Subjects -> MINES AND MINING INDUSTRY (Total: 82 journals)
Showing 1 - 42 of 42 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Earth Science : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Mining Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AusiMM Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CIM Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clays and Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geochemistry and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Mineralogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Exploration and Mining Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Extractive Industries and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gems & Gemology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geology of Ore Deposits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ghana Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inside Mining     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytical and Numerical Methods in Mining Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geology and Mining Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Materials Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metamorphic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Mining Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Lithology and Mineral Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Lithos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mineralium Deposita     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mineralogia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mineralogical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mineralogy and Petrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Minerals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Minerals Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mining Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Mining Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mining Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mining Technology : Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Podzemni Radovi     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Réalités industrielles     Full-text available via subscription  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Rocks & Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik     Open Access  
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.747
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0967 - ISSN (Online) 0010-7999
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Trace element and isotopic zoning of garnetite veins in amphibolitized
           eclogite, Franciscan Complex, California, USA
    • Abstract: Here we present major element, trace element, and oxygen isotope data for garnet from an amphibolitized eclogite block from Ring Mountain, Franciscan Complex, California, USA. Garnetite veins 1–5 cm thick are laterally continuous up to 10 m within an Mg-rich blackwall zone of the eclogite block. Complex major and trace element zoning patterns reveal multiple stages of garnet growth in both the matrix and garnetite veins. Similarities in major and trace element zoning between matrix and vein garnet suggest that crystallization of the garnetite veins began toward the end of matrix garnet core growth, and continued throughout the garnet growth history of the rock. Oscillatory zoning in rare-earth elements suggests garnet growth in pulses, with matrix-diffusion-limited growth in between pulses. Oxygen isotope analyses of matrix and vein garnet have a range in δ18O values of 5.3–11.1 ‰. Differences in δ18O values of up to ~ 4 ‰ between garnet core and rim are observed in both the matrix and vein; garnet cores range from 9.8 to 11.1 ‰ (median 10.4‰), garnet mantles range from 8.3 to 10.0 ‰ (median 9.7 ‰), and garnet rims range from 5.8 to 7.8 ‰ (median 6.7 ‰). Late-stage vein crystallization appears as a garnet “cement” that fills in a network of small (typically 5–50 µm) garnet cores, and likely crystallized from an amorphous phase. The low δ18O values of this latest stage of garnet growth are consistent with interaction with serpentinites, and likely represent the physical incorporation of the eclogite block into the serpentinite matrix mélange.
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
  • The effects of temperature and pressure on the oxidation state of chromium
           in silicate melts
    • Abstract: The oxidation state of Cr, Cr2+/ΣCr (where ΣCr = Cr2+ + Cr3+ = 0.35 wt%), in Fe-free silicate glasses quenched from melts equilibrated as a function of pressure to 3.5 GPa at 1500 °C, and as a function of temperature to 1500 °C at atmospheric pressure, and at oxygen fugacities (fO2, in log units relative to the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer) between ∆QFM = − 1 and − 2, was determined by XANES spectroscopy. Increasing temperature stabilises Cr2+ and increasing pressure stabilises Cr3+. A general expression for Cr3+/Cr2+ in silicate melts was derived: log(Cr3+/Cr2+) = 1/4(∆QFM + 8.58 − 25,050/T + 940P/T − 0.02P) + 9770/T − 7.69 + 6.22Λ + (900P − 172P2)/T, where P is pressure in GPa, T is temperature in K, and Λ is the optical basicity of the composition. This equation reproduces 213 Cr2+/ΣCr values reported here and in the literature with an average ΔCr2+/ΣCr of 0.02. A MORB melt at 1400 °C and QFM is predicted to have Cr2+/ΣCr ~ 0.35 at the surface but Cr2+/ΣCr ~ 0 at a depth of ~ 60 km. Although Cr2+ is an important oxidation state in silicate melts it is not preserved at low temperatures due to an electron exchange reaction with Fe3+.
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
  • Age, duration and mineral markers of magma interactions in the deep crust:
           an example from the Pyrenees
    • Abstract: We report in-situ dating, and Hf and O-isotope studies of zircon crystals, together with electron microprobe imaging of garnet crystals from a migmatitic diorite containing noritic globules, in the Ursuya massif (French Pyrenees). Diorite zircon crystals have old inherited cores and 295 ± 2 Ma rims, while those in the norite are homogeneous, with lower U and Pb, and higher Th and Th/U ratios than in the diorite zircon rims. The 295 Ma dates represent the crystallization age of hybridised crustal melts. Norite zircon crystals have similar ages (298 ± 3 Ma) to the diorite zircon rims, interpreted as the crystallization age of the norite. Hf isotopes indicate that the noritic magmas were already crustally contaminated prior to intrusion at their present locations. The contrasting behaviours of slow- and fast-diffusing species within garnet (e.g. P vs Ca) caused sharp P and diffuse Ca core-rim transitions. Modelling of garnet Ca diffusion profiles suggests a duration of 2 ± 1 Myr for the magma interactions in the deep crust. Integrated with granite dating, these data provide insights into pulsations in the regional thermal event that concluded the Hercynian orogenic cycle.
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
  • Lithospheric mantle refertilization by DMM-derived melts beneath the
           Cameroon Volcanic Line—a case study of the Befang xenolith suite (Oku
           Volcanic Group, Cameroon)
    • Abstract: The origin and evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) are important issues of Earth’s chemical and physical evolution. Here, we report detailed textural and chemical analyses on a mantle xenolith suite from Befang (Oku Volcanic Group, Cameroon Volcanic Line), which represents a major tectono-magmatic structure of the African plate. The samples are sourced from spinel-facies mantle and are dominated by lherzolites. Their texture is cataclastic to porphyroclastic, and foliation defined by grain-size variation and alignment of spinel occurs in part of peridotites. Spinel is interstitial and has amoeboidal shape. Clinopyroxene REE patterns are similar to those of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) except LREEs, which vary from depleted to enriched. The A-type olivine fabric occurs in the subset of one harzburgite and 7 lherzolites studied by EBSD. Orthopyroxene shows deformation consistent with olivine. The fabric of LREE-enriched clinopyroxene is equivalent to those of orthopyroxene and olivine, whereas spinel and LREE-depleted clinopyroxene are oriented independently of host rock fabric. The textural, chemical and thermobarometric constraints indicate that the Befang mantle section was refertilised by MORB-like melt at pressures of 1.0–1.4 GPa and temperatures slightly above 1200–1275 °C. The olivine-orthopyroxene framework and LREE-enriched clinopyroxene preserve the protolith fabric. In contrast, the LREE-depleted clinopyroxene, showing discordant deformation relative to the olivine-orthopyroxene protolith framework, and amoeboidal spinel crystallized from the infiltrating melt. The major element and REEs composition of minerals forming the Befang peridotites indicate subsequent reequilibration at temperatures 930–1000 °C. This was followed by the formation of websterite veins in the lithospheric mantle, which can be linked to Cenozoic volcanism in the Cameroon Volcanic Line that also brought the xenoliths to the surface. This study therefore supports the origin of fertile SCLM via refertilization rather than by extraction of small melt fractions, and further emphasizes the involvement of depleted melts in this process.
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
  • Low-pressure (> 4 MPa) and high-temperature (> 1250 °C)
           incongruent melting of marly limestone: formation of carbonate melt and
           melilite–nepheline paralava in the Khamaryn–Khural–Khiid combustion
           metamorphic complex, East Mongolia
    • Abstract: Evidence for low-pressure incongruent melting of limestone containing up to 40 wt% of silicate minerals (marly limestone) is reported from the Khamaryn–Khural–Khiid Combustion Metamorphic (CM) complex in East Mongolia. Marly limestone exposed to high-temperature metamorphism during wild coal fires has acquired a mineral assemblage consisting of gehlenitic melilite and Al-diopside-to-kushiroite-dominant clinopyroxene as main phases and rare phases of celsian, spinel, perovskite, geikielite, etc. Melting of silicate minerals and calcite produced silicate melts of different compositions and stoichiometric calcitic (CaCO3) or non-stoichiometric carbonatite-like (CaCO3 + CaO) melts. Coalescence of silicate melt drops was followed by the formation of silica-undersaturated Ca-rich and Na-bearing paralava melts. Melilite-nepheline paralavas discovered in the Khamaryn–Khural–Khiid and Nyalga CM complexes in Mongolia have exceptional features of mineralogy and chemistry due to a rare combination of P–T conditions associated with wild coal fires and combustion metamorphism: a high temperature (> 1250 °C) and fluid pressure above 4 MPa that prevented decomposition of calcite. Such paralavas from the two CM complexes are composed of similar mineral assemblages made up of melilite, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, nepheline, Fe–Ca olivines (Ca-fayalite and kirschsteinite), K-Ba feldspars (celsian and hyalophane), spinel-group minerals, and rhönite-kuratite, with broad composition variations. Paralavas of this kind have never been reported before from anywhere. Their local mineralogical and geochemical specificity may be due to variations in the composition of carbonate protolith and in physicochemical conditions above the coal fire foci (T, P, gas composition, oxygen fugacity, and melt cooling rate). Low-pressure melting of calcite and the formation of carbonate (calcitic or carbonatite-like) melts have implications for phase relations in carbonate rocks altered by high-temperature metamorphism and metasomatism, as well to the origin of carbonatites. Calcite in carbonate sediments exposed to low pressures and high temperatures (above the invariant point Q1 in the CaCO3 phase diagram) does not decompose and can melt. Correspondingly, metamorphic decarbonation reactions do not produce CaO required for the crystallization of many Ca-rich index minerals of spurrite–merwinite facies. The melting point of calcite decreases markedly with increasing H2O content in the H2O–CO2 fluid, which may lead to melting of calcite in carbonate sediments and to formation of calcite-rich carbonatites at P–T crustal conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
  • Using the elastic properties of zircon-garnet host-inclusion pairs for
           thermobarometry of the ultrahigh-pressure Dora-Maira whiteschists:
           problems and perspectives
    • Abstract: The ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) whiteschists of the Brossasco-Isasca unit (Dora-Maira Massif, Western Alps) provide a natural laboratory in which to compare results from classical pressure (P)–temperature (T) determinations through thermodynamic modelling with the emerging field of elastic thermobarometry. Phase equilibria and chemical composition of three garnet megablasts coupled with Zr-in-rutile thermometry of inclusions constrain garnet growth within a narrow P–T range at 3–3.5 GPa and 675–720 °C. On the other hand, the zircon-in-garnet host-inclusion system combined with Zr-in-rutile thermometry would suggest inclusion entrapment conditions below 1.5 GPa and 650 °C that are inconsistent with the thermodynamic modelling and the occurrence of coesite as inclusion in the garnet rims. The observed distribution of inclusion pressures cannot be explained by either zircon metamictization, or by the presence of fluids in the inclusions. Comparison of the measured inclusion strains with numerical simulations shows that post-entrapment plastic relaxation of garnet from metamorphic peak conditions down to 0.5 GPa and 600–650 °C, on the retrograde path, best explains the measured inclusion pressures and their disagreement with the results of phase equilibria modelling. This study suggests that the zircon-garnet couple is more reliable at relatively low temperatures (< 600 °C), where entrapment conditions are well preserved but chemical equilibration might be sluggish. On the other hand, thermodynamic modelling appears to be better suited for higher temperatures where rock-scale equilibrium can be achieved more easily but the local plasticity of the host-inclusion system might prevent the preservation of the signal of peak metamorphic conditions in the stress state of inclusions. Currently, we cannot define a precise threshold temperature for resetting of inclusion pressures. However, the application of both chemical and elastic thermobarometry allows a more detailed interpretation of metamorphic P–T paths.
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
  • Origin of multilayer corona textures in mafic granulites from the Sandmata
           Complex, Aravalli Craton (northwestern India): petrological
           characteristics and tectonic implications
    • Abstract: In Late Proterozoic mafic granulites of the Sandmata Complex in Rajasthan, northwestern India, multilayer corona textures were formed along the interface between orthopyroxene and plagioclase. We examined the metamorphic conditions and processes of formation of these coronae, which provide an insight into the interplay between steady state and sequential diffusion-controlled mineral growth mechanisms. The individual corona–symplectite layers consist of clinopyroxene + quartz garnet + clinopyroxene garnet + quartz K-feldspar, from the inner to the outer margins of the coronae. The single-value decomposition models suggest that the multilayered coronae were formed in a locally closed system, via sequential diffusion of Mg, Fe and Ca into the reaction zone, which has acted as the main driving force for the growth of corona textures. The relict orthopyroxene with exsolved clinopyroxene yields primary crystallization conditions of 8.4 ± 1.5 kbar and ~ 1100–1000 °C. Clinopyroxene in the innermost corona layer grew at ~ 9 kbar and 850–800 °C, whereas clinopyroxene + garnet grew outward at ~ 8 kbar and 700–600 °C. Subsequent hydrous retrogression (~ 6 kbar and 600–550 °C) resulted in the development of rimward zoning in garnet and the growth of amphibole. On combining textural relations and the above conventional P–T estimates, a near-isobaric cooling P–T path was reconstructed using phase equilibria modeling. Further, the near-isobaric cooling path is consistent with the magmatic underplating hypothesis in the Sandmata Complex, where the intrusion of magmatic bodies (i.e., Gyangarh–Asind igneous complex and Anjana granite) favored the development of granulite facies assemblage in norite and gabbronorite protoliths.
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
  • Correction to: Electrical conductivity of tremolite under high temperature
           and pressure: implications for the high-conductivity anomalies in the
           Earth and Venus
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published:
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
  • Pyroxene-carbonate reactions in the CaMgSi 2 O 6  ± NaAlSi 2 O 6
            + MgCO 3  ± Na 2 CO 3  ± K 2 CO 3 system at 3–6 GPa:
           Implications for partial melting of carbonated peridotite
    • Abstract: The reactions between pyroxenes and carbonates have been studied in the CaMgSi2O6 + MgCO3 (Di + 2Mgs), CaMgSi2O6 + NaAlSi2O6 + 2MgCO3 (Di + Jd + 2Mgs), CaMgSi2O6 + Na2Mg(CO3)2 (Di + Eit), and CaMgSi2O6 + K2Mg(CO3)2 (Di + K2Mg) systems at pressures of 3.0 and 4.5 GPa in the temperature range 850–1300 °C and compared with those established previously at 6.0 GPa. The Di + 2Mgs solidus locates at 1220 °C / 3 GPa and 1400 °C / 6 GPa. Near-solidus melt is carbonatitic with SiO2 < 4 wt% and Ca# 56. The Di + Jd + 2Mgs solidus locates near 1050 °C at 3 GPa, rises to 1200 °C at 4.5 GPa, and 1350 °C at 6 GPa. The solidus is controlled by the reaction: 4NaAlSi2O6·2CaMgSi2O6 (clinopyroxene) + 12MgCO3 (magnesite) = 2MgAl2SiO6·5Mg2Si2O6 (clinopyroxene) + 2[Na2CO3·CaCO3·MgCO3] (liquid) + 6CO2. As pressure increases, the composition of solidus melt evolves from 26Na2CO3∙74Ca0.58Mg0.42CO3 at 3 GPa to 10Na2CO3∙90Ca0.50Mg0.50CO3 at 6 GPa. Melting in the Di + Eit and Di + K2Mg systems is controlled by the reactions: CaMgSi2O6 (clinopyroxene) + 2(Na or K)2 Mg(CO3)2 (eitelite) = Mg2Si2O6 (orthopyroxene) + 2[(Na or K)2CO3∙Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3] (liquid). The Di + Eit solidus locates at 925 °C / 3 GPa and 1100 °C / 6 GPa, whereas the Di + K2Mg solidus is located at 50 °C lower. The resulting melts have alkali-rich carbonate compositions, (Na or K)2CO3∙Ca0.4Mg0.6CO3. The obtained results suggest that most carbonates belong to the ultramafic suite would survive during subduction into the deep mantle and experience partial melting involving alkaline carbonates, eitelite or K2Mg(CO3)2, under geothermal conditions of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (35–40 mW/m2). On the other hand, the jadeite component in clinopyroxene would be an important fluxing agent responsible for the partial melting of carbonated rocks under the rift margin geotherm (60 mW/m2) at a depth of about 100 km, yielding the formation of Na-carbonatite melt.
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
  • Ni-in-garnet geothermometry in mantle rocks: a high pressure experimental
           recalibration between 1100 and 1325 °C
    • Abstract: The temperature-dependent exchange of Ni and Mg between garnet and olivine in mantle peridotite is an important geothermometer for determining temperature variations in the upper mantle and the diamond potential of kimberlites. Existing calibrations of the Ni-in-garnet geothermometer show considerable differences in estimated temperature above and below 1100 °C hindering its confident application. In this study, we present the results from new synthesis experiments conducted on a piston cylinder apparatus at 2.25–4.5 GPa and 1100–1325 °C. Our experimental approach was to equilibrate a Ni-free Cr-pyrope-rich garnet starting mixture made from sintered oxides with natural olivine capsules (Niolv ≅ 3000 ppm) to produce an experimental charge comprised entirely of peridotitic pyrope garnet with trace abundances of Ni (10–100 s of ppm). Experimental runs products were analysed by wave-length dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We use the partition coefficient for the distribution of Ni between our garnet experimental charge and the olivine capsule \(\left( {{\text{lnD}}_{{{\text{grt}}/{\text{olv}}}}^{{{\text{Ni}}}} ; \frac{{{\text{Ni}}_{{{\text{grt}}}} }}{{{\text{Ni}}_{{{\text{olv}}}} }}} \right)\) , the Ca mole fraction in garnet ( \({\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Ca}};\) Ca/(Ca + Fe + Mg)), and the Cr mole fraction in garnet ( \({\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Cr}};\) Cr/(Cr + Al)) to develop a new formulation of the Ni-in-garnet geothermometer that performs more reliably on experimental and natural datasets than existing calibrations. Our updated Ni-in-garnet geothermometer is defined here as: \(T \left(^\circ{\rm C} \right)=\frac{-8254.568}{\left(\left( {\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Ca}} \times 3.023 \right)+\left({\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Cr}} \times 2.307 \right)+\left({\mathrm{lnD}}_{\frac{\mathrm{grt}}{\mathrm{olv}}}^{\mathrm{Ni}} - 2.639 \right)\right)}-273\pm 55\) where \({\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{grt}/\mathrm{olv}}^{\mathrm{Ni}}= \frac{{\mathrm{Ni}}_{\mathrm{grt}}}{{\mathrm{Ni}}_{\mathrm{olv}}},\) Ni is in ppm, \({\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Ca}}\)  = Ca/(Ca + Fe + Mg) in garnet, and \({\mathrm{X}}_{\mathrm{grt}}^{\mathrm{Cr}}\) = Cr/(Cr + Al) in garnet. Our updated Ni-in-garnet geothermometer can be applied to garnet peridotite xenoliths or monomineralic garnet xenocrysts derived from disaggregation of a peridotite source. Our calibration can be used as a single grain geothermometer by assuming an average mantle olivine Ni concentration of 3000 ppm. To maximise the reliability of temperature estimates made from our Ni-in-garnet geothermometer, we provide users with a data quality protocol method which can be applied to all garnet EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analyses prior to Ni-in-garnet geothermometry. The temperature uncertainty of our updated calibration has been rigorously propagated by incorporating all analytical and experimental uncertainties. We have found that our Ni-in-garnet temperature estimates have a maximum associated uncertainty of ± 55 °C. The improved performance of our updated calibration is demonstrated through its application to previously published experimental datasets and on natural, well-characterised garnet peridotite xenoliths from a variety of published datasets, including the diamondiferous Diavik and Ekati kimberlite pipes from the Lac de Gras kimberlite field, Canada. Our new calibration better aligns temperature estimates using the Ni-in-garnet geothermometer with those estimated by the widely used (Nimis and Taylor, Contrib Mineral Petrol 139:541–554, 2000) enstatite-in-clinopyroxene geothermometer, and confirms an improvement in performance of the new calibration relative to existing versions of the Ni-in-garnet geothermometer.
      PubDate: 2021-04-07
  • Origin of the primitive, strongly SiO 2 -undersaturated alkalic rocks from
           the Deccan Traps by low-degree mantle melting and high-pressure fractional
    • Abstract: Strongly SiO2-undersaturated alkalic rocks (Mg# > 50, SiO2 ≤ 45 wt%, Na2O + K2O ≥ 3 wt%) occur in three early-stage (Sarnu-Dandali, Mundwara, Bhuj) and one late-stage (Murud-Janjira) rift-associated volcanic complexes in the Cretaceous-Paleogene Deccan Traps flood basalt province of India. Thermobarometry based on clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium suggests that they mostly crystallized beneath the Moho at ~ 15 kbar/1270 °C to ~ 11–12 kbar/1115–1156 °C pressures and temperatures. Primary magma compositions in equilibrium with lherzolite were estimated through reverse fractionation calculations by incrementally adding equilibrium phases to the rocks in olivine:clinopyroxene:spinel:phlogopite = 12:68:20:15 proportions at low temperatures followed by olivine:clinopyroxene:spinel = 12:68:20 proportions at higher temperatures. A comparison of the primary magmas with experimentally generated melts shows that their compositions are consistent with an origin from garnet lherzolite sources with < 1 wt% H2O and CO2. Hornblendite, pyroxenite (except for some Bhuj rocks) and carbonated eclogite are unlikely sources for the Deccan alkalic rocks. The Sarnu-Dandali and Bhuj alkalic rocks and the Murud-Janjira lamprophyres probably originated by < 5% melting of ~ 1.3 times Ti-enriched lherzolitic sources compared to primitive mantle. The primary magmas of the Murud-Janjira basanites calculated through reverse assimilation-fractional crystallization by assimilating lower crustal and mantle xenoliths found in younger lamprophyre dikes of the same area indicate that contamination by the Indian lithosphere was unlikely during their ascent. The basanites evolved by mixing with phonotephritic melts, and they probably originated from a Ti-poor (0.7 times) lherzolite source. The temperature of the melts at the base of the lithosphere was ~ 1325 °C beneath Sarnu-Dandali and ~ 1285 °C beneath Bhuj and Murud-Janjira.
      PubDate: 2021-04-03
  • Experimental settling, floatation and compaction of plagioclase in
           basaltic melt and a revision of melt density
    • Abstract: Centrifuge-assisted piston cylinder experiments were conducted on plagioclase in basaltic melt at 1140–1250 °C, 0.42–0.84 GPa and mostly 1000 g. One set of experiments assesses the settling velocity of a dilute plagioclase suspension; a second sinks or floats plagioclase in a MORB-type melt exploring conditions of neutral buoyancy; and a third set examines floatation of plagioclase from an evolved lunar magma ocean composition. A compaction rate for plagioclase cumulates is established. The experiments demonstrate that neutral density of plagioclase An74 in a MOR-type tholeiitic basalt occurs at 0.59 ± 0.04 GPa (1200 °C), contrasting predictions by present models on melt density which yield a density inversion pressure at 0.10–0.15 GPa. In nature, the level of neutral buoyancy depends on melt composition; nevertheless, for the onset of plagioclase crystallization in dry tholeiitic basalts, our result is robust. As the molar volume of plagioclase is well known, the experimentally determined pressure of neutral buoyancy indicates a correction of -1.6% to previous density models for silicate melts. It follows that for (tholeiitic) layered mafic intrusions, plagioclase is negatively buoyant for early, relatively primitive, parent melts. In contrast, the extreme Fe enrichment of a fractionating lunar magma ocean leads to melt densities that let anorthite always float. Compaction φ/φ0 of experimental plagioclase cumulates is quantified to φ/φ0 = − 0.0582 log (Δρ·h·a·t) + 1.284, where φ0 is the porosity after settling (67 ± 2%), h the cumulate pile height, a acceleration and φ porosity as a function of time t. Gravitational-driven compaction in tens of m-thick plagioclase cumulate in basaltic magmas reaches down to ~ 40% porosity within hundreds of years, a timescales competing with characteristic cooling times of cumulate layers of mafic intrusions. To achieve plagioclase modes > 80% due to compaction, an additional overload of ~ 100 m (layers) of mafic minerals would be required. Compaction of a lunar anorthosite crust of 35 km to 20% porosity (i.e. ~ 90% plagioclase after crystallization of the interstitial melt) would require 30 kyrs.
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
  • Sources of auriferous fluids associated with a Neoarchean BIF-hosted
           orogenic gold deposit revealed by the multiple sulfur isotopic
           compositions of zoned pyrites
    • Abstract: Internal textures, multiple sulfur isotopic compositions, and contents of gold, selenium, and molybdenum of ore-related pyrites from a Neoarchean carbonate-facies BIF-hosted gold deposit in Quadrilátero Ferrífero were investigated to elucidate the source(s) of sulfur. Sodium hypochlorite etching and BSE imaging revealed pervasive zoning in pyrites. Five different growth zones (Py1a, Py1b, Py2, Py3, and Py4) and six types of zoning (Type A–Type F) were identified. Two pyrite generations were distinguished in ores: G1 (Py1a and Py1b) and G2 (Py2, Py3, Py4). Both G1 and G2 have positive Δ33S, but the magnitudes of G1 are higher. The G1-relevant fluids can be shallow-sourced, whereas the G2-related auriferous fluids are most likely deep-sourced metamorphic fluids derived from devolatilization of the lower succession of the Nova Lima Group (metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks) during metamorphism, with fluid–rock interactions during fluid ascent and at the depositional site. The negative δ34S, higher selenium contents, and carbonates inclusions of Py1a contrast with the positive δ34S, lower selenium contents, and carbonaceous material inclusions of Py2, Py3, and Py4. The Lamego system possibly started with shallow-sourced oxidized and low-gold fluids (Py1a), closely followed by mixing in of deep-seated reduced auriferous fluids (Py2, Py3, Py4) initiated by tectonic activities. The oscillatory zoning of Py2 with the highest gold contents consists of alternating gold-rich and gold-poor laminae, indicating that fault-valve activity is a trigger of gold deposition. The sulfidation of siderite in BIF (desulfidation of auriferous fluids) related to the formation of ore-related pyrites also contributed to gold precipitation.
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
  • Serial interaction of primitive magmas with felsic and mafic crust
           recorded by gabbroic dikes from the Antarctic extension of the Karoo large
           igneous province
    • Abstract: Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution of the dikes and their contact aureoles. The modeling indicates that both gabbroic dikes acquired the distinctly negative εNd values recorded by their central parts by varying degrees of assimilation of Archean crust at depth. This first phase of deep contamination was followed by a second event at or close to the emplacement level and is related to the interaction of the magmas with the wallrock basalts. These basalts belong to a distinct Karoo LIP magma type having initial εNd from − 2.1 to + 2.5, which provides a stark contrast to the εNd composition of the dike parental magmas (− 15.3 for East-Muren, − 9.0 for West-Muren) previously contaminated by Archean crust. For East-Muren, the distal hornfelses represent partially melted wallrock basalts and the proximal contact zones represent hybrids of such residues with differentiated melts from the intrusion; the magmas that were contaminated by the partial melts of the wallrock basalts were likely transported away from the currently exposed parts of the conduit before the magma–wallrock contact was sealed and further assimilation prevented. In contrast, for West-Muren, the assimilation of the wallrock basalt partial melts is recorded by the gradually increasing εNd of the presently exposed gabbroic rocks towards the roof contact with the basalts. Our study shows that primitive LIP magmas release enough sensible and latent heat to partially melt and potentially assimilate wallrocks in multiple stages. This type of multi-stage assimilation is difficult to detect in general, especially if the associated wallrocks show broad compositional similarity with the intruding magmas. Notably, trace element and isotopic heterogeneity in LIP magmas can be homogenized by such processes (basaltic cannibalism). If similar processes work at larger scales, they may affect the geochemical evolution of the crust and influence the generation of, for example, massif-type anorthosites and “ghost plagioclase” geochemical signature.
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
  • Corundum-quartz metastability: the influence of a nanometer-sized phase on
           mineral equilibria in the system Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 –H 2 O
    • Abstract: The metastable paragenesis of corundum and quartz is rare in nature but common in laboratory experiments where according to thermodynamic predictions aluminum–silicate polymorphs should form. We demonstrate here that the existence of a hydrous, silicon-bearing, nanometer-thick layer (called “HSNL”) on the corundum surface can explain this metastability in experimental studies without invoking unspecific kinetic inhibition. We investigated experimentally formed corundum reaction products synthesized during hydrothermal and piston–cylinder experiments at 500–800 °C and 0.25–1.8 GPa and found that this HSNL formed inside and on the corundum crystals, thereby controlling the growth behavior of its host. The HSNL represents a substitution of Al with Si and H along the basal plane of corundum. Along the interface of corundum and quartz, the HSNL effectively isolates the bulk phases corundum and quartz from each other, thus apparently preventing their reaction to the stable aluminum silicate. High temperatures and prolonged experimental duration lead to recrystallization of corundum including the HSNL and to the formation of quartz + fluid inclusions inside the host crystal. This process reduces the phase boundary area between the bulk phases, thereby providing further opportunity to expand their coexistence. In addition to its small size, its transient nature makes it difficult to detect the HSNL in experiments and even more so in natural samples. Our findings emphasize the potential impact of nanometer-sized phases on geochemical reaction pathways and kinetics under metamorphic conditions in one of the most important chemical systems of the Earth’s crust.
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
  • Hydrogen, trace, and ultra-trace element distribution in natural olivines
    • Abstract: We investigate the coupling between H, minor, trace, and ultra-trace element incorporations in 17 olivines from ten different locations covering various petrological origins: magmatic, hydrothermal, and mantle-derived context. Concentrations in major element are determined by micro X-ray fluorescence. Minor, trace, and ultra-trace elements are determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Hydrogen concentrations are quantified using unpolarized and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Forsterite contents (83.2–94.1%) reflect the petrogenetic diversity. Hydrogen concentrations range from 0 to 54 ppm H2O wt. Minor element concentrations (Ni + Mn) range from 3072 to 4333 ppm, and impurities are dominated by Ni, Mn, Ca or B. Total trace element concentrations range from 8.2 to 1473 ppm. Total rare Earth and extended ultra-trace elements concentrations are very low (< 0.5 ppm). Magmatic and hydrothermal olivines show the most and least amount of impurities, respectively, and mantle-derived olivines have concentrations between these two extremes. Combined with minor, trace, and ultra-trace element concentrations, the hydrogen concentrations, and FTIR OH bands reflect the point defect diversity imposed by different geological settings. Hydrogen concentrations are inversely correlated with divalent impurities, indicating their competition for vacancies. However, a broad positive correlation is also found between OH bands at 3575 and 3525 cm−1 and Ti, confirming the existence of Ti-clinohumite-like point defect in mantle olivines. Nonetheless, Ti does not exclusively control hydrogen incorporation in olivine due to the co-existence with other mechanisms, and its effect appears diluted. Our results confirm that hydrogen behaves as a peculiar incompatible element, and furthermore as an opportunistic impurity in olivine.
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
  • Evidence supporting micro-galvanic coupling in sulphides leads to gold
    • Abstract: Electrical micro-junctions in metal sulfides drive electrochemical reactions with passing gold-bearing fluids, resulting in the deposition of gold, even from under-saturated ore fluids. Understanding the role micro-junctions play in the deposition of gold requires (a) imaging the electric field distribution of a galvanic couple near the surface to qualify the existence of an active micro-geo-battery and (b) correlating it with gold precipitation on the p-type cathode side of the junction by mapping the host at minor and trace levels. Here we report on correlating electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) elemental maps including micron-scaled gold hot spots with laser beam induced current (LBIC) photocurrent maps of galvanic coupling in natural arsenian pyrite from the Otago Schist in New Zealand. The results provide convincing evidence that sulphide electrochemical interactions can lead to gold electro-deposition. We finish by discussing a simplistic model of the processes involved in reference to the original model of Möller and Kersten (Miner Deposita 29(5):404–413. 1994), and discuss the effects of  temperature in light of recent-reported evidence of electrochemical gold deposition in the formation of hydrothermal gold deposits.
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
  • What can we learn from REE abundances in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene
           in residual mantle peridotites'
    • Abstract: Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are the two major repositories of rare-earth elements (REE) in spinel peridotites. Most geochemical studies of REE in mantle samples focus on clinopyroxene. Recent advances in in situ trace element analysis have made it possible to measure REE abundance in orthopyroxene. The purpose of this study is to determine what additional information one can learn about mantle processes from REE abundances in orthopyroxene coexisting with clinopyroxene in residual spinel peridotites. To address this question, we select a group of spinel peridotite xenoliths (9 samples) and a group of abyssal peridotites (12 samples) that are considered residues of mantle melting and that have major element and REE compositions in the two pyroxenes reported in the literature. We use a disequilibrium double-porosity melting model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to invert melting parameters from REE abundance in the bulk sample. We then use a subsolidus reequilibration model to calculate REE redistribution between clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene at the extent of melting inferred from the bulk REE data and at the closure temperature of REE in the two pyroxenes. We compare the calculated results with those observed in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in the selected peridotitic samples. Results from our two-step melting followed by subsolidus reequilibration modeling show that it is more reliable to deduce melting parameters from REE abundance in the bulk peridotite than in clinopyroxene. We do not recommend the use of REE in clinopyroxene alone to infer the degree of melting experienced by the mantle xenolith. In general, HREE in clinopyroxene and LREE in orthopyroxene are more susceptible to subsolidus redistribution. The extent of redistribution depends on the modes of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in the sample and thermal history experienced by the peridotite. By modeling subsolidus redistribution of REE between orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene after melting, we show that it is possible to discriminate mineral mode of the starting mantle and cooling rate experienced by the peridotitic sample. We conclude that endmembers of the depleted MORB mantle and the primitive mantle are not homogeneous in mineral mode. A modally heterogeneous peridotitic starting mantle provides a simple explanation for the large variations of mineral mode observed in mantle xenoliths and abyssal peridotites. Finally, using different starting mantle compositions in our simulations, we show that composition of the primitive mantle is more suitable for modeling REE depletion in cratonic mantle xenoliths than the composition of the depleted MORB mantle.
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
  • A new activity model for Fe–Mg–Al biotites: II—Applications in the K
           2 O–FeO–MgO–Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 –H 2 O (KFMASH) system
    • Abstract: The new biotite activity model and standard-state thermodynamic properties of Ann, Phl, and Eas presented in part-I were used to make pseudosections of bulk compositions representing experimental Fe–Mg exchange equilibria and (model) pelitic bulk rock compositions in the system K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (KFMASH), using mainly the software Perple_X. These pseudosection calculations (termed ‘our calculation(s)’ in the following) were compared to analogous ones performed with the solution model of biotite and thermodynamic data cited in White et al. (J Metamorph Geol 32:261–286, 2014, 10.1111/jmg.12071), termed ‘W14 calculation’. Our calculations with the experimental bulk composition used by Zhou (Ti–Mg–Fe biotites: formation, substitution, and thermodynamic properties at 650 to 900 °C and 1.1 Kb with fO2 defined by the CH4–graphite buffer. PhD thesis, State University of New York, 1994) in his experimental study of the Fe–Mg exchange between biotite (Bt) and olivine (Ol) confirm that biotite had no or only minimal octahedral Al (AlVI) in these experiments. The experimental data of Ferry and Spear (—FS78, Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:113–117, 1978, 10.1007/BF00372150) on the Fe–Mg distribution between biotite and garnet (Grt) are well reproduced by our calculations. The computed composition of biotite (XFe) in equilibrium with garnet of Alm90Py10 composition and the resulting lnKD values as a function of temperature are in good agreement with the experimental brackets. An analogous W14 calculation on the same Fe-rich bulk composition predicts too high XFeBt in order of 0.1 mol fraction. The AlVI contents of biotite of about 0.3–0.45 apfu, as measured by Gessman et al. (Am Mineral 82:1225–1240, 1997, 10.2138/am-1997-11-1218) in similar biotite–garnet exchange experiments performed with Alm80Py20 and Alm70Py30 garnets, are well reproduced by our, as well as by W14 calculations. The extent of Tschermak substitution in biotite in the FS78 experiments, which had Fe-richer bulk compositions, has not been measured. Comparing the FS78 biotites with the ones from Gessman et al. (Am Mineral 82:1225–1240, 1997, 10.2138/am-1997-11-1218), it is very likely that the biotites reported in FS78 contained AlVI in the same order of ca. 0.3–0.4 apfu. A T–XFe (= molar FeO/(FeO + MgO) pseudosection demonstrates the bulk composition dependence of lnKD of the Mg/FeGrt/Bt exchange reaction in high-variance fields. Further comparisons, demonstrating the application of the new biotite solution model in the KFMASH system, are presented in pseudosections constructed for an average model pelite, as well as for a natural high-T/low-P and a natural high-P metapelite. The pseudosections show that biotite according to our biotite model breaks down at lower temperatures and pressures than predicted from the W14 biotite model in the KFMASH system. This means that KFMASH biotite can break down before the wet solidus is reached, which can explain the existence of dry high-T/low-P metapelites. At higher pressures, biotite according to our calculations breaks down at lower pressures than computed with the W14 biotite model. Before biotite breaks down, however, its AlVI content based on our calculations could potentially be used for pseudosection barometry, similarly as the Si-in-phengite barometer. These trends need to be confirmed by a future extension of our model which incorporates Ti, Fe3+ and a di–tri-octahedral substitution.
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00410-020-01771-4
  • Phase heritage during replacement reactions in Ti-bearing minerals
    • Abstract: Replacement reactions occur during metamorphism and metasomatism in response to changes in pressure, temperature and bulk rock and fluid compositions. To interpret the changes in conditions, it is necessary to understand what phases have previously been present in the rocks. During fluid-mediated replacement, the crystallography of the replacement phases is often controlled by the parent reactant phase. However, excessive fluid fluxing can also lead to extreme element mobility. Titanium is not mobile under a wide range of fluid compositions and so titanium-bearing phases present an opportunity to interpret conditions from the most extreme alteration. We map orientation relationships between titanium-bearing phases from ore deposits using EBSD and use symmetry arguments and existing relationships to show that completely consumed phases can be inferred in ore deposits. An ilmenite single crystal from Junction gold deposit is replaced by titanite, rutile and dolomite. The rutile has the following well-documented orientation relationship to the ilmenite [0001]ilmenite // < 100 > rutile and <  \(10{\bar{1}}0\)  > ilmenite // [001]rutile The anatase is a single crystal and shows a potential orientation relationship [0001]ilmenite = (0001)ilmenite // {211}anatase and <  \(10{\bar{1}}0\)  > ilmenite // <  \(0{\bar{1}}1\)  > anatase The single crystal orientation and lack of symmetrical equivalent variants suggest nucleation dominates the anatase production. Dolomite grew epitaxially on the ilmenite despite only sharing oxygen atoms suggesting the surface structure is important in dolomite nucleation. Titanite partially replaced ilmenite during metasomatism at Plutonic gold deposit. The titanite orientation is weakly related to the ilmenite orientation by the following relationship: [0001]ilmenite // < 100 > titanite and { \(10{\bar{1}}0\) }ilmenite // (001)titanite The prevalence of subgrain boundaries in the titanite suggests multiple nucleation points on an already deformed ilmenite needle leading to the formation of substructure in the absence of deformation. Existing known topotaxial replacement relationship can be used to infer completely replaced phases using the misorientation distributions of the replacement polycrystals. Orientation modelling for a cubic phase replaced by rutile in a sample from Productora tourmaline breccia complex shows misorientation distributions consistent with  < 001 > Rutile // < 110 > cubic and < 100 > Rutile // < 111 > cubic Combining this with volume constraints and assuming Ti is immobile, the composition of the cubic phase is constrained as titanomagnetite with 85% ulvospinel. Complex microstructures with domanial preferred orientations can also be used to document the microstructure of replaced phases. An aggregate of rutile grains with two parts that share a common < 100 > axis is interpreted as having replaced a twinned ilmenite grain. Modelling shows that the misorientation distribution for the aggregate is consistent with the above relationship replacing ilmenite with a { \(10{\bar{1}}2\) } twin.
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00410-021-01775-8
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