Subjects -> MINES AND MINING INDUSTRY (Total: 82 journals)
Showing 1 - 42 of 42 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Earth Science : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Mining Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AusiMM Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CIM Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clays and Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Exploration and Mining Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Extractive Industries and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gems & Gemology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geology of Ore Deposits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ghana Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geology and Mining Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Materials Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Minerals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Minerals Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mining Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mining Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mining Technology : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Podzemni Radovi     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Réalités industrielles     Full-text available via subscription  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik     Open Access  
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Journal Cover
International Journal of Coal Geology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.186
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0166-5162 - ISSN (Online) 0166-5162
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3304 journals]
  • Introduction to critical elements in coal and coal ash and their recovery,
           a virtual special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 206Author(s): Allan Kolker, James C. Hower, Athanasios K. Karamalidis
  • Stone coal as a potential atmospheric mercury source in Da-Ba-Shan
           mountain areas, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 206Author(s): Zhonggen Li, Xinyu Li, Jing Liu, Leiming Zhang, Ji Chen, Xinbin Feng Mercury (Hg) emissions from stone coal that formed from marine lower organisms in the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic have not been paid much attention in China. In this research, Hg concentrations in different fueled coals (stone coal, humic coal) and charcoal that derived from wood and paired slags, atmospheric Hg emissions and atmospheric Hg levels were studied in Shaanxi province, China. The average Hg concentration in stone coal produced in Da-Ba-Shan mountain areas in Southern Shaanxi was 539.4 μg·kg−1, about 15 and 38 times higher than that of humic coal (36.0 μg·kg−1) and charcoal (14.2 μg·kg−1), respectively. Atmospheric Hg emission usually lasted for 2–3 h after fueling stone coal, with the majority of Hg emitted during the first 1 h. 95.5–99.4% of Hg in the fuel would be lost into the atmosphere for three types of fuels. Mercury emission factor (MEF) of stone coal was 40–120 times higher than those of humic coal and charcoal based on heat value. Average atmospheric Hg concentration at 0.5 m above the stove could reach 1600–2000 ng·m−3 if burning stone coal, which exceeded the standards for residential ambient air (200–300 ng·m−3) by 5–10 times and also was nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that of burning humic coal (20–60 ng·m−3). Health risk would be a concern for local residents who depend on stone coal for cooking and heating but without any control measures of flue gas. In Shaanxi province alone, Hg emission through domestic combustion of stone coal was estimated to be 1.34 Mg in 2011. Higher mercury emission amounts are possible in southern China where stone coal has been intensively used. Total mercury emissions from this source category need to be further investigated on the national scale.
  • Understanding organic matter heterogeneity and maturation rate by Raman
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 206Author(s): Seyedalireza Khatibi, Mehdi Ostadhassan, Paul Hackley, David Tuschel, Arash Abarghani, Bailey Bubach Solid organic matter (OM) in sedimentary rocks produces petroleum and solid bitumen when it undergoes thermal maturation. The solid OM is a ‘geomacromolecule’, usually representing a mixture of various organisms with distinct biogenic origins, and can have high heterogeneity in composition. Programmed pyrolysis is a common method to reveal bulk geochemical characteristics of the dominant OM, while detailed organic petrography is required to reveal information about the biogenic origin of contributing macerals. Despite the advantages of programmed pyrolysis, it cannot provide information about the heterogeneity of chemical compositions present in the individual OM types. Therefore, other analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy are necessary.In this study, we compared geochemical characteristics and Raman spectra of two sets of naturally and artificially matured Bakken source rock samples. A continuous Raman spectral map on solid bitumen particles was created from the artificially matured hydrous pyrolysis residues, in particular, to show the systematic chemical modifications in microscale. Spectroscopic data was plotted for both sets against thermal maturity to compare maturation rate/path for these two separate groups. The outcome showed that artificial maturation through hydrous pyrolysis does not follow the same trend as naturally-matured samples although having similar solid bitumen reflectance values (%SBRo).Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy of solid bitumen from artificially matured samples indicated the heterogeneity of OM decreases as maturity increases. This may represent an alteration in chemical structure towards more uniform compounds at higher maturity. This study may emphasize the necessity of using analytical methods such as Raman spectroscopy along with conventional geochemical methods to better reveal the underlying chemical structure of OM. Finally, observation by Raman spectroscopy of chemical alteration of OM during artificial maturation may assist in the proposal of improved pyrolysis protocols to better resemble natural geologic processes.
  • Reconstruction of paleobotanical and paleoenvironmental changes in the
           Pliocene Velenje Basin, Slovenia, by molecular and stable isotope analysis
           of lignites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 206Author(s): Bangjun Liu, Mirijam Vrabec, Miloš Markič, Wilhelm Püttmann Three different lithotypes (xylitic, gelified and matrix) of Pliocene lignite from the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, were investigated to establish the variations of biomarker compositions in solvent extracts and the stable isotope (carbon and nitrogen) compositions of bulk material. From the biomarker results, the xylitic lithotype almost exclusively originates from gymnosperms (conifers such as Taxodiaceae), as indicated by the very high contents of sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids but very low abundances of n-alkanes and non-hopanoid triterpenoids. The relative proportion of gymnosperms to angiosperms in the paleomire is reflected by the ratio of diterpenoids to the sum of diterpenoids and non-hopanoid triterpenoids (Di-/(Di-+Tri-terpenoids)), which is close to 1 (av. 0.99) in the xylitic lithotype. The predominance of diterpenoids from conifers in the xylitic lithotype is associated with high C/N ratios and intermediate total sulfur (TS). The very low abundance of hop-17(21)-ene and the absence of further hopanoids in the xylitic lithotype indicate a restricted influence of bacterial degradation under relatively dry conditions in the paleomire. The matrix lithotype also originated preferentially from gymnosperms under dry depositional conditions, as indicated by the high Di-/(Di-+Tri-terpenoids) ratio (0.95), low amounts of hopanoids and low TS content. The gelified lithotype is characterized by a high content of n-alkanes and wide variation of the Di-/(Di-+Tri-terpenoids) ratio (0.13–0.88), indicating a fluctuating contribution of angiosperms to the plant community in the paleomire during formation of this lithotype. In addition, the high abundance of hop-17(21)-ene and TS in the gelified lithotype compared with the other two lithotypes suggests the effect of bacterial activity under relatively wet/humid conditions during formation of the gelified lithotype, which is also supported by the considerable content of mid-chain n-alkanes.The high correlation between the δ13C and δ15N values (R2 = 0.68) indicates that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in the Velenje lignites were probably influenced by the same factors (e.g. precursor plants and/or microbial activity). The stable carbon isotopic values (av. −25.44‰) and nitrogen isotopic values (av. 2.15‰) of the xylitic lithotype are higher than those of the gelified lithotype (av. δ13C = −27.48‰, δ15N = 1.37‰) and the matrix lithotype (av. δ13C = −27.09‰, δ15N = 1.10‰). The relatively high correlation between the diterpenoid content and both δ13C and δ15N values suggests that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the three lithotypes might reflect the composition of the original plant material in the paleomire. The dominance of conifers as precursor plants in the xylitic lithotype might be the main reason for the higher δ13C values and probably also the higher δ15N values. The relatively higher δ15N values in the xylitic lithotype than in the other types could be explained by the high amount of decay-resistant xylem and low mineral (e.g. clay) content in the xylitic lithotype. The slightly lower δ13C but higher δ15N values in the gelified lithotype than in the matrix lithotype can be explained by variation of parent plant materials and the influence of bacterial activity.
  • Differentiation of rare earth elements and yttrium in different size and
           density fractions of the Reshuihe coal, Yunnan Province, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Piaopiao Duan, Wenfeng Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Shuxun Sang, Mengya Ma, Wei Zhang Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in coal, fly ash as well as coal preparation products have attracted much attention due to the increasing demand worldwide. In this paper, the distribution of REY in different size and density fractions, their mode of occurrence, and the insight they provide on the sediment source region of the Reshuihe coal in southern China are studied. The results show that the physical separation method caused light-REY (LREY) to be enriched in the low-density and large-sized coal particles, whereas medium-REY (MREY) and heavy-REY (HREY) are enriched in small-sized and high-density fractions. In addition, LREY are more closely associated with organic matter, while MREY and HREY occur more often in aluminosilicate minerals. Moreover, the sediment source of the Reshuihe coal was mainly derived from the felsic–intermediate rocks at the top of the Emeishan basalt sequence. Further, REY in the feed coal are generally not enriched, though REY are enriched in density fractions of 1.4 kg/L. The combustion products of coal with a density of 1.4 kg/L obtained by gravity separation have a potential economic value as promising raw materials for REY.
  • Chemometric-based, 3D chemical-architectural model of Odontopteris
           cantabrica Wagner (Medullosales, Pennsylvanian, Canada): Implications for
           natural classification and taxonomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Erwin L. Zodrow, José A. D'Angelo The largest known (365 mm-long) specimen of Odontopteris cantabrica Wagner from the Late Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield in Canada was re-examined as part of the on-going research project “Chemistry and Architecture of Carboniferous Seed Ferns” to refine the 3D plant-reconstruction concept further in the framework of natural classification. The micromorphology and functional-group content and distribution of O. cantabrica are investigated by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that the specimen is naturally macerated, showing little or no cellular features. Two types of stomatal structures occurred, however: anomocytic on abaxial pinnule surfaces, and cyclocytic amphistomatically on the rachises. Hence, the frond was entirely photosynthetic. Chemometric analysis of the infrared data resulted not only in a 3D chemical model, but also confirmed the hypothesis of the chemical-architectural relationship in extinct medullosalean fronds. Further demonstrated is the predictive power of chemometrics for reconstruction, hence frond interpretation, in the absence of certain frond parts. Inferred from the collective data is a basally bifurcate and larger frond, of larger size than previously believed, which could indicate a self-supporting (arborescent) or semi self-supporting habit for the O. cantabrica plant. The concept of natural classification for plant fossils, underpinned by a holistic data approach, is proposed based on data from Neuropteris ovata var. simonii, Alethopteris ambigua, and O. cantabrica.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • The influence of partial hydrocarbon saturation on porosity and
           permeability in a palaeogene lacustrine shale-hosted oil system of the
           Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Xiaomin Xie, Alexandra Amann-Hildenbrand, Ralf Littke, Bernhard M. Krooss, Maowen Li, Zhiming Li, Zhenkai Huang Palaeogene calcareous (>40% carbonate) mudstones (Ro from 0.56 to 0.88%) from the Bohai Bay Basin were studied by combined petrographical, geochemical and petrophysical analysis in order to assess and quantify the pore space, pore filling and its influence on gas transport capacity.TOC contents ranged from 1.44% to 5.12% and porosities (ΦHe) determined by helium pycnometry, from 1.3% to 6.4%. Bitumen-filled porosity (ΦS1) was estimated to range between 0.3 and 2.0% based on Rock-Eval S1 values and an assumed bitumen density of 0.90 g/cm3. The “true” total porosity (Φtotal = ΦHe + ΦS1) amounts to 1.9–8.5%. The in-situ oil saturation (So) was estimated to range between 25% and 52%, with two samples (L69-1B and L69-2) having relatively high oil saturation (71% and 91%).The conductivity of the remaining “open” pore space was measured on three samples with different orientations and oil saturations from 17 to 24%. The effective Klinkenberg-corrected gas permeability coefficients range between 63 and 2000 nDarcy, and permeability is highest parallel to bedding. Upon loading from 10 to 40 MPa confining pressure the intrinsic permeability coefficients decreased by one order of magnitude, revealing a relatively high exponential stress sensitivity coefficient (0.069 MPa−1) and much lower zero stress permeability (1.416 × 10−6 mD) than most gas shales. This could be due to pore plugging by ductile bitumen.
  • Later stage gas generation in shale gas systems based on pyrolysis in
           closed and semi-closed systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Liangliang Wu, Peng Wang, Ansong Geng As a self-contained source-reservoir petroleum system, shale gas plays have different generation mechanisms from conventional natural gas plays, especially with respect to the effects of residual hydrocarbons on shale gas generation. In this study, closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a suite of residual shales obtained by the semi-closed pyrolysis of shales from the Neoproterozoic Xiamaling Formation under various conditions. The effects of oil expulsion on the geochemical characteristics of residual organic matter (both bitumen and kerogen) in shale and on shale gas generation in the high maturity stage were investigated. The results indicated that shales with high oil expulsion efficiencies should be depleted in the aliphatic fractions in both residual bitumen and kerogen. In contrast, most of the aliphatic fractions should remain in shales with low oil expulsion efficiencies. Additionally, oil expulsion can further affect the chemical and isotopic compositions of the gas generated at later stages of thermal maturation. With increasing oil expulsion efficiency, C1, C2, C3, C1–5, and C2–5 gas yields and gas wetness decrease, while C1, C2, and C3 carbon isotopic values become heavier.
  • Organic geochemical characteristics and depositional setting of Paleogene
           oil shale, mudstone and sandstone from onshore Penyu Basin, Chenor,
           Pahang, Malaysia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Yousif M. Makeen, Wan Hasiah Abdullah, Habeeb A. Ayinla, Xuanlong Shan, Ye Liang, Siyuan Su, Noraini Mohd Noor, Hijaz Kamal Hasnan, Lanre Asiwaju The eastern Chenor Pahang area of the Penyu Basin contains an untapped potential, in part due to poor knowledge of its organic facies characteristics The sedimentary succession of eastern Chenor Pahang area is dominated by fine to coarse grained sandstone occurring in association with oil shale and mudstone in a predominantly fining upward sequence. Detailed geochemical and petrographic characterization was carried out on oil shale and mudstone samples to evaluate the origin and type of organic matter (OM), as well as the paleoenvironmental conditions and organic richness of the Paleogene sedimentary succession. The facies are only enriched in total organic carbon (TOC), potential hydrocarbon yield (S2) and extractible organic matter (EOM) the types of organic matter are important index reflecting the potential of the source rock(s). Based on elemental ratios, the analyzed samples are shown to contain Types I and II kerogens. This finding is supported by the high hydrogen index (HI) of>300 mg HC/g TOC and the presence of abundant liptinitic materials. Biomarker signatures [n-alkanes> n-C25, high C29/C30 17α (H) hopane ratios (0.8–3.3) and high C29 steranes (49–78%)]. Low total sulfur and V/(V + Ni) ratio] suggest a predominantly terrestrial source input with some contribution from aquatic microorganisms as indicated by the common occurrence of amorphous organic matter. Combining this results with n-alkane patterns, kerogen types and organic petrography, predominance of C29 sterane probably indicates a contribution of aquatic organisms such as green and brown algae (consistent with Botrycoccus braunii race A and Pediastrum contribution) and some influence of higher plants OM. Integration of biomarker studies with bulk geochemical and petrographic analysis suggests that the analyzed samples were deposited under suboxic conditions in a fresh water lacustrine environment. This finding is corroborated by the ratios of pristane/phytane, V/Ni and Sr/Br. High bioproductivity and a stratified fresh water column with suboxic bottom water condition enhanced OM preservation in the analyzed mudstone and shale facies. The high OM content in these samples maybe related to the fine-grained matrix of the mud rocks and the paleoclimate in the area.
  • The influence of the thermal aureole asymmetry on hydrocarbon generative
           potential of coal beds: Insights from Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Satabdi Misra, Atul Kumar Varma, Bodhisatwa Hazra, Sanki Biswas, Suresh Kumar SamadGraphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • The mode of occurrence and origin of minerals in the Early Permian
           high-rank coals of the Jimunai depression, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous
           Region, NW China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Baoqing Li, Xinguo Zhuang, Xavier Querol, Natalia Moreno, Patricia Córdoba, Jing Li, Jibin Zhou, Xiaoping Ma, Shunbin Liu, Yunfei Shangguan This paper investigates the mineralogy of coal and non-coal samples from the Haerjiao exploration area in the Jimunai depression, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The minerals in the anthracite proximal to the igneous intrusions are represented by the occurrence of chlorite, muscovite, and illite, which are absent in the semianthracite distal to the igneous intrusions. Kaolinite, the dominant mineral in the semianthracite, decreases in abundance or even disappears in the anthracite. Muscovite and illite in the anthracite are interpreted to result from the alteration of the kaolinite precursor and possibly formed by the interaction of kaolinite and elements (e.g., K, Fe, and Mg) from igneous hydrothermal solutions. The formation of chlorite is the result of the transformation of kaolinite due to the interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich solutions during the diagenetic stage and the direct epigenetic precipitation from Fe-Mg-rich igneous siliceous hydrothermal fluids. Calcite, ankerite, and sulfide minerals resulted from epigenetic precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. Cleat/fracture mineralization indicates that the Fe-Mg-rich hydrothermal fluid from which chlorite precipitated was introduced earlier than the Ca-rich fluid from which calcite precipitated. The injection of hydrothermal solutions that formed sulfide minerals occurred at the latest stage.
  • Organic petrology and geochemistry of Tournaisian-age Albert Formation oil
           shales, New Brunswick, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): F. Goodarzi, O. Haeri-Ardakani, T. Gentzis, P.K. Pedersen Lacustrine oil shale and shale samples of the Tournaisian-age Albert Formation in New Brunswick, Canada, taken from six locations, were analyzed by organic petrology using reflected white and fluorescence light microscopy and by Rock-Eval pyrolysis to determine their depositional environment and hydrocarbon generating potential. Calcium, Th, and Ca contents of the samples were also determined using ICPMS. The results were compared to the Big Marsh lacustrine oil shale of Carboniferous age in Nova Scotia.Organic matter consists mostly of filamentous alginite, bacterial remains, and matrix bituminite, which fluoresce green to dark-yellow. Organic matter was deposited in a lake basin. The regular layering of algal remains and wrapping around mineral particles indicate deposition in a low energy setting below wave base, which resulted in the stratification of the organic matter and the enclosing mineral matrix. There are also fluorescing to non-fluorescing bitumens present in parts of the Albert oil shale. The bitumens were incorporated as a result of hydrocarbon migration during deposition of the oil shales (the two are considered to be syn-sedimentary) because the bitumens are part of the regular rock layering and the fact that the organic matter is wrapped around mineral grains. The bitumens in the Albert oil shales consist of fluorescing wurtzilite and non-fluorescing albertite.The Albert oil shales have lower input of terrestrial sediments containing Th and are carbonate-rich. The variation of Th/U ratio and TOC (wt%) indicates that the Albert oil shales have different mineralogy than those from the Big Marsh ones. There are two types of carbonates particles in the Albert oil shale; a) syngenetic angular particles, which are suspended in the organic matter but may also occur as micrite, and b) rounded to angular and possibly transported particles containing oil inclusions. As a result, variations in Th/U and calcium divided the oil shales into: a low-calcium lacustrine type (which includes the Big Marsh oil shale); the Albert oil shale and shale deposited far from the Albert Mine; and few samples from a deposit close to the Albert Mine that have high calcium content and some of them contained oil inclusions. The higher TOC of samples collected from the bitumen mining area in the Albert Mine is related to bitumen impregnation due to hydrocarbon migration. Variation of HI (mg HC/g/TOC) and authigenic uranium in the Albert oil shale indicates that depositional environment was more anoxic than most of the oil shales in the Big Marsh deposit.Rock-Eval pyrolysis data and accompanying organic petrology analysis indicate that the samples are mostly immature to marginally mature as indicated by %Ro, ran of 0.60–0.68 and variation in the fluorescence Red/Green and Blue/Green and Blue (R/G, B/G, B) quotients. Variations in maturity indicators (such as HI and Tmax) are caused by other factors, such as quantity of organic matter in the samples. The Hydrogen Index (HI) vs. Tmax plot of the oil shales displays a wide range of HI within a narrow Tmax range of 438–442 °C indicating immature to marginally mature Type I kerogen. There is a slight trend of increasing Tmax into the oil window with increasing HI, likely due to the extreme mass of hydrocarbons in these samples, which requires higher energy to breakdown, rather than burial-related thermal maturity. Maturity of the Albert oil shale increases from east to west within the study area as indicated by the westward increase of all three fluorescent quotients of both filamentous algae and matrix bituminite and in the %Ro. The reflectance of the Albert oil shales, measured on vitrinite, is mostly suppressed compared to the nearby Mapleton organic-lean shale in New Brunswick. There is also a correlation between HI and %Ro, ran in the oil shale samples studied; the higher is the HI, the lower is the %Ro.The majority of the oil shale samples have a very high potential for hydrocarbon extraction using the ex-situ methodology (at 30 L/t) and the upper 20% of the samples have the potential for in-situ extraction (at 60 L/t).
  • Investigation of effect of barometric pressure on gas emission in longwall
           mining by monitoring and CFD modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Zongyi Qin, Hua Guo, Qingdong Qu Methane emission fluctuations are strongly related to the barometric pressure changes. Variations of barometric pressure increase the occurrence of fires and explosions of underground mines. As part of the project supported by the Australian Government Coal Mining Abatement Technology Support Package (CMATSP), the methane concentration at tailgate return and the barometric pressure in the longwall panel were monitored and analysed. It was found from the monitoring that when the amplitude of barometric pressure change reaches +/− 0.5%, the emission methane concentration measured changed from the minimum value of 1% to 1.5%. In order to understand better the mechanism behind the phenomena, a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed during the project is used to investigate the effect of barometric pressure on methane emission. Intensive studies on the effect of different parameters on the fluctuation amplitude of methane emission are conducted including the period of barometric pressure variations, the size of the longwall goaf. It is found that the longwall goaf formed during the longwall mining performs like an air accumulator in storing and releasing methane. Barometric pressure changes with smaller period causes larger changes of methane concentration at the return, and larger goaf in size causes larger variation amplitude of methane concentration. Concentrations of methane drawn from vertical boreholes are also affected by the barometric pressure changes.
  • Solid bitumen in shales: Petrographic characteristics and implications for
           reservoir characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): D. Misch, D. Gross, G. Hawranek, B. Horsfield, J. Klaver, F. Mendez-Martin, J.L. Urai, S. Vranjes-Wessely, R.F. Sachsenhofer, J. Schmatz, J. Li, C. Zou The presence of solid bitumen strongly affects hydrocarbon storage and expulsion from a source rock as it might either cause blockage of pore throats leading to lower effective gas permeability, or contribute to hydrocarbon storage and provide migration pathways when a continuous network of hydrocarbon-wet organic matter (OM) pores is formed. Furthermore, organic matter transformation reactions are suggested to influence mineral diagenesis as well. In an attempt to characterize different solid bitumen types and transformation stages over a broad maturity interval (0.5–2.7%Ro) and for varying primary kerogen compositions, we reviewed optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data of 35 solid bitumen-rich shale samples with a Cambrian to Triassic age. We were able to identify in-situ pre-oil solid bitumen, as well as remobilized post-oil solid bitumen at various maturity stages from the early oil window onwards. Solid bitumen is the main host for SEM-visible organic matter porosity; onset of porosity development in solid bitumen differs considerably between predominantly oil-prone (e.g., alginites, amorphous OM from algal and bacterial precursors) and gas-prone (vitrinite-rich) kerogen compositions. Furthermore, solid bitumen (pyrobitumen) in rocks with a terrestrially dominated OM composition seems to be considerably less mobile within the source rock compared to pre- and post-oil solid bitumen in oil-prone rocks, and less reactive in terms of porosity generation. In most samples, several solid bitumen populations with varying fluorescence properties and bitumen reflectance were observed, complicating the use of these petrographic maturity indicators. The apparently different solid bitumen populations often form continuous networks at the SEM-scale. Microstructural features such as irregularly distributed sponge-like porosity or detrital and authigenic mineral inclusions in the sub-micrometer scale were found to have a great influence on texture and reflectance under reflected light microscopy. The formation of authigenic minerals (quartz, various carbonate phases with different Ca/Mg/Fe proportions, magnetite in Cambrian samples) was observed frequently in post-oil solid bitumen of oil-prone rocks, indicating a close genetic relationship between transformation products formed during hydrocarbon generation (e.g., acetate, carbon dioxide and methane) and the dissolution and precipitation of minerals during diagenesis. In some cases, stylolite-like features in the sub-micrometer scale were found, showing that processes well-known from reservoir characterization at core-scale also play a role at the micrometer-scale. Furthermore, the observed strong interaction between organic matter transformation and mineral authigenesis indicates a substantial aqueous component even in pores filled apparently exclusively with solid bitumen.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance surface relaxivity of coals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Sijian Zheng, Yanbin Yao, Dameng Liu, Yidong Cai, Yong Liu Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements of fully water-saturated rock samples can provide a reference for pore size distribution (PSD). Commonly, surface relaxivity of the rock must be known before obtaining an absolute PSD sample using NMR data. There are many reports concerning the surface relaxivity of sandstones, shales, and carbonate rocks, however, little research has been performed on the surface relaxivity of coals, which limit the application of the NMR in PSD evaluation of coals. To obtain a standard surface relaxivity for PSD measurements of coals, we performed NMR, low-temperature N2 adsorption (LTNA), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements for 15 bituminous and anthracite coals, whose Ro range from 0.52% to 3.07%. The results show that the values of surface relaxivity from LTNA (ρ2-SVR) are inconsistent with those from MIP (ρ2-MIP) for all samples. Moreover, the applications of ρ2-SVR and ρ2-MIP for PSD conversions are valid only for the smaller pores and larger pores, respectively. Evidently, both these two surface relaxivities cannot be used individually to calculate full-scale PSD. To obtain the actual surface relaxivity (ρ2) for full-scale PSD, we rebuilt a full-scale PSD by combining the pores smaller than 25 nm from LTNA and the pores larger than 25 nm from MIP. The results indicate that the calculated ρ2 provides excellent function for PSD transformation for all coal samples. Finally, the references of ρ2 for different coals are provided, i.e., values of 2.1 μm/s for sub-bituminous coal (low-rank coal), 3.0 μm/s for bituminous coal (medium-rank coal) and 1.6 μm/s for anthracite coal (high-rank coal). Using these referential surface relaxivities, a T2 distribution from NMR measurement can be converted to a PSD, which is applicable not only in the laboratory but also in field applications such as well logging.
  • Estimating permeability in shales and other heterogeneous porous media:
           Deterministic vs. stochastic investigations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Maria Apostolopoulou, Ron Dusterhoft, Richard Day, Michail Stamatakis, Marc-Olivier Coppens, Alberto Striolo With increasing global energy demands, unconventional formations, such as shale rocks, are becoming an important source of natural gas. Extensive efforts focus on understanding the complex behavior of fluids (including their transport in the sub-surface) to maximize natural gas yields. Shale rocks are mudstones made up of organic and inorganic constituents of varying pore sizes (1-500 nm). With cutting-edge imaging technologies, detailed structural and chemical description of shale rocks can be obtained at different length scales. Using this knowledge to assess macroscopic properties, such as fluid permeability, remains challenging. Direct experimental measurements of permeability supply answers, but at elevated costs of time and resources. To complement these, computer simulations are widely available; however, they employ significant approximations, and a reliable methodology to estimate permeability in heterogeneous pore networks remains elusive. For this study, permeability predictions obtained by implementing two deterministic methods and one stochastic approach, using a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm, are compared. This analysis focuses on the effects resulting from pore size distribution, the impact of micro- and macropores, and the effects of anisotropy (induced or naturally occurring) on the predicted matrix permeability. While considering multiple case studies, recommendations are provided on the optimal conditions under which each method can be used. Finally, a stochastic analysis is performed to estimate the permeability of an Eagle Ford shale sample using the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. Successful comparisons against experimental data demonstrate the appeal of the stochastic approach proposed.
  • Pore structure evolution of low-rank coal in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Fudong Xin, Hao Xu, Dazhen Tang, Jiaosheng Yang, Yanpeng Chen, Likun Cao, Haoxin Qu In China, low-rank coalbed methane (CBM) resources are in the early stage of exploration. The evolution of pore structure for these coals around the first coalification jump is incomplete. Here systematic experiments were conducted to analyze the reservoir of low-rank coal (lignite and subbituminous coal) from China's major low-rank basins, thus revealing the pore structure evolution of low-rank coal in China. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrates that there are obvious differences in the pore types of different rank coals. Well-developed cell lumina provides a large amount of macropore space in coals with Ro 
  • Dual porosity modelling of the coupled mechanical response of coal to gas
           flow and adsorption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Min Chen, Lee J. Hosking, Richard J. Sandford, Hywel R. Thomas This paper presents the inclusion of explicit dual poroelastic mechanical behaviour as part of an existing dual porosity numerical model of multiphase, multicomponent chemical-gas transport. The dual poroelastic framework employed considers the pore structure changes occurring as a result of high pressure carbon dioxide injection into coal, particularly the adsorption-induced coal swelling that has been found to limit injectivity in field trials of carbon sequestration in coalbeds around the world. To address this issue, the surface stress of the fluid-solid interface is introduced into the constitutive relation for dual porosity effective stress in order to investigate the coal deformation and porosity changes related to adsorption behaviour. A new porosity model is presented, in which the impacts of gas flow and coal deformation are incorporated, and an interaction coefficient is proposed to explain the effect of fracture-matrix interactions on the porosity evolution. The model is verified and validated in this work against relevant analytical solutions and experimental results, and applied to study the gas flow behaviour and structural changes of coal. The results show that carbon dioxide injection not only causes coal swelling but also has the potential to change the internal pore structure of coal. The variation of fracture porosity is not monotonic as a competing result of effective stress and internal fracture-matrix interactions. However, the matrix porosity is found to increase during carbon dioxide injection, which seems to be a key contributor to the swelling phenomenon.
  • Stable isotope reversal and evolution of gas during the hydrous pyrolysis
           of continental kerogen in source rocks under supercritical conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Yuandong Wu, Zhongning Zhang, Lina Sun, Yuanju Li, Mingzheng Zhang, Liming Ji Semi-closed hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the isotopic evolution of shale gas produced from continental organic-rich shales with increasing thermal maturity and prospecting potential. The δ13C values of methane, ethane, propane and n-butane became heavier with increasing thermal maturity and showed good relationships with vitrinite reflectance (VR). Gases expelled from type-I, type-II, and type-III kerogens followed the normal carbon sequence (δ13CC1 
  • Correlating Rock-Eval™ Tmax with bitumen reflectance from organic
           petrology in the Bakken Formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Arash Abarghani, Mehdi Ostadhassan, Thomas Gentzis, Humberto Carvajal-Ortiz, Seare Ocubalidet, Bailey Bubach, Michael Mann, Xiaodong Hou The Bakken Formation is a major unconventional shale play in North America, which lacks an independent calibration for accurately correlate thermal maturity from programmed pyrolysis (via temperature of maximum pyrolysis yield, Tmax) with optical methods (e.g., bitumen reflectance). In the present study, several samples from the upper and lower members of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota were analyzed by detailed organic petrography, bitumen reflectance, and Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis. Organic petrography showed that the organic matter consists of various types of bitumen, amorphous matrix bituminite, liptodetrinite, acanthomorphic acritarch, marine alginite, granular micrinite, and inertinite macerals. Fluorescence color under UV light of macerals from the liptinite group was used to confirm the thermal maturity level. Due to the scarcity/absence of primary vitrinite, RO measurements on solid bitumen particles were converted to equivalent vitrinite reflectance (VRO-Eq) using a published correlation equation from the coeval New Albany Shale. Overall, geochemical analysis from Rock-Eval pyrolysis reveals almost similar trends for the upper and lower members, which allowed proposing a single correlation for VRO-Eq to Tmax for the Bakken Shale. Comparing the observed relationship for the Bakken Shale with the previously established models for the Devonian Duvernay Shale (Canada) and the Mississippian Barnett Shale (United States) shows discrepancies. Results confirmed the necessity of developing a specific equation for the Bakken Shale members to relate vitrinite and solid bitumen reflectance data to Tmax from Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Furthermore, the outcome of this study indicated that linear trends cannot accurately represent the relationship between these two parameters, considering the kerogen kinetics and non-linear relationship between transformation ratio (TR) and Tmax. Therefore, a polynomial correlation, a better fit to the data, was proposed to more accurately represent the nature of this relationship.
  • Anisotropic coal permeability estimation by determining cleat
           compressibility using mercury intrusion porosimetry and stress–strain
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 205Author(s): Syed Shabbar Raza, Lei Ge, Thomas E. Rufford, Zhongwei Chen, Victor Rudolph This paper presents a novel method to calculate the anisotropic and stress-dependent coal permeability by determining cleat compressibility using the Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) and stress–strain measurements. Cleat compressibility is often assumed isotropic and constant in the literature and is usually obtained by numerical fitting to a matchstick permeability model e.g. the model by Seidle et al. (1992) despite the gross simplification of this representation of the coal pore network. This paper provides a method to calculate anisotropic cleat compressibility using only MIP and stress–strain measurements which are easy to conduct, and without permeability information, which is harder to come by, requiring laboratory experiments on the core or through fitting field data. We report the measured stress–strain behaviour of a coal sample, with hydrodynamic loading/unloading over the range 0.5–4.0 MPa, and the permeability in face cleat (kF) and butt cleat (kB) directions using the Triaxial Stress Permeameter (TSR). The stress–strain measurement is used to calculate the anisotropic modulus of elasticity (EF, EB, and EV) in face cleat, butt cleat and bedding plane directions, and cleat compressibility in the face cleat (CfF) and butt cleat (CfB) directions using the fractal dimension analysis with MIP measurement. Finally, the cleat compressibilities are used to calculate the anisotropic coal permeability by Seidle et al. (1992) permeability model and compared with the measured permeability of the coal sample.
  • Are coal balls rare' A cyclostratigraphic analysis of coal-ball
           occurrence in North America
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Anne Raymond, Lance L. Lambert, Suzanne H. Costanza From the perspective of Phanerozoic time, coal balls are rare, apparently limited to a 24 m.y. interval (323–299 Ma) in the Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian. Yet within this interval, coal balls occur in many coals. Approximately 82 transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles have been described for the Midcontinent, Illinois and Appalachian basins of North America during the mid-to-late Pennsylvanian. One third (27/82) have coal balls, including 57% of major cycles, 36% of intermediate cycles and 16% of minor cycles. Coal-ball occurrence in the Donets Basin is similar: over an interval of about 4 m.y. (~315–311 Ma, latest Bashkirian to mid-Moscovian), 39% (11/28) of transgressive-regressive cycles have coal balls. As North American paleoclimate became drier, tree ferns replaced lycopsids as the dominant plant in peat swamps at the Desmoinesian/Missourian boundary, and coal-ball occurrence declined. Overall, 47% of cycles (19/40) with lycopsid or cordaitean dominance have coal balls, whereas 19% (8/42) of cycles with tree fern dominance have coal balls (p 
  • Editorial of the 69-th ICCP meeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Georgeta Predeanu, Mihai Emilian Popa, Ralf Littke
  • Amber and organic matter from the late Oligocene deep-water deposits of
           the Central Western Carpathians (Orava–Podhale Basin)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2019Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Júlia Kotulová, Dušan Starek, Martina Havelcová, Helena Pálková The occurrence of amber in the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin is reported here for the first time. The amber has been analyzed by means of optical microscopic methods, infrared spectrophotometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to understand the amber composition, origin, taphonomy, alteration, and diagenesis. Organic petrographic and reflectance analyses of organic matter from amber-bearing sediment was carried out to get information about paleoenvironment and maturity of sedimentary rock.Analyses confirmed polylabdane structure associated with Class Ib -type of amber and its possible origin from the conifer family Araucariaceae. It is characterized by a high degree of maturity, where both temperature and exogenic processes have participated in its conversion. Heterogeneity of reflectance values in the resinite suggests that amber was not redeposited from an older and more mature sedimentary unit. The discrepancy between the maturity of the amber and amber-bearing sedimentary rock, along with abundant char and inertinite macerals indicates a probability of thermal alteration of the amber under the influence of heat from a wildfire and increased maturity occurring before its ultimate burial in a deep-sea environment. The assemblage of terrigenous macerals and numerous char and inertinite particles which were found in amber-bearing sediment, as well as in the amber crust, suggest forest-swamp type vegetation affected by wildfires. The presence of amber and predominantly terrigenous organic matter, besides mud rip-up clasts derived from freshwater sediments in deep-marine deposits, indicates a direct connection of terrestrial environments to the deep-water depositional system.
  • Origin of bitumen fractions in the Jurassic-early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta
           Formation in Argentina: insights from organic petrography and geochemical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): Aleksandra Małachowska, Maria Mastalerz, LaBraun Hampton, Jan Hupka, Agnieszka Drobniak This paper investigates chemical functional groups of the two extracted bitumen fractions in shales of the Jurassic to early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation of the Neuquén Basin in Argentina, South America. The results indicate that Bitumen I is strongly aliphatic and appears to be genetically related to fluorescent amorphous organic matter. In contrast, Bitumen II consists of highly condensed, aromatic hydrocarbons, and has some correspondence to nonfluorescent amorphous organic material. Comparison of Rock-Eval VI pyrolysis data (S1 and S2) with the bitumen yields suggests that Bitumen I relates to S1 but also to S2. In addition, Bitumen I has a positive correlation with light liquid hydrocarbons (C5–C29), but also partially with heavier hydrocarbons (above C30). This suggests that Bitumen I corresponds to the majority of lighter hydrocarbons up to C29 and some portion to heavier hydrocarbons. These results have implications for the assessment of the mobility of generated hydrocarbons and their availability for production.
  • Comments on the geochemistry of rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb,
           Yb, Lu) with examples from coals of north Asia (Siberia, Russian far East,
           North China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: International Journal of Coal GeologyAuthor(s): S.I. Arbuzov, I.Yu Chekryzhov, R.B. Finkelman, Y.Z. Sun, C.L. Zhao, S.S. Il'enok, M.G. Blokhin, N.V. Zarubina The geochemistry of the REE (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu) is reviewed with supporting data from coals of North Asia. The 7189 samples from North Asia included in this study represent all coal ranks (lignites, subbituminous coals, bituminous coals and anthracites) as well as coals formed under different geotectonic regimes and in different sedimentary conditions. These coals are characterized by higher contents of the REE as compared to the coal Clarke. The distribution characteristics and accumulations of the REE have been studied in several coal deposits and basins. Within some basins with the near-background average contents of the REE isolated coal beds enriched in lanthanides have been observed. In coal basins and deposits the relative enrichment in the lanthanides are observed in the fields or zones adjacent to the source area of the terrigenous material. Accumulation of high REE contents in coal deposits can be attributed to the presence of rocks in the source area containing high concentrations of REE and also alkaline or acidic volcanic ash contemporaneous with the peat accumulation in the basin. Transformation of volcanic ashes under the aggressive hydro-environment of a peat bog results in the mobilization and redeposition of the REE adjacent to the altered volcanic ashes (tonsteins) with the formation of high concentrations of REE in the coal beds. The formation of the REE anomalies may also be related to hydrothermal processes. The modes of occurrence of the REE change during the coalification process. Brown coals with a low degree of coalification are dominated by the organic modes of occurrence of the REE, whereas in hard coals and anthracites authigenic mineral forms dominate.
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