803-8417
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Land Policy for Rural Development in the European Union and its Impact on
           Access to Land

    • Abstract: The concentration of farmland has potentially a negative impact on planning for local rural development as it impedes access to land for other rural initiatives. Land policies in the European Union aiming to reserve lands for local communities are constrained by principles of the EU single market, such as the free movement of capital and the freedom of establishment. Especially in several Central and Eastern European member states, the European Commission has critically reviewed policies to shield lands from the single market. This paper reviews and analysis this issue in relation to the planning for rural communities.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Looking Forward to When it is Over: Reactions and Short-Term Coping
           Micro-Strategies of Polish Fruit and Vegetable Farmers during the Covid-19

    • Abstract: The present paper focuses on farmers’ strategies for coping with the shock caused by the outbreak of the pandemic of COVID-19. Using the concept of farm resilience, which underlines the role of capacity and abilities as well as different actions undertaken in difficult situations, this study proposes an analytical framework of farmers’ coping short-term micro-strategies in relation to external crises, on the example of the COVID-19 pandemic. Taking into account academic literature, qualitative data gathered from fruit and vegetable producers in different regions in Poland and the information from sector experts, the paper outlines the varied consequences of the pandemic for farms, and also farmers’ diverse reactions to them. The findings from this study suggests that the analysed farms’ relative resilience to the crisis was achieved thanks to their available economic and social resources and the actions they undertook. The above-mentioned resources and activities were considered in the study primarily using the relational (process-based) approach, focusing on the ways of their creation, maintenance and adaptation. At the same time, the empirical material under analysis has shown that the adaptive measures adopted were short-term and did not respond to the farms’ permanent problems, which the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated significantly. It is assumed that presented results and proposed framework of farmers’ micro-strategies, which were taken during the pandemic, might be useful for future studies focusing on various external shocks as well as for research to be conducted in other CEE countries due to many common contextual factors that has shaped food practices and institutional arrangements.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Barriers to the Implementation of Smart Projects in Rural Areas, Small
           Towns, and the City in Brno Metropolitan Area

    • Abstract: The implementation of smart projects can contribute to solving the current development problems of municipalities and cities of varied sizes. Although the concept of smart development is a vague term in the literature, in practice it refers to projects based on the use of modern technologies, to improve the quality of life considering economic, social, and environmental dimensions. However, not all local governments in the Czech Republic implement smart projects, even though the smart city concept is currently receiving considerable attention from national governments and from the European Union. This paper characterizes the perception of barriers to the implementation of smart projects from the perspective of fifteen representatives and officials of local governments located in the Brno Metropolitan Area in the Czech Republic. The research was conducted using semi-structured interviews with these fifteen territorial actors. It was found that the barriers to the implementation of smart projects are related to internal factors in the municipalities, such as the lack of interest of municipal leaders and officials or potential technical complications accompanying the implementation of projects. However, external factors such as the Czech government’s vague grasp of the smart cities concept or cyber threats also play a role. Perceived barriers were categorized according to their type and schematized.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Key Aspects of the Relationship Between Sustainable Development Goals,
           Food Security and Agricultures in Ukraine

    • Abstract: According to the actual data of Ukraine, an analytical study of the main indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals 2 (SDG 2) was conducted on their impact on ensuring the achievement of the SDG. Depending on the type of indicator and the availability of information, the study period covers from 5 to 20 years. The study argues that food and agriculture are at the heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, proves and establishes key aspects of the SDG’s relationship with food security and agriculture in the global dimension and in Ukraine. In general, Ukraine has the same problems in the implementation of the SDGs and their relationship with the SDG2 as in the world, which allows the use of already developed international protocols and tools to improve the situation and ensure the achievement of the set goals. At the same time, there are a number of differences that require significant efforts from national and regional actors in solving the issues facing Ukraine in achieving the goals of sustainable development. First, the presence of contradictions, the causes of which often lie in the plane of political and/or economic corruption, and therefore it is difficult to resolve them. Second, outdated management system and the huge resistance of this system to any reforms, especially in the field of public administration. Particular attention should also be paid to established facts concerning significant differences in the values of the analyzed indicators in relation to rural and urban areas in Ukraine. The content of these processes requires deeper research and scientific discussion in further research, because only the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships will allow us to develop an effective strategy to eliminate the existing inequality for residents of urban and rural areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Integration of Local Resources in Search of a New Product – on the
           Example of the Lublin Region (Poland)

    • Abstract: Regional development is very much conditioned by the quality and quantity of internal resources, as well as the level of use that is or can be made of these. Local resources are often features, factors and phenomena in a defined territory that are unique in some way, of social or economic utility, and in a position to help steer development opportunities. They (can) play a particular role in regions whose development has remained weak, and in peripheral areas, given the possibility of them becoming major factors behind growth, if only they can be activated in an appropriate way. Against that background, the main aim of the work detailed here has been to conduct a structural reconnaissance of a given set of local resources and then to have these evaluated in the context of the potential development of new local products. As they capitalise on features of a multiplicity of local resources, the products referred to here may manifest a higher level of development potential. Consecutive parts of this study thus offer a conceptualisation of how such a new local product may be constructed, along with a specific diagnosis of the resources that can be involved, as these are manifested in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, located in SE Poland. Concrete proposals for local products are then made, in order to further illustrate the concept.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Awareness of Climate Change Impact and Adaptation in Agriculture –
           The Case of Albania

    • Abstract: The Albanian agriculture sector is deeply affected by climate change. To cope with climate change, it is necessary to understand its consequences. The views of agriculture extension service experts are crucial in improving farmers’ understanding and resilience, especially when farming practices are poorly adapted to the changing climate. This paper analyses the risks from climate change and the adaptive capacity of farmers based on an expert evaluation survey. The respondents identified prolongation of drought durations, rising temperatures, above-average occurrences of floods, pre-seasonal rainfall and frost as primary risks during recent years. Extension experts view a high (negative) impact from climate change through processes such as increased plant diseases occurrence, increased exposure to rodents, harmful insects and pests for plants and livestock, as well as forest and pasture degradation. The paper also provides experts’ opinions on the policy implications, such as considerations about adaptation strategies towards climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Population Dynamics of the Hungarian Villages 1995–2016

    • Abstract: In our pioneer study, we explore the number of population change in Hungarian villages based on the latest available statistical data (1995–2016), looking for the answer to whether the rapid and profound economic and social structural changes of post-socialism and the historically unique periods of accession to the European Union have rearranged the numerical dominance of the earlier largest rural population in Hungarian society. According to the concept of the post-socialist demographic turn, the population of the villages began to grow during the transformation crisis of the 1990s, and a significant part of the villages became marginalized. In contrast, agglomeration and suburbanization processes also intensified, which also contributed to changes in the number of villagers. We used the data of the Central Statistical Office (CSO) and the Regional Information System (RIS), which were organised into a new database for the purposes of the research. The theory and methods of the population dynamics approach emphasize the need for more complex demographic studies. We argue that the absolute population of the villages has greatly decreased, but this is only an apparent shift because it is a consequence of the administrative designation of a large number of villages as cities. The paper concludes that from 1995 to 2016 population number of villages with the same administrative classification (village) remained relatively stable, and this is radically different from previous research findings.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Food Relates: Positionings in Space, Time and Society in the German
           Language Pockets of Sauris and Timau (Italy)

    • Abstract: The author analyses positionings in space, time and society that inhabitants of Sauris and Timau, German language pockets in Friuli, construct in qualitative interviews about food. Positionings of the self are immanent when interviewees speak about, represent and relate to times they, their parents or grandparents have experienced, as well as frequented localities and known persons. Relations, which outreach the places, are established through the preparation and consumption of specific foods because it evokes memories, emotions, feelings, and transmits values. Dishes with dialectal German names that are associated with the place and food, which had been consumed daily in the agrarian past became particular. In order to negotiate meanings and to identify with places and people, common food preparation, consumption and reflections are necessary, and individual interpretations need to be accepted.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Assessing the Potential of Social Innovation and Local Agenda-Setting
           within Rural Development Programmes: Insights from Austrian Leader Regions

    • Abstract: Since the beginning of the 1990s, the LEADER programme has been implemented to promote positive development in rural areas in the EU through bottom-up approaches and community engagement. Lately, concerns have been raised about the capability of LEADER to foster social innovation and provide adequate room to manoeuvre for communities to set agendas locally. This paper attempts to engage in this discussion by analysing the implementation of rural development programmes, local ideas and experiences with LEADER and social innovation in four LEADER regions in Upper Austria (AT). Furthermore, the analysis outlines the projects implemented through LEADER to evaluate the possibilities for local agenda-setting. The research shows both the success of LEADER as a tool to instigate bottom-up and neoendogenous development and the need for additional institutional frameworks for community consultations if inclusive and forward-looking visions of rural development are to be fostered.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Public Institutions and Ngos Cooperation for Social Innovations in
           Post-Socialist Rural Poland

    • Abstract: Social innovation (SI), which is known as an alternative practice for solving social problems, can be implemented by various actors, including nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and public institutions. This article addresses the implementation of SIs by public institutions in rural areas of Poland. Its aim is to answer two questions: 1) Does cooperation with NGOs distinguish rural public institutions in Poland that have implemented SIs from those that have not' 2) Does the level of human and financial resources of NGOs affect the level of cooperation between public institutions and NGOs from rural gminas' The results of an internet survey conducted on a random sample of 330 public institutions and 400 one-to-one interviews conducted on a random sample of NGOs from rural communes (rural gminas) are presented to answer the research questions posed. According to the findings, collaboration between public institutions and NGOs does not distinguish institutions that implemented SI and those that did not. In addition, the level of human and financial resources of NGOs was not a factor in determining whether or not public institutions cooperated with NGOs.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social Farming in Czechia, Actors and Barriers

    • Abstract: The article deals with the state of social farming in Czechia, which is obviously in its infancy. The main barriers to development are the character of Czech agriculture, which is radically based on large-scale production and deliveries to large customers, insufficient cooperation of individual ministries and too narrow conception of the problem as care farming. At the same time, we can expect increasing demand for this type of management in the future. Some ideas for improving the situation are presented, the most important of which is the recognition of social farming by the public administration and the creation of a legal framework for its development.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mixing Up Apples and Pears Can Work – Case Study of an Innovative Model
           of Social Enterprise From Slovakia

    • Abstract: Social enterprises have the potential to address diverse issues, even when they fall off the radar of formal institutions e.g., by establishing partnerships that are new locally and nationally. The analysis offers a conceptual description of a model of social enterprise established by a regional self-government authority, that blends dual education and social economy and serves as an innovative agent of change. Case research was the approach used. The research revealed that the motivation behind the enterprise was social integration, increasing attractiveness of agriculture for young people and regional self-sufficiency. The partnership was recognized as the key element of the model design. The model brings social, economic and environmental change to employees and students but also to the whole environment. Such a model could be replicated and such collaboration could be put on the map of social enterprises.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Role and Functions of Stakeholders in the Development of Local Food
           Systems: Case of Lithuania

    • Abstract: This article based on the example of Lithuanian pilot areas (districts) aims to supplement the knowledge about the role and functions of stakeholders in the development of local food systems (hereinafter LFS). An analysis of the scientific literature has revealed a clear role of stakeholders in different countries, but this approach and experience are unique in each country. The results of the case study of Lithuania showed that an analysis of pilot areas and a questionnaire survey at the municipal level identified 14 institutions that could make a significant contribution to the organization of LFS. However, horizontal links between LFS stakeholders are relatively weak, functions and roles are not clearly defined in the pilot areas. Research methods used in the article: analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, document analysis, case study, questionnaire survey, logical abstraction, comparison method. The insights and results of this article contributed to a deeper understanding of LFS as a phenomenon in Lithuania, and from a practical point of view, other districts of Lithuania could discover, self-assess and adapt their LFS organization principles, identify stakeholders and their functions.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social Work in Social Farming in the Concept of Empowerment

    • Abstract: This article aims to present social farming from the perspective of social work; it, therefore, explores the added value of agriculture. More specifically, it adapts the concept of empowerment to the conditions of working with participants with disabilities on social farms. In general, the concept of empowerment is described as the acquisition and use of skills to meet one's own needs and gain control over one's own life. Further, the empowerment of groups and communities is understood as gaining rights and straightening the system. It is a systematic method of work used with people with health or social disadvantage, fragile groups and communities. Using participant observation protocols from the stays on different social farms gathered within the project led in four European countries, the form, benefits, and limits of the concept of empowerment are investigated in this alternative agricultural environment. The paper summarises that the process of empowerment on social farms takes several forms at the individual level. Still, when it comes to the acquisition of power by a group or community in conjunction with participation, the use of the concept is limited.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social Farming: A Systematic Literature Review of the Definition and

    • Abstract: The definition and understanding of the social farming (social agriculture) concept varies from country to country, depending on the specific conditions for its development. The contribution provides a systematic literature review of its definition and context. Scientific publications (134), which deal with the topic of social agriculture in different contexts within different geographical areas, and with different intensity over time, have been analysed. Special attention was paid to case studies. Most of the case studies dealt with Italy, The Netherlands, The United Kingdom and Norway. More than a third of the outputs address the issue of health effects of social farming. Social benefits are the second most frequent topic. Moreover, educational, environmental and economic effects of social agriculture are discussed in the analysed publications with a similar intensity. Green care (social agriculture) farms are significant players in rural development, and work and social inclusion, and can instantly and innovatively react to the local needs.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Potential of Including Social Farming Initiatives within Agroecological
           Transition in Hungarian Farms

    • Abstract: The European Model of Agriculture has been developed based on multifunctional agriculture that plays an essential role in increasing the vitality of rural areas in Europe. The agroecological approach is strongly related to multifunctional agriculture as well as social farming that is unique for visualising the social aspect of sustainability in agriculture. This paper aims to explore and evaluate the awareness and attitude of Hungarian farmers, based on indicators derived from in-depth interviews focused on agroecological transition, in order to identify possible spaces for social farming initiatives. For this purpose, the indicators are analysed using the existing 10 elements of agroecology created by FAO as a reference point. The aim of this analysis is to understand which basic element-related practices are preferred, whether social elements are included or not, and to determine which areas need to be strengthened in education in order to encourage farmers to be open to addressing social issues. The results of the research confirm indicators which are present in the daily practices of those farms that do not necessarily identify themselves as social farms. In addition to their willingness to potentially transition to agroecological systems, they have the basic elements and attitude to adopt social farming.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social Agriculture in Selected EU Countries: A Market Outlook

    • Abstract: Social agriculture is a fast-growing sector in Europe. There is a great diversity in the social agriculture landscape across Europe, depending on the national contexts. The settings in which social agriculture takes place, namely social farms, are innovative because they combine health care and social services with agricultural production. Different participant groups find their place on these social farms. Social agriculture can be beneficial for participants, providers, the environment and the wider society. In this paper, we give an overview of the social agriculture market situation in a selected number of European countries, namely the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium), Italy, Austria and Ireland. The country focus is largely dictated by the composition of, and the resources available to the project team undertaking this study. To explain how social agriculture is organised in the different European countries reviewed, three main frameworks are used: a multifunctional agriculture, public health and a social inclusion framework. In each of the countries under review, specific regulations, funding mechanisms, cultural values and support organisations provide different contexts for the evolution of social agriculture. A Market Outlook for social agriculture in these selected countries is undertaken which addresses the demand for and supply of such services, the profile of providers and beneficiaries, the key issues relating to funding, policy, certification/quality standards and future trends impacting on the sector. To make the European social agricultural sector more sustainable, it is important to broaden the activities and target groups, raise awareness, increase visibility via communication and tailor and secure funding for the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Some Aspects of Social Farming in Czechia

    • Abstract: Social farming (SF) has been developing dynamically in the Czech Republic in the last 10 years and enterprises are emerging and operating where the necessary conditions and environment are created for various people from target groups. The practice in the Czech Republic is to a large extent based on international practice and follows the basic outlines of the practice of mainly European countries. In these facilities, these persons often find employment or engage in various occupational therapy programmes in the provision of social services. Thus, in this analysis, we qualitatively focus on the identification of the basic factors why these farms come into existence and what are the main determining aspects for their functioning, which are based on the long-term experience of running a farm under the social farming concept. A guided qualitative interview method was chosen with respondents who have been operating in the country for a long time in the framework of the analysis, thus bringing in stimulating experiences that accompany them in their activities. The analysis is thus essentially a first experience in this field and raises a number of further questions that could be further deepened and refined, including in an international context.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spatial Trends of Grassland Changes Based on Hungarian Local Studies After
           1990 with a Macro-Regional Perspective

    • Abstract: Grasslands contribute to the ecological diversity of our cultural landscapes. In the last centuries, the most important trend was a constant loss of this valuable asset due to urbanization and the intensification of cultivation. Studies focusing on grasslands are not so abundant, and especially analyses on the spatial trends of grasslands in Eastern-Central Europe are scarce. Focusing on Hungarian local studies, we analyze our results from a macro-regional perspective, with a draft study of the V4 countries (Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland). The authors employed GIS and statistical methods to analyze data to explore trends of changes of grasslands in V4 countries, Hungary, and in three micro-regions of different landscape character. These include an open landscape, partly intensively cultivated (micro-region of Csorna), and two more diverse landscapes with different proportion of forests (micro-regions of Gönc and Veszprém). Our results show that very complex, sometimes opposite processes influence the area of grasslands. In spite of the fact that an increase in the area of grasslands is witnessed at both the national and the international level in absolute values, recently, unfavorable processes have started, and there are certain landscapes where grasslands are threatened especially natural grassland by forestation and grasslands where soil conditions are suitable for crop production. Our results showed that despite the different landscape conditions, the majority of grassland has been turned into arable land and into shrubs and forest area. The loss of pastures due to urban sprawl is a dominant process just around the built-up area of city of Veszprém in the most urbanized study area.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Emigrating to Depopulated Regions in Mediterranean Europe: Demographic
           Impact and Choice of Destination in a Case Study in North-East Spain

    • Abstract: International migration to depopulated areas is a growing field of research; even more so in Spain, one of the European countries most affected by depopulation. This paper analyses, first, the demographic impact of immigration from other countries in Aragon, which has undergone an intense and long process of depopulation throughout most of its territory. Second, we examine the factors that explain the immigrants’ choice of destination. The analysis focuses on the period 2000–2016. The basic territorial units of the analysis are the municipality (NUTS 5) and the county (NUTS 4).
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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