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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 194)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Intervención     Open Access  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access  
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biodiversity and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.243
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 194  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Amphibian survival compromised by long-term effects of chytrid fungus

    • Abstract: Abstract Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been unambiguously implicated in the decline of amphibian populations worldwide. However, the impact of this devastating infectious disease can be difficult to gauge without empirical data on the population-level effects of Bd. Often, assessments of the amphibian chytridiomycosis panzootic are based primarily on expert opinions; as a result, declines in tropical areas are promptly attributed to Bd while its impact on temperate species not suffering from adult mass mortalities is frequently overlooked. Here, we investigated the survival probability in an amphibian species from a temperate area that until now has not been considered to be severely impacted by the disease. Specifically, we related individual survival to Bd infection status using long-term capture-mark-recapture data of male spiny common toads (Bufo spinosus) in Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in central Spain. Even though the study population has demonstrated potential for adaptation to Bd and die-offs of adult individuals have not been recorded, our results clearly indicated that the probability of survival was lower for Bd-positive individuals. Moreover, the probability of becoming Bd-positive was higher than the probability of clearance, driving the population to a slow but certain decline. These results are consistent with other indicators of a negative population trend and suggest that the impact of Bd on temperate species of less concern may be greater than previously thought.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
  • First insular population of the critically endangered Cistus heterophyllus
           subsp. carthaginensis on Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic
           Islands, Spain)

    • Abstract: Abstract Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis is considered one of the most endangered plants of Spain and has been object to many conservation programs and research projects. Until now, only two small spots were located in Europe: a population of one self-incompatible specimen was found in Valencia and another small population in Cartagena, disturbed by human impact and hybridization with close-relatives. Therefore, the conservation of this taxon has been one of the most defeating issues in the current plant conservation strategies of the Mediterranean workgroups. In this study, we report, describe and cense a new population of this taxon located at the furthest accessible area of the isle of Cabrera Gran in Cabrera Archipelago National Park. The population contains 59 individuals of C. heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis, the most abundant known population of this species, with a high representation of young individuals (83%). However, some threats are currently compromising the stability of this population: the presence of Cistus albidus in surrounding areas is producing hybrids (Cistus × clausonii) and the high abundance of rats and rabbits is affecting the population recruitment. For this reason, urgent conservation actions must be designed to protect and enhance this population. Overall, this new finding offers new insights on the distribution and conservation strategies of this species.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
  • Contrasting responses of multiple insect taxa to common heathland
           management regimes and old-growth successional stages

    • Abstract: Abstract Maintaining heathlands in early successional stages to sustain heather (Calluna vulgaris) is a common, large-scale management practice in Europe. However, allowing patches of long-term natural vegetation development may increase habitat heterogeneity benefitting insects, but empirical evidence is sparse. We investigated how old-growth heathland (> 30 years abandonment) affect species richness and composition of bees (Anthophila), crane flies (Tipuloidea), ground beetles (Carabidae), hoverflies (Syrphidae) and rove beetles (Staphylinidae) in relation to their hygropreference. Adult insects, vegetation and edaphic explanatory variables were collected in old-growth, managed and wet sites and compared in four lowland heathland locations in Denmark. We found 299 species including 24 nationally red-listed. Species composition differed between managed, old-growth and wet heathland for all taxa. Indicator species and richness analyses showed a predominance of xerophilic bee species in managed heathland. Old-growth heathland showed a predominance of mesophilic indicator species, and higher richness of mesophilic crane flies and of hygrophilic ground and rove beetles compared to managed heathland. Wet heathland was generally dominated by hygrophilic species. Soil moisture, bare soil and vegetation height density were important drivers explaining the contrasting responses in richness and composition between heathland types. Our results demonstrate that heathland management focusing solely on early successional vegetation stages may homogenize insect communities. We suggest that management practices should focus on improving structural vegetation heterogeneity. This can be achieved through management regimes that reset the succession and expose bare soil, but also by allowing patches of old-growth vegetation stages to develop and by conserving existing ones.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
  • Restoration of calcareous grasslands by natural recolonization after
           forest clearing and its impact on the genetic variation of three common
           herb species

    • Abstract: Abstract Species-rich calcareous grasslands in Europe strongly declined during the twentieth century due to drastic land use changes. Many grasslands were converted into more productive pastures or are covered by shrubs or forests today, since they were overgrown after abandonment or afforested. Restoration of calcareous grasslands by shrub or forest clearing and subsequent recolonization of grassland species from adjacent grasslands is, therefore, an important conservation approach. Restored populations of calcareous grassland species may, however, differ from their source populations in genetic diversity and differentiation due to potential founder and bottleneck effects. In our study we analyzed, therefore, the impact of restoration by forest clearing and natural recolonization on the genetic variation of three common calcareous grassland species (Agrimonia eupatoria, Campanula rotundifolia, and Knautia arvensis) without a contribution of persistent seed bank, in South Western Germany. We used molecular markers AFLPs (Amplified fragment length polymorphisms) to compare genetic diversity within and differentiation between spontaneously recovered subpopulations with adjacent historically old, natural subpopulations at eight study sites. Restored parts of the grasslands have been re-established during the 1990s. Molecular markers revealed broadly similar levels of genetic diversity in source and restored subpopulations of the study species. Only A. eupatoria exhibited slightly higher diversity in restored subpopulations, which may be explained by higher dispersal potential due to the hooky fruits of the species. Genetic differentiation between source and restored subpopulations was not significant, indicating strong gene flow between the subpopulations. Our study underlines, therefore, that restoration of calcareous grasslands by natural recolonization after forest clearing is an efficient method to re-establish genetically variable subpopulations comparable to their sources.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
  • Large-scale spatial patterns of riverine communities: niche versus
           geographical distance

    • Abstract: Abstract Freshwater ecosystems are among the most threatened ecosystems on Earth. Effective conservation strategies are essential to reverse this trend and should be based on sound knowledge of biodiversity patterns and the main drivers structuring them. In this study, we investigated the role of environmental and dispersal-connectivity controls on freshwater diatom and fish communities’ variability. We used 441 biological samples obtained from Spanish biomonitoring datasets, which cover a highly variable environmental gradient across the national river network. We compared the taxonomic and trait-based spatial dependency of the two biotic groups using distance-decay relationships and variation partitioning with spatially constrained randomisations. Our findings showed that most of the diatoms and fish biological variation was attributed to pure spatial and spatially structured environmental variation. Compared to diatoms, fish community composition presented a stronger spatial dependency, likely because of their weaker dispersal ability. In addition, broad-scale environmental characteristics showed a higher predictive capacity for fish assemblages’ variation. Trait-based similarities presented lower spatial dependency than taxonomic datasets, indicating that they are less susceptible to dispersal-connectivity effects. These findings contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying river community assembly at large spatial scales (i.e., at and beyond the river network) and point out the importance of dispersal-connectivity processes, which are usually neglected in traditional niche-based biomonitoring programmes but can influence their outcomes (e.g., masking the detection of anthropogenic impacts). Therefore, the integration of the dispersal-connectivity component, as well as information on organisms’ dispersal abilities, are crucial when establishing effective conservation objectives and designing biomonitoring strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
  • Correction to: Sturgeons in large rivers: detecting the near-extinct
           needles in a haystack via eDNA metabarcoding from water samples

    • PubDate: 2022-11-25
  • From diverse to simple: butterfly communities erode from extensive
           grasslands to intensively used farmland and urban areas

    • Abstract: Abstract The severe biodiversity decline in European agricultural landscapes demands a specific evaluation of the various land-use practices. Many butterflies in Europe, as an important ecological indicator and pollinator taxon, require human interventions to sustain their populations in cultivated landscapes. However, land-use changes and management intensification are currently responsible for their decline. In this study, we compare butterfly communities occurring on 93 sites in seven widely distributed land-use types, viz. extensive meadows and pastures, semi-intensive meadows, vineyards, arable land, settlements and apple orchards. We recorded a high butterfly diversity in supposedly high nature-conservation value (HNV) grasslands (extensive meadows and pastures). All other land-use types showed significantly lower diversity, with decreasing diversity from semi-intensive meadows to apple orchards. Moreover, functional traits uncovered a general trend: extensive grasslands supported communities of more specialized and sedentary species whilst all other non-HNV land-use types showed communities characterized by mobile generalists. Community composition was driven by the land-use type and explained by plant-based indicator values for nutrients and light and temperature variables. Important life-history traits further correlated with site variables confirming the shift from specialists to generalists along increasing land-use intensity gradients and the effect of the thermal environment on phenological traits. We found supporting evidence for the effectiveness of regional Agri-Environmental Measures for butterfly conservation in European cultural landscapes and for the European conservation schemes to focus at least partly on the preservation of HNV grasslands with extensive management. Furthermore, we clearly show the poor ecological state of butterfly communities in more disturbed land-use types (including urban areas) and propose adopting measures to improve butterflies’ conservation in these environments.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
  • Come back to stay: landscape connectivity analysis for the Eurasian otter
           (Lutra lutra) in the western Alps

    • Abstract: Abstract Assessing landscape connectivity allows defining the degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes the movement of a species between resource patches. In this phase of climate change and biodiversity crisis, maintaining landscape connectivity by restoring and protecting connecting areas and corridors is a key strategy to ensure the survival of many species. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is a freshwater top predator that is slowly recovering after a dramatic decline occurred in central and southern Europe in the last century. To assess the chances of otter recolonization of the western Alps, we analyzed environmental connectivity by applying electrical circuit theory to an expert-based resistance surface using the Circuitscape software. The study area included southeastern France, northwestern Italy, and Switzerland. We produced a cumulative current flow map and a gap analysis was also conducted to highlight the “conservation gaps” for optimal corridors. The results revealed that the orography of the landscape was the main factor influencing the quantity and quality of the pathways in the western Alpine landscapes. As main corridors were concentrated on valley bottoms, human pressure could severely diminish animal movement. Despite this, some heavily populated areas showed high connectivity values. Some important pathways did not fall within protected areas, potentially hindering otter dispersal and highlighting the need to expand the system of protected areas in the Alpine arc. Recolonization of Alpine territories by otters can therefore only occur if connectivity and environmental suitability combine to ensure the animals' survival over time.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
  • Changes in management shape the spatial ecology of wild ponies in relation
           to habitat conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Large herbivores are key regulators of open habitats across the world. Free roaming ponies have a prominent ecological role in many Atlantic landscapes, where different habitats with conservation interest are linked to ponies’ occurrence. The traditional management of wild ponies, which implies minimum human intervention, is declining in Galicia, NW Spain. Changes in the management regimes include the confinement of ponies in fenced areas, the use of improved pastures (IPs) and rotation between fields. Indirect effects of these changes are expected on the ecological condition of important habitats for conservation such as dry and wet heathlands and bogs. We studied social structure, spatial ecology and habitat use in 29 mares fitted with global positioning system (GPS) collars and field observations in two areas of Galicia dominated by wet heaths and blanket bogs (Xistral), and dry heaths (Sabucedo). We used spatial location and field observations to identify each band, and calculated band size, sex ratio, home range (HR) and core areas size and overlap, and habitat use. We addressed differences and adjusted Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) for these variables as functions of the type of management: free roaming vs rotation, use of IPs, fencing, and available ranging area. Larger bands were found in smaller commons, fenced and with rotation management. Home ranges, but not core area, varied as a function of the available ranging area. Bands overlap more on fenced areas with rotation management. Increasing management may concentrate grazing pressure by reducing HR and increasing bands overlapping areas, and this may have a long-term effect on habitat quality and conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
  • Contrasting responses of vascular plants and bryophytes to present and
           past connectivity in unmanaged grasslands

    • Abstract: Abstract The area of semi-natural grasslands has decreased dramatically causing many grassland specialist species to persist in small habitat fragments. Furthermore, ecological communities once shaped by disturbances related to traditional agriculture now face the impacts of modern agriculture and urbanization. Many of the species have become endangered due to the combined effects of habitat destruction and degradation. We studied the responses of vascular plants and bryophytes to present and past connectivity in semi-natural grasslands, while accounting for the effects of local environmental conditions. We conducted vegetation surveys in 33 fragmented, unmanaged dry grasslands in Southwest Finland. A total of 191 vascular plant species and 60 bryophyte species were recorded. Higher vascular plant diversity was associated with higher historical connectivity, whereas bryophyte diversity declined with increasing current connectivity. Edaphic conditions, microclimate and disturbances were found to structure both vascular plant and bryophyte communities, but the responses to individual environmental variables were very different. The contrasting responses could be explained by the differences between the typical life-history strategies in vascular plants and bryophytes as well as resource competition between the two groups. These results highlight the need to consider different species groups when planning conservation measures. Vascular plant richness may best be conserved in connected grasslands whereas bryophyte richness in isolated ones. The results also indicated that trampling by humans could result in positive disturbance and to some extent help maintain richness of grassland specialist species.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
  • Mini Safe Havens for population recovery and reintroductions

    • Abstract: Abstract In response to the ongoing decline of fauna worldwide, there has been growing interest in the rewilding of whole ecosystems outside of fenced sanctuaries or offshore islands. This interest will inevitably result in attempts to restore species where eliminating threats from predators and competitors is extremely challenging or impossible, or reintroductions of predators that will increase predation risk for extant prey (i.e., coexistence conservation). We propose ‘Mini Safe Havens’ (MSHs) as a potential tool for managing these threats. Mini Safe Havens are refuges that are permanently permeable to the focal species; allowing the emigration of individuals while maintaining gene flow through the boundary. Crucial to the effectiveness of the approach is the ongoing maintenance and monitoring required to preserve a low-to-zero risk of key threats within the MSH; facilitating in-situ learning and adaptation by focal species to these threats, at a rate and intensity of exposure determined by the animals themselves. We trialled the MSH approach for a pilot reintroduction of the Australian native New Holland mouse (Pseudomys novaehollandiae), in the context of a trophic rewilding project to address potential naïveté to a reintroduced native mammalian predator. We found that mice released into a MSH maintained their weight and continued to use the release site beyond 17 months (525 days) post-release. In contrast, individuals in temporary soft-release enclosures tended to lose weight and became undetectable approximately 1-month post-release. We discuss the broad applicability of MSHs for population recovery and reintroductions ‘beyond-the-fence’ and recommend avenues for further refinement of the approach.
      PubDate: 2022-11-12
  • Mediterranean grassland succession as an indicator of changes in ecosystem
           biodiversity and functionality

    • Abstract: Abstract The abandonment of agricultural lands triggers a secondary succession of plant species which implies important changes in soil quality. Annual Mediterranean grasslands are known to be persistent on abandoned agriculture lands in the western Mediterranean. We used plant taxonomic and functional approaches to determine the role of Mediterranean grasslands as an indicator of changes in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. We tested the hypothesis that Mediterranean grasslands are a suitable model for monitoring biodiversity and soil fertility in a secondary succession. Soil and vegetation features on 21 permanent plots were monitored in 2016 and 2020. Numerical classifications based on floristic composition showed two different plant communities independently of the sampling year: early-stage grasslands in the first post-abandonment decade and late-stage grasslands after the first post-abandonment decade. Generalized linear model and redundancy analysis also revealed differences in growth forms, functional traits and soil functionality between communities. Late-stage grasslands was characterized by enriched bryophyte coverage and an impoverishment in hemicryptophytes and plant latex segregators growing on soils with a higher hydrolase enzyme activity and TOC content compared to early-stage grassland. Our results suggest that annual Mediterranean grasslands growing on siliceous soils denoting a mature-stage succession, and floristically characterized by the symbiont plant with Ascomycota, Tuberaria guttata, and a high bryophyte cover, are worthy of recognition for conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
  • Factors affecting the availability of data on East African wildlife: the
           monitoring needs of conservationists are not being met

    • Abstract: Abstract Understanding the status and abundance of species is essential for effective conservation decision-making. However, the availability of species data varies across space, taxonomic groups and data types. A case study was therefore conducted in a high biodiversity region—East Africa—to evaluate data biases, the factors influencing data availability, and the consequences for conservation. In each of the eleven target countries, priority animal species were identified as threatened species that are protected by national governments, international conventions or conservation NGOs. We assessed data gaps and biases in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Living Planet Index. A survey of practitioners and decision makers was conducted to confirm and assess consequences of these biases on biodiversity conservation efforts. Our results showed data on species occurrence and population trends were available for a significantly higher proportion of vertebrates than invertebrates. We observed a geographical bias, with higher tourism income countries having more priority species and more species with data than lower tourism income countries. Conservationists surveyed felt that, of the 40 types of data investigated, those data that are most important to conservation projects are the most difficult to access. The main challenges to data accessibility are excessive expense, technological challenges, and a lack of resources to process and analyse data. With this information, practitioners and decision makers can prioritise how and where to fill gaps to improve data availability and use, and ensure biodiversity monitoring is improved and conservation impacts enhanced.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
  • An evaluation of freshwater monitoring programs in ILTER nodes and
           mountain national parks: identifying key variables to monitor global
           change effects

    • Abstract: Abstract Identifying and quantifying global change impacts on biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems is critical to promote an effective adaptation that increases the success of conservation strategies. To achieve this goal, global and regional assessment efforts require certain degree of harmonization on local monitoring programs to establish relevant comparisons at different spatio-temporal scales. Otherwise, the lack of harmonization might hinder the detection and assessment on the effects of human impacts. In this work we have compiled information on freshwater monitoring programs located in areas of intensive research and conservation interest: International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) nodes and mountain National Parks. We aimed at evaluating the quality and robustness of these programs to assess the impact of global change, addressing from the worldwide to the European and Spanish national scale. Results highlighted that freshwater monitoring programs lack a common strategy to monitor these ecosystems. Even at the continental and national scales, contrasting strategies and level of detail have been historically applied. Water quality, habitat and biodiversity are more commonly monitored than community structure and ecosystem functioning. Monitoring efforts on the Spanish Mountain National parks indicated differences on the targeted aquatic ecosystems. Rivers and lakes received a higher attention, while mires were rarely considered. Our results provide evidence that greater efforts should be directed towards constructing a coordinated strategy to monitor freshwater ecosystems at national, continental, and global scales. This strategy should involve a shared backbone of biophysical and biogeochemical variables for each habitat type on agreed protocols that are implemented across regions and administrative borders. Achieving this will support a substantial advance on the ecological research to further delineate proper conservation strategies to face the challenges imposed by global change.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
  • Diversity, fragmentation, and connectivity across the UK amphibian and
           reptile data management landscape

    • Abstract: Abstract Large-scale biodiversity monitoring remains a challenge in science and policy. ‘Biodiversity Observation Networks’ provide an integrated infrastructure for monitoring biodiversity through timely discovery, access, and re-use of data, but their establishment relies on an in-depth understanding of existing monitoring effort. We performed a scoping review and network analysis to assess the scope of available data on amphibians and reptiles in the UK and catalogue the mobilisation of information across the data landscape, thereby highlighting existing gaps. The monitoring portfolio has grown rapidly in recent decades, with over three times as many data sources than there are amphibian and reptile species in the UK now available. We identified 45 active sources of ‘FAIR’ (‘Findable’, ‘Accessible’, ‘Interoperable’ and ‘Reusable’) data. The taxonomic, geographic and temporal coverage of datasets appears largely uneven and no single source is currently suitable for producing robust multispecies assessments on large scales. A dynamic and patchy exchange of data occurs between different recording projects, recording communities and digital data platforms. The National Biodiversity Network Atlas is a highly connected source but the scope of its data (re-)use is potentially limited by insufficient accompanying metadata. The emerging complexity and fragmented nature of this dynamic data landscape is likely to grow without a concerted effort to integrate existing activities. The factors driving this complexity extend beyond the UK and to other facets of biodiversity. We recommend integration and greater stakeholder collaboration behind a coordinated infrastructure for data collection, storage and analysis, capable of delivering comprehensive assessments for large-scale biodiversity monitoring.
      PubDate: 2022-11-06
  • Including biological diversity in natural capital accounts for marine
           biodiversity conservation and human well-being

    • Abstract: Abstract Natural capital (NC) accounts measure and value the benefits that ecosystems provide to humans. Marine biodiversity supports human well-being directly by providing a source of food (e.g. wild fish), and indirectly by providing employment (e.g. fisheries, and tourism) and recreation (e.g. diving). The inclusion of the marine environment in NC accounting is relatively new. Central to the NC framework, biodiversity is one of the most challenging aspects to account for. Here, we consider the potential for marine biodiversity to be included in NC accounts, and explain why this is in line with current policy directions towards achieving sustainability and well-being. We present a set of potential indicators that could be used to assess ecosystem extent and ecosystem condition through their biodiversity, and inform policies aimed to improve sustainability and human well-being. We conclude that including biological indicators in NC accounts will help to consider marine biodiversity conservation and economic activities in blue spaces as complementary components of well-being. NC accounts can facilitate decision-making by showing, in few interconnected tables, trends in the provision of biodiversity in a specific area and for specific ecosystems. This makes potential trade-offs between ecosystems, ecosystem services, and economic activities more apparent.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
  • Can the extinction risk of Irish vascular plants be predicted using leaf

    • Abstract: Abstract Globally, 39% of vascular plant species are estimated to be threatened with extinction. Many factors are responsible for this figure; however, in numerous regions the primary drivers of plant extinction remain unknown. In this study, leaf traits were examined to determine whether there is an association between any specific leaf trait and extinction risk for the Irish flora. Ireland has a relatively small flora that is influenced by a temperate, oceanic climate. Fourteen leaf traits were measured for 1,029 angiosperm taxa, primarily from online herbarium images. Extinction risk was based on national Red List assessments for the Irish flora. Multivariate analysis of the data showed no correlation between leaf traits and extinction risk for the Irish flora. One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s Chi-squared tests largely supported this result, with some indication that leaf teeth may be associated with extinction risk. The correlation of extinction risk and leaf traits with phylogenetic relatedness was also considered, with the presence of a phylogenetic signal detected for the distribution of extinction risk across the Irish flora and significant phylogenetic signal observed for individual leaf traits. It was concluded that the leaf traits analysed do not significantly correlate with the extinction risk of the Irish flora and that leaf traits are not a good predictor of extinction risk for this flora.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
  • Flight speed and time of day heavily influence rainforest canopy wildlife
           counts from drone-mounted thermal camera surveys

    • Abstract: Abstract The payload size and commercial availability of thermal infrared cameras mounted on drones has initiated a new wave in the potential for conservationists and researchers to survey, count and detect wildlife, even the most complex of habitats such as forest canopies. However, several fundamental design and methodological questions remain to be tested before standardized monitoring approaches can be broadly adopted. We test the impact of both the speed of drone flights and diel flight period on tropical rainforest canopy wildlife detections. Detection and identification rates differ between both flight speeds and diel time. Overall ~ 36% more detections were made during slower flight speeds, along with a greater ability to categorize taxonomic groups. Flights conducted at 3am resulted in ~ 67% more detections compared to flights conducted at 7am (the diel period with the lowest detection rate). However, 112% more detections could be identified to taxonomic group in 7am flights compared with 3am flights – due to the types of wildlife being identified and the assistance of the RGB camera. Although, this technology holds great promise for carrying out surveys in structurally complex and poorly known ecosystems like forest canopies, there is more to do in further methodological testing, and building automated post-processing systems. Our results suggest that drone studies in the same habitat types, with the same animal densities, could be off by multiples if flown during different times and/or at different speeds. The difference could be an alarming 5-6x variation in animal detections or identification depending on changes in these two factors alone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
  • Commentary to biodiversity and conservation Upgrading Birgus: lessons for
           invertebrate conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Coconut crabs Birgus latro have recently been reclassified from Data Deficient to Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. This is a somewhat unusual case of temporal and spatial information being used to change the IUCN status of an arthropod and it draws attention to the paucity of biological data on most invertebrate species. To be listed, two or more scientific criteria need to be documented but such data are unavailable for many invertebrates. This raises the question as to whether certain invertebrates receive more scientific attention and are hence more likely to be listed if, like the coconut crab, they are large, slow-reproducing or a dual-biome species (characteristics which make them inherently vulnerable) and whether being an indicator or a flagship species is important.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02480-z
  • Population and conservation genetics using RAD sequencing in four endemic
           conifers from South America

    • Abstract: Abstract The emblematic conifer flora of Chile has experienced wide-scale habitat loss and fragmentation. Coupled with the complex topography of the region, this leads to a prediction of high levels of genetic drift and isolation resulting in strong population differentiation, and the potential for negative genetic consequences. To address the degree to which these predictions are realised, we conducted a comparative population genetic survey in four endemic conifers from South America, each of conservation concern and with a restricted distribution area. Between seven and ten populations per species were sampled, covering their entire natural distribution in Chile. We used restriction site-associated DNA markers (RAD-seq), with de novo assembly and optimisation, to accommodate the large and complex genome of conifers. The main finding was low levels of genetic structure in all four conifer species (FST = 0.017–0.062). This pattern was strikingly consistent across all four species. These results are likely due to the extreme longevity of individuals restricting divergence due to genetic drift. Thus, despite the currently highly fragmented ranges of these conifer species, we did not detect evidence for high levels of population differentiation and genetic isolation. This suggests some resilience to negative genetic impacts of habitat fragmentation, and the longevity of the individual trees may provide considerable buffering capacity. We recommend follow-up studies focusing on genotyping the seedling generation, to assess whether there is any evidence for the early warning of genetic isolation and/or elevated inbreeding in the currently established cohorts.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02471-0
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