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  Subjects -> CONSERVATION (Total: 128 journals)
Showing 1 - 37 of 37 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AICCM Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arid Land Research and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 172)
Biological Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Conservation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Conservation Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Conservation Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Diversity and Distributions     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Earth's Future     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Functional Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Future Anterior     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Ecology and Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Global Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Interações (Campo Grande)     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intervención     Open Access  
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Paper Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Institute of Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape and Urban Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Natural Resources and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Natural Resources Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nature Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Nature Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Neotropical Biology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies     Open Access  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Nusantara Bioscience     Open Access  
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Oryx     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Pacific Conservation Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Park Watch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
Recycling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Restoration Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Savana Cendana     Open Access  
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Soil Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Environment Agricultural Science (SEAS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Biodiversity and Conservation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.243
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 172  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0960-3115 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9710
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Climate warming in the Himalayas threatens biodiversity, ecosystem
           functioning and ecosystem services in the 21st century: is there a better

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity losses can lead to global environmental crisis. Humans utilize biodiversity for a variety of ecosystem services. However, what drives biodiversity losses have become a critical question during the 21st century. Lately, the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region in Asia, one of the world’s pristine habitats with the origin of majestic river systems including Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong, and Yangtze, has witnessed rapid climatic warming. The unprecedented rates of climate warming in HKH has threatened biodiversity losses, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services, and consequently the existence of mankind in the region. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Science and Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) highlight the risks to humanity arising from unsustainable use of natural resources and loss of biodiversity worldwide under rapid climate warming condition. In addition, the growing economic transformation in HKH can have high environmental costs and biodiversity losses. By realizing this fact, the Convention on Biological Diversity addresses the key issues of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the HKH by liaising with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Hence, the challenges of biodiversity losses, poor ecosystem functioning followed by reduced ecosystem services posed by climate warming and anthropogenic impacts needs to be addressed urgently by countries and multilateral agencies in HKH by identifying threatened ecosystem services and by providing better sustainability solutions. Here, I have outlined the current state of Himalayan biodiversity and ecosystem function and developed a framework for resilience management with an integrated approach of science and society to advance knowledge through learning. The resilience framework offers practical solutions comprising a robust and harmonized monitoring of climatic data, the use of multi-indicator approaches and modelling, and to make collaborated efforts among policy makers, implementers, and analysts to tackle evolving losses of biological diversity and reduction in ecosystem services in the HKH region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
  • Differential vulnerability to biological invasions: not all protected
           areas (and not all invaders) are the same

    • Abstract: Abstract Protected areas (PAs) are fundamental for global biodiversity conservation but many are not delivering their conservation potential. In particular, the European Natura 2000 (N2K)–the largest coordinated network of PAs in the world—has insofar proved insufficient to achieve the EU’s biodiversity conservation targets. Despite the adoption of innovative legislation on the prevention and management of biological invasions, invasive alien species (IAS) remain a main threat to N2K. We explored whether the regulatory status of N2K has been efficient to prevent the establishment of regulated IAS (those under the scope of EU or national regulations) by conducting a case study in a highly biodiverse Mediterranean region of Spain. We: (1) analyzed whether the number of both regulated and unregulated IAS differ across adjacent unprotected areas (belt zones), N2K sites and N2K sites with additional protection as national park or nature reserve (APAs); (2) compared the spread pathways of regulated IAS present in areas with different protection status. While APAs hosted fewer regulated IAS, N2K sites did not perform better than belt zones. Specifically, there were fewer regulated IAS that spread through natural dispersal or intentional human assistance in APAs compared to N2K and belt zones, but those dispersing with unintentional human assistance were similarly distributed in PAs and belt zones. Further, protection level did not reduce the number of unregulated IAS. Thus, observed patterns indicate that the conservation obligations bound to the designation of an area as an N2K site are not sufficient to prevent or slow down biological invasions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
  • Identifying typical and early warning species by the combination of
           functional-based diagnostic species and dark diversity

    • Abstract: Abstract The European Union Habitats Directive requires the identification of typical species that reflect the structure and functions of habitat types, as well as early changes in the habitat condition, but no common methods are available for their selection. Diagnostic species with high fidelity to a specific group of plots are identified by traditional methods, but their value as typical species is still debated. We designed a protocol for the identification of typical plant species based on a recently proposed method to detect diagnostic species by combining abundances and functional traits. We tested the method on a set of alpine habitat subtypes, comparing diagnostic species based on traits or Grime’s CSR strategies (competitive, stress-tolerant, ruderal) with those based on presence/absence or abundance only, and then we calculated for each species the dark diversity probability—i.e. probability of being absent from a habitat type with suitable ecological conditions. Functional-based methods allowed to recognize larger sets of exclusive species, adding dominant species linked to the structure and functions of habitat subtypes (i.e. to the functional centroid). Dark diversity probability was equally distributed between diagnostic and non-diagnostic species identified by functional-based methods. Species with higher dark diversity probability among those associated with the functional centroid can be considered as early warning indicators of changes in habitat conditions. The protocol proposed here enables species ranking on measurable variables (functional association, dark diversity probability) and can be applied as a standardized tool for the identification of typical plant species for habitat types dominated by plants.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Considering plant functional connectivity in landscape conservation and
           restoration management

    • Abstract: Abstract Landscape connectivity has traditionally been studied for animal species rather than for plants, especially under a multispecies approach. However, connectivity can be equally critical for both fauna and flora and, thus, an essential point in the selection of key management areas and measures. This paper explores a spatially explicit framework to assess the contribution of habitat patches in the conservation and enhancement of plant functional connectivity and habitat availability in a multispecies context. It relies on graph theory and a habitat availability index and differentiates between two management scenarios: (i) conservation; and (ii) restoration, by considering current and potential species distribution based on species distribution models together with a vegetation survey. The results mapped at high spatial resolution priority target areas to apply management measures. We found that intervening in a small proportion of the study area may lead to double the average overall landscape connectivity of the studied species. This study aimed at proposing an innovative methodology that allows studying connectivity for multiple plant species at landscape scale while integrating their individual characteristics. The proposed framework is a step toward incorporating connectivity concerns into plant biodiversity management, based on a better understanding of landscape structure and functionality. Here, we illustrated its significant potential for local conservation and restoration planning and resource optimization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
  • The relevance of transition habitats for butterfly conservation

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity is declining across the globe. Main drivers causing the vanishing of species are habitat destruction and the transformation of former heterogeneous landscapes into homogeneous and intensively used landscapes. Modern land management focuses on the creation of landscape configuration with sharp boundaries between ecosystems. In consequence, transition zones between two ecosystems such as between forest and open grassland are rare, as it counteracts the efficient and commercial use of space. However, there are many species relying on such transition zones between habitats, as the Clouded Apollo butterfly Parnassius mnemosyne. This highly endangered butterfly species occurs in light deciduous forests, interspersed with extensively used grasslands. In our study, we analysed habitat requirements of this butterfly species. We recorded larvae and feeding marks at its primary larval food plant, Corydalis cava, and assessed microhabitat characteristics, including microclimatic conditions. We captured high-resolution multispectral aerial imagery with an unmanned aerial vehicle. We subsequently combined ground-truthing data with information from high resolution aerial pictures to calculate habitat suitability models. We found that P. mnemosyne larvae mainly occur in the transition zone between deciduous light forest and extensively used grasslands with C. cava. Caterpillars of P. mnemosyne are particularly found around trees, basking on foliage and grass to rapidly reach high operation temperatures. Results from Species Distribution Models underline the relevance of transition zones between habitats for P. mnemosyne, and for biodiversity in general. The Clouded Apollo may serve as excellent indicator species for light deciduous forests, and as flagship to promote the conservation and restoration of transition zones between habitats in nature conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
  • Habitats hold an evolutionary signal of past climatic refugia

    • Abstract: Abstract Climatic refugia have often been associated with hotspots of richness and endemism, and identified on the basis of molecular or paleobotanical information. Here, we apply a phylogenetic analysis to 18,000 plant communities distributed across the Pyrenees, a south European mountain range, to identify climatic refugia from imprints of relictuality inferred from species’ evolutionary distinctiveness (ED). We produced a genus-level phylogenetic tree to calculate the standardized mean ED value of plant communities (cED). Then, we explored which habitats concentrate the plant communities with the highest cED and the interrelated effect of past (long-term climatic stability) and present (topographic and spatial position) factors. Results show strong differences of cED among habitats: forests ranked first, followed by some open habitats like high altitude wetlands. Climate stability and roughness positively influenced cED. A weak negative association resulted between the two diversity measurements (richness and endemism rate) and also with cED. We propose that forests acted as “mobile refugia” during the glacial-interglacial periods, supported by paleoenvironmental reconstructions revealing continuous presence at regional scale of key broadleaved trees at that time. Azonal habitats like the endemic-poor humid communities at high elevation would have also played an important role as more permanent microrefugia. Our approach identifies a variety of habitats and plant assemblages that have successfully withstood past climate change in different ways, and therefore would hold an important evolutionary potential to cope with current climate change. Given their potential role in preserving biodiversity, they should be integrated in future conservation agendas.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
  • Conservation value of semi-open habitats for ground beetles (Coleoptera:
           Carabidae, Cicindelidae) in Central Europe

    • Abstract: Abstract Reintroduction of grazing to counteract insect decline will lead to an increase of semi-open habitats. Semi-open habitats are highly heterogeneous, consisting of a mosaic of patches of trees or shrubs embedded in a matrix dominated by dwarf shrubs or grasses. Despite a lack of evidence, structural heterogeneity is expected to allow many species to co-occur, making semi-open habitats appear highly valuable for invertebrate conservation. We studied ground beetles in eight sites in two landscapes of Central Europe each encompassing semi-open, open, and forest habitats. Rapid response to environmental change and limited dispersal abilities make ground beetles an excellent model taxon to evaluate the effectiveness of such conservations measures. In both studied landscapes, ground beetle assemblages in semi-open habitats tended to be distinct and intermediate between those from the forest and open habitats. Species richness and functional diversity in semi-open habitats were similar to open habitats at site level. The majority of species entered the semi-open habitats, except for most threatened species, yet, few species were exclusively associated with semi-open habitats. We conclude that the continuous presence of many species in semi-open habitats likely results from mass effects rather than habitat heterogeneity per se. Our findings underline the conservation value of the existing forest, heathland, and grassland habitats over semi-open habitats which can, however, function as dispersal habitats and increase landscape connectivity. Strategies aiming at promoting semi-open habitats to counteract insect decline should target enhancing connectivity rather than the creation of habitats only.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
  • Genomics outperforms genetics to manage mistakes in fisheries stocking of
           threatened species

    • Abstract: Abstract Hatchery production and fisheries stocking is a widespread and high profile management practice because it allows recreational fisheries to continue in threatened species. Human-mediated transfer of fish across the geographic boundaries of intraspecies lineages or closely related species can cause introgression and occasionally outbreeding depression. Hybridization can be difficult to detect due to limited morphological differences among close lineages and the relatively low power of traditional genetic datasets. Here we showcase the use of genomic techniques to detect admixture of the economically important and threatened golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) in the Murray-Darling Basin, southeast Australia. We detected admixture through a genome-wide dataset of 6,862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 174 Murray-Darling sourced fish and 15 fish from each of two neighbouring basins: the Lake Eyre and Fitzroy basins. Individuals with partial ancestry from both neighboring basins were detected using genomics throughout the Murray-Darling, suggesting the release of individuals and introgression into the Murray-Darling Basin. Importantly, a traditional microsatellite dataset was unreliable for identifying admixed individuals. The SNP-detected admixed individuals were also found in Murray-Darling impoundments, where fish are solely sourced from government-managed hatcheries, suggesting that some broodstock in hatcheries might have non-endemic ancestry. Stocking programs for golden perch release over one million fingerlings each year, and so could impact the genetic variation in the wild. We advocate for using genomics to check the ancestry of broodstock and for increasing collaboration between managers and academics—as done here—to better integrate the power of genomics into biodiversity management and conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
  • The need for local-adjusted Participatory Forest Management in
           biodiversity hotspots

    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous conservation activities in Africa have been of little effect. In this study, we investigate socio-economic trade-offs that might have been overlooked, yet may undermine conservation action in discret pathways. Data was collected in three study sites with fragile forest ecosystems in south-eastern Kenya, through locally adapted structured surveys and semi-structured expert guides. These analyses are drawn from 827 structured surveys and 37 expert interviews, which were done during 2016–2018. We found general coherences between age, gender, ethnicity, indigenous knowledge, formal education, and higher incomes, which shapes forest conservation attitudes. Indigenous knowledge is marginal, and most people with formal education in the rural setting are likely to be young without legal land rights or among the minority with off-farm employment. The reluctance to address historical land injustices and inequitable sharing of entitlements and management authority overrides positive attitudes and intentions towards forest conservation in all three study sites. However, we found considerable discrepancies among the three study sites. For Arabuko Sokoke forest, the awareness of forest conservation was relatively low when compared with the other two study sites. Forests play a major role against the backdrop of resource use in all three regions. But, different ecosystem services are used among the three study sites. For environmental education and communication, internet plays a comparatively minor role. Strategies to preserve forest differ among the three study sites: Reforestation is proposed in cloud forests of Taita Hills and riparian forests, whereas off-farm employment and alternative income sources plays a major role in Arabuko Sokoke forest. Our findings underline that locally specific conservation management is needed to conduct efficient nature conservation, particularly in countries with very heterogeneous ethnicities and environments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
  • Human pressures constrain Eurasian otter occurrence in semiarid Northern

    • Abstract: Abstract Populations inhabiting the periphery of species distribution ranges may experience suboptimal environmental conditions and higher vulnerability to anthropogenic pressures. Disentangling the role of natural and human-related factors and the relationships among them in these marginal areas is thus key to understand and prevent species declines and range reductions. We analysed Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) occurrence patterns in relation to anthropogenic pressures and natural environmental gradients in Morocco, an area constituting the arid limit of the species’ global range. The probability of otter occurrence was higher as terrain ruggedness increased and at intermediate elevations, and lower in catchments exposed to higher anthropogenic pressures. Otters tended to be rare at higher elevations and in areas with less annual precipitation, probably as a result of trophic resource limitations and large water flow fluctuations, respectively. A combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, both at drainage area and local scales, was needed to understand the current occurrence of the species. Our study highlights a need for urgent action to conserve the Eurasian otter in northern Africa, where freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity are threatened by rapid human development in areas of marginal climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
  • Climate change-related changes in cephalopod biodiversity on the North
           East Atlantic Shelf

    • Abstract: Abstract Global studies imply that cephalopods have benefited from climate change. However, in most areas, species-specific long-term cephalopod data sets do not exist to support this implication and to analyse the response of cephalopods to environmental changes. Our results illustrate that historical studies, in combination with recent data sets, can fill this gap, enabling descriptions of ecological changes over a long time. We show substantial changes in the cephalopod biodiversity of the North Sea at species level over the past 100 years. Some species, which seemed to migrate into the North Sea only for spawning or foraging in the nineteenth century, occur permanently in the North Sea nowadays. This applies, for example, to the loliginids Loligo forbesii and Alloteuthis subulata. The ommastrephids Todaropsis eblanae and Illex coindetii, now constantly present as well, had been described only as accidental migrants 100 years ago.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
  • Many cameras make light work: opportunistic photographs of rare species in
           iNaturalist complement structured surveys of reef fish to better
           understand species richness

    • Abstract: Abstract Citizen science is on the rise, with growing numbers of initiatives, participants and increasing interest from the broader scientific community. iNaturalist is an example of a successful citizen science platform that enables users to opportunistically capture and share biodiversity observations. Understanding how data from such opportunistic citizen science platforms compare with and complement data from structured surveys will improve their use in future biodiversity research. We compared the opportunistic fish photographs from iNaturalist to those obtained from structured surveys at eight study reefs in Sydney, Australia over twelve years. iNaturalist recorded 1.2 to 5.5 times more fish species than structured surveys resulting in significantly greater annual species richness at half of the reefs, with the remainder showing no significant difference. iNaturalist likely recorded more species due to having simple methods, which allowed for broad participation with substantially more iNaturalist observation events (e.g., dives) than structured surveys over the same period. These results demonstrate the value of opportunistic citizen science platforms for documenting fish species richness, particularly where access and use of the marine environment is common and communities have the time and resources for expensive recreational activities (i.e., underwater photography). The datasets also recorded different species composition with iNaturalist recording many rare, less abundant, or cryptic species while the structured surveys captured many common and abundant species. These results suggest that integrating data from both opportunistic and structured data sources is likely to have the best outcome for future biodiversity monitoring and conservation activities.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
  • Biocultural diversity in the traditional landscape of Vallecorsa

    • Abstract: Abstract In Italy, agricultural intensification and the abandonment of rural areas since the 1960s has led to a transformation of the traditional agricultural landscape, bringing with it a series of environmental and socio-economic issues and problems such as those linked to hydrogeological instability, a reduction in biocultural diversity and migration to urban centres, especially of the younger population. These phenomena have also led to a progressive loss of all the cultural and traditional practices related to these systems, thus contributing to a homogenization of the landscape structure due to abandonment. On the other hand, in the last years, we are witnessing a return to rural and traditional practices with the aim of recovering local cultures, especially those associated to agricultural practices, and to a more sustainable management of the territory. Vallecorsa, a municipality in central Italy, is one of the landscapes inscribed in the Italian National Register of Historical Rural Landscapes and it is still characterized by traditional agricultural practices that provide multiple benefits also in ecological terms, maintaining a specific level of biodiversity, interpreted as part of the biocultural diversity of the area. The aim of the present research is to analyse the structure of the traditional landscape of Vallecorsa and to determine its main characteristics, using landscape as the scale. Through the use of GIS software, by means of photo-interpretation and the use of DTM, the present study analyses the structure of land use, and in particular of terraced surfaces, and the associated data on area size, fragmentation, altitude and slope. The results take into account the diversity of land uses and mosaic patches, as well as terraced surfaces, and their distribution in the territory, relating them to the local biodiversity, in particular that of dry stone walls.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02400-1
  • The potential role of public gardens as sentinels of plant invasion

    • Abstract: Abstract Public gardens can help prevent detrimental effects of plant invasions by collecting and sharing data on taxa spreading from cultivation early in the invasion process, thereby acting as sentinels of plant invasion. Existing initiatives have called for public gardens to adopt measures preventing plant invasion, but it is unclear what actions individual gardens are implementing, as there is no formal mechanism for communicating their progress. This study used internal lists of escaping taxa from seven public gardens in the Midwestern United States and Canada to demonstrate how public gardens can collectively contribute data that is critical to assessing potential invasiveness. It also reveals methodological differences in how gardens develop their lists of escaping plants, leading to recommendations for standardization. Data pooled across gardens yielded 769 species spreading from cultivation at one or more gardens. Eight woody species were listed by all gardens despite not consistently being recognized as invasive by states and provinces containing the gardens; some species recorded by multiple gardens did not appear on any invasive lists. While it may be premature to call taxa escaping from cultivation at a few public gardens “invasive” or even “potentially invasive”, these plants should be monitored and evaluated with this information shared to facilitate stronger conclusions about risk. Thus, public gardens have a unique expertise in assisting invasive plant efforts as sentinels, particularly if challenges related to methodological inconsistencies and data sharing are suitably addressed, which is herein recommended through the adoption of a set of standardized guidelines.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
  • Conservation of Latin America freshwater biodiversity: beyond political

    • Abstract: Abstract Latin America’s tremendous socio-cultural and biological diversity has evolved along tightly intertwined, far-reaching river networks. Decisions taken by any one country, may have strong impacts on the regional and even global biodiversity conservation agenda, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. Here we comment on four perspectives complementing actions suggested by Azevedo-Santos et al. (2021) in their Commentary “Conservation of Brazilian freshwater biodiversity: Thinking about the next 10 years and beyond”. This contribution aims at attaining an effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity in Latin America, particularly in the context of the ongoing negotiations on the Global Biodiversity Framework. Our suggestions put forward cross-border perspectives, urging governments to engage in actions that consider the reality of and threats to transnational ecosystems such as many river basins of Latin America and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02380-2
  • Ruppell’s fox movement and spatial behavior are influenced by
           topography and human activity

    • Abstract: Abstract Global climatic processes have driven an expansion of arid environments, as well as the human populations that depend on these biomes. Human habitation can influence desert ecosystems directly through changes in land use and indirectly through the introduction of alien species that compete with locally adapted fauna. Native species can respond to these processes by spatial or temporal avoidance. Ruppell’s fox is a desert-adapted species inhabiting flat, rocky arid areas that feeds mainly on invertebrates and rodents. We used location data and step selection functions to study the space use of a population in southern Israel. We hypothesized that Ruppell’s fox movement would be influenced by topography due to preference for creeks, where insects and rodents are available, and by human infrastructure as the presence of humans, vehicles and associated animals may induce a fear effect on native species. Ruppell’s fox habitat selection was seasonal. During the dry season, foxes showed preference for flatter areas and creek bottoms and avoided paved roads. During the rainy season, foxes avoided less- trafficked dirt roads. These patterns were likely a consequence of increased territoriality due to denning in the colder season and reduced availability of insects in the dry season. Avoidance of paved and dirt roads may be explained by fear of human presence and perception of risk due to the use of linear features by larger carnivores, such as wolves and red foxes. Our results suggest that current protected, remote and uninhabited areas have an elevated value for the persistence of Ruppell’s fox populations. We recommend limitation of vehicle movement within current reserves and continued monitoring of population trends for this little studied carnivore.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02395-9
  • Factors influencing persistence of a threatened amphibian in restored
           wetlands despite severe population decline during climate change driven
           weather extremes

    • Abstract: Abstract Biodiversity is in global decline during the Anthropocene. Declines have been caused by multiple factors, such as habitat removal, invasive species, and disease, which are often targets for conservation management. However, conservation interventions are under threat from climate change induced weather extremes. Weather extremes are becoming more frequent and devastating and an example of this was the 2019/2020 Australian drought and mega-fires. We provide a case study the impacts of these extreme weather events had on a population of the threatened frog Litoria aurea that occurs in a constructed habitat which was designed to reduce the impact of introduced fish and chytrid-induced disease. We aimed to determine what factors influenced persistence so that the design of wetlands can be further optimised to future-proof threatened amphibians. We achieved this with 4 years (2016–2020) of intensive capture–recapture surveys during austral spring and summer across nine wetlands (n = 94 repeat surveys). As hypothesized, drought caused a sharp reduction in population size, but persistence was achieved. The most parsimonious predictor of survival was an interaction between maximum air temperature and rainfall, indicating that weather extremes likely caused the decline. Survival was positively correlated with wetland vegetation coverage, positing this is an important feature to target to enhance resilience in wetland restoration programs. Additionally, the benefits obtained from measures to reduce chytrid prevalence were not compromised during drought, as there was a positive correlation between salinity and survival. We emphasize that many species may not be able to persist under worse extreme weather scenarios. Despite the potential for habitat augmentation to buffer effects of extreme weather, global action on climate change is needed to reduce extinction risk.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02387-9
  • Ranking the direct threats to biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa

    • Abstract: Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa receives large investments in biodiversity conservation, and if these investments can be concentrated on the highest threats to biodiversity, the benefits to conservation from the investments would increase. Yet there is no available prioritization of the many direct threats to biodiversity to inform organizations developing sub-Saharan or sub-regional conservation strategies. Consequently, regional investments by funders of biodiversity conservation such as international conservation organizations, foundations, and bilateral and multilateral donors may be suboptimal. The objective of this study was to determine what are the highest direct threats to biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa and its sub-regions. To do this, we collected threat data using standardized IUCN threat categories from a Delphi consensus of sub-Saharan Africa biodiversity experts, known threats to IUCN Red-listed sub-Saharan African species, and National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans from 40 sub-Saharan African countries. After averaging the threat ranking from the three sources, the highest threats were: (1) annual and perennial crops (non-timber); (2) fishing and harvesting aquatic resources in marine and freshwater areas; (3) logging and wood harvesting in natural forests; and (4) hunting and collecting terrestrial animals. The highest-ranked sub-regional threats were hunting in Central Africa and agriculture in East Africa, Southern Africa, and West Africa. Aligning biodiversity investments to address these threats and tailoring activities to reflect local socio-ecological contexts would increase the conservation of biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02394-w
  • Exploring cultural differences in wildlife value orientations using
           student samples in seven nations

    • Abstract: Abstract Understanding differences in the way people think about wildlife across countries is important as many conservation challenges transcend jurisdictions. We explored differences in wildlife value orientations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Serbia. Standard scales assessed domination (prioritizing human well-being) and mutualism (striving for egalitarian relationships with wildlife). We used student samples (total n = 2176) for cross-cultural comparisons. Reliabilities of the wildlife value orientations scales were adequate in all countries. Relationships between demographics and wildlife value orientations were different across countries. Men were generally more oriented towards domination and less towards mutualism than women, except in Serbia, where it was the other way around. Estimated at the level of the individual (using ANOVA), wildlife value orientations varied across countries, with nationality explaining a larger portion of the variation in mutualism (21%) than domination (6%). Estimated at the level of countries (using multilevel modelling), effect sizes were comparable. Thought about wildlife has previously only been examined within single countries. This paper makes a new contribution to the conservation literature suggesting that wildlife value orientations vary by country, and are associated with demographic factors. For conservation practices, understanding national differences in the way people think about wildlife is crucial to understanding sources of conflict among practitioners. Such knowledge is also important to gain public support for conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
  • Conservation by trans-border cooperation: population genetic structure and
           diversity of geoffroy’s bat (Myotis emarginatus) at its north-western
           european range edge

    • Abstract: Abstract In the European Union, all bat species are strictly protected and member states must ensure their conservation. However, if populations are genetically structured, conservation units that correspond to whole countries may be too large, putting small populations with specific conservation requirements at risk. Geoffroy’s bat (Myotis emarginatus) has undergone well-documented declines at its north-western European range edge between the 1960 and 1990s and is considered to be negatively affected by habitat fragmentation. Here we analysed the species’ genetic population structure and diversity to identify subpopulations with reduced genetic diversity and to scientifically inform conservation management. We generated 811 microsatellite-based genetic profiles obtained from 42 European nursery colonies and analysed a total of 932 sequences of the hypervariable region II of the mitochondrial control region sampled from across Europe. While two geographically widespread genetic populations were inferred to be present in north-western Europe, both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity were lowest in the areas that had experienced a decline during the last century. A microsatellite-based analysis of demographic history did not permit, however, to unequivocally link that reduced genetic diversity to the population contraction event. Given the large geographic extent of the genetic populations, preserving the connectivity of mating sites requires concerted conservation efforts across multiple political jurisdictions. Genetic monitoring ought to be done on a regular basis to ensure that large-scale connectivity is maintained and further loss of genetic diversity is prevented.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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