Subjects -> MINES AND MINING INDUSTRY (Total: 82 journals)
Showing 1 - 42 of 42 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Earth Science : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Mining Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
CIM Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Extractive Industries and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gems & Gemology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geology of Ore Deposits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geology and Mining Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Materials Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Minerals     Open Access  
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal  
Minerals Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mining Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mining Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mining Technology : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Podzemni Radovi     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Réalités industrielles     Full-text available via subscription  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik     Open Access  
Stainless Steel World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Mine Water and the Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.608
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1616-1068 - ISSN (Online) 1025-9112
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Dynamic Characteristics of Water Inflow from a Coal Mine’s Roof
           Aquifer

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      Abstract: Abstract The static and dynamic inflow of water from the roof aquifer changes as mining progresses. We used a second-order dynamic model to describe the water inflow process. The parameters of the water inflow model were solved using actual drainage from roof aquifers at nine working faces in the Yuanyanghu mining area of the Ningxia Autonomous Region, China, as well as the peak water inflow values, their locations, the equilibrium values of water inflow, and their initial occurrence locations. The parameters of the second-order dynamic model of water inflow were inversely calculated. The peak values of water inflow without drainage were also calculated. The results indicate that pre-drainage of roof water significantly weakens the intensity of water inflow during the mining process, reducing peak values by more than 72%. The characteristics of the water-conducting fractured zones determine the major drainage locations, while the water-rich and water-conductive nature of the direct discharge aquifer affects the water inflow equilibrium values and initial occurrence positions. The results show that the model parameters and characteristic values of water inflow are determined by the hydrogeological nature of the roof strata, water-conducting fractured zone(s), and mining speed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Surface Soil Water Content Before and After Coal Mining and its
           Influencing Factors—A Case Study of the Daliuta Coal Mine in Shaanxi
           Province, China

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      Abstract: Abstract The spatial variability in soil water content in the Daliuta mining area in western China was studied before and after coal mining using ground penetrating radar and geostatistical methods. The relationships among soil water content, soil physical properties, topographical factors, and vegetation density were analysed using classical statistics. The average surface soil water content changed slightly between the two detection events at the centre of the subsidence, from 0.084 cm3/cm3 to 0.079 cm3/cm3; there, the distribution of the soil water content was more closely related to terrain than any of the other factors being considered. Along the subsidence boundary, the surface soil water content decreased significantly after mining, from 0.099 cm3/cm3 to 0.083 cm3/cm3 at one location. The total soil porosity, soil organic matter, and soil clay content were positively correlated with soil water content before mining. However, after mining, the relationship between total soil porosity and soil water content significantly strengthened while the relationships between other soil physical and chemical properties and soil water content weakened. Vegetation was determined to be the main factor controlling the surface soil water content before and after coal mining at one location in a small (1,600 m2) area of the subsidence boundary.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • The Future Direction of Pit Lakes: Part 2, Corporate and Regulatory
           Closure Needs to Improve Management

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      Abstract: Abstract Pit lakes may present significant risks to ecological and human receiving environments but can also provide beneficial end use opportunities. The understanding of many processes that influence the magnitude of these risks and opportunities remains limited, and even where our understanding is adequate, the application of that knowledge is not consistently applied. From initial planning to long-term closure, regulation and corporate management of pit lake closure can be improved to realise more sustainable pit lake legacies. In this two-part manuscript, we recommend focus areas for future research by academics (Part 1), and strategies to structurally improve the practice of pit lake closure for mining industry regulators, corporate sustainability officers, global practice leads, and site mine closure planners (Part 2). Here we identify barriers that often limit the understanding of pit lake processes and closure practices and suggest ways that corporate leaders, closure practitioners, and regulators can improve pit lake management. Recommended corporate changes include: conducting risk assessments at an early planning stage; funding pit lake research and trials; allowing data sharing and case study publication; avoiding the simplifying assumption of a fully mixed pit lake when making predictions; integrating climate change into pit lake predictions; improving the quality of technical reporting; generating industry guidance for pit lake rehabilitation; maximizing opportunities for subaqueous, in-pit disposal of mine wastes; creating a positive legacy through beneficial uses of pit lakes; and verifying predictions using long-term monitoring. Recommended regulatory advancements include: raising expectations of corporate pit lake closure planning and execution; acknowledging good pit lake closure examples; balancing the need to simulate long closure periods with expectations of model reliability; considering the value of pit lakes as future water resources during permitting; and requiring closure costing and bonding commensurate to closure risk.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Study of Water-Controlled and Environmentally Friendly Coal Mining Models
           in an Ecologically Fragile Area of Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract Striking a balance between high-intensity coal mining and environmental protection has been a challenge in the Yushen mining area, which is an important coal production base in China located in an arid and semi-arid ecologically fragile environment. The 122,109 working face of the Caojiatan coal mine was used as a model to coordinate coal production with ecological protection. Theoretical analysis and field monitoring revealed that the maximum surface subsidence was 5.6 m, and the development height of the diversion fracture zone was 21 times the coal seam thickness. The influence of mining process parameters and mining methods on surface ecological damage and water loss was further analyzed using the fluid–solid coupling method. The results showed that exclusive pursuit of high-intensity mining would induce irreversible disasters including aquifer water loss and cultivated land damage; the degree of influence was directly proportional to the working face length, mining height, and mining method. Proper adjustments of these parameters could help realize water-controlled coal mining. The results provide an empirical basis for allowing both exploitation of coal resources and protection of the environment in ecologically fragile areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Stephen Hancock (1938–2022)

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      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Design Theory and Physical Simulation Test Using a Textile Bag to Control
           Water Inrush in a Coal Mine Roadway

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      Abstract: Abstract We conducted an in-depth study of a new textile bag grouting technology that can be used to deal with sudden mine water inrush events, while avoiding excessive grouting and long construction periods. We obtained the design length and critical water pressure theoretical solution of a textile bag based on its elasticity and used this to calculate the shear stress and axial stress curves of the textile bag with length. To verify theoretical rationality, we used a physical simulation to study the process of dynamic water interception by textile bags and conducted experimental tests using a reasonable proportion of double liquid slurry injection material to obtain the water-blocking time and water-deformation interception characteristics in the roadway. The results show that the size of textile bag can be determined when the critical water pressure is known. In addition, the stress change characteristics of a textile bag derived from physical simulation tests were consistent with theoretical analysis, indicating that textile bags can achieve rapid and controllable interception of dynamic water in the critical water pressure range. This approach has already been successfully applied in an actual mine. Thus, this study provides new technical methods and scientific reference data for mine water control.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • An Analog Model Study on Water–Sand Mixture Inrush Mechanisms During the
           Mining of Shallow Coal Seams

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      Abstract: Abstract Water–sand mixture inrushes into shallow underground workings have caused casualties and property loss. A coupled fluid–solid analog model was developed to simulate the water–sand mixture inrush processes during mining from fracture production and development, based on the hydrogeological conditions at the #22304 working face of the Shigetai coal mine in the Erdos coal basin of northeast China. The deformation characteristics of the overlying strata and water pressure variations within the water-flowing fractured zone were monitored and analyzed. The results show that the water–sand mixture inrush consists of three stages: development of cracks in the overlying strata, initiation of a water inrush channel, and evolution of the inrush channel. The stresses of the overlying strata, water pressures, and permeability characteristics of water and sand inrush pathways change within the three stages. These findings lay a solid foundation for predicting water–sand mixture inrushes in shallow coal mines.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Groundwater Geochemical Variation and Controls in Coal Seams and Overlying
           Strata in the Shennan Mining Area, Shaanxi, China

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      Abstract: Abstract Water resource conservation and ecological protection are key coal mining issues in northern Shaanxi Province and the Yellow River Basin. Revealing the characteristics and variation patterns of groundwater quality in the coal series and its overlying aquifers can provide a geological foundation for solving or optimizing these issues. Taking the Zhangjiamao coal mine of the Shennan mining area in northern Shaanxi Province, western China, as an example, water samples were collected for analysis from the: quaternary strata, weathered bedrock, burnt rock, coal series, and coal seam. Test parameters included conventional ion concentrations, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pH. Key water chemistry indicators such as oxidation/reduction index (ORI) and groundwater chemical closure index (GCCI) were used to explain the water quality differences. The Quaternary water, burnt rock water, and weathered bedrock water were dominantly the Ca–HCO3 type, the coal series water (Yan’an Formation) was dominantly Ca–HCO3 and Na–Cl types, and the coal seam water was dominantly Na–Cl type. From the shallow groundwater to coal seam water, dissolution and leaching gradually decrease and degree of retention gradually increases. Coal seam water was characterized by high TDS, high GCCI, and low ORI, reflecting a closed hydrogeochemical environment and moderate sulfate reduction. Leaching, salt accumulation, sulfate reduction, and cation exchange jointly control the groundwater chemical characteristics and evolution of the coal series and its overlying aquifers. Salt accumulation and cation exchange reactions of the stagnant coal seam water in the arid and semiarid climates and shallow buried conditions result in increased mineralization; the water quality is vastly different from that of the overlying aquifers, which are dominated by leaching. Groundwater circulation in the coal series and coal seam are of the infiltration–retention type, and the overlying aquifer of the coal series are of the infiltration–runoff type. A comprehensive hydrogeological model was constructed of the Middle Jurassic coal series and its overlying aquifers in the area. The results of this study have implications for the identification of mine water influx sources in the Shennan mining area, and the understanding of controls on the groundwater geochemical variation in Jurassic coal field of western China.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Laboratory Simulation of Groundwater Along Uranium-Mining-Affected Flow
           Paths Near the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract Mining of volumetrically small, but relatively enriched (average 0.6% U3O8) breccia pipe uranium (BPU) deposits near the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA has the potential to affect groundwater and springs in the area. Such deposits also contain base metal sulfides that can oxidize to generate acid mine drainage and release trace metals. In this study, sequential batch experiments were conducted to simulate the geochemistry of local shallow groundwater that contacts BPU ore and then moves downgradient through sedimentary strata. The experiments simulated shallow groundwater in a carbonate aquifer followed by contact with BPU ore. The experiments subsequently simulated contact with sedimentary rocks and changing oxygen availability. Concentrations of several contaminants of potential concern became substantially elevated in the waters exposed to BPU ore, including As, Co, Ni, U, and Zn, and to a lesser extent, Mo. Of these, Co, Mo, Ni, and U were minimally attenuated by downgradient processes, whereas Zn was partially attenuated. Sb and Tl concentrations were more moderately elevated but also generally minimally attenuated. Although the mixture of elements is particular to these BPU ore deposits, sulfide oxidation in the ore and carbonate buffering of pH by sedimentary rocks generates patterns of water chemistry common in acid mine drainage settings. Ultimately, downgradient concentrations of elements sourced from BPU ore will also be strongly influenced by non-geochemical factors such as the quantities of water contacting BPU materials, heterogeneity of materials along flow paths, and mixing with waters that have not contacted BPU materials.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Optimal Scheduling of a Mine Water Drainage System Based on Improved
           Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study of the Guhanshan Coal
           Mine, China

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      Abstract: Abstract A groundwater drainage system comprising five drainage points and seven submersible pumps was designed to relieve the threat of flooding by 2.9 million m3 of mine water and a dynamic water supply volume of 718 m3/h in the Guhanshan Coal Mine. The key aim of the design was to ensure safe production. A mathematical model of the optimal scheduling of the water drainage system was constructed and solved using an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm to minimize long-term energy consumption. The algorithm had high convergence accuracy, and quickly and efficiently realized the optimal configuration of the pumping volume of the mine drainage system. When the Wucun mine was full of water, the flow of submersible pumps no. 1 (or 2) and nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 were set to 58, 150, 150, 180, and 180 m3/h, respectively, and the energy consumption of the system was minimal. When the water level in the Wucun mine was less than − 40 m, the lowest energy consumption was found when the flow rates of pumps nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were, respectively set to 150, 150, 180, 180, and 58 m3/h. This overcame the shortcomings of adjusting the submersible pump flow based only on past experience and should be useful for many future mine water drainage projects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Passive Treatment of Circumneutral Mine Drainage from the St. Louis Mine
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Mine drainage from the St Louis Tunnel (located at the Rico-Argentine Site) is circumneutral most of the year, with spring freshets increasing flow, decreasing pH and increasing metals concentrations. This study was designed to test the performance of a demonstration-scale horizontal wetlands passive treatment train, comprised of a settling basin, surface flow wetland, horizontal-flow anaerobic wetland, aeration channel, and rock drain, during two years of influent water chemistry at a constant 113 L/min (30 gpm) flow rate. Total Zn, Cd, and Mn effluent concentrations met project treatment goals (PTGs) 75, 96.9, and 100% of the time, respectively, and 93.9, 100, and 100% of the time for the dissolved metals. Most PTG exceedances occurred during the freshet events. Most Zn and Cd attenuation was attributed to sulfide precipitation in the anaerobic cell and capture/filtration of suspended ZnS particles in the anaerobic wetland and rock drain. Manganese was attenuated in the aerobic portion of the anaerobic cell (influent transition zone) as Mn oxides and carbonates. Oxidation of Mn occurred in the rock drain as biogenically formed Mn oxides adhered to the rock matrix. Carryover of dissolved sulfides from the anaerobic cell limited the rock drain’s Mn removal efficiency. Low temperatures did not significantly affect biological activity within the system; the effects of seasonal water quality were more important.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Passive Treatment of Circumneutral Mine Drainage from the St. Louis Mine
           Tunnel, Rico CO: Part 2—Vertical Biotreatment Train Pilot Study

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      Abstract: Abstract This is the second of three papers dealing with metal-bearing circumneutral mine drainage from the inactive Rico-Argentine mine site located at an elevation of ≈ 2740 m (9000 feet) in the San Juan mountain range in southwestern Colorado. This paper evaluates two years of mine drainage treatment using a passive system that included a vertical-flow engineered biotreatment cell. The collapsed St. Louis Tunnel (SLT) discharges circumneutral mine water from several sources that contains elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn. A demonstration-scale 114 L/min (30 gpm) gravity-flow passive treatment system was installed, consisting of a settling basin (utilizing coagulant addition to improve suspended solids settling efficiency), an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bioreactor, and an aeration cascade for effluent polishing. The treatment system generally met target treatment goals for Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb. Nanophase ZnS in system effluent decreased the frequency of meeting total Zn project treatment goals. Unexpectedly high levels of Mn removal were observed in both the anaerobic bioreactor and the aeration cascade. Large seasonal variations in influent metals concentrations and pH present the greatest challenge in managing system performance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Correction to: A New Application of Solvent Extraction to Separate Copper
           from Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Producing Solutions for Electrochemical
           and Biological Recovery Processes

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      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Triggered Seismicity in a Flooded Former Coal Mining Basin (Gardanne Area,
           France)

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      Abstract: Abstract We studied the correlation between seismicity and the water table level in an abandoned coal mine (Bouches-du-Rhône, France), closed in 2003, where groundwater has been pumped out since 2010 to prevent underground flooding. Microseismicity was first felt by the population in 2010 and a strongly felt seismic swarm occurred in November 2012. The origin of the seismicity was therefore questioned, in relation to both the potential instability of old, shallow galleries that might generate damage at the surface and a local seismic hazard assessment. A temporary dense seismic network in the area allowed us to analyse the spatial distribution of the seismicity in detail. Most of the seismicity was clearly located under the mine workings, highlighting that an existing fault system crossing the mining operation was being hydraulically activated, in accordance with the known tectonic extension regime. Our analysis clearly shows a spatiotemporal relationship between seismic migration and the level of the mine aquifer between 2013 and 2017. Thus, seismicity will persist with oscillations of the mining aquifer, depending on the pumping capacities and effective rainfall. Continuous hydraulic and seismic monitoring is necessary to better understand these phenomena and assess the associated risks.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Inrush Water Spreading Through a Mine: A Case
           Study of the Beixinyao Mine, Shanxi Province, China

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      Abstract: Abstract Studies on risk assessment and prediction of inrush water in mines are available, but the evolution process of water inrush events is unclear, which makes it difficult to formulate control and rescue measures. In this paper, a novel numerical simulation approach has been developed to calculate and analyze the spreading process for water inrush in a coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. Possible inrush scenarios for the mine were created based on the water-filling conditions, inrush risk analysis, and the mining works. A spatial model for the mine was constructed, providing the preconditions for numerical modeling. Furthermore, a coupling model for the water flows in the roadway and the goaf was created based on pipe-flow and non-Darcian seepage theories. A numerical solution was then used to resolve the spreading processes for the inrush. The proposed approach was verified through a model experiment for the roadways and a CFD simulation of the goaf. The simulation results for the water inrush scenarios reveal the mine areas susceptible to inundation; these areas can be delineated at different times. The inundation area is related to the mine structure and is mainly controlled by the position of the localized high and low elevation points. The time for inundation is affected by the cumulative water inrush. This study provides a method for assessing the inundation risk of a mine in the event of water inrush disasters.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Mercury Partitioning and Behavior in Streams and Source Areas Affected by
           the Novo-Ursk Gold Sulfide Tailings (West Siberia, Russia)

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      Abstract: Abstract We studied the behavior of mercury in acid mine drainage (AMD) and in portions of the Ur River affected and non-affected by AMD near the Ursk sulfide tailings (Siberia) before (2007–2009) and after (2011–2019) the beginning of tailings reprocessing operations. Mercury occurs in water as dissolved plus colloidal (Hgdc) and colloidal (HgC) species or is adsorbed on suspended particles (Hgsusp). The mercury species were classified as either reactive (HgR) or non-reactive (HgNR), depending on their capacity to reduce to Hg0 by reacting with SnCl2. The composition and pH of the AMD and river waters change downstream of the AMD input. Mercury concentrations ranged from 1.8 to 89 μg/L (for the entire monitoring period) and increased with AMD pH. High-pH conditions are unfavorable for the precipitation of jarosite, which can adsorb Hg from water, and thus mercury remains mobile. HgNR is more abundant than HgR in the river and in AMD particulates. Non-reactive mercury in the river water is associated with CH3Hg+, which correlates with total organic carbon (TOC), while Hg in the AMD samples is bound to HgS(s), m-HgS(s), HgSe(s), and Hg-jarosite. HgR species are associated with particulates in all water bodies as Hg0(liq), Hg(OH)2(aq), HgCl2(aq), and Hg2+ adsorbed by OH groups on the surfaces of mineral grains. Judging by the TOC concentration and the pH and Eh of river water, which local people use for fishing, Hg is prone to methylation upstream and downstream of the AMD input. The Hg enrichment of local surface waters is due to both a naturally elevated background in a Hg-rich province and to the mining and processing operations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Revisiting the Hydraulics of the Aznalcóllar Mine Disaster

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      Abstract: Abstract The Aznalcóllar tailings pond failure (1998) is regarded as one of the severe ecological mine disasters ever reported. The spill of the mine tailings affected more than 60 km of the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers and caused major environmental damage. Despite the event being well-documented with more than 400 scientific publications, including two special issues and two reviews, several hydraulic uncertainties and inconsistencies remain. This paper conducts a state-of-the-art review of the most relevant hydraulic aspects of the mine disaster. It addresses the pond and fluid characteristics, the break type, the breaking time, the flow propagation, the volume potentially stored and subsequently spilled, area dimensions affected by the spill, and the morphological changes generated in the river and riverbanks caused by the spill, and later on by the restoration activities. Several discrepancies and plenty of controversial data have been unearthed that may affect general understanding of the event. In addition, new data is introduced and analysed applying photointerpretation and digital terrain analysis techniques, aiming to derive in essential hydraulic parameters. The most important findings are that the spill could have had a volume about 11.5 hm3, affecting about 86.7 km of river length, twice the most referenced values in the literature, and that applied restoration activities have substantially modified the hydro-sedimentary processes of the affected system. Additionally, a first video observation-based classification reveals that the fluid behaved more like a highly concentrated sediment-laden flow than like a mud flow.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • Main Key Heritage Adit (Sztolnia Dziedziczna) in Zabrze, Upper Silesian
           Coal Basin, Poland

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      Abstract: Abstract The Main Key Heritage Adit in Zabrze was used during from 1799 to 1953 to drain a series of underground coal mines and is the longest such facility in Europe. It discharges water of variable quality to the Bytomka River. At times, the adit water has greatly exceeded allowable discharge water quality limits. The refurbishment of the adit at the beginning of the twenty-first century allowed tourists to access 2.5 km of the original 14.25 km of tunnels. It also enabled the monitoring of groundwater in this part of Zabrze. Three series of water samples from leaks at the adit and the “Carnall” shaft (34 samples in total) were collected from 2017 to 2018. The total dissolved solids content of the samples ranged from 640 to 2670 mg/L with pH ranging from 6.7 to 8.5. Waters belong to various chemical types, from Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-HCO3-Cl to Ca-Na-Mg-Cl-HCO3-SO4. High concentrations of metals (e.g. Fe up to 64.4 mg/L) and anthropogenic pollutants such as NO3 (up to 151.4 mg/L) were observed. The pollution is caused both by natural processes (weathering of sulfides) and anthropogenic factors (long-term mining activities, intensive land use, and past and present leaks of city sewerage). The hydrogeological role of the adit and the possibilities of its multifunctional use may serve as an example of good practices that can be used during the rehabilitation of closed mines elsewhere in the world.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
       
  • Hydrogeochemical Processes of Carboniferous Limestone Groundwater in the
           Yangzhuang Coal Mine, Huaibei Coalfield, China

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      Abstract: Abstract We examined the primary mechanisms controlling water quality evolution in the Carboniferous aquifer in the Yangzhuang coal mine (Huaibei coalfield). Q-mode factor analysis explained how the Na+ and SO42− concentrations gradually increase and the hydrochemical type transforms from Ca-HCO3 to Ca·Na-HCO3 and Ca·Na-HCO3·SO4 along the flow path. The high bicarbonate concentration appears to be due to dissolution of calcite and dolomite and an open carbonate system, while frequent water inrushes and the declining water level provide evidence for the relative closure of the Carboniferous limestone aquifer. Gypsum dissolution is the main SO42− source. Inverse geochemical modeling sufficiently explained the hydrogeochemical processes that control the water quality evolution. These findings should aid the interpretation of groundwater hydrochemical evolution and groundwater quality management in the study area and other north China coalfields.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
       
  • Experimental Investigation on the Transport Behavior of a Sand/Mud/Water
           Mixture Through a Mining-Induced Caving Zone

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      Abstract: Abstract The transport of sand particles through various mining-induced caving zones was investigated experimentally under different initial infiltration water heads. These experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale caving zone packed with glass beads, using four different sizes of sand grains. The transports were categorized into two different patterns: seepage and driven. The probability of the driven pattern was greatly increased by increasing the height of the initial water head and the size ratio Rs (the ratio of glass beads to sand particles by diameter). The sand portion of the sand/mud/water mixture had a high transport rate while the water had a low one in the mixture. Both rates increased with increasing initial water head height, with a larger increase in the sand transport rate than the water flow rate. The water flow rate is primarily governed by the permeability of the sand layer, while the sand transport rate is greatly affected by Rs. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism of sand/mud/water mixture inrushes and a potential design idea for its control and treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10230-022-00852-z
       
 
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