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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 142 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Museum Novitates     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 246)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chelonian Conservation and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access  
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eco-Entrepreneur     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Environment and Natural Resources Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intervención     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Media Konservasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Natureza & Conservação : Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation     Open Access  
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Northeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recycling     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southeastern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The American Midland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
The Southwestern Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biodiversity and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.243
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 246  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Bird communities in a degraded forest biodiversity hotspot of East Africa

    • Abstract: Abstract Tropical forests suffer severe habitat destruction. Thus, tropical forests frequently consist today of only a few small remnants that are often embedded within a matrix of agricultural fields and tree plantations. Forest specialist species have experienced severe population declines under these circumstances. We studied bird communities based on census plots set up in a near-natural forest block, as well as degraded forest patches, tree plantations, and agricultural fields, across the Taita Hills in southern Kenya. We classified each bird species according its ecology and behavior. We quantified the land cover and landscape configuration around each census plot. Typical forest species were mainly observed in the near-natural forest block, and to a lower extent in degraded forest patches. Plantations were almost devoid of birds. Bird communities of small forest fragments were more similar to that of agricultural land than the near-natural forest block. Most frugivorous, insectivorous and nectarivorous birds occurred in forest habitats, while granivorous bird species dominated the bird communities of agricultural land. The surrounding landscape had a marginal impact on bird species composition at local sites. Our study showed that the preservation of near-natural cloud forest, including small forest patches, is essential for the conservation of forest-dependent species, and that plantations do not serve as surrogate habitats.
      PubDate: 2021-05-10
  • A case study of a conservation flagship species: the monarch butterfly

    • Abstract: Abstract What makes a flagship species effective in engaging conservation donors' Large, charismatic mammals are typically selected as ambassadors, but a few studies suggest butterflies—and monarchs in particular—may be even more appealing. To gather more information about people’s responses to monarchs, we conducted an empirical study of member submissions to a successful conservation campaign, the Monarch Story Campaign, conducted by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). The set of 691 stories along with their associated demographic and donation data was analyzed in a mixed-methods study using qualitative analysis and tests of association. The results showed that people often described encounters with monarchs in childhood and as adults. They expressed strong, positive emotions, and lauded the monarch’s beauty and other “awe-inspiring” qualities and expressed wonder at their lifecycle (i.e., metamorphosis and migration). They also raised conservation themes of distress at monarch loss, calls for action, and caretaking, such as being “fragile” and “in need.” Sharing personal encounters was associated with current efforts to save the species and more past financial donations, while a second pattern tied more donations to awe at the monarch’s mass migration. These results imply that conservation campaigns built around species people encounter may build lifelong awareness, concern, and actions towards conservation.
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
  • Living in discarded containers: spiders explore a new niche created by
           littering in urban woodlands

    • Abstract: Abstract Increased urbanisation is leading to littering of the environment. However, some animals may adapt to live in such altered habitats. The aim of this study was to assess whether discarded containers can serve as a suitable microhabitat for spiders. The study was conducted in 10 woodland areas in the city of Wrocław, Poland. In September 2018, a total of 939 containers were collected, of which 33.5% contained evidence of spiders having resided therein: webs, dead or living spiders, exuviae or cocoons. A total of 22 species and several other taxa that could not be recognised so accurately were detected. The most common of these belonged to Linyphiidae and Theridiidae. Juveniles (N = 103) dominated over adults (N = 58), and females (N = 34) were more numerous than males (N = 24). In 15 containers, interspecies pairs were found. Among ecological guilds, sheet web spiders dominated (60%) followed by space web spiders (24%), ground hunters (9%), ambush hunters (3%), specialists (3%), and other hunters (2%). Spiders were significantly more often found in colourless (38.3%) and green (35.5%) than in brown bottles (25.2%). They were also more numerous in glass bottles for sweet drinks (50.0%) than in beer bottles (28.0%), and slightly more frequent than in glass vodka bottles (33.3%). Our study showed that discarded containers are fully exploitable microhabitats for spiders and are used by these animals for at least three different purposes: hunting, hiding and breeding, however the effect on their fitness remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
  • The value of local community knowledge in species distribution modelling
           for a threatened Neotropical parrot

    • Abstract: Abstract Species distribution models are widely used in conservation planning, but obtaining the necessary occurrence data can be challenging, particularly for rare species. In these cases, citizen science may provide insight into species distributions. To understand the distribution of the newly described and Critically Endangered Amazona lilacina, we collated species observations and reliable eBird records from 2010–2020. We combined these with environmental predictors and either randomly generated background points or absence points generated from eBird checklists, to build distribution models using MaxEnt. We also conducted interviews with people local to the species’ range to gather community-sourced occurrence data. We grouped these data according to perceived expertise of the observer, based on the ability to identify A. lilacina and its distinguishing features, knowledge of its ecology, overall awareness of parrot biodiversity, and the observation type. We evaluated all models using AUC and Tjur R2. Field data models built using background points performed better than those using eBird absence points (AUC = 0.80 ± 0.02, Tjur R2 = 0.46 ± 0.01 compared to AUC = 0.78 ± 0.03, Tjur R2 = 0.43 ± 0.21). The best performing community data model used presence records from people who were able recognise a photograph of A. lilacina and correctly describe its distinguishing physical or behavioural characteristics (AUC = 0.84 ± 0.05, Tjur R2 = 0.51± 0.01). There was up to 92% overlap between the field data and community data models, which when combined, predicted 17,772 km2 of suitable habitat. Use of community knowledge offers a cost-efficient method to obtain data for species distribution modelling; we offer recommendations on how to assess its performance and present a final map of potential distribution for A. lilacina.
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
  • Reframing urban “wildlife” to promote inclusive conservation
           science and practice

    • Abstract: Abstract Cities are home to both a majority of the world’s human population, and to a diversity of wildlife. Urban wildlife conservation research and policy has importantly furthered ecological understanding and species protection in cities, while also leveraging wildlife conservation to connect people to urban nature. Thus, urban wildlife conservation intersects conservation research, conservation policy, and the general public in cities worldwide. Yet, species that are often framed as “urban wildlife” are often of higher trophic levels, including birds and mammals that serve as “flagship” species for public support. Other forms of urban life including plants and invertebrates are often largely ignored, producing a normative urban wildlife concept that may bias urban wildlife conservation research and policy, and sentiment in the general public. To develop new strategies in urban wildlife conservation for the urban era, we need to move towards a more inclusive and holistic framing of urban wildlife for both research and the public. In this article, we discuss the normative framing of urban wildlife and how this framing may bias urban conservation efforts, and argue for a holistic approach to urban wildlife inclusive of all life forms for future research, publicity and policy interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
  • Density trends of wild felids in northern Laos

    • Abstract: Abstract Determining the density trends of a guild of species can help illuminate their interactions, and the impacts that humans might have on them. We estimated the density trends from 2013 to 2017 of the clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis and marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata in Nam Et—Phou Louey National Park (NEPL), Laos, using camera trap data and spatial capture-recapture models. Mean (± SD) density estimates (individuals/100 km2) for all years were 1.77 ± 0.30 for clouded leopard, 1.50 ± 0.30 for leopard cat, and 3.80 ± 0.70 for marbled cat. There was a declining trend in density across the study years for all three species, with a ≥ 90% probability of decline for clouded leopard and leopard cat and an 83% probability of decline for marbled cat. There was no evidence that mesopredator release occurred as a result of tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (P. pardus) extirpations. We believe that snaring, the factor that led to the extirpation of tiger and leopard in NEPL, is now contributing to the decline of smaller felids, to an extent that over-rides any potential effects of mesopredator release on their densities and interactions. We recommend that the NEPL managers implement a more systematic and intensified snare removal program, in concert with extensive community outreach and engagement of local people to prevent the setting of snares. These actions might be the only hope for saving the remaining members of the felid community in NEPL.
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
  • DART mass spectrometry as a potential tool for the differentiation of
           captive-bred and wild lion bones

    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years lion bones have been legally traded internationally to Asian markets from captive-bred sources in South Africa. There are also indications of increasing instances of illegal international trade in wild lion bones. The existence of parallel captive and wild supplies of lion bone are a cause of law enforcement concern regarding the potential for the laundering of illegally sourced bones through legal trade, and present a problem for the assessment of the conservation impact of wild lion bone trade due to the difficulty of determining what market-share wild and captive-bred lion bones account for. Captive-bred and wild lion bone are visually indistinguishable and no reliable method currently exists for distinguishing them. We present a preliminary study that explores the use of DART mass spectrometry as a method to differentiate between captive-bred and wild lion bones. We find that DART is able to differentiate between a batch of captive-bred South African lion bone and a batch of wild lion bone and suggest that DART mass spectrometry shows strong potential as a tool for the regulation and investigation of lion bone trade. Further testing is needed to prove the suitability of this technique. Therefore, we suggest that further research focuses on testing the capability of DART to differentiate between contemporary wild and captive-bred lion bone originating from South Africa, and attempts to identify chemical markers in bone that can be used as indicators of captive-bred origin.
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
  • Disparity between ecological and political timeframes for species
           conservation targets

    • Abstract: Abstract The Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Aichi Target 12 aimed to prevent species extinctions and improve the conservation status of known threatened species by 2020 but has not been met. As the post-2020 global biodiversity framework is negotiated, it is essential that we learn lessons from past failures. Here, we investigate whether a reduction in extinction risk could realistically be achieved within the ten-year timeframe of the Aichi Targets. We identified threatened bird and mammal species for which a population increase could lead to down-listing on the IUCN Red List and created population models that assumed exponential population growth to predict how long it would take to reach the population size threshold required for down-listing. We found that in the best-case scenario, 39/42 birds (93%) and 12/15 mammals (80%) could be expected to show the population increase required to achieve down-listing by one Red List category within a ten-year timeframe. In contrast, under the worst-case scenario, 67% birds and 40% mammals were predicted to take > 10 years to reach the population threshold. These results indicate a disparity between the ecological timeframes required for species to show a reduction in extinction risk, and the political timeframes over which such ecological change is expected to be achieved and detected. We suggest that quantitative analyses should be used to set realistic milestone targets in the post-2020 framework, and that global indicators should be supplemented with temporally sensitive measures of conservation progress in order to maintain political and societal motivation for species conservation.
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
  • Implementing Brazil’s Forest Code: a vital contribution to securing
           forests and conserving biodiversity

    • Abstract: Abstract Meeting Brazil’s ambitious national commitments on both climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation depends on securing its reserves of forest carbon and biodiversity. Brazil’s ‘Forest Code’ is a key tool to reconcile environmental preservation and agricultural production; it limits deforestation and requires forest restoration in illegally deforested areas. However, not all provisions of the law’s 2012 revision have yet been implemented and some are facing new challenges. Using modelled land use change projections for the whole of the country, we show that full implementation and enforcement of the law has the potential to contribute to conserving biodiversity. Biodiversity outcomes will be especially positive if (i) deforested areas are restored in ways that support recolonization by native species and (ii) additional measures are implemented to protect native vegetation in areas like Caatinga dry forests and Cerrado savannas, which may experience added pressure displaced from other regions by Forest Code implementation.
      PubDate: 2021-04-03
  • Monoculture and mixture-planting of non-native Douglas fir alters species
           composition, but promotes the diversity of ground beetles in a temperate
           forest system

    • Abstract: Abstract Planting non-native tree species, like Douglas fir in temperate European forest systems, is encouraged to mitigate effects of climate change. However, Douglas fir monocultures often revealed negative effects on forest biota, while effects of mixtures with native tree species on forest ecosystems are less well understood. We investigated effects of three tree species (Douglas fir, Norway spruce, native European beech), on ground beetles in temperate forests of Germany. Beetles were sampled in monocultures of each tree species and broadleaf-conifer mixtures with pitfall traps, and environmental variables were assessed around each trap. We used linear mixed models in a two-step procedure to disentangle effects of environment and tree species identity on ground beetle abundance, species richness, functional diversity and species assemblage structure. Contradictory to our expectations, ground beetle abundance and functional diversity was highest in pure Douglas fir stands, while tree mixtures showed intermediate values between pure coniferous and pure beech stands. The main drivers of these patterns were only partially dependent on tree species identity, which highlights the importance of structural features in forest stands. However, our study revealed distinct shifts in assemblage structure between pure beech and pure Douglas fir stands, which were only partially eased through mixture planting. Our findings suggest that effects of planting non-native trees on associated biodiversity can be actively modified by promoting beneficial forest structures. Nevertheless, integrating non-native tree species, even in mixtures with native trees, will invariably alter assemblage structures of associated biota, which can compromise conservation efforts targeted at typical species composition.
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
  • Garry oak ecosystem stand history in Southwest British Columbia, Canada:
           implications of environmental change and indigenous land use for
           ecological restoration and population recovery

    • Abstract: Abstract In the Pacific Northwest of North America, endangered Garry oak ecosystems have a complex history that integrates effects of Holocene climate change, Indigenous land management, and colonial settlement during the Anthropocene. In western Canada, Garry oak and Douglas fir recruitment corresponds with the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. 1870), after the collapse of Indigenous populations but in some cases prior to European settlement. We examined establishment patterns at three sites in southwest British Columbia, each with different edaphic characteristics based on slope, exposure, and drainage. At our Somenos Marsh site on Vancouver Island, we see a clear relationship between Indigenous occupation, subsequent European settlement, and development of an oak woodland, indicating that Indigenous land management was important for development of many Garry oak ecosystems. However, at the Tumbo Cliff site (Tumbo Island, BC), shallow soil xeric conditions, regional climate, and periodic fire were likely drivers of stand and ecosystem development. Finally, at the deep soil Tumbo Marsh site, Garry oak established and grew quickly when conditions were favorable, following the early twentieth century conversion of a saltwater tidal flat into a freshwater marsh. Combining site level historical records, site characteristics, and dendrochronological data provides a greater understanding of the local and regional factors that shape the unique structures of Garry oak ecosystems at each site. This information can be integrated into restoration and fire management strategies for Garry oak ecosystems as well as elucidate the timing of European settler and climate change impacts on these ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-03-28
  • Central Asian wild tulip conservation requires a regional approach,
           especially in the face of climate change

    • Abstract: Abstract Tulips (Tulipa spp.) are one of the most widely appreciated plants worldwide, nevertheless species taxonomy and biogeography are often poorly understood. Most wild tulips inhabit the mountains of Central Asia, a recognised biodiversity hotspot, and a centre of tulip diversity. Despite the presence of several country-level endemic Tulipa species, most taxa span the borders of several nations. With no globally Red Listed tulip taxa from this region national level conservation assessments are an important resource. Nonetheless, threats posed to tulips are still inadequately understood, especially climate change, and given the trans-national nature of most species, distributional information is restricted and often misleading. Here we collate 330 species records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with 85 newly collected records, to undertake species distribution modelling (MaxEnt) for ten native Central Asian species. This work showed that regional level models provide a much more comprehensive understanding of species’ extinction risks, proportions of habitat in different countries, and limitations in protected area coverage. Furthermore, our climate modelling, the first of its kind for tulips, suggests that climate change will have a significant negative impact on the range size of all species; including those that are currently widespread. We therefore add climate change to the list of threats affecting tulip populations in Central Asia, which already includes livestock overgrazing, urbanisation, wild collection, and mining. Overall, our work shows that although national information is important, a regional approach is crucial not just for tulip conservation efforts, but likely for Central Asian plant conservation in general.
      PubDate: 2021-03-27
  • The importance of traditional agricultural landscapes for preventing
           species extinctions

    • Abstract: Abstract The main paradigm for protection of biodiversity, focusing on maintaining or restoring conditions where humans leave no or little impact, risks overlooking anthropogenic landscapes harboring a rich native biodiversity. An example is northern European agricultural landscapes with traditionally managed semi-natural grasslands harboring an exceptional local richness of many taxa, such as plants, fungi and insects. During the last century these grasslands have declined by more than 95%, i.e. in the same magnitude as other, internationally more recognized declines of natural habitats. In this study, data from the Swedish Red List was used to calculate tentative extinction rates for vascular plants, insects (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and fungi, given a scenario where such landscapes would vanish. Conservative estimates suggest that abandonment of traditional management in these landscapes would result in elevated extinction rates in all these taxa, between two and three orders of magnitude higher than global background extinction rates. It is suggested that the species richness in these landscapes reflects a species pool from Pleistocene herbivore-structured environments, which, after the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna, was rescued by the introduction of pre-historic agriculture. Maintaining traditionally managed agricultural landscapes is of paramount importance to prevent species loss. There is no inherent conflict between preservation of anthropogenic landscapes and remaining ‘wild’ areas, but valuating also anthropogenic landscapes is essential for biodiversity conservation.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02145-3
  • Molecular evidence of species- and subspecies-level distinctions in the
           rare Orchis patens s.l. and implications for conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Characterizing genetic diversity and structure of populations is essential for the effective conservation of threatened species. Orchis patens sensu lato is a narrowly distributed tetraploid species with a disjunct distribution (i.e., Northern Italy, North Africa and the Canary Islands), which is facing a severe decline. In this study, we evaluated levels of genetic diversity and population structuring using 12 new nuclear microsatellite markers. Our analyses of genetic differentiation based on multiple approaches (Structure analysis, PCA analysis, and F-statistics using the ploidy-independent Rho-index) showed that gene flow is low across the range of O. patens s.l., particularly in the Canary Islands. Clear differences in allele frequencies between Italy, Algeria and the Canary Islands underlie the genetic differentiation retrieved. Our study provides support for the recognition of O. canariensis as a sister species to O. patens and the separation of the Italian populations as a new subspecies of O. patens. Despite the high heterozygosity values found in all populations (ranging from 0.4 to 0.7), compatible with the tetraploid status of the species, small population sizes and reduced gene flow will be likely detrimental for the different populations in the long term, and we recommend immediate conservation actions to counteract further fragmentation and population decline.
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02142-6
  • Using indicator species to detect high quality habitats in an East African
           forest biodiversity hotspot

    • Abstract: Abstract Species demanding specific habitat requirements suffer, particularly under environmental changes. The smallest owl of Africa, the Sokoke Scops Owl (Otus ireneae), occurs exclusively in East African coastal forests. To understand the movement behaviour and habitat demands of O. ireneae, we combined data from radio-tracking and remote sensing to calculate Species Distribution Models across the Arabuko Sokoke forest in southern Kenya. Based on these data, we estimated the local population size and projected the distribution of current suitable habitats. We found that the species occurs only in Cynometra woodland with large old trees and dense vegetation. Based on home range sizes and the distribution of suitable forest habitats, the local population size was estimated at < 400 pairs. Ongoing selective logging of hard-wood trees and the production of charcoal are reducing habitat quality of which will reduce the low numbers of O. ireneae, and of other specialist forest species, even further. Due to their close connection with intact Cynometra forest, O. ireneae is an excellent indicator of intact forest remnants. In addition, this species is a suitable flagship for the promotion and conservation of the last remaining coastal forests of East Africa.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02124-8
  • The Natura 2000 network and the ranges of threatened species in Greece

    • Abstract: Abstract Global environmental goals mandate the expansion of the protected area network to halt biodiversity loss. The European Union’s Natura 2000 network covers 27.3% of the terrestrial area of Greece, one of the highest percentages in Europe. However, the extent to which this network protects Europe’s biodiversity, especially in a biodiverse country like Greece, is unknown. Here, we overlap the country’s Natura 2000 network with the ranges of the 424 species assessed as threatened on the IUCN Red List and present in Greece. Natura 2000 overlaps on average 47.6% of the mapped range of threatened species; this overlap far exceeds that expected by random networks (21.4%). Special Protection Areas and Special Areas of Conservation (non-exclusive subsets of Natura 2000 sites) overlap 33.4% and 38.1% respectively. Crete and Peloponnese are the two regions with the highest percentage of threatened species, with Natura 2000 sites overlapping on average 62.3% with the threatened species’ ranges for the former, but only 30.6% for the latter. The Greek ranges of all 62 threatened species listed in Annexes 1 and II to the Birds and Habitats Directives are at least partially overlapped by the network (52.0%), and 18.0% of these are fully overlapped. However, the ranges of 27 threatened species, all of which are endemic to Greece, are not overlapped at all. These results can inform national policies for the protection of biodiversity beyond current Natura 2000 sites.
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02125-7
  • Landrace added value and accessibility in Europe: what a collection of
           case studies tells us

    • Abstract: Abstract In the actual climate change scenario, in situ conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can significantly contribute broadening the diversity of our food system as well as increasing its resilience; nevertheless, landrace cultivation has been dramatically reduced in the last decades all over Europe. One of the most effective approaches to counteract the loss of landrace diversity in situ is facilitating its use. Aims of this study were to (i) describe how in situ maintenance of landraces occurs in different agro-environmental conditions in Europe and (ii) identify the main factors influencing landrace added values and accessibility as means to increase their adoption by new farmers. To the purpose, a collection of 95 case studies of both garden and open field landraces maintained in situ was analysed. A first description was obtained by classifying the information into 18 purposely defined categories. Data on landraces added values and accessibility were further transformed into weighted variables; the derived quantitative scores were then used as dependent variables in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results showed that farmers alone are still the main actors maintaining landraces in situ across different European biogeographical regions, mainly carrying out their activity under organic or low-input conditions, often in marginal areas. Results of the multivariate analysis showed that (i) type of actor involved in the multiplication, (ii) the main use of the product and (iii) presence of promotion actions significantly affect garden landraces added value and accessibility; presence of promotion actions was the only factor affecting added value of open field entries. Evidence arising from this work can contribute to the establishment of a fruitful ground of discussion for future European policies and strategies to protect and increase landrace use.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02130-w
  • Bumble bee species distributions and habitat associations in the
           Midwestern USA, a region of declining diversity

    • Abstract: Abstract Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators, yet rapidly declining globally. In North America some species are thriving while others are nearing extinction. Recognizing subtle differences in species’ biology and responses to environmental factors is required to illuminate key threats and to understand their different population trajectories. We intensively surveyed bumble bees in Ohio, USA, along the receding southern boundary of many species’ ranges, to evaluate current conservation status of the state’s species. In 318 90-min field surveys across two consecutive years we observed 23,324 bumble bees of 10 species visiting 170 plant species. Habitat, landscape, latitude, and their interactions significantly influenced bumble bee abundance, species richness, and community composition during peak season. Sites planted with flowers yielded more bumble bee individuals and species than did sites not planted with bee food plants. Bombus impatiens, B. griseocollis, and B. bimaculatus comprised 93% of all observations. Their abundances all peaked in habitats planted with wildflowers, but there were species-specific responses to local and landscape factors. Three less common species (B. fervidus, B. vagans, and B. perplexus) were more likely to be found in forested landscapes, particularly in the northeastern portion of the state. Bombus perplexus was also affiliated with planted urban wildflower patches. These results provide a strong starting point for future monitoring and conservation intervention that targets less common species. A quantitative synthesis of detailed state-level and regional datasets would allow additional insight into broad scale patterns of diversity in bumble bee communities and species conservation trajectories.
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02121-x
  • Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Medicinal plants provide biodiversity-based ecosystem services including health to many communities around the world and therefore, medicinal plant conservation is vital for sustainability. Here, we identify medicinal plants to be prioritized for conservation among the Loita Maasai who are pastoralists in the extensive East African savannah. A botanical survey and interviews were conducted with 91 villagers; 49 women and 42 men drawn randomly from 45 households. A conservation priority list was developed based on (1) the plant part harvested, (2) the species use value, and (3) its availability. These criteria were evaluated independently for each species on a scale from 1 to 4 and their sum was taken as the species’ score. The score for the species varied from 5 to 9. The higher the total score value of a species, the higher its priority for conservation. Among the medicinal plants used by the community, 20 species were shortlisted as regularly used and found around the village. Out of these, 12 species that had scores above seven were considered top priority for conservation. A total of 1179 use reports were obtained from the villagers and they were placed in 12 use categories as defined in the International Classification of Primary Care system. Plants used to treat digestive system disorder had most use reports (21%), followed by the muscular skeletal disorders (20%). This study identified 12 medicinal plant species that should be given conservation priority to make them available for the wellbeing of the people and sustainability of ecosystem products and services. An assessment of medicinal plants species using standard ecological methods is recommended.
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02116-8
  • The importance of livestock grazing at woodland-grassland interface in the
           conservation of rich oakwood plant communities in temperate Europe

    • Abstract: Abstract Traditional husbandry fostered rich semi-open oakwood communities composed of forest and non-forest species. In the eastern Carpathian region, silvo-pastoralism was commonplace by the mid-1900s. This study aimed to determine the state of the preservation of the ecotonal character of grassland-woodland interfaces in formerly pastured cultural landscapes of SE-Polish Carpathian foothills and W-Ukrainian Ciscarpathia in the context of land-use change. In the first region, despite the long-lasting history of forest grazing amongst mainly arable land, the post-WWII collapse of husbandry and the imposed ban on forest grazing, has led to swift development of dense undergrowth and establishment of impermeable ecological woodland-open habitat barrier. As a result, former silvo-pastoral oakwoods developed the features of the Tilio-Carpinentum forest community although some forest species have not yet moved in due to their poor dispersibility. The much younger oakwoods in the Ukrainian study region are remnants of the sparsely treed grasslands, some of which had been ploughed in the mid 20th century. Their semi-open canopy structure, maintained through repetitive grass burning, contributes to the communities ecotonal character, but without regular livestock-led plant “spill-over” from the grassland, the oakwoods remain species-poor. The restoration of species-rich semi-open oak woods requires “unsealing” the forest-grassland interface, reducing the degree of canopy closure, and opening that zone up to extensive grazing—an important seed dispersal vector.
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02115-9
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