Subjects -> MINES AND MINING INDUSTRY (Total: 82 journals)
Showing 1 - 42 of 42 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Earth Science : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Mining Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AusiMM Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CIM Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clays and Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Exploration and Mining Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Extractive Industries and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gems & Gemology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geology of Ore Deposits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ghana Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geology and Mining Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Materials Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Minerals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Minerals Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mining Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mining Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mining Technology : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Podzemni Radovi     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Réalités industrielles     Full-text available via subscription  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik     Open Access  
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Extractive Industries and Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.901
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2214-790X - ISSN (Online) 2214-790X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3304 journals]
  • Miners and mendicants: A cautionary tale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Murray Lytle, Michael Hitch This paper posits that the existence of informal miners is indicative of and correlated to government institutionality which is defined as the degree to which local and regional governments are operative in the area of interest. It is further asserted that the degree of government institutionality may impact the infrastructure benefits solicited from resource companies by the affected communities. A mendicant relationship may develop if the infrastructure solicited includes things such as police, justice, medical and educational facilities that are best maintained by local or regional governments. The asymmetry of power between the two parties may subsequently lead to unfulfilled expectations, violence and issues with social license.A database of the incidence of informal mining and the economic freedom indicators for 15 countries is used to correlate informal mining with government insitutionality and the paper offers thoughts for consideration regarding issues to understand and address when considering operations in developing countries.
       
  • Locating community impacts of unconventional natural gas across the supply
           chain: A scoping review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Chris G. Buse, Marieka Sax, Nadia Nowak, Jordan Jackson, Theresa Fresco, Trina Fyfe, Greg Halseth Unconventional natural gas (UNG) refers to a suite of technologies that aid in the exploration, extraction, and transportation of natural gas resources. This paper reports on the results of a scoping review examining peer-reviewed articles published between 2009–2018 on the impacts of UNG activities on communities located across the supply chain (i.e. “upstream” communities adjacent to the point of gas extraction, “midstream” communities located near pipelines, and “downstream” communities that are cooling natural gas into liquid form for international export). Our review identified 523 articles, 68% of which focused on the United States. The majority of articles (77%) highlighted community impacts adjacent to the point of extraction, with only 11% and 6% addressing midstream and downstream supply chain impacts. Results classified 28 unique types of community impacts conceptualized within the literature, organized into four categories: environmental impacts; impacts to infrastructure and service delivery; impacts on policy, regulation and participation in decision-making; and socioeconomic impacts. We provide a narrative review to clarify the socioeconomic impacts and possible policy mitigation efforts across the UNG supply chain.
       
  • Displaced by mine waste: The social consequences of industrial risk-taking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): John R. Owen, Deanna Kemp
       
  • Women, mining and power in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The
           case of Kisengo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Marie-Rose Bashwira, Jeroen Cuvelier Recent decades have witnessed a growing scholarly interest in women’s involvement in ASM, with many authors drawing attention to two frequently occurring trends: the fact that women move to mining areas to escape oppressive gender rules and norms, and the remarkable efforts of women miners to exercise agency in the typically complex and unstable socio-political environments of artisanal mining sites. An important gap in the existing literature is the lack of attention for the differences in agency and the power relations between these women. This article seeks to fill this gap by presenting an ethnographic case study on the so-called mamans moutrousses, a group of women assisting artisanal miners with the drying and cleaning of minerals in coltan mines close to Kisengo, a locality situated in the Congolese Tanganyika province. Drawing inspiration from Vigh’s navigation theory, the work of Honwana, and the spatial approach advanced by Watts and Korf, the article argues that the less successful women in Kisengo’s mining business have only been able to display ‘tactic agency’, while the more successful ones have succeeded in demonstrating ‘strategic agency’.
       
  • Dialogue as racism' The promotion of “Canadian dialogue” in
           Guatemala's extractive sector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Etienne Roy Grégoire “Dialogue” is an essential element of Canada's CSR policies. Although the notion evokes a rich tradition in political and legal philosophy, in the context of mining governance its political and normative implications have received very little attention. This article contributes to a better understanding of such implications by conducting a case study of the promotion of dialogue by the Canadian state in Guatemala. Through critical discourse analysis, I examine logical correspondences between dialogue as a normative framework and a racist discourse that emanates from the Guatemalan oligarchy. I also examine interrelationship between concrete dialogue promotion and the repression of mining opponents. I find that the promotion of dialogue by Canada enunciates political ontologies that resonate at the core of Guatemala's post-conflict politics and contributes to stigmatizing rights-based opposition to mining, hindering Indigenous collective action and undermining democratization efforts.
       
  • Human flourishing and extractive-led development: “The mine will give me
           whatever I like”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Charles Roche, Nawasio Walim, Howard Sindana, Wafi and Watut Communities The gap between the rhetoric and reality of extractive-led development (ELD) looms large over the dominant but flawed discourse of mining for development. Seeking to better understand outcomes from ELD we apply a human flourishing perspective, exploring yet-to-be-experienced impacts in a potentially inflammatory political process. This action research is designed to assist communities respond to the proposed, but yet to be approved Wafi-Golpu project in the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea. The research exchange documents with a clear voice community concerns about: a lack of information; anxiety about intentional and immanent impacts; fundamentally different conceptualisations of what human flourishing is; a lack of development, services and facilities; unrealistic expectations; and, most powerfully, an undermining of individual and collective agency. We find that despite forty years of waiting for mining, the consent process to date is unjust, flawed and inadequate, de-legitimising any future claims to informed consent. While the immediate practical, on-ground outcomes of this action-research for the communities has been positive, longer term outcomes are yet to be determined. The concept of human flourishing offers a useful and insightful perspective that can inform communities, governments, proponents and researchers alike about the potential impacts of ELD on human well-being.
       
  • Reframing matter: Towards a material-discursive framework for
           Africa’s minerals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Charles Akong The article proposes a material-discursive framework to analyze materialities of minerals. The typology developed, frames potentialities according to their specific physical and chemical attributes and material-discursive practices. It highlights potential opportunities, limits and risks to broad-based minerals development strategies consistent with Africa’s agenda to structurally transform and diversify economies.It argues that agency is not only entrenched and constructed by discourses and structures, but also by the specific materiality of minerals, and the socio-materially constituted practices that emerge from their intra-actions. It hypothesizes that the complex interplay of materialities of minerals and material-discursive practices shape development outcomes across extractive spaces and time.I introduce ‘mineralscape’ as a representational concept to integrate the physical, chemical and social dimensions of minerals assets in ways that unpacks powerful material-discursive practices of the extractive sector. The article presents a typology for approaching mineral-led transformative linkages.The tool developed, sheds specific light on construction minerals, an often-neglected subclass of minerals whose consumption however remains an important marker of structural transformation of local economies. The materiality of the ‘development minerals’ offers relatively stronger opportunities for developing broad-based linkages with local and national economies than often prioritized high value minerals.
       
  • Is mining harmful or beneficial' A survey of local community
           perspectives in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Xiuyun Yang, Peter Ho Mining activities often have significant impacts - both positive and negative - on local communities. This study shares experiences from China, surveying perspectives from rural communities on the net benefits of mining. Four indicators are identified and used to determine impact: employment opportunities, environmental pollution, land expropriation, land subsidence and associated resettlement. The analysis uses a demographically and economically diversified sample of 352 farmers residing in the vicinity of mines across six provinces. The study found that only a small number of farmers perceive mining to be providing net benefits, and that in such cases, direct employment is the main factor influencing this position. While land expropriation does not affect perceived net benefits, land subsistence does, and although relocation helps peasants minimize risks, it does not significantly change the population's generally negative view of mining. The priority for the Chinese government should be to formulate a sustainable framework to mitigate the risks of mining, particularly displacement and resettlement.
       
  • “Legal enclosure” and resource extraction: Territorial transformation
           through the enclosure of local and indigenous law
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): David Szablowski This paper examines how extractive firms, using authority delegated by states, have developed initiatives to remake local legal spaces shaped by community-based governance, custom and indigenous law. They do so to produce territories which facilitate extraction in line with the needs and preferences of transnational business. Communities, their governance systems, and their capacity for collective action, can threaten this project. As a result, these corporate initiatives attempt to privatize, dominate and close off local legal spaces such that the populations living in extractive territories lack effective recourse to alternatives when they seek to access to justice in relation to claims involving resource extraction. The article develops the concept of “legal enclosure” to describe this phenomenon. Drawing on the academic and grey literature, this article examines three strategies used in community relations practice in the extractive sector. An illustrative case involving each strategy is outlined and discussed. The cases support a longstanding theme in legal pluralism studies suggesting that efforts to monopolize legality are never perfect or complete. Also, effective enclosure efforts require connections with external legal orders that confirm and support the validity of confining access to justice to local, private legal spaces managed by extractive firms and their agents.
       
  • The dispossession of the San Pedro de Inacaliri river: Political Ecology,
           extractivism and archaeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Manuel Prieto, Diego Salazar, María Jesús Valenzuela Copper mining and other extractive industries in the Atacama Desert have exerted pressure on water resources, with dramatic socio-environmental effects. The drying-out of the San Pedro de Inacaliri river basin is a paradigmatic case of this situation. Indigenous communities that used to graze their livestock in the area have seen the utter degradation of the ecosystems which have sustained their activities since time immemorial. In this article, we aim to contribute to the growing literature on the effects of extractive industries in northern Chile, based on an archaeological analysis of the remnants of the material culture in the basin. This analysis will complement historical and qualitative data to present a diachronic approach to the history of human use, occupation and abandonment of the basin and its transformations in time and space. The work analyses human occupation of the basin over thousands of years down to the present, concluding that while there was increasing use of the territory since pre-Hispanic times, the intense human occupation has practically disappeared since industrial extraction began in the 1950s, and indigenous families have been forced to emigrate. Results show one of the most radical cases of water resource dispossession in the recent history of Chile.
       
  • Oil exploration and production in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990-present: Trends
           and developments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Emmanuel Graham, Jesse Salah Ovadia The exploration and production of oil and gas continue to be vigorously pursued by African states and international corporations—both large and small. However, with unpredictable fluctuations in oil prices it becomes more difficult to exploit these resources in ways which accrue net benefits to both the state and its citizens. The oil and gas industry in Africa continues to grow and attract new investment, especially from China and India. Despite the lower price of oil, exploration and production activities continue to be carried out. At the same time, the possibilities for oil and gas to be a blessing narrow. Natural resource-based development has always been a difficult objective for any state. The question now may be whether embracing oil and gas is socially responsible: as renewable energy becomes more cost-effective and societies transition into a post-carbon world, the prospects for African states to make good use of carbon resources are waning. In exploring the closing window for petro-development in Africa, this paper uses a comparative cross-regional analysis of trends and developments to highlight how weak legal frameworks and a lack of institutional capacity pose major challenges for the continent’s states in managing their natural resources.
       
  • Compensation for uranium miners world-wide: The need for an assessment and
           action
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Doug Brugge, Ans Ifran
       
  • Managing risk through dependency: How do mining MNEs strategise to
           legitimise business continuity'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Jacob Taarup-Esbensen This paper explores how mining multinational enterprises (MNEs) manage risk in local communities with weak institutional environments by providing public good services to nearby towns and villages. When MNEs support institutions, community dependence grows stronger as they become increasingly reliant on the resource commitment. This is the case even though the study finds that local communities are experiencing serious health and social issues directly linked to the local mining project. The paper argues that, by solidifying their legitimacy in support of the institutional environment, MNEs reduce the risk that communities will engage with civil society actors who can threaten business continuity. The resource commitment thus serves a dual purpose by making communities reliant on MNEs that strengthen the institutional environment in the absence of a fully functioning state and acting as an effective risk mitigation tool that keeps civil society actors from collaborating with local communities. While the strategy does not guarantee a ‘license to operate’, it is seen as an effective risk mitigation tool and a precondition for ensuring legitimacy. Using cases from the Armenian mining industry, the paper contributes to the MNE risk management literature by highlighting the role of institutions.
       
  • NGOs as innovators in extractive industry governance. Insights from the
           EITI process in Colombia and Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Elisa Arond, Anthony Bebbington, Juan Luis Dammert This paper explores NGO participation within the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), a multi-stakeholder governance arrangement focused on generating greater transparency in the governance of extractive industries, and in particular in fiscal arrangements around mining, oil and gas operations. Using the cases of Peru and Colombia, we examine what motivates NGO participation in EITI, how NGOs have pursued innovations within EITI, the extent to which they have succeeded in achieving their goals, and the factors limiting or shaping their achievements. We draw on interviews conducted between 2013 and 2018, participation in global EITI meetings, and secondary material. The paper examines political and conceptual discussions regarding the opportunities that EITI may or may not afford to NGO-led innovation, while linking these to more general debates on achieving progressive or even transformative change through reformist institutions, as well as the roles of NGOs in multi-stakeholder governance processes.
       
  • Working for Oil: Comparative Social Histories of Labor in the Global Oil
           Industry, T. Atabaki, E. Bini, K. Ehsani (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan
           (2018).
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Camilla Houeland
       
  • Governing territory in conditions of legal pluralism: Living law and free,
           prior, and informed consent (FPIC) in Xolobeni, South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Daniel Huizenga This paper illustrates how communities and their customary land rights are marginalized in current mining governance reform legislation in South Africa. The research focuses on the relationship between property, territory, and authority to unpack the dynamics of struggle and the specifics of collective rights-claims in the context of resource extraction. It focuses on the struggle of the Amadiba people (and the Xolobeni community in particular) against a proposal for open cast mining on their land. The findings reveal that reading the advocacy of local communities is one way to interrogate the complex field of power characteristic of mining governance reform and innovation. The research underscores that mining governance reform demands a critical understanding of territorial governance and control and an engagement with the reality of legal and territorial pluralism whereby multiple actors vie for legitimacy and authority. The struggle in Xolobeni reveals that territorial jurisdictions deriving from colonialism must not inform mining governance legislation in South Africa. Rather, community-based and locally-asserted practices of governance and self-determined development, expressed through the right to consent, must inform mining legislation.
       
  • The socio-economic and environmental implications of oil and gas
           exploration: Perspectives at the micro level in the Albertine region of
           Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Patrick Byakagaba, Frank Mugagga, Dianah Nnakayima The recent oil and gas exploration activities in the Albertine region of western Uganda has raised a debate on the plight of the local people at various scales. We used local perspectives on the socio-economic and environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration activities as a lens to examine the extent to which the “resource curse” and “resource blessing” theories are applicable in the oil and gas exploration sites in Uganda. Data was collected from Kyeihoro and Kaiso villages in Hoima district, western Uganda. Exploratory research design in which a total of 285 households randomly selected participated in a survey. The most mentioned positive socio-economic impacts were not directly linked to oil and gas exploration and these included: construction of roads and increased business opportunities. Direct positive impacts such as employment and increased wage rates were the least mentioned. The views of proponents of the “resource curse” theory were also reflected in the perspectives and these included: price inflation, increase in social ills and environmental degradation especially noise pollution, soil erosion and wildlife disturbance. The perceptions of local people indicate that oil and gas exploration activities can be both a “blessing” or “curse”.
       
  • Boom times for technocrats' How environmental consulting companies
           shape mining governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Michael L. Dougherty Scholarship has begun to acknowledge the environmental impact assessment as a key phenomenon in the mineral production process, but little literature has paid attention to the environmental consulting companies that produce these studies. This paper, based on semi-structured interviews in Guatemala with environmental consultants, representatives of the mining industry, and state functionaries, develops an ethnographic portrait of these consulting firms and their workers. Mining companies and environmental consulting firms, I argue, are structurally dependent on one another. Beyond their surface role as independent technicians, environmental consultants serve as facilitators for mining firms, helping them navigate the state bureaucracy and streamline the approval of their production licenses. These consultants further serve the mining industry by absorbing risk that corresponds with miners. As mining expanded between 2002 and 2012, the environmental consulting industry experienced a corresponding spike. This upstream boom in environmental consulting drove down the price of impact assessments, diluted their quality and rendered their role in environmental governance largely symbolic. Their roles as mining boosters traps environmental consultants between competing motivations—the drive of their expertise and training to act as competent and transparent technicians—and the flush of boom times which produces an inverse relationship between competence and lucre.
       
  • Improved resource governance through transparency: Evidence from Mongolia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): D. Boldbaatar, N.C. Kunz, E. Werker Transparency and accountability initiatives have emerged as a potential solution to combat corruption and increase public benefits from the extractive sector in resource-abundant countries. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is one such initiative, through which 49 resource-rich countries have disclosed a cumulative 282 fiscal years of government revenues amounting to US$1.9 trillion since 2003. This paper explores the potential for promised benefits of increased disclosure to be realized, in the form of improved resource governance. Building on the social accountability literature, a framework is proposed and then applied to the Mongolian context to examine which stages of the framework work well, and which fail to perform. Two types of contracts are analyzed, water usage agreements and community benefit-sharing agreements. Although Mongolia is recognized as a leading performer by international EITI standards, the analysis concludes that the framework’s latter stages from disclosure to improved resource governance are incomplete. The policy implication is that greater attention to mobilization and citizen empowerment is needed to ensure that contract transparency can meaningfully contribute towards improved governance.
       
  • Frontline narratives on sustainable development challenges/opportunities
           in the ‘illegal’ gold mining region of Madre de Dios, Peru: Informing
           an integrative collaborative response
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Phyllis M. Duff, Timothy J. Downs Gold-mining regions like Madre de Dios, Peru, present considerable sustainable development challenges, with opportunities obscured. ‘Illegal’ artisanal miners embody vulnerability: they go un-recognized as stakeholders in formal policy processes, yet hold a major stake in their outcomes. Narratives on development challenges and opportunities from those on the frontline are invaluable for understanding complex socio-ecological issues and crafting responses. Notwithstanding challenges, local people have remarkably constructive visions for a sustainable future. Using a socio-technical transitions conceptual frame and an integrative collaborative practical frame, narrative data and field observations were used to answer: 1) What are the existing relationships amongst actors, and how do these illustrate stakeholder diversity and socio-ecological complexity conundrums' 2) What structural and practical deficiencies in the existing system do narratives reveal, and – pointedly - what visions do local people have for development' 3) What kind of integrative collaborative sustainable development process is called for in this context, and what capacities need building' Local actors – including ‘illegal’ miners – express the need to: constructively engage with diverse actors; integrate knowledge types; develop long-, medium-, and short-term goals; carefully consider spatial scale; and increase socio-technical capacity. Findings offer insights for re-conceptualizing artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) formalization processes.
       
  • Embedding the atom: Pro-neoliberal activism, Polanyi, and sites of
           acceptance in American uranium communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Stephanie A. Malin, Becky Alexis-Martin In North America, uranium workers are fighting for their right to participate in a free-market system that provides them with small personal benefits. These workers experience powerlessness, instability, and unpredictability – or social dislocation – by living amidst capitalism’s polluted ecosystems, unstable economies, and disintegrating communities. However, they feel reliant on uranium for their livelihoods and strongly support the industry’s renewal and form sites of acceptance to support industry renewal. Here, we explore the phenomenon of pro-neoliberal activism emerging in communities that identify with uranium markets and that trust in corporate self-regulation, private transparency, and the perceived benefits of potential economic development. Polanyian theory helps us analyze these curious socio-environmental outcomes. While social movements might be ‘progressive,’ ‘regressive,’ or otherwise diverge, Polanyi consistently characterized double movement activists as protecting communities and ecosystems from unstable, self-regulating market systems. But here we see something different and ask: First, how does pro-neoliberal activism contribute to the embedding and institutionalization of neoliberal regimes in uranium mining communities' Second, what structural mechanisms precede and help to facilitate socio-cultural support for free markets and corporate self-regulation, as opposed to support for re-embedding markets in local, public social protections for the US uranium industry'
       
  • Between the Plough and the Pick: Informal, Artisanal and Small-Scale
           Mining in the Contemporary World, Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt (Ed.). Australian
           National University Press, Canberra (2018).
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Robert J. Pijpers
       
  • The political economy of oil in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):
           Corruption and regime control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Kristof Titeca, Patrick Edmond This paper examines in detail dynamics of corruption and regime stabilisation which define the shape of the oil sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This sector is a major source of patronage and rent-extraction. However, much of these rents are not created through production, but through selling access. Most potential fields remain unexplored and undeveloped, which is much more interesting for short-term rent extraction for the concerned actors. Within this, we demonstrate the political and social logics behind corruption. The regime distributes patronage by permitting rent extraction, but this extraction has upper and lower limits: corruption is punished when too visible, and non-participants are side-lined. Further, we note the importance of regime stability logics in the sector, specifically managing internal geopolitics, regional relationships, and central control over major wealth. By exploring in detail the practical realities discussed in general in the ‘resource curse’ and ‘oil curse’ literature, this paper provides a deeper understanding of how political control and corruption function within the DRC, and how development becomes their victim.
       
  • Mining, time and protest: Dealing with waiting in German coal mine
           planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Katja Müller Three villages in East Germany have been in a stage of waiting for the Jänschwalde-Nord coal mine since 2007. Through opening the mine planning procedure, the mining company implied a nexus of coal-time, which local residents tried to disturb, but did not question as such. These politics of time generated several stages of waiting, which could only be dealt with more efficiently through de-synchronising the struggle and mine planning. The coal-time nexus was exchanged for a narrative of time relating to Energiewende and climate change, allowing for waiting to be anticipated as an act of endurance and perseverance. Attending and realigning mining temporalities allowed mine opponents to live through the stage of waiting.
       
  • Acid mine drainage formation, control and treatment: Approaches and
           strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Jeffrey G. Skousen, Paul F. Ziemkiewicz, Louis M. McDonald Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs after mining exposes metal sulfides to oxidizing conditions. Leaching of reaction products into surface waters pollute over 20,000 km of streams in the USA alone. The coal mine permitting process requires prediction of AMD potential via overburden analysis. Where a potential exists, AMD control measures including spoil handling plans, alkaline amendment, and oxygen barriers or water covers may be required to stop or hinder AMD generation. Other AMD control technologies include injection of alkaline materials (coal ashes and limestone products) into abandoned underground mines and into buried acid material in mine backfills, remining of abandoned areas, and installation of alkaline recharge trenches. Where AMD already exists, effluent treatment is required. Active treatment includes adding alkaline chemicals such as Ca(OH)2, CaO, NaOH, Na2CO3, and NH3, but chemical treatment is costly, requires dispensing equipment and facilities, and often extends for decades. Passive treatment systems may also be employed to treat problem drainages and are effective under certain flow and acidity conditions. Such systems include aerobic and anaerobic wetlands, anoxic limestone drains, vertical flow wetlands, open limestone channels, and alkaline leach beds. This article discusses the process of AMD formation, preventative and control measures, and describes treatment methods for existing AMD discharges.
       
  • Hegemony and passivity in mining regions: Containing dissent in
           north-central Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Andrea Furnaro The main objective of this paper is to show the relevance of a lack of or lower levels of overt forms of conflict in the political ecology of mining extraction and to show the usefulness of a Gramscian framework to analyze how consent is organized in these contexts. This paper argues that the Gramscian distinction between active and passive consent can be especially useful to more precisely characterize the roles that specific (and sometimes contradictories) ways of thinking and acting play in the reproduction of hegemonic resource regimes. This distinction is useful to understand not only when the hegemonic function is successful, but also to understand when it fails to achieve active consent and yet is still able to contain dissent. Based on the case of the Choapa Valley in north-central Chile, I analyze some means through which overt forms of resistance have been limited in a context where economic growth cohabits with significant levels of socioenvironmental impacts. I will show how in Choapa histories of cooptation, the limited previous success in achieving social demands, and certain dependency with the mining industry, have built not an active but a passive consent.
       
  • Artisanal and small-scale mining and rural livelihood diversification: The
           case of manganese extraction in West Timor, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Rohan Fisher, Hannah Ling, Remi Natonis, Sarah Hobgen, Norman Riwu Kaho, Wayan Mudita, Jenny Markus, Wida Bunga, Wayan Nampa This article examines the role of ASM in supporting livelihood diversification, drawing on experiences from subsistence farmers mining manganese in West Timor, Indonesia. An artisanal manganese mining boom, beginning around 2007–2008, in West Timor caused considerable concern amongst government and NGOs. However, unlike ASM gold in Indonesia, there have been no significant assessments of manganese mining to provide a foundation for understanding the impacts of this activity. This study addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the extent, practice, impacts and livelihood contribution of manganese mining in West Timor, Indonesia. The results found artisanal manganese mining to be a significant rural livelihood activity with an estimated 325,000 people actively engaged in mining over a wide area during the peak period from 2009–2011. Despite the scale of the industry, negative impacts of mining were found to be minimal. Moreover, manganese mining was shown to often complement farming practices and contribute to livelihood diversification. These findings reiterate the call for ASM to be supported by national and international rural development agendas as a valuable and legitimate rural livelihood.
       
  • There is no one amongst us with them! Transparency and participation in
           local natural resource revenue management
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Sam A. Kasimba, Päivi Lujala To redistribute natural resource revenues back to local communities and to promote equitable benefit-sharing and inclusive decision-making, companies and governments increasingly use local benefit-sharing trust funds (LBSTFs) in resource-rich developing countries. Many LBSTFs manage substantial amounts of money, often in regions far from the central government and amongst politically and economically marginalized groups. Focusing on two LBSTFs in Ghana, this article examines the challenges for meaningful participation by local residents. The findings indicate that local residents lack access to relevant information, that the representation mechanisms in place restrict their opportunities to voice their opinions, and that they have no real influence on decision-making. In general, local residents feel a low sense of ownership towards the funds and the funded projects. The results suggest that to enhance meaningful participation, an LBSTF should be independent from the mining company and the intended beneficiaries themselves should be able to choose their representatives for the fund.
       
  • Opposing discourses on the offshore coexistence of the petroleum industry
           and small-scale fisheries in Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Moses Adjei, Ragnhild Overå Petroleum extraction and fishing activities coexist off Ghana’s Western coast with different stakes and conflicting opinions regarding ocean space utilization. Based on fieldwork in the coastal town Axim and analysis of interviews with different stakeholders, we identify three main discourses: pro-fishery, fish resource conservation, and pro-petroleum extraction. Whereas small-scale fishers stress that exclusion zones surrounding oil rigs and offshore vessel traffic limit their mobility and damage their equipment, officials of petroleum companies argue that the fishers’ mobility is irresponsible and that they pose a security threat. Similarly, government officials view fishers as irresponsible and that they overfish. We find that the negative stakeholder image of fishers established in the fish resource conservation discourse is invoked during fishing-petroleum industry conflict resolution processes, in which fishers often have the burden of proof and receive inadequate compensation. We conclude that the stakeholders’ unequal discursive power and the government’s interest in the petroleum revenue favour petroleum companies’ interests over fishers’ interests in the governance of ocean space.
       
  • Uranium mining and sense of community in the Great Karoo: Insights from
           local narratives
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Moshood Issah, Ikechukwu Umejesi Since the discovery of uranium in commercial quantities in the Great Karoo, plans have been in place to carry out large-scale uranium mining in the region. One of the justifications for doing so is the belief that it will catalyze socio-economic development in the region. However, some stakeholders have maintained that the proposed mining operations would threaten the social fabric of the communities in the Great Karoo region where the proposed mining operations will take place. The aim of this study is to broaden understanding of the likely impacts of the proposed mining activities on the social fabric of the surrounding communities in Beaufort West. Drawing on findgins from qualitative research, the study concludes that while the proposed mining will indeed alter the existing social fabric, it will also facilitate the human diversity required for addressing some of the developmental challenges the region faces
       
  • Political settlements, the mining industry and corporate social
           responsibility in developing countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Tomas Frederiksen In this paper I take a ‘political settlements’ approach to examining the political effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. The political settlements approach uses an integrated understanding of politics, power and institutional forms to explain how, given different political processes and incentives, the same institutional forms can produce different economic and developmental outcomes. I apply this lens to the CSR practices of large mining companies in developing countries, examining their impacts on local and national political settlements using the Zambian metals mining sector as a case study. Directly, CSR features little in the national debate on natural resource governance in Zambia but local CSR activity is considerable. I find that the CSR practices of large metals mining companies influence the governance of extraction and the possibility of inclusive development with notable consequences for institutions of traditional leadership. The resulting pattern of inclusion and development is argued to result from the interaction of two processes - elite bargaining and coalitions within exclusionary political settlements on the one hand, and CSR practices shaped by risk management on the other. I conclude by arguing that political settlements literature offers a rich seam for future research in the extractive sector if its limitations are addressed.
       
  • Towards the decriminalisation of artisanal gold mining in Eastern Zimbabwe
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Njabulo Chipangura This paper will look at recent move by the government of Zimbabwe to decriminalise artisanal gold mining. Focus will be on ASM activities in Penhalonga, Eastern Zimbabwe where I carried out ethnographic fieldwork through interviewing makorokozas (small scale miners). Results of this research will show the complex nature of formalising ASM largely because of contradictions in policy implementation by the government over time. In the wake of periodic clampdown operations on ASM by the government - the paper will anlyse the relationship between the police and makorokozas. I will demonstrate that although thier relationship was sometimes fraught they were many moments when they negotiated mutually beneficial settlements in the interest of economic benefits accrued from the mining. However, lately, the government of Zimbabwe has introduced new measures that seek to promote the growth of ASM and its decriminalisation. Mining permit application fees have been reduced, environmental impact assessment reports have been scrapped and makorozas are now free to sell their gold without fear of police persecution.
       
  • Mine closure from below: Transformative movements in two shrinking West
           African mining towns
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Johannes Knierzinger, Isaac Ter-Ibinibe Sopelle There is broad consensus about the fact that many negative consequences of mine closure can only be avoided by differently planning and constructing mining towns from the start. This involves the establishment of closure funds, the stimulation of diversification as well as infrastructural considerations. However, these challenges are presented as technical problems that can only be solved with the intervention of experts without considering already-existing propositions and practices of the population itself, and without referring to the global politico-economic context. We propose to bridge this gap by comparing mine closures in Fria in Guinea and Obuasi in Ghana, two large and comparatively old mining towns, from the point of view of discussions about the ‘right to the city’.
       
  • Renegotiating the periphery: Oil discovery, devolution, and political
           contestation in Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): David W. Orr Devolution in Kenya was introduced in 2013 as a means towards more participatory and responsive government. Yet in the first five years of its implementation, the unpredictability and complexities of what devolution means in practice have become increasingly apparent. The distribution of natural resources forms a key point of contention, brought sharply to the fore in the historically marginalised Turkana region of Kenya, where devolution has coincided with oil discovery. This paper examines the emergent power contestations around oil discovery at the core-periphery (national-county), corporate-periphery (oil firm-county) and intra-periphery (within the county) levels in Turkana. It argues that devolution has been a double-edged sword to mitigate political instability in Turkana County. Indeed, the stability of Kenya, and particularly Turkana, is being defined through new forms of contestation and renegotiation since the discovery of oil and the implementation of a devolution process. Whilst devolution has illuminated county-level grievances and enabled material redistribution to peripheral regions from the national government to an extent that would have been improbable in the pre-devolution era, it risks empowering rent-seeking politicians to construct new conflicts and foment intra-county divisions in a bid to secure access to oil-related windfalls.
       
  • The oil discovery in Uganda’s Albertine region: Local expectations,
           involvement, and impacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Joseph Mawejje This paper examines the opportunities created by the recent oil discovery in Uganda's Albertine region for local economic development. This is achieved through an assessment of local expectations, involvement, and impacts of on-going activities following the discovery of oil. The local communities have formed strong positive expectations including improved access to healthcare, education, electricity, safe drinking water, transport infrastructure, cleaner and less costly energy, and employment prospects. Moreover, communities expect to benefit from auxiliary business opportunities. The negative expectations include concerns about the arrival of immigrants, contestations over land, inequality, environmental pollution, interference with livestock grazing areas, and loss of livelihoods. Despite the negative expectations expressed, the local communities within the Albertine region approve of the ongoing activities with regard to the development of the oil sector. We argue that greater stakeholder involvement will help to alleviate the fears shaping the negative expectations and create conditions necessary to avoid the resource curse.
       
  • Gold in Ghana: The effects of changes in large-scale mining on artisanal
           and small-scale mining (ASM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Paul W.K. Yankson, Katherine V. Gough Two scales of gold mining operations, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and large-scale mining, have operated side by side in Ghana for decades. In the past, the two co-existed on the same mineralised land without much contact or conflict, as large-scale mining occurred underground and ASM operated mainly on the surface. With the former’s transition from an underground labour-intensive mining operation to capital-intensive surface activity, however, opportunities for wage employment have reduced leading to labour retrenchment. Using an informalisation theoretical framework, and drawing on fieldwork conducted in the three gold mining towns of Obuasi, Prestea and Kenyasi, this paper explores how the interface between large-scale mining and ASM has evolved. It is shown how the loss of wage employment opportunities in large-scale mining has contributed to the proliferation of illegal ASM operations. As large-scale surface mining operations have reduced access to mineralised land by ASM, the latter have encroached on to the concessions of the former resulting in conflicts between these parties. It is ASM rather than large-scale mining, however, that is sustaining local economies in Ghana. As the economic well-being of mining towns is linked largely to the fortune of their mining economies, it is imperative that an innovative approach is adopted by the state in addressing the need for ASMs to access mineralised land.
       
  • Land, oil and expressions of citizenship in Uganda’s Albertine
           graben
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Paddy Banya Kinyera The subject of citizenship has grown in significance in recent years, interlinked with other pertinent issues like territory, mobility, resources, property rights, and the most influential question of possession and lack of power. Prominently articulate in the literature on citizenship in the global south is the link to strategic resources such as land. This is even more critical in an era of increasingly expanding tentacles of global capitalism. Uniquely so, “petro-capitalism” (Michael Watts’ words), is one of the forces that have shaped the multi-actor relations around which governmentalities of particular framings have been explicit. Most profound is the debate around development practice and rights to access of resources such as land, which bring to the fore, struggles, often between communities and agencies of and working on behalf of state governments. In this paper, I draw on empirical evidence of the nexus between land and oil in Uganda, as the state continues to align its socio-political and socio-economic logic to neoliberal petro-capitalism. This process has influenced, and continues to influence the production of new citizenship configurations which can, and should be viewed as expressions of petro-citizenship.
       
  • Working within/against institutional expectations: Exploring
           recommendations for social investment in the Oil and Gas sector
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Rafaela Costa Camoes Rabello, Karen Nairn, Vivienne Anderson Globally, Oil and Gas (O&G) companies are increasingly investing in social programmes. The benefits of these programmes for host communities depend on the extent to which programmes are grounded in a community-centred approach to social investment. In this article, we report on a study that explored O&G social investment experts’ understandings of and recommendations for social investment in the O&G sector; and how these revealed different approaches to working with local communities. Data were collected through semi-structured and open-ended interviews. We utilised a post-structuralist theoretical framework for analysing the participants’ accounts of working in social investment. The experts identified the following practices as important in planning and enacting social investment: (1) engaging with the community, (2) engaging with the government, and (3) engaging with the companies. However, social investment emerged as being a ‘shifting’ practice that involved experts balancing their own ideals with corporate (profit-making) imperatives. In this article, we argue that, in negotiating conflicting imperatives, O&G social investment experts do important work, which deserves deeper understanding. The article explores the complexities of their work as community ‘translators’ and advocates when liaising with companies’ decision-making personnel and reflects on the impact of this work on the relationships between companies and impacted communities.
       
  • Scalar controversies in oil and gas governance: Perspectives on who should
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Adam Mayer In the U.S., the current regulatory regime for unconventional oil and gas development is extremely contested, with controversial exemptions buried in federal law and significant state-local conflict. Hence, the question of the appropriate scale of governance (e.g. federal, state, or local) for oil and gas development is unsettled. In this analysis, we consider the views of local policy actors in the western states of Utah and Colorado. We ask how factors such as the perceived importance of the industry and local economic conditions influence scalar preferences. Results imply that local policy actors tend to endorse local control and are generally not supportive of federal exemptions.
       
  • I’d do it again in a heartbeat: Coalbed methane development and
           satisfied surface owners in Sheridan County, Wyoming
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Kathryn Bills Walsh, Julia H. Haggerty The geographic extent and surface footprint of onshore oil and gas development in the United States have greatly expanded since the mid-1990s, prompting a new set of academic questions and public debates about the social acceptability of the industry. We explore an under-examined phenomenon in the research on the social acceptability of oil and gas industries, that of landowner acceptance and satisfaction with development. We examine a group of split estate surface owners who hosted coalbed methane development (CBM) during the 1998–2008 CBM rush in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with surface owners and oil and gas attorneys in Sheridan County, Wyoming, we learn that positive post facto assessments of the CBM boom were linked to landowner implementation of diverse but related strategies connected to their private participation in planning for development. We find that private participation during exploration, regarding legal negotiations, and monitoring during development were most closely linked with eventual satisfaction. However, no two surface owners implemented the same strategies, indicating that there are diverse paths to satisfaction. Findings suggest that greater attention be paid to the individual experiences of landowners to further clarify the challenges and opportunities for hosting extractive industries on private lands.
       
  • Burning the midnight oil: Examining wellbeing and vulnerability in
           Alberta’s oil patch
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Alysia C. Wright, Yannick Griep Oil workers represent more than six percent of Alberta’s labour force and many of these workers are located in remote, isolated oil fields with limited access to social, psychological, and health services. The purpose of this study was to explore the nuanced experience of oil workers located in Alberta, Canada and contributes to the extant body of research on the topic of wellbeing in the petroleum industry. Fourteen workers shared their experiences of social isolation, the affect of job-related stress on their social, emotional and psychological wellbeing, and coping mechanisms for working in such high-risk, high-strain work environments. Based on the findings, we recommend that vulnerability needs to be contextualized for the petroleum industry and further research needs to be conducted about the psychological and physical costs paid by workers in order to maintain careers in the petroleum industry.
       
  • The conflict over the proposed LNG hub in Western Australia’s Kimberley
           region and the politics of time
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Lisa Nicole Mills In 2013, the Australian oil and gas company, Woodside Petroleum, and its multinational joint venture partners announced that they would not be proceeding with a $40 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing facility on the coast of the Kimberley, north-western Australia. The corporations’ decision was made after a five-year campaign against the gas hub by Indigenous, community and environmental groups. The limited academic literature on this case has focused on particular sets of actors and stages of the conflict. This paper applies a broader perspective by examining the positions of a range of actors over a longer time period. It argues that i) the concept of the politics of time provides a useful lens for understanding the dynamics of the conflict ii) the state attempted to exercise control over the development using temporal strategies, but this facilitated alliances between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people and iii) the state also exercised control over corporate actors, but was ultimately unable to compel investment in an increasingly globalized market featuring new floating LNG technology (FLNG).
       
  • Risk management and risk governance of liquefied natural gas development
           in Gladstone, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): R.G. van der Vegt This paper is a retrospective analysis of the risk management and risk governance process of liquefied natural gas (LNG) development in Gladstone, Australia. In order to undertake this retrospective analysis, the risk governance framework developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) is used as a heuristic because it includes and goes beyond the ISO 31000:2009 risk approach that was used in practice. The IRGC framework consists of four different phases reflecting the risk handling chain: pre-assessment, risk appraisal, risk characterisation and evaluation, and risk management. Based on an analysis of the first three phases it was reported that the approach used by the LNG proponents in Gladstone followed relatively robust principles and guidelines despite containing a number of deficiencies. However, during the simultaneous construction of the three LNG facilities a number of environmental, social, and economic impacts and concerns emerged. Therefore, the overall aim of this paper is to explore what can be learned from this type of post-evaluation and to assess the implementation of risk management. The results identify a variety of aspects that have influenced the workability of the risk governance process and point to areas capable of improving similar problems for resource projects in the future.
       
  • Mining industry perspectives on indigenous rights: Corporate complacency
           and political uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Rebecca Lawrence, Sara Moritz Over the last decade or so, there has been a global shift towards attempts to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples, particularly in regards to extractive activities on their traditional territories. At the same time, however, the extraction of natural resources in breach of indigenous rights, continues to take place at ever increasing rates. Using a case study of Swedish mining industry attitudes to indigenous rights, and specifically that of the principle of Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC), the article explores this paradox. Mining companies operating in Sweden do not currently respect or implement the principle of FPIC, and the article illustrates how mining representatives justify and reconcile this. It elucidates how the Swedish mining industry mobilises various, and at times contradictory, discourses, including on the one hand, the complacent rationale that human rights protections are superfluous in Sweden, and on the other hand, the idea that a respect for FPIC would create uncertainty and thereby threaten the existence of the mining industry.
       
  • Path dependency or investing in place: Understanding the changing
           conditions for rural resource regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Laura Ryser, Greg Halseth, Sean Markey, Cameron Gunton, Neil Argent Over the past few decades, senior governments in many OECD countries have rolled back regulatory strategies to incentivize jurisdictional environments for resource development. As senior governments promote resource development, however, they are also reducing financial support for communities experiencing the social and physical infrastructure pressures. This has prompted municipalities to pursue regional strategies to retain a portion of resource wealth. Drawing upon staples theory and evolutionary economic geography, we explore how municipal stakeholders in the Peace River region of British Columbia, Canada leveraged an underdeveloped provincial policy regime to recapture resource revenues through the Fair Share Agreement (FSA). Once the FSA was adopted, local governments needed to follow strict spending and investment guidelines. Based on their property tax regimes and limited jurisdiction, they focused on infrastructure repairs and expansion of basic services, but also with some investments in recreation centres and schools. Tensions emerge, however, about how these revenue regimes can either entrench path dependency or create opportunities for investing in place. Under this regime, no emergency or legacy fund investments are allowed. As local government stakeholders acquired resource revenues, they had no jurisdiction to support new development pathways, resulting in no significant changes from path dependency.
       
  • How do national mining industry associations compare on sustainable
           development'
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Vlado Vivoda, Deanna Kemp This study establishes new knowledge about country-level mining industry associations with respect to sustainable development. Industry associations present an opportunity for diffusion of leading practice norms and standards in this arena. We examined the emergence of mining industry associations, their public statements about sustainability, and the degree to which their general statements were translated into formal policies. Of 61 mining industry associations with web presence, 20 (33%) had not made a public statement about sustainability. Of the 41 associations that had made a public statement about sustainability, 13 (32%) did not have a sustainable development policy, or a position that translated general statements into specific commitments. Only half of the associations with a web presence mention the social aspects of mining. These findings highlight a significant gap in the coverage of sustainable development and associated policy commitments among mining industry associations. The study raises questions about the degree to which country-level mining industry associations are approaching sustainable development in a meaningful way, and what can be done to avoid promulgating sustainability “spin”.
       
  • At the intersection of Arctic indigenous governance and extractive
           industries: A survey of three cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Rauna Kuokkanen Surveying existing literature, this article offers a preliminary assessment of the intersection of Indigenous governance and Arctic extractive industries, with a special focus on how Indigenous governance institutions position themselves vis-à-vis resource extraction in three regions: Nunatsiavut (Labrador, Canada), Greenland and Sápmi (the Sámi territory in Scandinavia). As a survey of existing scholarship, interviewing representatives of the extractive industry or Indigenous governments was beyond the scope of this article and hence, the analysis and conclusions are both preliminary and schematic. They do demonstrate, however, that the relations and strategies vary considerably and tend to depend on the degree and jurisdiction of the Indigenous self-governing authority. Further, they point to a pressing need for more detailed research in this area.
       
  • How can strategic metals drive the economy' Tungsten and tin
           production in Spain during periods of war
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 6, Issue 1Author(s): Guiomar Calvo, Alicia Valero, Antonio Valero Modern living is heavily dependenton mining activities. Having a secure and stable supply of mineral resources has proven to be a key for societies, especially during periods of war. A total of 39 raw materials are identified as ‘strategic’ for the current European defense industry and 16 are additionally considered critical due to economic reasons and risks of supply by the European Commission. Any material can become critical if the demand exceeds supply and this is illustrated through a case study of tin and tungsten demand in Spain during the First World War and Second World War. Tungsten, identified as strategic, was extracted in Spain throughout 20th century, in the process becoming the most important supplier for Germany during Second World War. The extraction of tin has also had political implications, being the basic component used in the manufacturing tin cans. These cases may be used as a proxy for gauging how even a single mineral may boost economies and can be assimilated to current efforts being made across the world to secure supplies of raw materials.
       
  • Securing territory for mining when Traditional Owners say ‘No’: The
           exceptional case of Wangan and Jagalingou in Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Kristen Lyons Australian Governments have strongly supported Indian-owned industrial conglomerate Adani Enterprises to build its proposed Carmichael Mine, including via the sustained pursuit of control over Indigenous homelands to ‘open up’ a new coal frontier in Queensland’s Galilee Basin. This demonstrates a legacy of disavowing Indigenous rights in the interests of securing territory for extractivist development. In asserting their right to oppose the destruction of their ancestral homelands by Adani’s proposed Carmichael Mine, Wangan and Jagalingou Traditional Owners’ have encountered again the reality of a settler colonial state that has sidelined and silenced their rights and interests. Drawing from a research partnership with Wangan and Jagalingou Traditional Owners Family Council, this paper traces state formation to secure territory, alongside Traditional Owners’ resistance upon this territorialisation of their homelands. Those Traditional Owners of Wangan and Jagalingou country who oppose Adani’s proposed Carmichael Mine have exposed the coercive and manipulative roles of the contemporary settler colonial state, and in so doing, have disrupted state intervention to enable Adani’s proposed Carmichael Mine.
       
  • Earning a social license to operate: Perspectives of mining communities in
           Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Jerome Jeffison Yaw Ofori, Daisy Rose Ofori The granting of a social license to operate has proved fundamental in safeguarding the operations, investments and reputation of mining companies. Literature provides insights into the concept of Social License and what companies can do to secure it. However, case studies that shed light on how a social license can be obtained and maintained from the perspectives of mining communities remain limited. To address the gap in the literature, this study focused on the viewpoints of mining communities in Ghana as a point of departure for investigating how a multinational mining company gained and is maintaining its social license to operate. The results of the study highlight the limited effect of social development interventions on securing a social license and show that multi-targeted company strategies at different stages of the mine operation influence perceptions of communities. Specifically, this research reveals that a company’s track record, prompt payment of compensation and participatory processes of social development are contributory factors in securing a social license to operate. Finally, the study also reveals the fragile nature of the social license due to the growing disillusionment of some community stakeholders.
       
  • Enabling food security through use of local rocks and minerals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): David A.C. Manning, Suzi Huff Theodoro In many developing countries, replacement of the nutrients needed to produce subsistence and cash crops is a major challenge, because of cost and long/complex supply chains. Nutrient audits show that major nutrients are being removed from soils faster than they are being replenished, which is clearly unsustainable. The use of crushed silicate rocks as a source of plant nutrients predates the use of the chemical fertilizers that have revolutionised global agriculture. Such highly soluble fertilizers are not ideal for the deeply leached oxisols widespread in the global south, and are rapidly leached. In these soils, silica may also need to be added as nutrient. In these circumstances, crushed silicate rocks have great potential to maintain soil health and to support crop production. In Brazil crushed rock remineralizers have been developed, and Brazilian federal law allows these to be used for crop nutrition, with specifications clearly defined by appropriate regulation. This approach provides a model that enables developing countries elsewhere to exploit local geological sources, and reduces dependency on imported chemical fertilizers. It creates opportunities for employment producing crushed rock products for different crops and locally variable soils and conditions, and illustrates renewed academic and practical interest in so-called ‘Development Minerals.’Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • India’s resource (inter)nationalism: Overseas mining investments
           shaped by domestic conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Patrik Oskarsson, Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt Indian companies - both state- and privately-owned enterprises - have gradually begun to invest in extractive industries beyond the boundaries of the country in recent decades. Yet, little is known about them. This article traces how domestic political-economic conditions shape the ways in which India’s emerging multinational companies operate abroad. Within India, a national, economic imperative for energy security and support to domestic industry drives the mining agenda. While the private sector is rhetorically dominant, state support remains crucial in handing over controversial land and forested tracts, and in defusing various conflicts across enormously variable social and operational environments. This article analyses how Indian international investments changes traditional company reliance on the Indian state, reshapes accountability relations, and supports mining operations shaped by highly uncertain domestic experiences, rather than global guidelines and extractive industry best practices. Specifically, it examines how India’s resource nationalism plays out overseas by drawing on empirical material from Indonesia and Mozambique. The article concludes that resource nationalism, as conceived so far, fails to justify the behaviour of Indian investments in extractive industries in the contemporary, globalised world characterised by new actors who do not accept the existence of global best practices.
       
  • Maryland is not for Shale: Scientific and public anxieties of predicting
           health impacts of fracking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Thurka Sangaramoorthy In 2011, Maryland established the Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative to determine whether and how gas production in the state could be accomplished without causing unacceptable risks to public health, safety, natural resources, and the environment. This initiative required a statewide health impact assessment of unconventional natural gas development and production via hydraulic fracturing (i.e., fracking). Increasing number of studies have shown that fracking has significant potential to impact health and non-health outcomes. However, because of its rapid development, there is a lack of substantive research related to the public health effects of fracking. I discuss my firsthand experiences as a medical anthropologist and public health researcher on a multi-disciplinary research team tasked with conducting Maryland’s first health impact assessment to determine the potential public health impacts associated with fracking. I focus on how fracking, as a relatively new economically viable source of energy and an emergent focus of study, brings about public and scientific anxieties, and how these anxieties shape subsequent environmental and health policy decision making processes. I reflect on the potential role of social scientists in matters of scientific knowledge production and resulting policy decisions and the broader implications of such engagement for public social science.
       
  • The gold commodity frontier: A fresh perspective on change and diversity
           in the global gold mining economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Boris Verbrugge, Sara Geenen In recent decades, alongside the emergence of a truly globalized mining industry, we have seen a strong expansion of predominantly informal artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). While both trends are often studied in isolation, we argue that they can be seen as products of the same structural process: the widening and deepening of the gold commodity frontier. More precisely, we argue that gold mining, in an attempt to overcome several socio-ecological and socio-political limitations, has expanded outside its historical core into a range of new mining destinations (widening), and has come to rely on an intensification of production through socio-technical innovations (deepening). These processes of widening and deepening have not only led to an expansion of industrial mining, but are also, increasingly, contributing to a (geographically unequal) expansion of ASGM. In addition to targeting deposits that are unattractive for industrial mining, ASGM is better equipped to deal with socio-political uncertainty, and drives down the cost of production through a reliance on flexible informal labour. Using case study evidence from the Philippines and the DRC, we then illustrate how the processes of widening and deepening intersect with (sub-)national processes of political-economic transformation, producing different types of gold mining constellations.
       
  • Shale energy development in the Southern United States: A review of
           perceived and objective social impacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Gene L. Theodori The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the extant literature pertaining to perceived and objective social impacts associated with shale energy development in the southern United States. Findings from selected sociological studies conducted in the Barnett, Eagle Ford, and Haynesville shale plays reveal somewhat paradoxical perceptions with respect to shale energy development among both local leaders and the general citizenry. Whereas community leaders and residents recognize that not all economic effects of shale energy development have been positive, they generally appreciate and view favorably certain accompanying economic and/or service-related benefits. Typically, the opposite is the case with respect to the objective and perceived social and/or environmental issues that have accompanied shale energy development. Recent studies by several geographers and their colleagues in both the Barnett and Eagle Ford regions have complemented and furthered the sociological findings on the economic/service-related benefits and social/environmental costs associated with shale energy development in the southern United States. Results from their studies reveal a substantially uneven spatial distribution of positive and negative effects. I conclude this review by identifying several knowledge gaps and proposing suggestions for future research.
       
  • A decade of Marcellus Shale: Impacts to people, policy, and culture from
           2008 to 2018 in the Greater Mid-Atlantic region of the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Jeffrey B. Jacquet, Anne N. Junod, Dylan Bugden, Grace Wildermuth, Joshua T. Fergen, Kirk Jalbert, Brian Rahm, Paige Hagley, Kathryn J. Brasier, Kai Schafft, Leland Glenna, Timothy Kelsey, Joshua Fershee, David L. Kay, Richard C. Stedman, James Ladlee It’s been just over a decade since Unconventional Oil and Gas development began in earnest in the Marcellus Shale, a dense shale formation that, along with the deeper and larger Utica Shale, covers much of the mid-Atlantic United States. Since January 2008, approximately 15,939 wells have been drilled and fracked at 5674 sites across these shales. This decennial documents the pace, scale, and stages of actual development and takes stock of the social science on impacts to communities, people, policies, and culture. We have divided this article into the following sections that are categorized both geographically and thematically: Pennsylvania: Heart of the Marcellus Shale Play, focuses on the plethora of social science research that has occurred on impacts to Pennsylvania communities, health, economics, and agricultural production; West Virginia and Ohio: Legacies of Extraction discusses research on the overlapping historical legacies of extractive industries in the region and details results of original research examining perceived impacts to residents amid complex historical natural resource lineages; and New York: Fracking, Culture and Politics examines how the regulatory process to develop the Marcellus Shale affected both the state and nation’s culture, politics, and policy as one of the most densely populated regions of the US came to grips with hosting the modern-day Oil and Gas Industry. We conclude with a discussion of emerging research opportunities and directions as a new generation of social scientists document future development in the Marcellus and Utica Shales.
       
  • Ensuring health and environmental protection in hydraulic fracturing: A
           focus on British Columbia and Alberta, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Patricia Larkin, Robert Gracie, Maurice Dusseault, Daniel Krewski Unconventional natural gas resources recovered using hydraulic fracturing (HF) is contributing to national energy self-sufficiency and could be a significant factor in the global transition to a low carbon economy. Using an integrated risk management framework, we conduct a comparative analysis of practices and review recommendations of a regulatory, economic, advisory, community-based, or technological nature for British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Lessons learned from international assessments of risk issues are also considered. Overall, there is much less emphasis on potential impacts on human health than on the environment. The analysis also identifies a need for a strong and adequately resourced regulatory framework that works in concert with enhanced technological requirements; evidence-based emissions standards; regulated and/or community-based setbacks and buffer zones; operational surveillance, reporting, and disclosure of value-chain activities in an accessible and transparent way; community participation in the development of these mechanisms; and provision for legacy sites. Economic options such as performance-based taxes and fees, industry-funded studies, the role of carbon taxes, and cost allocations to protect or improve determinants of health are the least advanced option. This analysis provides support for the development of a risk management policy agenda with respect to broad and persistent HF risk management issues.
       
  • The Eagle Ford and Bakken shale regions of the United States: A
           comparative case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Emily Grubert The Eagle Ford and Bakken shale oil plays in the United States (US) have experienced dramatic production increases since 2010, with implications for their communities in Texas and North Dakota (and to a lesser extent, Montana). In both cases, production increased from insignificant or low levels to about a quarter of US production each over five years, largely due to prices and the availability of modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques. This comparative case study of the Eagle Ford and Bakken regions focuses on the effects of these rapid changes on communities. Overall, this work finds that dynamics associated with strained infrastructure followed patterns similar to those seen in other modern US boom regions. Bakken participants perceived impacts as more severe than Eagle Ford participants, potentially due to greater isolation and limitations associated with extreme winter conditions. In both regions, anticipation of a bust affected behavior in a manner not commonly observed in regions where prior boom/bust cycles do not exist in living memory. Both Bakken and Eagle Ford participants described an idealized future where long-term shale-related prosperity could stabilize their communities, despite an understanding that this was an unlikely outcome.
       
  • Shale development in the US and Canada: A review of engagement practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Merryn Thomas, Nick Pidgeon, Michael Bradshaw Public and stakeholder engagement with shale development is difficult, but essential. We review 26 engagement processes carried out by US and Canadian companies, alliances, government agencies, academics and activists; systematically exploring who participates, the stage at which engagements take place, aims and methods, provision for multiway engagement, and issues of credibility. We find a multitude of actors carrying out engagement using a variety of formats, ranging from barbeque events and town hall meetings to citizen science and in-depth qualitative research. Whilst we find many strengths, we also highlight a number of weaknesses. Much of this engagement does not occur at the earliest stages of development, and rarely asks the most fundamental question -whether shale development should proceed at all- instead commonly focusing on questions of impact minimisation, regulation and gaining support. Furthermore, the majority of activities tend to elicit the responses of interested and affected parties, with much less attention to views of the wider public. We reflect on what may be limiting engagement practice, and discuss how engagement might be improved.
       
  • Is the gas industry a good neighbour' A comparison of UK and Australia
           experiences in terms of procedural fairness and distributive justice
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Katherine Witt, John Whitton, Will Rifkin Australia and the UK share much in common in their social, governance and legal systems. Would approaches to unconventional oil and gas development also be similar' In this article, we examine the different experiences of local communities regarding unconventional oil and gas development in Queensland, Australia and England, UK. We question whether the onshore gas industry makes a ‘good neighbour’ in two different contexts that share one common legal background. We consider procedural fairness within the context of land access processes and discourses of individual and collective property rights generated by unconventional gas development in each country. Land access policy and practice have developed significantly in Australia to recognise the rights of existing landholders, including Traditional Owners, and in England, to clarify mineral and resource ownership rights. We consider distributive justice within a conceptual framework of social sustainability relating to communities and local social impacts from development. We review how governments at various levels have attempted to resolve such issues. We conclude that the unconventional gas development experience is heavily context dependent and cannot be described by a simple narrative, nor by snap-shot baseline and impact studies. We suggest that there remains much to be learned about regulating the industry.
       
  • Shale tales: Politics of knowledge and promises in Europe’s shale
           gas discourses
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Roberto Cantoni, Matthias S. Klaes, Simone I. Lackerbauer, Claudia Foltyn, Reiner Keller Straddling the late 2000s and the early 2010s, and following the dawn of the ‘shale gas revolution’ in North America, European governments have considered the possibility to repeat such an endeavor. However, the great disparity of energy mixes and histories across the continent has caused diverse responses to these plans. In this paper, we focus on three countries whose governments made markedly different choices with respect to the development of shale gas and to the application of its related extractive technology, hydraulic fracturing: France, Germany, and Poland. We analyze the discursive strategies employed by advocates of this resource/technology to turn them into a legitimate and desirable option for national energy supply. For our investigation, we mobilize a combination of theoretical frameworks and concepts originating from discourse analysis (the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse), and science & technology studies (the regime of technoscientific promises). In doing so, we focus on the press and the grey literature. Our tripartite analysis reveals that the reception of shale gas was significantly shaped by the ways in which proponents built horizons of expectations, and inflected them by adapting them to different national contexts: that was ultimately a matter of discursively structured politics of knowledge.
       
  • Is ‘activist’ a dirty word' Place identity, activism and
           unconventional gas development across three continents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Hanabeth Luke, Elisabet Dueholm Rasch, Darrick Evensen, Michiel Köhne Communities respond to unconventional gas in a variety of ways. In some communities, industry has held a social license, while in other areas, industrial development has been slowed, halted, or prevented by social resistance. Repeatedly, across multiple nations and communities, we have observed that social identities that either incorporate or eschew activism intersect with perceptions of this development’s effect on place identity to either foster or discourage opposition. Particularly interesting are cases in which fracking is perceived to threaten local place identity, but where activism conflicts with social identity. To mobilise different sectors of the population, it often appears important for local residents to be perceived as ‘regular citizens’ and not as activists. We explore how intersection of social identities and place identity shaped the different ways in which communities in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United States have responded to unconventional gas development. Communities resisting development often see ‘activism’ as something that ‘outsiders’ do and that must be rejected as insufficiently objective and neutral. This view of activism and activists produces specific forms of resistance that differ from typical ‘activist’ actions, in which ‘knowledge’, ‘information’, neutrality, and objectivity are particularly important.
       
  • National discovery and citizen experts in Aotearoa New Zealand: Local and
           global narratives of hydraulic fracturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Patricia Widener Aotearoa New Zealand is a little-known oil and gas producer with a long history of conventional, small-volume extraction in the province of Taranaki. The development of unconventional technologies coupled with political and economic interest in expanding extraction positioned communities and landscapes with no previous history into becoming emergent, extractive frontiers. Data from interviews, observations, and publicly available documents were collected and analyzed to study how fracking vulnerable communities responded to oil and gas proposals for exploration. This study found that residents of the first-fracked communities of Taranaki became national experts, informants, and translators for the fracking vulnerable regions. This study also found that first-fracked communities in English-speaking nations served, whether knowingly or not, as an additional well of publicly accessible insight whether they experienced earthquakes in Oklahoma, mobilized resistance in England, or locked their gates in Australia. This global exchange revealed a globalization of citizen knowledge for vulnerable communities to challenge becoming the next frontier. Finally, this study found that a civic boomerang occurred, in which residents of the frontiers who were opposed to hydraulic fracturing discovered the problems of extraction and turned a more critical lens on the industry’s workaday practices in the province of Taranaki.
       
  • Hydraulic fracturing, coalition activity and shock: Assessing the
           potential for coalition-based collective action in Argentina’s Vaca
           Muerta formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Daniel P. Costie, Federico Holm, Ramiro Berardo Examining the early stages of coalition formation and how they may react to rapid institutional changes provides insight into how like-minded policy actors pursue their goals and coordinate their behavior in relatively unstable institutional systems. This study observes activity in the policy subsystem of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in the southern Argentinian province of Neuquén. Using media sources, we identify policy actors, their support or opposition to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas production through fracking and their agreement or disagreement on the topic of fracking, both before and after Chevron and YPF (the large publicly-owned Argentinian energy company) signed a controversial accord to develop parts of the Vaca Muerta formation, one of the largest in the world. Using Social Network Analysis, we show that two coalitions (pro and anti fracking) exist, and that they exhibit a high potential for intra-coalitional coordination and inter-coalitional conflict. Following the signing of the accord, which we see as an example of an “institutional shock”, significant increases in activity and the potential for intra-coordination within the anti-fracking coalition were observed, along with an increase in the potential for conflict between the coalitions. Our results illuminate shed new light on how coalitions may form and evolve in unstable institutional systems where political power is unevenly distributed.
       
  • Can shale gas development in Mexico be smart regulated' A qualitative
           analysis of the regulatory setting, challenges and perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): José Alberto Hernández Ibarzábal This article examines shale gas development in Mexico. Its qualitative analysis focuses on the regulatory setting, challenges and perspectives, and on the feasibility to ‘smartly regulate’ this issue. The analysis demonstrates that Mexico’s shale gas development is especially difficult to regulate due to its high complexity. Increasing environmental impacts, lack of regulatory and industry expertise and a novel regulatory setting with multiple regulators and levels of accountability increase the regulatory challenge. Innovative and complementary regulatory tools, best practice and specialised regulation are likely to lessen the environmental impacts associated with shale gas development and regulators have already made significant progress in this direction. The first competitive bidding for unconventional terrestrial resources was announced in March 2018 and is the tip of the iceberg of commercial production of Mexico´s vast shale gas resources. Nevertheless, the particular complexity of regulating shale gas development in Mexico, suggests that even if ‘smart regulation’ is possible and is properly implemented substantial adverse environmental impacts may still occur.
       
  • Proyectos de Muerte: Energy justice conflicts on Mexico’s
           unconventional gas frontier
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Letizia Silva Ontiveros, Paul G Munro, Maria de Lourdes Melo Zurita In 2013, Mexico’s energy law was fundamentally changed, facilitating increased private and foreign investment into the Mexican energy industry. As a part of this energy reform, the Mexican Government has also started to promote unconventional gas extraction across the north-east of Mexico, including a private sector tendered process that commenced in early 2018. These changes have been met with opposition from rural social movements, looking to defend their territory and livelihoods against megaprojects. As a part of these initiatives, unconventional gas projects have been dubbed as being part of Los Proyectos de Muerte, a term coined by rural activists to critique the environmental and social impacts of gas pipelines, large-scale extraction projects, and hydroelectric dam megaprojects across Mexico. Death (Muerte) referring to impacts on: human health, the more-than-human, and the cosmological worlds of different rural communities. In this paper, we critically examine the notion of unconventional gas expansion in Mexico as being Proyectos de Muerte. focusing on justice concerns that have emerged. To inform this analysis, we draw upon interviews with organisations associated with unconventional gas developments and communities potentially affected by these projects, as well as private consultants, advocates and activists.
       
  • Identifying policy and legal issues for shale gas development in Algeria:
           A SWOT analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Smith I. Azubuike, Ondotimi Songi, Macdonald Irowarisima, John K. Chinda In the face of declining natural gas production, depleting foreign revenue and the local and international demand for natural gas, Algeria seeks to develop its substantial shale gas potential to avoid economic decline. This paper uses a SWOT analysis method to identify key policy and legal issues for shale gas development in Algeria. It broadly investigates the internal strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) and external opportunities (O) and threats (T) facing Algeria’s shale gas development. Qualitative data from policies, laws, and reports, and literature reviews from books and journal articles are utilised in examining Algeria's external and internal environment concerning the development of its shale gas. Based on the analysis, this paper identifies alternative strategies and responses for the development of shale gas resource in Algeria. Thus, it is necessary for providing the Algerian government and other stakeholders with the relevant information to identify which course of action it could take with reference to developing the country’s shale gas. It further provides researchers with a foundational understanding of the broad context surrounding development so that future research can also assess shale gas development in Algeria.
       
  • Unconventionally contentious: Frack Free South Africa’s challenge to
           the oil and gas industry
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Jasper Finkeldey Exploration applications that could lead to unconventional gas exploitation in large parts of South Africa have encountered sustained opposition by social movements. This article looks into Frack Free South Africa's (FFSA) challenges to the government-supported development strategy of shale gas as a supposed means to create jobs and ensure energy autonomy. Adding to discussions in social movement scholarship this article contributes by exploring political, spatial and organizational opportunities afforded by FFSA's activist campaign. The article concludes that in order to grow the movement needs to embrace more inclusive campaign strategies.
       
  • The bubble that got away' Prospects for shale gas development in South
           Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Stefan Andreasson The potential for shale gas development (SGD) in South Africa’s environmentally sensitive Karoo region has attracted the interest of energy companies, government and the public. The South African government is eager to revive economic growth, improve energy security following an energy supply crisis and relieve high unemployment. The public is torn between environmental concerns and prospects of economic benefits, while investors seek clarity in legislation. The impact of the US shale revolution explains the allure of SGD and constitutes the only model worldwide of a developed shale industry. South Africa is a useful case study for examining how various societal interests shape support for and opposition to SGD. While government seeks to proceed with exploration, a dominant coal industry and other alternatives including renewables and nuclear compete for attention, and there are increasing concerns about the size and economic viability of South Africa’s shale gas deposits. Influential actors in the energy-intensive industries comprising South Africa’s powerful ‘minerals-energy complex’ will play a role in how any shale industry might develop. By considering the interests of key actors including a vacillating government, cautious energy companies and a determined environmental lobby, this article examines South Africa’s tenuous road towards SGD.
       
  • Fracking in a fractured environment: Shale gas mining and institutional
           dynamics in South Africa’s young democracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Doreen Atkinson This paper situates the question of shale gas mining in South Africa within broader debates on policy co-ordination within governmental systems. The prospect of shale gas mining has posed severe challenges for the complex inter-governmental system in South Africa. Three key Departments are affected by possible shale gas mining: Mineral Resources, Environmental Affairs and Water Resources. Each of these Departments have different relationships with the provincial and municipal "spheres of government". The Department of Mineral Resources has attempted to promote shale gas mining with no reference to municipalities, whereas the other two Departments have attempted to build up municipal capacity. Municipalities have key functions which are protected in the Constitution. However, many municipalities are weak institutions, unwilling to defend their powers. The paper examines Municipal Integrated Development Plans in the potential shale gas region. Most municipalities seem to have no awareness at all of the shale gas issue. Recently, a High Court ruled that any shale gas mining regulations must be made by the Department of Environmental Affairs. With its more decentralist approach to governance, it will mean that municipalities will have more opportunities to participate in shale gas mining decisions.
       
  • How much is enough' Approaches to public participation in shale gas
           regulation across England, France, and Algeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Miriam R. Aczel, Karen E. Makuch, Manel Chibane We examine ‘fracking’ for shale gas extraction in England, France, and Algeria, framed from the perspective of level of acceptance by communities and general public. We explore the extent to which public participation in decision-making should play a role in fracking regulation, and evaluate whether the level of public participation matches the legal requirements. Our position on the adequacy of fracking regulation is from the perspective of the public dissenter, outlining a legal and normative basis for public participation in decision-making on fracking. We highlight relevant laws and policies to understand and evaluate adequacy of relevant regulatory processes.We offer strong yet nuanced argumentation, creating space for further discussion by academics, the public, regulators, local decision-makers, fracking companies and others. This is not a typical social-psychology, legal, sociology, or human geography research paper, as we take a position from the beginning: that the public ought to be involved in decisions related to the regulation of fracking, and argue that we validate our approach by supporting our claims throughout the work.
       
  • Industry and government responses to unconventional gas development in
           Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Katherine Witt, Stephen Kelemen, Helen Schultz, Vlado Vivoda In Australia, a series of independent inquiries into onshore unconventional gas have all concluded that the technical risks can be managed, albeit pending changes to existing regulatory systems. This is confounded by regulations for unconventional gas development differing across the jurisdictional boundaries of three levels of government. The question of whether to develop unconventional gas resources has become highly political, influenced by a growth in activism and also by the contradictory pressures of transitioning to a low-carbon future and domestic gas shortages. A coal seam gas (CSG) industry was developed in the state of Queensland but exploration and development in other states has been stopped or delayed. In response to community concerns about the industry, and as issues relating to co-existence became apparent, there have been changes made to the regulatory and policy environments, as well as improvements in industry practice and transparency. In this viewpoint piece, we bring an industry and government perspective to the conversation about unconventional gas development by outlining industry and regulatory responses to development of the unconventional gas industry in Australia, largely over the past decade. We conclude that despite many and significant regulatory and industry responses, public acceptance of the industry remains low.
       
  • Yet more ‘fracking’ social science: An overview of unconventional
           hydrocarbon development globally
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Darrick Evensen In this introduction to the special issue on ‘social aspects of unconventional hydrocarbon development globally’ I explain the unique contributions made by the 26 research articles contained herein. Following a discussion of why additional research on social aspects of unconventional hydrocarbon development is still useful and relevant, I concisely describe ten major themes that emerged across the range of articles presented in this issue: (1) substantial regional differences in public reactions, perceptions, and policy, (2) context dependence, (3) role of experience with prior extraction, (4) critiques of policy and regulation, (5) procedural justice deficits, (6) distributive justice issues, (7) engagement and response from industry and government, (8) characterisation of opposition and activism, (9) interaction between actors internationally, and (10) a need for a long-term view. I conclude with my thoughts on the most promising areas for future research, including longitudinal research, comparisons across less developed and more developed nations, investigations of relationships between actors from different countries, and further examination of energy justice, specifically in relation to public representation in decision making processes.
       
  • Shale Boom: The Barnett Shale Play and Fort Worth, Diana Davids Hinton,
           Texas Christian University Press (July 23, 2018). 192 pp. ISBN-10:
           0875656854.
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Miriam R. Aczel
       
  • Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security—A New Framework for
           Energy Regulation, R. Fleming, Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK (2017).
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Anne N. Junod
       
  • Review of shale gas social science in the United Kingdom, 2013–2018
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Darrick Evensen This article critically reviews social science research on unconventional hydrocarbon development in the United Kingdom. I analyse fifty research articles published over the last half decade. The articles fit into three primary categories: (1) public perceptions, (2) discourse and rhetoric, and (3) planning and regulation. This review reveals both what social scientific inquiry has taught us and what gaps remain. We have reasonable understanding of: extent of public support for and opposition to development, basic factors related to support and opposition, procedural and distributive justice concerns leading to opposition, repeated academic critiques of UK planning guidance and regulation, and the frequent use of environmental risks and economic benefits as competing discursive frames. We lack understanding of: how discourse and rhetoric about shale gas, or how knowledge about development, influence public perceptions; how perceptions and discourse at local and regional levels in the UK compare with the national level; what information sources the public rely on and trust on this topic; whether estimates of economic benefits are reliable; and importantly, how perceptions, discourse, and policy will evolve in light of imminent changes to the production and policy landscape. I conclude with recommendations for filling the emergent lacunae in our understanding.
       
  • Unconventional oil and gas in France: From popular distrust to
           politicization of the underground
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Sébastien Chailleux, Julien Merlin, Yann Gunzburger France has a long history in mining and, to a lesser extent, in hydrocarbon extraction, but these industries were both in decline by the end of the 20th century. Following the American shale boom in the 2000′s, there was a sudden renewal of hydrocarbon exploration in 2010 with new exploration licenses being delivered for unconventional oil and gas projects. These projects first remained confined to specialists of such industries until the end of 2010, when a massive social movement opposed shale gas exploration. This paper aims at drawing a picture of this social movement and its narrative work to obtain the ban on hydraulic fracturing by the French government in 2011. Showing the oil and gas supporters’ failed attempts to reopen the debate in the following years, we outline how the ban contributed to negatively shape the representation of extractive industries outside unconventional hydrocarbons. We demonstrate that i) public and political perceptions of unconventional gas in general were built mostly during the sudden burst of mobilization in late 2010, with the opponent’s narratives encountering almost no resistance, ii) previous knowledge and experience with extractive industries in some areas of France facilitates social license for unconventional gas without the use of hydraulic fracturing there, but it does not guarantee the development of the industry, iii) the controversy about hydraulic fracturing participated to shape negative perception about extractive industries in France in general, including ore mining.
       
  • Co-production of the shale gas publics in Poland and the negotiation of
           the state citizens relations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Aleksandra Lis The paper explores the emergence of different publics for shale gas issue along the development of exploration activities in Poland. Through the concept of co-production, it is argued that publics do not pre-exist socio-technical realities but that they are organized by various actors together with these realities. The paper argues that scaling is an important aspect of the co-production of publics as it helps to navigate among them and the issues they represent and govern them according to their scalar relevance: local, regional, national or international. As political realities, publics become important terrains within which relations between state and citizens are negotiated.
       
  • Fuel to the fire: Risk governance and framing of shale gas in the
           Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Tamara Metze Public resistance to shale gas in the Netherlands came as a surprise to governing actors. The Netherlands was a ‘gas land’ and shale gas extraction had been successfully framed as ‘business as usual’. However, in the eyes of the general public it turned into a ‘risky business’, and national government had to adjust their risk governance strategies. This study of the dynamics between national government’s risk governance strategies, framing, and societal responses, shows that this wicked problem could not be managed by authoritative risk governance strategies, nor by collaborative risk governance strategies. Rather, these strategies added fuel to the fire, and resistance increased.The results indicate that all sorts of risk governance strategies, but especially collaborative risk governance strategies, should better take into account the normative dimensions of a conflict, and reflect on who is the legitimate actor to govern the issue. This ‘controversy governance’ includes the possibility to discuss the desirability and necessity of mining activities, and a reflection on who is a legitimate decision maker on a wicked problem.
       
  • Unconventional gas development in Australia: A critical review of its
           social license
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 5, Issue 4Author(s): Hanabeth Luke, Martin Brueckner, Nia Emmanouil This paper provides an overview of unconventional gas developments in Australia and attendant public reactions to them through the lens of the ‘social license’ concept. An analysis of some of the relevant academic literature offers insights into how social license is understood, conceptualised and operationalised across Australian states and territories, surveying a variety of approaches to understand social and health impacts of developments; perceptions of developments, including their perceived legitimacy; and regulatory influences. Case examples from across Australia highlight the importance of procedural justice in industry-community conflict situations and the heterogeneity of social license outcomes. These insights suggest that social infrastructure can play an important role in social license negotiations. Further research priorities into the social dimensions of unconventional gas development are identified in the areas of cumulative health and social impacts; governance (and social license) implications in relation to resources; place and people; and better understanding social license in the context of other States and local contexts, specifically Australia’s First Nations. Both the ways in which a social license evolves over space and time, and how community concerns are responded to by industry and decision makers in different contexts, raises questions for further inquiry, specifically in relation to power asymmetries between industry, government and communities.
       
  • Local elites’ extraversion and repositioning: Continuities and changes
           in Congo’s mineral production networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: The Extractive Industries and SocietyAuthor(s): Sara Geenen, Jeroen Cuvelier This article calls for a historical and spatial approach to studying the role of local elites in mineral production networks, paying attention to how they operate across scales and how they navigate structural constraints over time. Using empirical data from different mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo, it conceptualizes local elites as those who access and control (exclude others from) the factors of production (land, labour and capital). It argues they are able to do so because they operate across scales (extraversion) and adapt to changes in the political economy (repositioning). The article highlights their role as labour mediators, (land/mineral) rent appropriators, capital accumulators and illuminates how coercion and redistribution may work together to achieve control.
       
 
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