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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
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Biodiversity and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.243
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 180  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Historical reconstruction of sturgeon (Acipenser spp.)
           spatiotemporal distribution and causes for their decline in North-Western

    • PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Are protected areas working for endangered frogs in the Peruvian

    • Abstract: Abstract Assessments of the performance of protected-area (PA) networks for aquatic biodiversity conservation are rare yet essential for successful conservation of species. This is especially crucial in highly biodiverse, developing tropical countries where biodiversity loss is most pronounced. We assessed a PA network in the central Andes of Peru that encompasses parts of the geographical distribution of two endangered, endemic, high-elevation Telmatobius frogs. Sites within and beyond PA boundaries were classified into three different PA types: (a) strict-use (prohibits use by local inhabitants), (b) multi-use (allows some use by local inhabitants), and (c) unprotected (no restrictions). We conducted spatial analysis of species distributions, quantified species abundances and population trends, and measured potential threats and ecological integrity in each PA type. Spatial analysis indicated range contractions of 57.7% (T. macrostomus) and 69.0% (T. brachydactylus). Defaunation rates and species abundances in PAs were similar to those outside PAs. Poaching, livestock, and solid waste were the predominant threats. Analysis of ecological integrity indicated that strict-use sites had greater biotic index and habitat assessment scores compared to multi-use sites. These results suggest that despite benefits of greater ecological integrity in strict-use PAs, protection type has little effect on the conservation of aquatic species by itself. Protected areas are unlikely to be effective without better management of the trade-offs between cultural activities and biodiversity conservation. For PA networks to be of better conservation value for aquatic biodiversity in the developing world, they should be community-oriented and connect high-quality habitats, with their borders defined by catchments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
  • European Union’s Natura 2000 network: an effective tool for nature
           conservation' The relic pine forests of the Franconian Jura

    • Abstract: Abstract Land use change and intensification are the most important direct drivers of decreasing biodiversity globally. Therefore, the European Union created the Natura 2000 network to protect endangered species and habitats. Here we are interested how the ambitious European goals are actually implemented studying a Natura 2000 habitat, the “Sarmatic steppe pine forests” (Code 91U0) in a national hotspot of biodiversity in Franconia (Germany). These forests are a relic of the postglacial warm stage, preserved by human land use since the Neolithic, but are now heavily declining due to abandonment of traditional land use practices. Applying a long-term monitoring over 30 years including all existing (> 600) stands and a Random Forest classification model, we show that less than a quarter of the area of 1990 and only about 1% of 1950 still exists. Immigration of spruce and beech and forest conversion was responsible for this massive loss, impacting the light-demanding species composition. However, nearly no conservation efforts were undertaken, and replanting with broadleaved trees is still ongoing even after the designation as protected habitat in 2008. Therefore, these forests demonstrate how land use change and intensification (i.e. global change) continuously endanger a habitat protected by national and European law.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Conservation status of threatened land plants in China and priority sites
           for better conservation targets: distribution patterns and conservation
           gap analysis

    • Abstract: Abstract There are about 10% of the world’s land plants in China, of which 11% are threatened species. Here, we used China as a proxy to identify hotspots of threatened species, evaluate the effectiveness of current conservation networks and assess the correlations between distribution patterns of different groups. We built the most complete database of 3,881 species of threatened land plants in China (TLPCs) to date, based on 43,710 occurrence records at county level. A total of 467 counties identified as hotspot by species richness, complementarity, and weighted algorithms, mostly confined to the mountainous areas in southern China, which account for 15.58% of land area, however, hold 95.34% of the total TLPCs. The correlation analysis revealed weak to moderate relationship between the distribution patterns of three groups (bryophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms) and angiosperms of TLPCs. We found 86.34%, 84.05% and 95.77% of TLPCs protected by NNRs, PNRs and NRs [nature reserves, including both national NRs (NNRs) and provincial NRs (PNRs)], respectively. Besides, there were 41.11% and 18.84% of hotspots identified as conservation gaps of NNRs and NRs, respectively. In conclusion, the NNRs do not play a more dominant role in conserving TLPCs diversity in comparison to PNRs. We proposed that conservation planning need to be established in the periphery of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau due to a large number of hotspots and conservation gaps located in this area. Since a large proportion of unprotected TLPCs are critically endangered and narrow-ranged species, it is urgent to set priorities for their conservation in the nearest future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Fine-scale fern ecological responses inform on riparian forest habitat
           conservation status

    • Abstract: Abstract The recognition of the ecological quality of ecosystems and habitats therein is increasingly important in the Anthropocene. However, there are still scarcely explored ways of how and what to assess to obtain a sound ecological status of habitats. Ferns are an understudied plant group, especially given their usefulness as ecological indicators. Disentangling biotic and abiotic factors that drive fine-scale fern distribution could provide insight into the quality of their habitats. We investigated the environmental factors affecting the distribution of different largely distributed fern species in Europe. We studied their presence and abundance at different life stages in a forest habitat of European priority conservation concern. Our aim was to understand whether fern species can be used as an ecological indicator group in riparian alderwood habitat. We sampled 120 plots of 50 m2 in randomly selected transects along streams of a riparian forest habitat characterized by the presence of many fern species in the understory, controlling for the effects of geology and elevation. Within each plot, fern species were recorded, including vegetative and generative stages of each ramet (rosette of fronds). We modelled fern occurrence and abundance for the different fern life stages, and diversity indices of the fern community in relation to environmental predictors. We found that population- and community-level responses of ferns mainly depended on soil granulometry and, to a lesser extent, moss cover and stream orientation. We also found that the generative life stage compared to the vegetative adult stage benefits from different ecological characteristics for certain fern species. Alterations of the natural hydrology might lead to a general deterioration in habitat quality for ferns. We suggest that some fern species acting as early-warning species, and potentially their life stages, can be used as an ecological quality indicator for riparian forest habitats. This study deepened the understanding of the fine-scale ecology of an array of European ferns in riparian forests and provides valuable information to assist in the conservation of fern species and their populations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Commentary on Coram et al. (2021) on the use of Facebook to understand
           marine mammal stranding issues in Southeast Asia

    • Abstract: Abstract We reviewed Coram et al. (Biodivers Conserv 30:2341–2359, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02196-6), a paper that highlights the use of social media data to understand marine litter and marine mammals in Southeast Asia. While we commend its intent, we find that the methodology used and conclusions drawn portray an incomplete and inaccurate perception of how strandings, stranding response, and analysis of stranding data have been conducted in the region. By focusing on investigative results revealed by a very limited search of one social media platform (Facebook), using only English keywords, and insufficient ground-truthing, Coram et al. (2021) have, unintentionally, given the perception that Southeast Asian scientists have not conducted even the bare minimum of investigation required to better understand the issue of marine litter and its impact on marine mammals. In this commentary we provide a more accurate account of strandings research in Asia and include recommendations to improve future studies using social media to assess conservation issues.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
  • Cryptic extinction risk in a western Pacific lizard radiation

    • Abstract: Abstract Cryptic ecologies, the Wallacean Shortfall of undocumented species’ geographical ranges and the Linnaean Shortfall of undescribed diversity, are all major barriers to conservation assessment. When these factors overlap with drivers of extinction risk, such as insular distributions, the number of threatened species in a region or clade may be underestimated, a situation we term ‘cryptic extinction risk’. The genus Lepidodactylus is a diverse radiation of insular and arboreal geckos that occurs across the western Pacific. Previous work on Lepidodactylus showed evidence of evolutionary displacement around continental fringes, suggesting an inherent vulnerability to extinction from factors such as competition and predation. We sought to (1) comprehensively review status and threats, (2) estimate the number of undescribed species, and (3) estimate extinction risk in data deficient and candidate species, in Lepidodactylus. From our updated IUCN Red List assessment, 60% of the 58 recognized species are threatened (n = 15) or Data Deficient (n = 21), which is higher than reported for most other lizard groups. Species from the smaller and isolated Pacific islands are of greatest conservation concern, with most either threatened or Data Deficient, and all particularly vulnerable to invasive species. We estimated 32 undescribed candidate species and linear modelling predicted that an additional 18 species, among these and the data deficient species, are threatened with extinction. Focusing efforts to resolve the taxonomy and conservation status of key taxa, especially on small islands in the Pacific, is a high priority for conserving this remarkably diverse, yet poorly understood, lizard fauna. Our data highlight how cryptic ecologies and cryptic diversity combine and lead to significant underestimation of extinction risk.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
  • Climate warming in the Himalayas threatens biodiversity, ecosystem
           functioning and ecosystem services in the 21st century: is there a better

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity losses can lead to global environmental crisis. Humans utilize biodiversity for a variety of ecosystem services. However, what drives biodiversity losses have become a critical question during the 21st century. Lately, the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region in Asia, one of the world’s pristine habitats with the origin of majestic river systems including Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong, and Yangtze, has witnessed rapid climatic warming. The unprecedented rates of climate warming in HKH has threatened biodiversity losses, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services, and consequently the existence of mankind in the region. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Science and Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) highlight the risks to humanity arising from unsustainable use of natural resources and loss of biodiversity worldwide under rapid climate warming condition. In addition, the growing economic transformation in HKH can have high environmental costs and biodiversity losses. By realizing this fact, the Convention on Biological Diversity addresses the key issues of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the HKH by liaising with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Hence, the challenges of biodiversity losses, poor ecosystem functioning followed by reduced ecosystem services posed by climate warming and anthropogenic impacts needs to be addressed urgently by countries and multilateral agencies in HKH by identifying threatened ecosystem services and by providing better sustainability solutions. Here, I have outlined the current state of Himalayan biodiversity and ecosystem function and developed a framework for resilience management with an integrated approach of science and society to advance knowledge through learning. The resilience framework offers practical solutions comprising a robust and harmonized monitoring of climatic data, the use of multi-indicator approaches and modelling, and to make collaborated efforts among policy makers, implementers, and analysts to tackle evolving losses of biological diversity and reduction in ecosystem services in the HKH region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
  • Differential vulnerability to biological invasions: not all protected
           areas (and not all invaders) are the same

    • Abstract: Abstract Protected areas (PAs) are fundamental for global biodiversity conservation but many are not delivering their conservation potential. In particular, the European Natura 2000 (N2K)–the largest coordinated network of PAs in the world—has insofar proved insufficient to achieve the EU’s biodiversity conservation targets. Despite the adoption of innovative legislation on the prevention and management of biological invasions, invasive alien species (IAS) remain a main threat to N2K. We explored whether the regulatory status of N2K has been efficient to prevent the establishment of regulated IAS (those under the scope of EU or national regulations) by conducting a case study in a highly biodiverse Mediterranean region of Spain. We: (1) analyzed whether the number of both regulated and unregulated IAS differ across adjacent unprotected areas (belt zones), N2K sites and N2K sites with additional protection as national park or nature reserve (APAs); (2) compared the spread pathways of regulated IAS present in areas with different protection status. While APAs hosted fewer regulated IAS, N2K sites did not perform better than belt zones. Specifically, there were fewer regulated IAS that spread through natural dispersal or intentional human assistance in APAs compared to N2K and belt zones, but those dispersing with unintentional human assistance were similarly distributed in PAs and belt zones. Further, protection level did not reduce the number of unregulated IAS. Thus, observed patterns indicate that the conservation obligations bound to the designation of an area as an N2K site are not sufficient to prevent or slow down biological invasions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
  • Identifying typical and early warning species by the combination of
           functional-based diagnostic species and dark diversity

    • Abstract: Abstract The European Union Habitats Directive requires the identification of typical species that reflect the structure and functions of habitat types, as well as early changes in the habitat condition, but no common methods are available for their selection. Diagnostic species with high fidelity to a specific group of plots are identified by traditional methods, but their value as typical species is still debated. We designed a protocol for the identification of typical plant species based on a recently proposed method to detect diagnostic species by combining abundances and functional traits. We tested the method on a set of alpine habitat subtypes, comparing diagnostic species based on traits or Grime’s CSR strategies (competitive, stress-tolerant, ruderal) with those based on presence/absence or abundance only, and then we calculated for each species the dark diversity probability—i.e. probability of being absent from a habitat type with suitable ecological conditions. Functional-based methods allowed to recognize larger sets of exclusive species, adding dominant species linked to the structure and functions of habitat subtypes (i.e. to the functional centroid). Dark diversity probability was equally distributed between diagnostic and non-diagnostic species identified by functional-based methods. Species with higher dark diversity probability among those associated with the functional centroid can be considered as early warning indicators of changes in habitat conditions. The protocol proposed here enables species ranking on measurable variables (functional association, dark diversity probability) and can be applied as a standardized tool for the identification of typical plant species for habitat types dominated by plants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Considering plant functional connectivity in landscape conservation and
           restoration management

    • Abstract: Abstract Landscape connectivity has traditionally been studied for animal species rather than for plants, especially under a multispecies approach. However, connectivity can be equally critical for both fauna and flora and, thus, an essential point in the selection of key management areas and measures. This paper explores a spatially explicit framework to assess the contribution of habitat patches in the conservation and enhancement of plant functional connectivity and habitat availability in a multispecies context. It relies on graph theory and a habitat availability index and differentiates between two management scenarios: (i) conservation; and (ii) restoration, by considering current and potential species distribution based on species distribution models together with a vegetation survey. The results mapped at high spatial resolution priority target areas to apply management measures. We found that intervening in a small proportion of the study area may lead to double the average overall landscape connectivity of the studied species. This study aimed at proposing an innovative methodology that allows studying connectivity for multiple plant species at landscape scale while integrating their individual characteristics. The proposed framework is a step toward incorporating connectivity concerns into plant biodiversity management, based on a better understanding of landscape structure and functionality. Here, we illustrated its significant potential for local conservation and restoration planning and resource optimization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
  • The relevance of transition habitats for butterfly conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity is declining across the globe. Main drivers causing the vanishing of species are habitat destruction and the transformation of former heterogeneous landscapes into homogeneous and intensively used landscapes. Modern land management focuses on the creation of landscape configuration with sharp boundaries between ecosystems. In consequence, transition zones between two ecosystems such as between forest and open grassland are rare, as it counteracts the efficient and commercial use of space. However, there are many species relying on such transition zones between habitats, as the Clouded Apollo butterfly Parnassius mnemosyne. This highly endangered butterfly species occurs in light deciduous forests, interspersed with extensively used grasslands. In our study, we analysed habitat requirements of this butterfly species. We recorded larvae and feeding marks at its primary larval food plant, Corydalis cava, and assessed microhabitat characteristics, including microclimatic conditions. We captured high-resolution multispectral aerial imagery with an unmanned aerial vehicle. We subsequently combined ground-truthing data with information from high resolution aerial pictures to calculate habitat suitability models. We found that P. mnemosyne larvae mainly occur in the transition zone between deciduous light forest and extensively used grasslands with C. cava. Caterpillars of P. mnemosyne are particularly found around trees, basking on foliage and grass to rapidly reach high operation temperatures. Results from Species Distribution Models underline the relevance of transition zones between habitats for P. mnemosyne, and for biodiversity in general. The Clouded Apollo may serve as excellent indicator species for light deciduous forests, and as flagship to promote the conservation and restoration of transition zones between habitats in nature conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
  • Habitats hold an evolutionary signal of past climatic refugia

    • Abstract: Abstract Climatic refugia have often been associated with hotspots of richness and endemism, and identified on the basis of molecular or paleobotanical information. Here, we apply a phylogenetic analysis to 18,000 plant communities distributed across the Pyrenees, a south European mountain range, to identify climatic refugia from imprints of relictuality inferred from species’ evolutionary distinctiveness (ED). We produced a genus-level phylogenetic tree to calculate the standardized mean ED value of plant communities (cED). Then, we explored which habitats concentrate the plant communities with the highest cED and the interrelated effect of past (long-term climatic stability) and present (topographic and spatial position) factors. Results show strong differences of cED among habitats: forests ranked first, followed by some open habitats like high altitude wetlands. Climate stability and roughness positively influenced cED. A weak negative association resulted between the two diversity measurements (richness and endemism rate) and also with cED. We propose that forests acted as “mobile refugia” during the glacial-interglacial periods, supported by paleoenvironmental reconstructions revealing continuous presence at regional scale of key broadleaved trees at that time. Azonal habitats like the endemic-poor humid communities at high elevation would have also played an important role as more permanent microrefugia. Our approach identifies a variety of habitats and plant assemblages that have successfully withstood past climate change in different ways, and therefore would hold an important evolutionary potential to cope with current climate change. Given their potential role in preserving biodiversity, they should be integrated in future conservation agendas.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
  • Conservation value of semi-open habitats for ground beetles (Coleoptera:
           Carabidae, Cicindelidae) in Central Europe

    • Abstract: Abstract Reintroduction of grazing to counteract insect decline will lead to an increase of semi-open habitats. Semi-open habitats are highly heterogeneous, consisting of a mosaic of patches of trees or shrubs embedded in a matrix dominated by dwarf shrubs or grasses. Despite a lack of evidence, structural heterogeneity is expected to allow many species to co-occur, making semi-open habitats appear highly valuable for invertebrate conservation. We studied ground beetles in eight sites in two landscapes of Central Europe each encompassing semi-open, open, and forest habitats. Rapid response to environmental change and limited dispersal abilities make ground beetles an excellent model taxon to evaluate the effectiveness of such conservations measures. In both studied landscapes, ground beetle assemblages in semi-open habitats tended to be distinct and intermediate between those from the forest and open habitats. Species richness and functional diversity in semi-open habitats were similar to open habitats at site level. The majority of species entered the semi-open habitats, except for most threatened species, yet, few species were exclusively associated with semi-open habitats. We conclude that the continuous presence of many species in semi-open habitats likely results from mass effects rather than habitat heterogeneity per se. Our findings underline the conservation value of the existing forest, heathland, and grassland habitats over semi-open habitats which can, however, function as dispersal habitats and increase landscape connectivity. Strategies aiming at promoting semi-open habitats to counteract insect decline should target enhancing connectivity rather than the creation of habitats only.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
  • Human pressures constrain Eurasian otter occurrence in semiarid Northern

    • Abstract: Abstract Populations inhabiting the periphery of species distribution ranges may experience suboptimal environmental conditions and higher vulnerability to anthropogenic pressures. Disentangling the role of natural and human-related factors and the relationships among them in these marginal areas is thus key to understand and prevent species declines and range reductions. We analysed Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) occurrence patterns in relation to anthropogenic pressures and natural environmental gradients in Morocco, an area constituting the arid limit of the species’ global range. The probability of otter occurrence was higher as terrain ruggedness increased and at intermediate elevations, and lower in catchments exposed to higher anthropogenic pressures. Otters tended to be rare at higher elevations and in areas with less annual precipitation, probably as a result of trophic resource limitations and large water flow fluctuations, respectively. A combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, both at drainage area and local scales, was needed to understand the current occurrence of the species. Our study highlights a need for urgent action to conserve the Eurasian otter in northern Africa, where freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity are threatened by rapid human development in areas of marginal climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02405-w
  • Correction to: The potential role of public gardens as sentinels of plant

    • PubDate: 2022-03-24
  • Climate change-related changes in cephalopod biodiversity on the North
           East Atlantic Shelf

    • Abstract: Abstract Global studies imply that cephalopods have benefited from climate change. However, in most areas, species-specific long-term cephalopod data sets do not exist to support this implication and to analyse the response of cephalopods to environmental changes. Our results illustrate that historical studies, in combination with recent data sets, can fill this gap, enabling descriptions of ecological changes over a long time. We show substantial changes in the cephalopod biodiversity of the North Sea at species level over the past 100 years. Some species, which seemed to migrate into the North Sea only for spawning or foraging in the nineteenth century, occur permanently in the North Sea nowadays. This applies, for example, to the loliginids Loligo forbesii and Alloteuthis subulata. The ommastrephids Todaropsis eblanae and Illex coindetii, now constantly present as well, had been described only as accidental migrants 100 years ago.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02403-y
  • Biocultural diversity in the traditional landscape of Vallecorsa

    • Abstract: Abstract In Italy, agricultural intensification and the abandonment of rural areas since the 1960s has led to a transformation of the traditional agricultural landscape, bringing with it a series of environmental and socio-economic issues and problems such as those linked to hydrogeological instability, a reduction in biocultural diversity and migration to urban centres, especially of the younger population. These phenomena have also led to a progressive loss of all the cultural and traditional practices related to these systems, thus contributing to a homogenization of the landscape structure due to abandonment. On the other hand, in the last years, we are witnessing a return to rural and traditional practices with the aim of recovering local cultures, especially those associated to agricultural practices, and to a more sustainable management of the territory. Vallecorsa, a municipality in central Italy, is one of the landscapes inscribed in the Italian National Register of Historical Rural Landscapes and it is still characterized by traditional agricultural practices that provide multiple benefits also in ecological terms, maintaining a specific level of biodiversity, interpreted as part of the biocultural diversity of the area. The aim of the present research is to analyse the structure of the traditional landscape of Vallecorsa and to determine its main characteristics, using landscape as the scale. Through the use of GIS software, by means of photo-interpretation and the use of DTM, the present study analyses the structure of land use, and in particular of terraced surfaces, and the associated data on area size, fragmentation, altitude and slope. The results take into account the diversity of land uses and mosaic patches, as well as terraced surfaces, and their distribution in the territory, relating them to the local biodiversity, in particular that of dry stone walls.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02400-1
  • The potential role of public gardens as sentinels of plant invasion

    • Abstract: Abstract Public gardens can help prevent detrimental effects of plant invasions by collecting and sharing data on taxa spreading from cultivation early in the invasion process, thereby acting as sentinels of plant invasion. Existing initiatives have called for public gardens to adopt measures preventing plant invasion, but it is unclear what actions individual gardens are implementing, as there is no formal mechanism for communicating their progress. This study used internal lists of escaping taxa from seven public gardens in the Midwestern United States and Canada to demonstrate how public gardens can collectively contribute data that is critical to assessing potential invasiveness. It also reveals methodological differences in how gardens develop their lists of escaping plants, leading to recommendations for standardization. Data pooled across gardens yielded 769 species spreading from cultivation at one or more gardens. Eight woody species were listed by all gardens despite not consistently being recognized as invasive by states and provinces containing the gardens; some species recorded by multiple gardens did not appear on any invasive lists. While it may be premature to call taxa escaping from cultivation at a few public gardens “invasive” or even “potentially invasive”, these plants should be monitored and evaluated with this information shared to facilitate stronger conclusions about risk. Thus, public gardens have a unique expertise in assisting invasive plant efforts as sentinels, particularly if challenges related to methodological inconsistencies and data sharing are suitably addressed, which is herein recommended through the adoption of a set of standardized guidelines.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02391-z
  • Conservation of Latin America freshwater biodiversity: beyond political

    • Abstract: Abstract Latin America’s tremendous socio-cultural and biological diversity has evolved along tightly intertwined, far-reaching river networks. Decisions taken by any one country, may have strong impacts on the regional and even global biodiversity conservation agenda, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. Here we comment on four perspectives complementing actions suggested by Azevedo-Santos et al. (2021) in their Commentary “Conservation of Brazilian freshwater biodiversity: Thinking about the next 10 years and beyond”. This contribution aims at attaining an effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity in Latin America, particularly in the context of the ongoing negotiations on the Global Biodiversity Framework. Our suggestions put forward cross-border perspectives, urging governments to engage in actions that consider the reality of and threats to transnational ecosystems such as many river basins of Latin America and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02380-2
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