Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AATCC Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Industrial Textiles
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.377
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1528-0837 - ISSN (Online) 1530-8057
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1156 journals]
  • A test device to characterize cold-contact protective performance of
           fabrics

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      Authors: Yange Wei, Yun Su, Jun Li, Jianda Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Workers are exposed to skin frostbite in extremely cold environments, especially in contact with cold surfaces. They must wear cold-resistant clothing/gloves to avoid frostbites. However, there was a lack of an accurate method to evaluate the cold-contact protective performance (CPP) of fabrics. In view of this, a test device was developed to simulate the cold-contact exposure by controlling cold-contact temperature and pressure. Then, a frostbite prediction model was proposed to predict the time to skin-frostbite (TSF) as an index for characterizing the CPP. It was found that the standard deviation of cold-contact temperature fluctuated within 0.03°C to 0.51°C in the same second, and the coefficient of variations of the TSF were from 1.35% to 6.97%, indicating that the device presents good stability, reliability, reproducibility. The TSFs for different fabric systems ranged from 35 s to 419.33 s, mostly depending on the fiber type, the thermal resistance, the thickness of fabric and the air content in the fabric. Finally, it was concluded that the proposed device provides a scientific and realistic measurement of CPP of fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T06:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011777
       
  • Modeling and experimental study of pore structure in melt-blown fiber
           assembly

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Yu Chen, Yanwen Ruan, Guanzhi Li, Wenfeng Hu, Sanfa Xin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely known that the pore size of a meltblown fiber assembly extensively affects the final applications of its products. We have developed a model for simulating melt-blowing production to investigate the formation mechanism of a fiber assembly. In this study, we calculated the pore size under different production conditions using the model. The predicted results reveal the relationship between the pore size and the production conditions, namely, the air jet pressure, suction pressure, die temperature, polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector speed. The predicted results also verified the experimental trends reported in previous studies. High air jet pressure and die temperature tend to generate smaller pores, while a large polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector movement speed contribute to the production of larger pores in the fiber assembly. In addition, the circularity was predicted in this study to describe the pore shape. The numerical investigation of virtual production is a novel method in which the expected pore size and corresponding production conditions can be easily obtained using a computer with a few keystrokes and mouse clicks.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011776
       
  • Ecofriendly development of electrospun antibacterial membranes loaded with
           silver nanoparticles

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      Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Zia Uddin, Faheem Ahmad, Abher Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Sheraz Ahmad, Yakup Aykut, Ahsan Nazir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional polymeric membranes with antibacterial properties have gained significant importance in many applications. Silver NPs offer advantage over other materials for their effective antibacterial properties and being safer for humans at low concentrations. The synthesis of silver NPs may not always be environmental friendly and their incorporation in the polymer membranes is usually a multistep process. In this study, PVDF/PVP/AgNPs electrospun membranes were developed in a single step process where silver NPs were synthesized using reducing and stabilizing properties of PVP. The UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of silver NPs in PVP solution by sharp absorption peak at 398 nm. The membranes were loaded with various concentrations of silver NPs (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt%). The scanning electron microscopy of the developed membranes showed nano fibers of uniform diameter at optimized electrospinning conditions. FTIR spectroscopy also confirmed the successful development of polymeric composite (PVDF/PVP/AgNPs) membranes. The composite membranes demonstrated effective antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion test. The size of the inhibition halo increased with the concentration of the silver NPs in electrospun membranes. The findings of this study will be helpful in the simple and environmentally friendly development of antibacterial membranes for applications such as air and water filtration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T06:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211012590
       
  • Biodegradation properties and thermogravimetric analysis of 3D braided
           flax PLA textile composites

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      Authors: Sateeshkumar Kanakannavar, Jeyaraj Pitchaimani, Arunkumar Thalla, M Rajesh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in the development and application of bio-based (natural fiber and biopolymer) composites are gaining broad attention because the resulting polymer completely degrades and does not release harmful substances. In this study, natural fiber 3 D braided yarn textile PLA (Polylactic acid) bio-composites are developed by film sequencing followed by hot-press compression molding. Bio-deterioration and thermal stability of the composites are analysed for storage, machining, transportation, and in-service uses in different environmental conditions (compost and thermal). Composite samples with different fiber wt.% (0, 22, 44) are exposed to compost soil. Tensile testing is performed under different configurations to characterise the tensile properties. Prepared bio-composite specimens are evaluated for weight loss and reduction in tensile properties over soil burial time, to observe the rate of biodegradation of braided yarn textile bio-composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to analyse the biodegradability of the composites. To study the thermal stability of the prepared bio-composites thermogravimetric (TG) analysis is carried out. Results showed that biodegradability, tensile properties and thermal stability of the composites are enhanced significantly with the reinforcement of 3 D braided yarn fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T10:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010666
       
  • Experimental simulation of bending damage of silicon nitride yarn during
           3D orthogonal fabric forming process

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      Authors: Ning Wu, Shuai Li, Meiyue Han, Chao Zhu, Yanan Jiao, Li Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study executed on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) yarn is to examine some bending damage behaviors and fracture mechanisms that occur during the 3D orthogonal fabric forming process. A three point bending experiment device has been developed in order to simulate the Z-binder yarn bending condition. The effects of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension have been studied. The Weibull analysis of the tensile strength show that the bending damage increases with the increase of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension. The resulting bending damage causes a reduction in yarn strength of between 2.5 and 17.2% depending on the bending parameters of yarn. The growth of the fibrillation area also reflects similar trends with tensile strength loss rate. The fibrillation length produced by the yarns is mostly distributed within the range of 0.3 to 0.9 mm. A comparison of the calculation result to experimental data shows the bending fracture probability of filaments inside yarn are less than that of monofilament. The tensile and bending fracture of Si3N4 filaments exhibit typical brittle fracture characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010681
       
  • Simulation of polymer jet motion during melt blowing with phase field
           method

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      Authors: Xibo Hao, Zhiying Zhao, Jing Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the past two decades, a number of models have been built to simulate the motion of polymer jet during melt blowing. Unfortunately, the complex interaction between polymer jet and air flow field has been rarely reported. In this work, a phase-field method was applied to simulate the coupling effects between polymer and air flow during melt blowing and the computed results were compared with the results of the model built through level-set method and experimental results. Velocity in the x direction, velocity in the y direction, whipping amplitude and diameter of polymer jet were discussed, respectively. It was found that the velocity predicted by the present model was higher than that predicted by the level-set method. However, both of them are close to the experimental value. The calculated final fiber diameter based on the phase-field method is much closer with the experimental value than that based on the level set method. Based on the model, the effect of polymer surface tension and slot angle on the polymer jet velocity were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006670
       
  • Effect of graphite particulate on mechanical characterization of hybrid
           polymer composites

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      Authors: BN Dhanunjayarao, Usha Kiran Sanivada, NV Swamy Naidu, Raul Fangueiro
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Quest for producing lightweight and biodegradable materials has encouraged researchers to replace synthetic fibers with natural fibers. Hence a study is made to investigate the effects of introducing secondary reinforcement (natural fibers), stacking sequence, and addition of graphite particles on the mechanical characteristics and water uptakes along with diffusivity of hybrid (glass\jute) composites. Different weight fractions of graphite particulates are incorporated into the epoxy to produce different samples having 4 plies for each sample by hand layup vacuum bagging method. The obtained specimens are subjected to various mechanical tests, water absorption tests as per the ASTM standards, and optical microscopy was used to study the fracture morphology of the samples. The results displayed that the properties are deteriorated a little with the addition of secondary reinforcement, however they have improved with the addition of graphite. E-Glass as skin layer and treated jute as core layer composite exhibits ameliorate tensile strength (201.5 MPa), compression strength (515.12 MPa), flexural strength (106.9 MPa), hardness (25 BHN). However highest impact energy of 26 J is recorded for the sample with jute as skin layer and E-Glass as the core layer. Water absorption tests revealed that the addition of graphite has reduced the water absorption in the hybrid samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010670
       
  • Effect of extraction method on properties of feather keratin grafted
           modified cotton nonwoven fabric for biomedical applications

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      Authors: Khalilorrahman Khalilipourroodi, Fatemeh Dadashian, Atefeh Solouk
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study offers a new wound dressing by immobilization of amino acid residues on partially carboxymethylated cotton nonwoven fabrics (CM-CN). To improve the absence of capacity to protect the open wound from infection, firstly, a usual cotton nonwoven fabric was chemically modified by utilizing a pad-dry-cure technique including a carboxymethylation procedure. Subsequently, the chicken feather wastes as a natural source were used for the cationization of CM-CN by the same method. Keratin successfully was extracted from chicken feathers using both chemical and enzymatic processes. Physicochemical and biological properties of the prepared samples were evaluated by FTIR, SEM, mechanical properties such as tensile, bending test and wrinkle recovery, biodegradation, permeability (air and water vapor), and MTT assay for cell viability and proliferation. The tensile strength increased to 200%, the air permeability almost doubled, and the greatest cell growth was observed for modified samples. According to the obtained results, enzymatic extraction was influential and the samples coated with enzyme-extracted keratin showed enhanced properties suitable for wound dressing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006208
       
  • Effect of alkyl derivatization of gellan gum during the fabrication of
           electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Fabio Salvatore Palumbo, Salvatore Federico, Giovanna Pitarresi, Calogero Fiorica, Roberto Scaffaro, Andrea Maio, Emmanuel Fortunato Gulino, Gaetano Giammona
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofibers based on polysaccharides represent a consolidated approach in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) and nanomedicine as a drug delivery system (DDS). In this work, two chemical derivatives of a low molecular weight gellan gum (96.7 kDa) with aliphatic pendant tails were processed by electrospinning technique into non-woven nanofibrous mats. In order to generate spinnable blends, it was necessary to associate poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The relationships between the physicochemical properties and the processability via electrospinning technique of gellan gum alkyl derivatives (GG-C8 and GG-C12 having a degree of alkyl chain derivatization of 17 mol % and 18 mol %, respectively) were investigated. The deposition of nanometric fibers (212.4 nm ± 60.0) was achieved by using the blend GG-C8/PVA spinned at 5% w/v in water. The use of a binary solvent composed of water and ethanol in a volumetric ratio 95:5 improved further spinnability obtaining similar nanofiber diameters (218.0 nm ± 96.0). The rheological analysis has allowed to highlight the role of the alkyl portion (C8 and C12) on the spinnability of the blended polymers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007508
       
  • Analysis of woven fabric behavior under punching force

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Eman Eltahan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In several applications, the industrial and protective fabrics might be subjected to punching by the rigid sharp spikes. Fabric resistance to the penetration of the puncher at a constant rate was studied. The analysis of the factors influencing the resistance of the fabric and an explanation of the puncture mechanism were generated. Punching force-displacement curves were obtained and four noticeable fabric failure modes were observed. A special setup was designed so that the fabric sample can be subjected to the biaxial stresses during the puncture tests. This paper studies the puncture behaviors of the plain, twill 1/3, and twill 2/2 woven fabric designs. It was found that the increase in the number of fabric layers from one to three and the number of picks/cm from 17.6 to 27.2 would elevate the punching resistance and the punching energy by 354% and 333%, respectively, with the insignificant change in the values of specific punching force and energy. Plain weave design proved to have higher values than twill design. A high correlation was observed between fabric tensile strength, fabric Young’s modulus, fabric failure energy and its punching force and punching energy.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T08:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211008616
       
  • Characterization of industrial discarded novel Cymbopogon flexuosus stem
           fiber: A potential replacement for synthetic fiber

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      Authors: S Raja, R Rajesh, S Indran, D Divya, G Suganya Priyadharshini
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this research article, a leftover of Cymbopogon flexuosus stem (CFS) collected from the oil extraction industry was examined for its ability as a reinforcing agent in a polymer composite. Anatomical, morphological, physical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the CFS fiber were examined. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of higher amount of cellulose (68.13%), which offers better bonding properties and higher tensile strength (431.19 ± 23.96 MPa). Moreover, the density of the fiber (1270 kg/m3) found using physical analysis was less than that of synthetic fibers, which paves a path in replacing hazardous synthetic fiber. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectrum spectroscopy analyses were conducted to study the functional groups of the extracted CFS fiber. The thermal stability (253.17°C), activation energy (73.01 kJ/mol), and maximum degradation temperature (345.08°C) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the semi-crystalline nature of the fiber with crystallinity index (46.02%) and crystallite size (13.96 nm). The CFS had a smooth surface, as conformed by an atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis. Altogether, this study highlights the feasibility of leftover CFS fiber residue as reinforcement in biopolymer matrices replacing synthetic fiber.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T06:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007507
       
  • A novel composite cotton yarn with phase change and electrical
           conductivity functions

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      Authors: Guizhen Ke, Xinya Jin, Guangming Cai, Wenbin Li, Anchang Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      PAN/PEG/CNT/cotton composite yarn (PPCCY) was fabricated by impregnating PEG2000–10000 into CNT/cotton yarn (CCY) and coating electrospun PAN around its surface. The effects of PEG type on the morphology, structure, electrical resistance and phase change behavior of the produced composite yarns were studied thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric(TG), electrical resistance tester and infrared thermal images. The experimental results indicated that the resulting compound yarn consisted of conductive yarn within which the spacing between cotton fibers was fulfilled by PEG, rendering phase transition enthalpy from 126–150 Jg−1. The composite yarn exhibited adjustable temperature and thermal storage and electrical conductivity abilities. The composite yarn demonstrated good responsive properties to external electrical and thermal stimuli and had reversible heat conversion and storage, which shows a promise for applications in electrical wearable fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003166
       
  • Theoretical prediction and experimental characterization of radiative
           properties and thermal conductivities of fibrous aramid fabrics

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      Authors: FL Zhu, Yonggui Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nonwoven aramid fabric is widely used as thermal barrier of fireproofing clothing due to its inherent flame retardancy and light weight. In fire or high temperature scenario, radiative heat transfer becomes the predominant heat transfer mode inside firefighters’ clothing. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was adopted to measure the spectral transmittance and spectral extinction coefficients of four aramid fabrics with different porosity in infrared wavelength range between 2.5 and 25 μm. It was found that the radiative properties of fibrous aramid fabric are strongly dependent on its bulk density or porosity. The spectral extinction coefficient decreases with increasing porosity or decreasing bulk density. The infrared optical properties combined with infrared imaging measurements demonstrate that aramid fabric may be used as infrared semi-transparent textile. A predicted model, combined the effects of conduction-radiation heat transfer, has been developed to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of aramid fiber materials. The model implemented the Rosseland diffusion approximation to evaluate radiative thermal conductivity, and the Parallel-Series structural model to evaluate tortuosity-weighted phonic thermal conductivity. The predicted results were also compared with experimental data obtained from TPS method. This work provides useful information for future studies of heat transfer mathematical modeling of firefighters’ clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006209
       
  • Evaluation of electrospun polyurethane scaffolds loaded with cerium oxide
           for bone tissue engineering

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun polyurethane (PU) scaffolds were developed containing cerium oxide (CeO2). Photomicrograph of the composites revealed the diameter of the PU/CeO2 (264 ± 169 nm) was smaller than the polyurethane scaffold (994 ± 113 nm). The fabricated PU/CeO2 (110° ± 1) scaffold displayed a more hydrophobic nature as depicted by increasing contact angle compared to the pristine PU (105° ± 3). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results presented evidence for the cerium oxide presence in the PU matrix through the formation of the hydrogen bond. The surface roughness of PU/CeO2 (301 ± 52 nm) was reduced in comparison with pristine PU (854 ± 32 nm) as estimated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Cerium oxide enhanced the thermal and tensile behaviour of the pristine PU. Coagulation assays indicated delayed clotting time and a less toxic nature to red blood cells of PU/CeO2 than pristine PU. Further, the calcium deposition in the nanocomposites (10.5%) was higher compared to pure PU (2.4%) as showed in bone mineralization testing. Hence with these potent properties, PU/CeO2 holds as a promising candidate for bone regeneration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006668
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of coating knitted fabrics with silica
           nanoparticles for protection from needle-stick injuries

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      Authors: Jaouachi Boubaker, Cheriaa Rim, Bouallagui Nihed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this work is to investigate the penetration properties of knitted fabrics coated with silica nanoparticles to make protective gloves. Silica nanoparticles are well-known and useful for several applications. Hence, in the environment where glove material is exposed to harmful chemicals, hazards related to faster penetration of dangerous substances into the glove interior may cause needle-stick injuries and micro damage. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is to use knitted fabrics coated with acrylic pastes containing silica nanoparticles (average size 20 nm in diameter). To study the effectiveness of developed gloves for protection against needle-stick injuries, overall knitted fabrics with a similar structure (interlock) and differentiated raw material composition were selected: polyamide 6-6/elastane and polyester. Evaluation of the needle-stick injuries process of the coated plated knits based on silica nanoparticles was performed. For this purpose, the assessment of the surface morphology of materials has been examined before and after the dexterity and penetration process. The studied composite samples showed an increased resistance to hypodermic needle penetration as the nano-silica particles content and the coating layers increase. Coated knitted fabrics allowed us to obtain promising results in terms of fabric stiffness. However, the manual coating application explained the observed imperfections.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001352
       
  • Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane electrospun webs of fibers
           modified with biocompatible graphene oxide nanofiller

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      Authors: Aleksandra Ivanoska-Dacikj, Petre Makreski, Gordana Bogoeva-Gaceva
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A successful optimization of the electrospinning parameters for obtainment of biodegradable polyester urethane (DP) webs of fibers, neat and graphene oxide (GO) modified, was performed. The effect of the processing parameters (distance between the needle tip and the collector, applied voltage, and flowing rate), solution type and polymer concentration, on the fiber-forming process and the obtained fibers’ morphology was examined. The best homogeneity of the fibers was achieved for 12 wt% DP dissolved in 80:20 wt% mixture of chloroform and ethanol, applying similar processing parameters for the neat and modified samples (0.5 ml/h pumping rate, 15 kV applied voltage, and 150 mm distance to the collector, for the neat sample, and 0.4 ml/h, 18 kV, and 110 mm, for the GO modified samples). The main novelty of this work is the modification of DP with low quantities (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%) of GO – the “next generation” nanomaterial for stem cell control. The morphological characterization revealed a fibrous microstructure consisting of randomly oriented fibers with a diameters ranging from hundreds nanometers to couple micrometers, representing a feasible imitation of the structure of extracellular matrix (ECM). The XRD studies showed high dispersion of GO in DP matrix and even exfoliation for the sample that contains 2 wt% GO. Raman studies neatly complemented the highest filler/matrix interactions and the superior levels of dispersion for this sample. TGA was used to analyze the thermo-oxidative degradation and also to determine the actual content of GO present in the samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003165
       
  • A transversely hyperelastic constitutive model of flexible film composite

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      Authors: Zhipeng Qu, Houdi Xiao, Mingyun Lv
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a transversely hyperelastic constitutive model for predicting mechanical properties of flexible composites under unidirectional tension. A strain energy function which reflects the behavior of anisotropic elastic material is decomposed into three parts: matrix, fiber and fiber-matrix interaction. The fiber-matrix interaction was decomposed into in-plane shear stresses and out-of-plane shear stress, the in-plane shear stresses were related to the fiber elongation invariants, and the out-of-plane shear stress was related to the fiber elongation invariants and the matrix invariants. The fiber-matrix interaction considering shear factor was established. Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics, a transverse hyperelastic constitutive model including fiber, matrix and their interaction is developed. The transversely hyperelastic constitutive model is verified by the uniaxial tension tests. The constitutive model can be used to design the flexible structure of stratospheric airship.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001783
       
  • Microstructure and physical properties of composite nonwovens produced by
           incorporating cotton fibers in elastic spunbond and meltblown webs for
           medical textiles

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      Authors: Partha Sikdar, Gajanan S Bhat, Doug Hinchliff, Shafiqul Islam, Brian Condon
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to produce elastomeric nonwovens containing cotton by the combination of appropriate process. Such nonwovens are in demand for use in several healthcare, baby care, and adult care products that require stretchability, comfort, and barrier properties. Meltblown fabrics have very high surface area due to microfibers and have good absorbency, permeability, and barrier properties. Spunbonding is the most economical process to produce nonwovens with good strength and physical properties with relatively larger diameter fibers. Incorporating cotton fibers into elastomeric nonwovens can enhance the performance of products, such as absorbency and comfort. There has not been any study yet to use such novel approaches to produce elastomeric cotton fiber nonwovens. A hydroentangling process was used to integrate cotton fibers into produced elastomeric spunbond and meltblown nonwovens. The laminated web structures produced by various combinations were evaluated for their physical properties such as weight, thickness, air permeability, pore size, tensile strength, and especially the stretch recovery. Incorporating cotton into elastic webs resulted in composite structures with improved moisture absorbency (250%-800%) as well as good breathability and elastic properties. The results also show that incorporating cotton can significantly increase tensile strength with improved spontaneous recovery from stretch even after the 5th cycle. Results from the experiments demonstrate that such composite webs with improved performance properties can be produced by commercially used processes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004287
       
  • Prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of 3D woven solid
           structures by mathematical coding

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      Authors: Vivek R Jayan, Lekhani Tripathi, Promoda Kumar Behera, Michal Petru, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The internal geometry of composite material is one of the most important factors that influence its performance and service life. A new approach is proposed for the prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of the 3 D (three dimensional) woven fabrics by creating the unit cell using mathematical coding. In many technical applications, textile materials are subjected to rates of loading or straining that may be much greater in magnitude than the regular household applications of these materials. The main aim of this study is to provide a generalized method for all the structures. By mathematical coding, unit cells of 3 D woven orthogonal, warp interlock and angle interlock structures have been created. The study then focuses on developing code to analyze the geometrical parameters of the fabric like fabric thickness, areal density, and fiber volume fraction. Then, the tensile behavior of the coded 3 D structures is studied in Ansys platform and the results are compared with experimental values for authentication of geometrical parameters as well as for tensile behavior. The results show that the mathematical coding approach is a more efficient modeling technique with an acceptable error percentage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T06:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001348
       
  • Filtration performance of biaxial circular seamless knitted filter
           material based on electrostatic adsorption

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      Authors: Haiwen Mao, Zhijuan Pan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to solve the problem of dust accumulation at the joints of traditional filter materials and the reduction of filtration efficiency, weft knitting was selected to make the fabric cylindrical unwinding machine. The cylindrical filter material was formed by cylindrical needling machine in the later period. This type of novel seamless filter material was compared with the traditional one on the filtration performance and numerical simulation of filtration performance. The results show that when the warp and weft lining yarns in the seamless filter material were PTFE monofilaments containing tourmaline particles, the filtration efficiency was the optimal due to the presence of the surface static voltage. The filtration efficiency could greatly be improved by 7.24%. The relationship between the surface static voltage and distance was exponential. The filter material with electrostatic field on the surface increased the active filtration of electrostatic adsorption in addition to the passive filtration. This type of seamless filter material provided research and development ideas and theoretical guidance for the development and application of filter materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T05:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001786
       
  • Corrigendum to Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin
           electrospun nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T02:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004855
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of polyester-cotton/wire blended conductive
           woven fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

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      Authors: Ching-Wen Lou, Yan-Ling Liu, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Hao-Kai Peng, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      For the pursuit of conductive textiles with high electromagnetic shielding performance, specified yarns are processed with a special spinning feeding device with twist counts of 40 T, 50 T, 60 T, 70 T, 80 T, and 90 T, for Next, the optimal yarns from each group are made into SS/Pc-70 and Cu/Pc-80 conductive woven fabrics with a plain weave structure design. In addition, the surface resistivity, electromagnetic shielding effectiveness measurement and air permeability of the two conductive woven fabrics were tested and analyzed. Regarding the electromagnetic shielding performance test, the effects of the complete shielding network, the lamination layers of fabric, and lamination angle on the electromagnetic shielding performance are discussed. The test results indicate that Cu/Pc-80 woven fabrics has the lowest surface resistivity, which means it has the best electrical conductivity; Moreover, different types of metal wires provide the conductive fabrics with different levels of surface resistance. The variations in the lamination angles help attain a complete conductive network that significantly enhances the EMSE, and Cu/Pc-80 have a greater average shielding value comparatively and thus greater EMSE. For both types of conductive woven fabrics, one-layered conductive woven fabrics exhibit the maximal air permeability. As the air permeability of conductive woven fabrics is correlated with the thickness of fabrics, the greater the number of lamination layers, the lower the air permeability of the conductive fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T01:48:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997184
       
  • Co-electrospun-electrosprayed PVA/folic acid nanofibers for transdermal
           drug delivery: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro
           cytocompatibility

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      Authors: Fatma Nur Parın, Çiğdem İnci Aydemir, Gökçe Taner, Kenan Yıldırım
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, hydrophilic based bioactive nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning and electrospraying simultaneous process. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(vinyl alcohol)-gelatin (PVA-Gel), and poly(vinyl alcohol)-alginate (PVA-Alg) polymers were used as the matrix material and folic acid (FA) particles were dispersed simultaneously on the surface of the nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers (NFs) was uniform and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behavior, chemical structure of the composite nanofibers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which showed that no chemical bonding between vitamin and polymers. A fast release of FA-loaded electrospun fibers was carried out by UV-Vis in vitro study within the 8 hour-period in artificial sweat solutions (pH 5.44). The obtained PVA/FA, PVA-Gel/FA, and PVA-Alg/FA fibers released 49.6%, 69.55%, and 50.88% of the sprayed FA in 8 h, indicating the influence of polymer matrix and polymer-drug interactions, on its release from the polymer matrix. Moreover, biocompatibility of all developed novel NFs was assessed by two different cytotoxicity tests, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in L929 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In all cases, it is concluded that these new electrospun fibers had fast-release of the vitamin and the hybrid process is suitable for transdermal patch applications, especially for skin-care products. The results of cytocompatibility assays on L929 reveal that all prepared NFs have no or slight cell toxicity. PVA and PVA-Gel with/without FA nanofibers seems more biocompatible than PVA-Alg nanofibers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997185
       
  • High velocity impact properties of composites reinforced by stitched and
           unstitched glass woven fabrics

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      Authors: Zeynab Behroozi, Hooshang Nosraty, Majid Tehrani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research aimed to investigate the effect of stitching angle and stacking sequence of stitched layers on high velocity impact behavior of composites reinforced by glass woven fabrics. To study the effect of stitching angle on ballistic impact behavior, six different angles of (0°), (90°), (45°), (0°,90°), (±45°) and (0°,90°,±45°) were chosen as stitching angles. These stitching angles were applied on eight layers of glass woven fabric. To study the effect of stacking sequence of stitched layers, a different number of layers were stitched together with the angle of 0°. Unstitched and stitched composites were exposed to high velocity impact with 180 m/s using a spherical projectile. The residual velocity of projectile and dimensions of damage area on the composites’ front and back sides were measured. It was found that the sample with the 45° stitching angle had the best behavior against ballistic impact and its energy absorption was significantly higher than the other samples. Stitching also reduces damage area in front and back sides of the composites and inhibits delamination.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999865
       
  • Flexural behavior of functionally graded polymeric composite beams

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      Authors: M Atta, A Abu-Sinna, S Mousa, HEM Sallam, AA Abd-Elhady
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The bending test is one of the most important tests that demonstrates the advantages of functional gradient (FGM) materials, thanks to the stress gradient across the specimen depth. In this research, the flexural response of functionally graded polymeric composite material (FGM) is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Fabricated by a hand lay-up manufacturing technique, the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite composed of ten layers is used in the present investigation. A 3-D finite element simulation is used to predict the flexural strength based on Hashin’s failure criterion. To produce ten layers of FGM beams with different patterns, the fiber volume fraction (Vf%) ranges from 10% to 50%. A comparison between FGM beams and conventional composite beams having the same average Vf% is made. The experimental results show that the failure of the FGM beams under three points bending loading (3PB) test is initiated from the tensioned layers, and spread to the upper layer. The spreading is followed by delamination accompanied by shear failures. Finally, the FGM beams fail due to crushing in the compression zone. Furthermore, the delamination failure between the layers has a major effect on the rapidity of the final failure of the FGM beams. The present numerical results show that the gradient pattern of FGM beams is a critical parameter for improving their flexural behavior. Otherwise, Vf% of the outer layers of the FGM beams, i.e. Vf% = 30, 40, or 50%, is responsible for improving their flexural strength.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211000365
       
  • Electromagnetic shielding performance of copper and silver-plated hybrid
           yarn based multilayer fabrics in C & X band frequency range

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      Authors: Dharmendra Nath Pandey, Arindam Basu, Pramod Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, a strategic designing of multilayer shield was planned to enhance the multiple reflection phenomenon to achieve maximum absorption properties in microwave frequency (C & X band) range. Multi-layer EMR shields were developed using pure cotton fabric and conductive woven fabrics, incorporated with copper- based & silver-plated hybrid yarn. First of all, single layer fabrics were produced in five variants, nomenclature as L1A (pure cotton) L1B, L1C (copper-based hybrid yarn), LS1B and LS1C (silver plated hybrid yarn). These five variants were used to prepare four sets of double & triple layer fabric. In both double and triple layer composition, L1A fabric (pure cotton) was used as top layer followed by B and C series fabrics, containing copper and silver-plated hybrid yarn. The EMSE performance in C and X band frequency range of single layer, double layer and triple layers in terms of scattering parameters S11(reflectance) & S21 (transmittance) in vertical and horizontal wave polarization was studied. It was found that number of layers, layer composition, orientation of metallic yarn, frequency and EM wave polarization have significant influence on overall electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T04:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999361
       
  • Studies on needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from natural fiber blends
           for oil sorbent applications

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      Authors: R Vijayasekar, Dhandapani Saravanan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Oil retention of needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from coarse cotton, fine cotton, jute, kapok and its blends were reported. Based on the previous research work, oil retention of nonwoven fabrics is highly influenced by fiber diameter, fabric porosity and oil properties. In this study blended needle punched nonwoven samples were produced using fibers with wide variation in fiber diameter. Coarse jute fiber was blended with fine fibers of cotton and kapok to improve structural stability after sorption of oil. Needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced using jute fiber ratio of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% with 25% kapok, 25% coarse cotton and remaining fine cotton fibers. Oil retention capacities of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were found to be in the range of 7.75 g/g to 16.60 g/g under various process conditions. It has been noted that an increase in the jute fiber content in the nonwoven fabrics increases the oil retention capacity of the samples. Jute fibers act as columns in fiber structural assembly and it is the stiffer fiber than other three fibers used in the needle punched nonwovens. Thickness of nonwoven needle punched fabrics change after sorption of oil from 1.5% to 5%, which reduced on increasing jute fiber content in the blends.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999360
       
  • Study on tearing tests and the determination of fracture toughness of
           PVC-coated fabric

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      Authors: Han Bao, Minger Wu, Xubo Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, detailed uniaxial in-plane tearing tests including uniaxial central, single-edge notched, and trapezoidal tearing tests of a type of polyvinylchloride (PVC)-coated polyester fiber fabric were conducted. Two types of tearing failure modes, brutal and progressive, were examined. In addition to differences in the descending sections of the stress–displacement curves and the membrane surface morphology near the crack, it was found that the uniaxial central tearing test could be replaced by the corresponding single-edge notched tearing test to minimize the usage of test materials. The configuration of the single-edge notched specimen, including the gauge length and width, was investigated to determine the conditions under which the tearing resistance of the practically nearly infinite membrane surface can be studied with finite-size specimens. To obtain the fracture toughness GIC, which characterizes the ability of materials to prevent crack growth, a theoretical method and two test methods were introduced. After comparing the methods, the test method based on the area of the parallelogram obtained from the zigzag wave in the descending section of the load–displacement curves was proved to be superior. The value of GIC obtained with this simple test method was relatively stable, and it could be used to evaluate the tearing resistance and calculate the tearing strength of the coated fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993943
       
  • Potentiality of MWCNT fillers on the lateral crashworthiness behaviour of
           polymer composite cylindrical tubes under quasi-static loading

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      Authors: A Praveen Kumar, J Nagarjun, Quanjin Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, light-weight nano composite materials have been progressively employed in the aviation, defense, naval and automotive manufacturing applications owing to their outstanding mechanical and crashworthiness characteristics. In this regard, nano composite cylindrical tubes could be significantly utilized as energy absorbing elements for dissipating the impact energy during vehicle collisions. The present research study aimed to examine the lateral crashworthiness response of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) filled epoxy composite (basalt fabric and glass fabric) tubes of three different inner diameters using quasi-static crushing experiments. Crushing profiles and crush force–deformation curves of all the recommended typical tube samples are computed and discussed elaborately. The results obtained revealed that better crashworthiness characteristics of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composite tubes with a larger diameter, were owing to more promising crushing modes occurring during lateral compression. It is also found that the lateral crashworthiness response of the MWCNT filled glass fabric epoxy composite tubes was marginally superior to that of the MWCNT filled basalt fabric epoxy composite tubes. However, both the recommended composite cylindrical tubes with nano-fillers might be employed as energy dissipating elements in modern vehicles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997927
       
  • A review on the development of conjugated polymer-based textile
           thermoelectric generator

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      Authors: Vivek Jangra, Subhankar Maity, Prashant Vishnoi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Thermoelectric (TE) materials based on conjugated/conductive polymers can directly convert heat into electricity, and thus found promising applications in energy scavenging and cooling technologies. The performance of these thermoelectric materials is governed by different parameters like the nature of the material, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. Although the traditional inorganic semiconductor materials such as PbTe (Lead Telluride), Bi2Te3 (Bismuth Telluride), SiGe (Silicon-Germanium), SnSe (Tin Selenide), and Skutterudite (CoAs2) are giving high performance, they have some inherent limitations, such as poor processability, toxicity, rare availability, and high cost of manufacturing. Whereas, organic conjugated polymers such as polyacetylene (PA), polyaniline (PANi), Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), polypyrrole (PPy), poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), etc. have low cost of synthesis, light in weight, low toxicity and better processibility. Organic textile thermoelectric generators (T-TEG) can be prepared by in-situ polymerization of the conjugated polymers onto textile substrates. This article reviews the preparation, design and performance of these T-TEGs. Various approaches and scopes of improvement of efficiency of the thermoelectric effect of the T-TEGs are discussed. Various potential applications of the T-TEG in different fields are also described.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996732
       
  • Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin electrospun
           nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Authors: Tittaya Thairin, Patcharaporn Wutticharoenmongkol
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, ciprofloxacin (CIP)-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (SPG) (CIP–SPG) nanofiber mats were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The average fiber diameters of the mats before and after crosslinking were in the range of 190–260 and 385–484 nm, respectively. The chemical integrity of CIP remained intact after encapsulation into the mats. The degree of weight loss and water swelling decreased with an increase in the gelatin content of the electrospun nanofiber mats. A release study was carried out by total immersion and diffusion methods using phosphate buffer as a release medium. Burst release of CIP was observed in case of the total immersion method, while a more sustained release was observed in case of the diffusion method. The maximum amounts of CIP released during total immersion and diffusion were in the range of 70–90% and 72–85%, respectively. For both the total immersion and diffusion methods, the released amounts of CIP decreased and the release slowed down with an increase in the gelatin content; this result is consistent with the weight loss and water swelling values. The Young’s modulus increased, while the tensile strength and strain at break decreased with an increase in the gelatin content. The CIP–SPG nanofiber mats were slightly toxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts as evaluated by indirect cytotoxicity assay. The electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results reveal that the electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats are potentially promising materials for wound healing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997466
       
  • Manufacturing a carbon/epoxy NACA 23018 airfoil skin using a circular
           braiding machine: experimental and numerical study

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      Authors: Jalil Hajrasouliha, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the interest of reducing the weight and also cost of blade skins, various automatic preform manufacturing processes were developed including tape laying, filament winding and braiding. Among them, the circular braiding process was found to be an efficient method in producing seamless preforms on mandrels with various geometries. In this regard, an attempt was made to produce a carbon fiber reinforced composite with the shape of NACA 23018 airfoil using a circular braiding machine. Thus, suitable wooden mandrels were manufactured using NACA 23018 airfoil coordinates, which were obtained by assuming the perimeter of 20 cm. Furthermore, both biaxially and triaxially braided preforms were produced and subsequently impregnated with epoxy resin through an appropriate fabrication method. To assess their performance, four-point bending test was carried out on samples. Ultimately, the elastic response of braided composite airfoils was predicted using a meso-scale finite element modeling and was validated with experimental results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993773
       
  • Compatible properties and behaviour of dually loaded electrospun
           polyurethane bone tissue scaffolds

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Fauzi bin Ismail, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, composite based on polyurethane (PU) containing lemon grass oil (LG) and zinc nitrate (ZnNO3) was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Morphology study revealed the fabricated scaffolds PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3 diameter was lower than polyurethane. LG and ZnNO3 form hydrogen bond with polyurethane as revealed in the infrared analysis. The developed PU/LG composite rendered hydrophobicity while PU/LG/ZnNO3 showed hydrophilic nature than PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted the decrease in surface roughness of the nanocomposite compared to polyurethane. The addition of LG and ZnNO3 improved the mechanical strength of the pristine PU as indicated in tensile analysis. Coagulation assay measurements indicated a delay in the activation of clot and also exhibited reduced toxicity for the developed composites PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3. Moreover, the deposition of calcium in the developed composites were found to be higher compared to the PU as noted in the bone mineralization testing. Hence, these developed nanocomposites with desirable properties will translate them as potential candidates for bone tissue engineering.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996060
       
  • Nanomaterials for UV protective textiles

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      Authors: Subrata Mondal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Harmful portion of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the significant physical carcinogen in our natural environment. The damage caused by UV exposure to our body is cumulative and builds up over the years. UV protective textiles have been used to protect the wearer from harmful UV radiation. UV blocking effect of textile depends on various parameters viz. fiber type, yarn structure, weave, fabric construction factor, finishes, dyes etc. Further, UV protective property of textiles can be improved by incorporating UV blocking agent in the textile matrix. Several nanomaterial possesses excellent UV blocking effect and these could be incorporated into the textile matrix to improve the UV blocking properties of textiles. In this review, author discuss the various conventional ways to impart UV blocking property to the textile materials. Author also survey the current state-of-the-art of nanomaterials based UV protective textiles, mechanism of UV blocking properties of various nanomaterials, provide an overview of UV protective fabric manufacturing techniques and also discuss the durability of nanomaterials treated UV protective textiles. Finally, the manuscript has been concluded with few major challenges for the development of UV protective textiles by using nanomaterials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T06:03:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988949
       
  • Development of hybrid layered structures based on natural fabric
           reinforced composites and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic
           applications

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      Authors: Nazan Okur, Mustafa Cagatay Yaradanakul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study deals with the development of hybrid layered structures combining natural fabric reinforced composite plates and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic applications, and the evaluation of the sound absorption performances. Vacuum infusion technique was used to produce the composite plates. Jute and linen woven fabrics were used as reinforcing materials, and they were impregnated with epoxy resin. The composite plates were combined with warp knitted spacer fabric in different stacking sequences in three-layer structures. All samples were subjected to the measurement of sound absorption property using impedance tube method. The combinations of a single layer and double layers of warp knitted spacer fabric with natural fabric reinforced composite in the appropriate sequences were found to provide superior sound absorption coefficients (SAC) compared to non-hybrid layered structures. Based on the overall evaluation regarding SAC, noise reduction coefficient (NRC), and weight of the structure, the sample with the best performance was regarded as the double layers of spacer fabric backed with a jute fabric reinforced composite plate. The integration of natural fabric reinforced composites with warp knitted spacer fabric had better sound absorption performance compared to the glass fabric reinforced composites, and they were considered to have the potential of being used in interior noise control mainly in vehicles and buildings.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721994677
       
  • Walking–sliding experimental analysis of frictional characteristics
           socked feet

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Hong Xie, Mark J Lake, Jiecong Li, Xiaona Chen, Yanmei Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Simulation experiments and in-vivo experiments were widely employed for investigating sock-skin frictional characteristics. The simulation experiments usually was a type of sliding experiment which described the relative slip between fabric and artificial skin. The in-vivo approaches typically involved subjects adopting a variety of postures and friction between their clothing and the skin was estimated. However, simulation and in-vivo experiments were reported only separately. The connection between the two types of experiments was scarcely reported. To reveal the connection, we synchronously carried out two interrelated experiments, a natural walking experiment and sliding experiment, using the same sock fabric. In the natural walking experiment, the subject wearing socks walked on the force platform. Then the soles of these socks were cut out and were used in the soles-artificial skin sliding experiment. The coefficients of friction in the two types of experiments reflected some correlative frictional characteristics. We found the effect of the walking speed or sliding speed on the friction coefficient was not significant. While, water content increased the friction coefficient in the two experiment. Additionally, the friction in the coronal direction was smaller than that in the sagittal direction during walking. Through our efforts, we hope to bridge the simulation and in-vivo experiments and elucidate the frictional characteristics between the sock and insole.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988083
       
  • Heat and moisture transfer properties of a firefighter clothing with a new
           fire-resistant underwear

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      Authors: SH Eryuruk, H Gidik, V Koncar, F Kalaoglu, X Tao, Y Saglam
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Under dynamic wear conditions, moisture management and heat transfer behaviour of clothing between the human body and its environment are very important attributes for comfort and performance. Especially considering heavy works like firefighting, it is important to analyse liquid moisture management and thermal comfort properties of fabrics that influence moisture sensation and personnel comfort feeling significantly. This study mainly investigates thermal comfort and moisture management properties of a firefighter clothing with a new fire resistant underwear. Analysing single layer fabric (underwear, outer shell, moisture barrier and thermal barrier) performance properties, together with their three-layered and four-layered combinations gives a better understanding of comfort and protective performance. For characterizing the fabric structures, weight, thickness, FTIR analysis and SEM-EDX tests were conducted. Heat and moisture transfer properties were measured with limited flame spread, thermal resistance (skin model), water vapour transmission rate (dish method), thermal conductivity, air permeability, thermal diffusion, water vapour resistance, moisture management transfer (MMT) and water vapour permeability tests.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993775
       
  • Enhancing the properties of nylon 66 fabric coated with a combination of
           PVA and SiO2 nanoparticles composite for vehicle airbag application

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      Authors: Salma Ali, Ibrahim Abdalla, Magdi Elamin Gibril, Hasab AM Ahmed, Xiaoze Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to increase in fabric thickness and decrease compactness in packing, film bonding is unfavorable for airbag fabrics, furthermore, the uncoated fabric fabricated with a high density but it still has hot gas leakage problems. This study focuses on enhancement of vehicle airbag nylon 66 fabric properties by using a combination of different concentration of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and low-density adhesion polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results illustrated that the nylon 66 fabric, which coated with PVA and SiO2 NPs presents an excellent property such as a thin layer reached at (0.009 mm), also thermal and mechanical properties have been enhanced to include better mechanical properties according to commercial guidelines airbag of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Additionally, the weight per square meter of nylon 66 fabric coated with the PVA and high concentration of SiO2 NPs is 9.9 grams. Besides, the final dry weight of the coating (PVA/SiO2) material taken by the nylon 66 fabric is just 0.4 grams per square meter. The coated fabric demonstrated a hydrophobicity property in addition to the air-permeability has decreased by increasing the amount of SiO2 NPs in the composite material. The PVA and SiO2 NPs dispersed on the surface of the fabrics without any aggregation, as well, the coated fabric is gradually changed from flexible to hard which resulted in the better final performance in the proper and regular thickness along the whole fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T05:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988961
       
  • Comparison of standards for chemical protective clothing on performance
           requirements and measurements

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      Authors: Qing Chen, Rong Zheng, Bailu Fu, Xin Yang, Jing Lin, Jintu Fan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Chemical protective clothing is widely used by emergency teams in certain industries and such as fire-fighting and medical protection fields. Due to the differences of assessment, specific requirements for target products, and test methods, the relevant standards for such clothing vary greatly. By analyzing standards on chemical protective clothing, this study summarized their differences in assessment items and test methods for basic performances such as seam strength, leak tightness, permeability by liquid/gas chemicals, resistance to ignition, liquid repellency and penetration by liquids.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980774
       
  • Process development and compression behavior of innovative 3D
           bi-directional flat-knitted spacer-reinforced composites

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      Authors: Mohammad Pourheidar Shirazi, Hossein Hasani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D knitted fabrics are regarded as a viable option for advanced composite materials. Flat-knitted spacer fabrics (FKSF) which are in the category of 3D knitted structures have attracted many attentions due to outstanding characterizations such as high formability and good impact behavior. These structures consist of two surface layers which are linked together by multiple knitted connecting layers. Despite the merits of 3D-FKSFs as composite reinforcements, they have some structural restrictions such as limited thickness. This study aims to develop and characterize bi-directional 3D knitted spacer structures which could be replaced with conventional FKSFs. In the developed structures, the upper and lower surface layers are connected together by two truncated pyramids which can be configurated in any dimensions using an innovative knitting technique. For providing a report regarding their compression behavior, these 3D structures were produced in two different thicknesses on an electronic flat knitting machine. Then, they were impregnated with epoxy resin via vacuum resin transfer molding and the cured composites were subjected to compression force. The results revealed that their compression behavior is similar to the behavior of conventional honey-comb sandwich structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721992770
       
  • Antibacterial and biological properties of coconut oil loaded
           poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Parian S Mohamadi, Ahmad Hivechi, Hajir Bahrami, Nahid hemmatinegad, Peiman B Milan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Coconut oil (CO) is a naturally derived bio-oil which exhibits specific characteristics such as biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. In this work, the biological properties of poly(caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibers are improved using CO encapsulation. This bio-oil was added to the PCL/Gel polymer solution with different concentrations (5–40%). Nanofibers were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde vapor. Different types of characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, DSC, tensile measurements, water contact angle, and water vapor permeability were used to study the chemical, physical, thermal, and morphological properties of resultant nanofibers. Results showed an average diameter of 300–370 nm for as-spun nanofibers, which increased to 360–470 nm after the crosslinking reaction. The presence of CO was confirmed using FTIR and DSC experiments. Moreover, results indicated that the presence of CO increases the hydrophilicity and water vapor permeability of nanofibers, which are desirable for their final application. Biological tests, such as antibacterial activity, cell viability, and cell morphology tests were performed to evaluate the possible application of the produced nanofibers for wound healing applications. Results indicated that the crosslinked PCL/Gel nanofibers containing 20% CO exhibited the highest cell compatibility and antibacterial activity against gram-positive (S. aureus) and gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721991595
       
  • Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich nylon film for smart thermal management and
           thermo-responsive electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Linghui Peng, Lingling Shen, Weiren Fan, Zichuan Liu, Hongbo Qiu, Aibing Yu, Xuchuan Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the effects of climate changing, the importance of outdoor thermal comfort has been recognized, and has gained more and more research attentions. Unlike indoor space where air conditioning can be easily implemented, outdoor thermal comfort can only be achieved by localized thermal management. Using textile is a simple but energy-saving way to realize outdoor thermal comfort. Herein, we report the design of a smart thermal management film with the silver/vanadium dioxide/silver (Ag/VO2/Ag) sandwich structure prepared by one-dimensional (1 D) nanowires. It was found that the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich film was able to lower the temperature by around 10 °C under intense infrared (IR) radiation. In addition, the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film showed a thermo-responsive electrical conductivity and an outstanding bending stability, due to network structure formed by nanowires. It was experimentally proved that this sandwich structure was superior to other layer structures in IR shielding performance and thermo-responsive electrical conductivity. The as-prepared Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film has great potential for various applications such as wearable devices, flexible electronics, medical monitors and smart IR radiation management.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720986542
       
  • Designing hybrid nanofibers based on keratin-poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly
           (Ɛ-caprolactone) for application as wound dressing

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      Authors: Marziyeh Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Zahra Arab-Bafrani, Fatemeh Karimi, Naeme Javid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the production of hybrid scaffolds containing keratin/polyvinyl alcohol (Ker/PVA) and poly (Ɛ-caproactone) (PCL) for application in skin regeneration has been investigated. In the first step, the extraction of keratin from wool fibers was done, and then electrospinning process was used to fabricate hybrid nanofibers. Ker/PVA blend solution was extruded from one syringe and poly(ε-caprolactone) solution from the other one and hybrid nanofibers were gathered onto a rotary drum collector. The effect of different ratios of Ker/PVA (30:70), (50:50), and (70:30) with PCL were studied on the morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical features of the scaffolds. The Ker/PVA (50:50)-PCL nanofibers presented an appropriate modulus and mechanical strength similar to the natural skin. These scaffolds possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, which improved cell-scaffold adhesion and increased the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells. Keratin based nanofibers demonstrated antibacterial characteristic against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988978
       
  • Design and development of fibrous filter media induced by structural
           characteristics of needle punched nonwoven

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      Authors: Rupayan Roy, SM Ishtiaque
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article discussed the structural changes influenced by punching parameters and their impact on the functional properties of needle punched nonwoven. Three punching parameters i.e., punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency were considered as process variables. Three factors three levels Box Behnken experimental design was used for sample preparation. Newly proposed structural indices were used to evaluate the fibre orientation in X and Y direction of fabric using tracer fibre technique. It was found that measured functional properties of fabrics are well correlated with considered structural indices. The fibre coverage area inferred an increase but coefficient of fibre curliness and anisotropy of inclination angle of fibre observed a decrease, with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Mean flow pore size followed an initial decrease and then, increase, but filtration efficiency and pressure drop followed an initial increase and then, decrease with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Finally, process parameters were optimized to achieve a filter media with maximum filtration efficiency and minimum pressure drop.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990440
       
  • Evaluation of cutting force of high-performance fibers’ dynamic
           cutting behaviour

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Affaf Eloufy, Samar Abdel Latif, El Shimaa Eid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers’ Young’s moduli. Higher Young’s moduli give lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fiber Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by both normal force and cutting velocity. The analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set-up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers Young’s modulus. Higher Young’s modulus gives lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fibers Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by the normal force, cutting angle, and cutting velocity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990752
       
  • Effect of S-2304 wire-mesh angle in hemp/flax composite on mechanical and
           twist drilling surface response analysis

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      Authors: Prabu Krishnasamy, G Rajamurugan, B Muralidharan, Akshay P Arbat, Bendre Parag Kishorkumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fiber-based composite materials have found wide applications in Automotive, Aerospace, and Marine Industries. The current study presents the composite preparation, mechanical characterization, and machining behavior of hybrid composite. The fabricated hybrid composite consists of natural fibers (hemp and flax), resin (epoxy and hardener), and S-2304 wire mesh of different orientations (45° and 90°). The mechanical characterization was performed through tensile, flexural, impact, and hardness with ASTM samples. The FRW45 hybrid composite had shown an excellent tensile strength of 43 MPa and 31.57% higher than that of FRW90. Moreover, the FRW45 (82 MPa) flexural strength has shown better results than the HRW45 (76 MPa) composite. The machining performance was studied by drilling experiments, designed by the central composite design (CCD) to study the significant input parameters such as type of composite, speed, and feed rate. The obtained results revealed that torque reduces with the enhancement in feed rate for all types of composites. It was also noticed that at 500 rpm spindle speed, the delamination factor was comparatively 35.03% lower in HRW45 and 58% in HRW90 compared to HR composite. The fiber fracture voids and delamination failures were observed through fractography analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988477
       
  • An experimental and numerical study of epoxy-based Kevlar-basalt hybrid
           composites under high velocity impact

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      Authors: Azizolrahman Amirian, Hossein Rahmani, Hossein Moeinkhah
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the high velocity impact (HVI) behavior of epoxy-based Kevlar-Basalt hybrid composites was studied experimentally and numerically. The composite specimens were manually placed in nine layers classified into six types of stacking sequences: non-hybrid, sandwich hybrid, and intercalated hybrid. The impact tests were conducted by using a ballistic apparatus at three different energy levels: 150 J, 200 J, and 250 J, and the amount of absorbed energy was calculated based on input velocity and residual velocity of the projectile. The results demonstrated that hybridization improves the behavior of composites in high velocity impacts compared to that of specimen that are not hybridized. The absorption of sandwich hybrids on average increased 23.25% and 11.3% compared to pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively. Moreover, the intercalated hybrids showed an efficiency of about 35.6% and 21.76% better than that of pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively, in absorbing energy. The same energy absorption pattern was observed in numerical simulation performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. Also, the highest amount of energy absorption and the lowest residual velocity as well as damage occurred when Kevlar was attacked by the projectile and the layers were intercalated.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T06:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990902
       
  • Comparison of the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic
           modified glass fiber felt

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      Authors: Feiyan Wang, Jianyong Yu, Aixiong Ge, Xunmei Liang, Shide Lu, Chunfeng Zhao, Lifang Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The glass fiber felt owned opening pore structure and chemical stability, which was widely used in various of cabins of vessels, aircraft, vehicles, etc. The surface characteristics of fiber affected the drainage performance of felt, thus affecting the temperature and humidity environment in the cabin. In this paper, the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic modified glass fiber felt were studied and compared. After heat treatment, the surface sizing agents were removed and the felt surface became smoother. The water contact angle (WCA) of all heated felt was 0°. The residual water of 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm felt decreased by 27% and 15%, respectively, while that of 2.5 cm felt increased 324%. The excellent drainage performance could be obtained by reducing the heated felt thickness. However, the tensile strength of felt decreased by 35%–45%. In addition, the fiber diameter, the thickness, and average pore size of heated felt all decreased. After hydrophobic modification, abundant nano particles adhered to the felt surface, making the surface of felt rough. The WCAs of 2.5 cm, 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm hydrophobic modified felt were 152°, 141°, 144°, respectively. The residual water decreased by more than 60%, indicating that the drainage performance of felt could be significantly improved. The tensile strength of felt was increased by 30%–40%. The fiber diameter increased, but the thickness and the average pore size of felt decreased. Compared with the heat treatment, the hydrophobic modification could obtain excellent drainage performance and increased the felt tensile strength, which was suitable for more occasions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988479
       
  • Paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers for thermal hysteresis
           enhancement of paraffin actuators

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      Authors: Ahmet Kutlu, Recep Eren, Yakup Aykut
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fast and facile one-step preparation of paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers via single needle (uniaxial) electrospinning system was studied. As-spun paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers were used for thermal hysteresis enhancement of paraffin actuators. Solid paraffin with the melting point of 32, 58, 89 and 114°C were employed for the preparation of the paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that the melting point of the paraffin in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber was clearly detectable and the melting entalpy coming from the paraffin part gradually increased from 9.6 to 101.5 J/g with the increase in the melting points of the added same amount of paraffins in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. When both calorimetric and weight loss measurements were considered, the paraffin which has the melting point of 32°C was found to be suitable to produce hybrid nanofibers paraffin actuator. Therefore, this hybrid nanofiber was selected for the application in paraffin actuators for e-vehicle battery cooling systems where the battery temperature must be kept between 15 and 35°C. Paraffin compound of the paraffin actuators was prepared with a mixture of pure paraffin and paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofiber with the wt.% of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10. In the hysteresis measurements, the hysteresis value at 3 mm stroke was successfully enhanced as 1.7, 3.4, 11.9 and 15.3% sequentially for the samples produced with the above ratios. Beyond hysteresis enhancement, the phenomena of thermal percolation threshold effect and thermal conductivity contrast ratio effect in nano scale were emprically exposed on opening and closing behavior of the paraffin actuator.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988964
       
  • Preparation and properties of graphene aerogel/cotton composite flexible
           fabric with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function

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      Authors: Peng Wang, Shuqiang Liu, Man Zhang, Gaihong Wu, Kaiwen Wang, Huimin Li, Fu Li, Hua Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to alleviate the problems caused by electromagnetic pollution and simultaneously adapt to the future development trend of flexible wearable electronic equipment, it is high time to focus on the research of light weight, flexible and efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material. A graphene aerogel composite EMI shielding composite fabric was prepared by combining graphene aerogel with fabric through the connection of waterborne polyurethane. The influence of aerogel amount on the EMI shielding function of fabric was discussed, and the waterborne polyurethane dosage on fabric mechanics and fabric style was also investigated. The result shows the composite fabric EMI shielding effectiveness reached 28 dB when the graphene aerogel amount was 25 mL (only 0.066 mL/cm2), which has satisfied the civilian requirements (20 dB). A good adhesion fastness between graphene and cotton fabric was obtained and the mechanical strength was also improved when the content of waterborne polyurethane was 20 mL. Graphene aerogel electromagnetic shielding composite fabric with good electromagnetic shielding performance and less consumption of nano carbon materials will have a good industrial application prospect.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989272
       
  • Investigation of poly(lactic acid) nanocapsules containing the plant
           extract via coaxial electrospraying method for functional nonwoven
           applications

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      Authors: Hatice Ibili, Mehmet Dasdemir, İ İrem Tatlı Çankaya, Mehmet Orhan, Cem Güneşoğlu, Serap Arabacı Anul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the development of functional nanocapsules via the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (electrospraying) method. These nanocapsules can manipulate nonwoven surface functionality in terms of antibacterial characteristics for medical textile purposes. Electrosprayed nanocapsules were produced from Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer and Plumbago europaea plant extract. Here, we employ optimized solution and process parameters (needle to collector distance, electrical field, application time, and needle dimension) for the coaxial electrospraying process. Different Plumbago europaea extract concentrations and co-fluids’ flow rates were investigated as part of the study. Also, the effect of these parameters on capsule morphology and dimension were investigated. After the formation of PLA nanocapsules, morphological and dimensional characteristics were analyzed through SEM, FESEM, TEM images in addition to FTIR and nanosize measurements. According to our findings, a lower co-fluids’ flow rate gives the smaller nanocapsules with narrow-sized distribution and desired spherical morphology. Antibacterial efficiency doesn’t show any significant difference except the lowest plant extract concentrations. After characterizing the nanocapsules’ structures, the core-sheath structure can be clearly identified. Consequently, the desired capsule morphology and size for nanocapsules were accomplished. The antibacterial efficiency of covered surfaces with nanocapsules is up to 80% for Staphylococcus aureus and about 31% for Escherichia coli, even with low pick-up ratios. Even for a very low amount of extract usage, good antibacterial efficiency can be achieved. The application has endless potential in terms of higher concentration and a wide range of chemical usage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988950
       
  • Hardness and flexural performance of 3D orthogonal carbon/glass fibers
           hybrid composites under thermal-oxidative aging

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      Authors: Juanzi Li, Wei Fan, Tao Liu, Lili Xue, Linjia Yuan, Wensheng Dang, Jiaguang Meng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study reports the hardness and flexural performance of the three-dimensional (3 D) orthogonal carbon/glass hybrid fiber/bismaleimide composites subjected to the accelerated aging conditions for 10, 30, 90, 120, and 180 days at 250 °C in an air environment. The rate of reduction in the flexural performance and failure modes were observed, in general, to be related to the aging time. The experimental findings revealed that the significant decline in the flexural performance of the samples aged for less than 30 days was predominantly attributed to the matrix degradation, while for the longer aging durations, the cracks in the composites and decomposition of the residual matrix were responsible for the gradual reduction in the flexural performance. The unaged and 30 days aged samples suffered a brittle failure represented by the macro-cracks and fiber breakage, while the cracked fiber/matrix interface and loosened fiber bundles were the main failure modes for the samples aged for longer times. The changes in the flexural failure modes resulted due to the severe degradation of the matrix under an extreme thermo-oxidative environment. Subsequently, a nonlinear relationship relating the flexural modulus to hardness was proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989274
       
  • Super wear-resistant and conductive cotton fabrics based on sliver
           nanowires

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      Authors: Dangge Gao, Jiamin Zhu, Mengyu Ye, Yun Li, Jianzhong Ma, Jingjing Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the effect of linear, rod and granular nano-silver structures on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of cotton fabrics, silver nanowires (AgNWs), silver nano-rods (AgNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were separately obtained by solvothermal method, and then adsorbed on the cotton fabrics. Compared with AgNRs and AgNPs that silver nanowires could form network structure on the cotton fabrics. As the ratio of nano-sliver length to diameter increases, the effective adsorption mass of nano-sliver on the cotton increases, improving the conductivity of the textile electrode. No matter how many times of rubbing, it had no effect on the square resistance of the AgNWs/cotton. The cotton fabrics treated with silver nanowires had the best performances and wear resistance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:10:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720982005
       
  • Orientated and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds fabricated using the
           centrifugal electrospinning technique for stimulating the behaviours of
           fibroblast cells

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      Authors: Norul Ashikin Norzain, Wei Chih Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal electrospinning (CES) was developed by integrating the electrospinning (ES) and centrifugal spinning (CS) concepts to produce oriented and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds which were then applied to stimulate the behaviour of fibroblast cells. During the fabrication process, polymer concentrations, rotational speeds, operating voltages, and needle sizes were key parameters to affect the diameters of produced fibres. The mathematical model indicated that the centrifugal force with the power of 2 was the main influence in fabricating thinner fibres, followed by electrostatic force with the power of 1. The developed CES technique could fabricate fibres scaffold ranging from 210 ± 50 nm to 2814 ± 96 nm by only applying low operating voltages and rotation speed which were 10 kV and up to 2000 rpm, respectively. Through optimum parameter, random and aligned nanofibrous were fabricated with the diameter being distributed mainly at 200–400 nm. Aligned nanofibrous demonstrated a high degree of orientation when 88% of the nanofibrous varied at 0°–10°. Compared to random structure, aligned nanofibrous presented high tensile strength, which was approximately 4.35 MPa and appropriate flexibility with 73% of elongation break. Aligned nanofibrous exhibited high cell viabilities with a 2.34 absorbance rate at day 14. The fibroblast cells elongated and accelerated in the orientation of the aligned nanofibrous. Results suggest that fibre aligned scaffolds are possible candidates for wound dressing application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T06:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988127
       
  • Electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of conductive cotton
           fabrics

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      Authors: RM Attia, NM Yousif, MH Zohdy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional electrically conductive fabric with acceptable mechanical properties, which could be applied in electromagnetic shielding, was developed. Conductive cotton fabrics (cotton/PANI, cotton/Mn, cotton/Cu, and cotton/Co) were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization for (cotton/PANI) and pad dry curing method was used for nanometals application. The Nano size of the metals and polyaniline inclusion were proven through both Dynamic Liquid Scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed an increase in crystallite density in unit space and the nanoparticles ranged from 100–200 nm. The effect of gamma irradiation on different treated cotton fabrics was investigated. The mechanical properties against irradiation dose showed an improvement up to 40 kGy, for all treated fabrics. On the other hand, Young’s modulus for untreated cotton recorded the lowest value, while cotton/Co recorded the highest one. Moreover, both AC (Alternating Current) and DC (Direct current) conductivities values can be calculated. In DC conductivity cotton/PANI was found to be more conducive than the remainder of the treated fabric by surface metallization with transition metals; while in AC conductivity cotton/Mn was found to be more conducive than the rest of the treated samples. The conductivity value increases by increasing the gamma irradiation dose for cotton/PANI fabric. Also, g-factor values can be estimated from ESR signals and vary from 0.009 up to 0.059 for conductive cotton fabrics; whilst cotton/Mn fabric has six hyperfine splittings, indicating that it is a paramagnetic element.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T07:12:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984099
       
  • Poly(butylene succinate) fibrous dressings containing natural
           antimicrobial agents

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      Authors: Kinana Aliko, Mohamad Basel Aldakhlalla, Laura J Leslie, Tony Worthington, Paul D Topham, Eirini Theodosiou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) is a biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic aliphatic polyester, which has been used extensively in packaging, catering and agriculture, and more recently in drug delivery and bone and cartilage repair. PBSU-based mats created by electrospinning show promise as wound dressing materials because of their good mechanical properties, high surface area-to-volume ratio and increased levels of porosity. In this work, we present the creation of antimicrobial PBSU fibrous mats through the incorporation of natural food grade agents via blend electrospinning. Three types of edible gums (namely arabic, karaya and tragacanth), two essential oils (coriander and lavender), and one free fatty acid (linoleic acid) were added to PBSU containing a chain extender and their effect on six clinically relevant pathogens was evaluated. Mats containing essential oils at the highest concentration studied (7% w/v) showed some antimicrobial behaviour against S. aureus, E. hirae and P. aeruginosa, whereas the incorporation of linoleic acid at both concentrations tested (3% and 5% w/v) gave a strong reaction against S. pyogenes. Gum arabic was the only gum that had a considerable impact on S. aureus. Furthermore, the three gums enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer mats and brought them closer to those of the human skin, whilst all agents maintained the high biocompatibility of the PBSU mats when contacted with mouse fibroblasts. This work, for the first time, shows the great promise of PBSU blended fibres as a skin substitute and paves the way towards bioactive and cost effective wound dressings from renewable materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987209
       
  • Experimental evaluation of the compression garment produced from elastic
           spacer fabrics through real human limb

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      Authors: Golnaz Mousavi, Mehdi Varsei, Abosaeed Rashidi, Reza Ghazisaeidi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Spacer fabrics found vast applications as medical textile due to their intrinsic and unique properties such as good air permeability, breathability, compressibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to utilize weft knitted spacer fabric as pressure garment to apply more uniform interface pressure on limb than common commercial fabrics. Initially, different weft knitted spacer fabrics by varying the spacer fabric thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 mm) and elastane yarn content (25, 30, 35 and 40%) were produced. Then, mean interface pressure was obtained through conducting the Mannequin test. Based on the Mannequin test results, spacer fabrics with similar applied interface pressure to commercial one were selected to perform human limb test. According to the results, the spacer fabric with the thickness of 1.8[math] and elastane yarn content of 25% not only applied interface pressure comparable to commercial fabric, but also exhibited the most uniform interface pressure mapping on human limb among those studied. Also experimental results showed the superior performance of spacer knitted fabrics with elastane yarn than the single jersey knitted fabrics as pressure garments.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988089
       
  • Electrospun microfibers with embedded leuco dye-based thermochromic
           material for textile applications

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      Authors: Keon Sahebkar, Sharan Indrakar, Sesha Srinivasan, Sylvia Thomas, Elias Stefanakos
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospinning is an inexpensive and versatile technique for fabricating micro- and nano- scaled fibers. There have been limited attempts to employ it for the fabrication of thermochromic (TC) fibers, and the fabrication of a three-component (dye, developer, and solvent) TC material has required the use of a more complicated coaxial electrospinning technique. Herein, a simple and novel method for creating thermochromic fibers by electrospinning single strands of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with embedded thermochromic powder of a polymer encapsulated three-component system was employed. Unlike past leuco dye-based thermochromic fibers, an unmodified syringe tip can be used for the spinning process and only one flow rate needs to be determined. A solution of solvent (either N-dimethylformamide or chloroform), PMMA, and a commercially available black thermochromic powder was prepared and spun using a custom-made electrospinning apparatus. The spun fibers exhibited a clear color transition from grey to white and had average diameters of 2.53 µm and 1.96 µm for chloroform and N-dimethylformamide based fibers, respectively. The fibers were characterized by scanning electron and optical microscopy to determine their morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine their chemical composition, and differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis to characterize their thermal properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987216
       
  • Effect of twist level on the mechanical performance of S-glass yarns and
           non-crimp cross-ply composites

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      Authors: Hussein Kommur Dalfi, Muhammad Tausif, Zeshan yousaf
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      High modulus/high strength continuous fibres are used extensively for manufacturing textile preforms, as a reinforcement, for composites due to their excellent specific properties. However, their brittle behaviour and tendency to separate easily into individual filaments or bundles can lead to damages during manufacturing processes such as weaving and braiding. Thus, the critical step in the development of an optimal yarn for textile-reinforced composites is to find an optimum twist, which results in a minimum loss of properties of the composite laminates, while maintaining good processability and sufficient strength for textile and/or composite manufacturing. In this study, twist level has been varied to improve the handling and tensile properties of S-glass yarns (i.e. tensile strength). Varying levels of yarn twist (15–40 twists metre−1) were employed to study its impact on the tensile properties (i.e. tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break etc.). Furthermore, the effect of twist on the tensile properties of non-crimp cross-ply composites produced via vacuum infusion process was studied. It was observed that mechanical performance (i.e. tensile strength properties) of twisted yarns is improved up to 30 twists metre−1 while it is deteriorated at 40 twists metre−1. At yarn level, the experimental results were compared with theoretical estimations utilizing existing models for twisted yarns properties. Discrepancies were observed between experimental and theoretical results especially for high level of twist. The tensile strength and elongation of S-glass cross-ply composites at all levels of twist were higher compared to the composite laminates manufactured by using non-twisted yarns. At composite level, the experimental results were also computed employing rule of mixture and good agreement was observed between experimental and predicted results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:15:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987206
       
  • Investigation of the mechanical and forming behaviour of 3D warp interlock
           carbon woven fabrics for complex shape of composite material

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      Authors: Mehmet Korkmaz, Ayşe Okur, Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, François Boussu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Composite materials which are reinforced with 3D warp interlock fabrics have outstanding mechanical properties such as higher delamination resistance, ballistic damage resistance and impact damage tolerance by means of their improved structural properties. Textile reinforcements are exposed to large deformations in the production stage of composite materials which have complex shape. Although good formability properties of 3D warp interlock fabrics in forming process were already proven by recent studies, further information is needed to elucidate forming behaviours of multi-layer fabrics which is produced with high stiffness yarns like carbon. In this study, 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics were produced on a prototype weaving loom and the same carbon yarn was used in two fabric directions with equal number of yarn densities. Fabrics were differentiated with regard to the presence of stuffer warp yarn, weave pattern and parameters of binding warp yarn which are angle and depth. Therefore, the effect of fabric architecture on the mechanical and formability properties of 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics could be clarified. Three different breaking behaviours of fabrics were detected and they were correlated with crimp percentages of yarn groups. In addition, the bending and shear deformations were analysed in view of parameters of fabric architectures. Two distinct forming behaviours of fabrics were determined according to the distribution of deformation areas on fabrics. Moreover, the optimal structure was identified for forming process considering the fabric architecture.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984100
       
  • Surface modification of PE/PET by two-step method with graphene and silver
           nanoparticles for enhanced electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Tingting Zhuo, Zhuoming Chen, Binjie Xin, Yingqi Xu, Yingjie Song, Shan He, Shuai Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polyethylene/polyethylene terephthalate (PE/PET) nonwoven fabrics were first modified with a continuous graphene layer by using a dipping process, and then deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using magnetron sputtering, and that is a novel method called two-step method. Graphene/PE/PET (GPP) and AgNPs sputtered GPP (AGPP) were prepared to investigate the modification processes on the electrical conductivity of the nonwoven fabrics. The influence of the surface modification by silane coupling agent (KH-560) on the durability of conductive PE/PET composited fabrics is also studied. Surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal stability, electrical conductive and ultraviolet protection properties of the composite fabrics were investigated. The results indicated KH-560 treatment can obviously improve the interfacial adhesion between the graphene and PE/PET then contributes to the enhanced conductive durability of the composite fabrics. The combination of graphene and AgNPs provided more opportunities for the charge transfer paths of AGPP, leading to an improved conductive network and an increased electrical conductivity. In addition, graphene and AgNPs gave GPP and AGPP excellent thermal stability. The research exhibited the advantages of the two-step method, and also indicated AGPP has a promising application for the preparation of wearable electronics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720985893
       
  • Comparative studies on the effect of fabric structure on mechanical
           properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites

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      Authors: Zhenyu Ma, Pingze Zhang, Jianxun Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites places more requirements on the selection of fabrics to meet the needs of structural components. Due to the large design space for reinforced fabric patterns, the relationship between the reinforcements and properties is essential to further understand. Four typical fabrics were manufactured in this research, named non-interlaced bidirectional fabrics, plain weave laminated fabrics, angle-interlock fabrics and bidirectional angle-interlock fabrics. The structural features of fabrics were analyzed by using representative geometric unit, and the symmetry properties were discussed based on group theory. Vacuum assistant resin transfer molding was adopted to obtain the corresponding resin matrix composite specimens. Quasi-static tensile and bending tests were conducted on these specimens. The stress-strain curves of specimens were illustrated, and the failure characterizations were also analyzed in mesoscopic scale. The results showed that the high crimp of yarns reduced the stability of composites. Both the tensile and flexural properties were affected by the curvature of yarns. The research results provided a theoretical basis for the selection of fabric structure and the application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T05:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987517
       
  • Tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black in polymer nanocomposite
           to trigger the conductivity for developing coated fabric

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      Authors: Kajal Sarkar, Sudipta Panja, Sanjoy Kumar Ghorai, Debasish Das, Santanu Chattopadhyay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      We present the critical and systematic investigations on the normal/regular types of carbon black to trigger the conductivity of polymer nanocomposite in developing commercially viable coated flexible fabric. Regular grade carbon blacks are utilized to develop conductive fabric via nanocomposite preparation and application by knife-over-roll coating (average 90 microns thick). The study suggests, tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black particles having a diameter of 30 nanometers (with ∼0.6 packing fraction, 5.815E + 19 per cc charge carrier density, 0.774 ratios of Hall coefficient) has a profound effect on conductivity. The microstructure of carbon black is altered by the shearing force of a mechanical stirrer in a viscous solution of natural rubber latex and polyvinyl alcohol then self-restructured when an excess amount of water is evaporated by high-temperature drying. Thus, the tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black with a diameter of 30 nanometers provides the highest charge carrier density as compared to other types of carbon black used. We found that the attained conductivity (>113 S/m) in this process is 98% of the predicted value as per the classical model. This technique can be exploited to use normal grade carbon black in replacement of conductive grade carbon black and other carbonaceous material like graphene and carbon nanotube. We envision that this easily scalable, commercially viable technique can be utilized for large scale production of conductive fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984096
       
  • A review: Surface treatments, production techniques, mechanical properties
           and characteristics of Luffa cylindrica bio composites

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      Authors: M Jahanzail Kamran, Elammaran Jayamani, Soon K Heng, Yat C Wong
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The need for alternative eco-friendly and sustainable materials has forced many researchers to focus on composites made using natural fibers and biodegradable polymer matrices. In addition to that, these natural fibers are low in cost, have good mechanical properties, biodegradability, and require less production energy. Therefore, this review paper will focus on one of the natural fibers known as Luffa cylindrica (LC) by understanding all the natural fibers' benefits. A detailed overview is provided for commonly used fiber surface treatments, surface treatment techniques, and processing techniques for various LC composites from numerous other researches. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the characteristics, mechanical properties, and water absorption properties of LC composites before and after surface treatments, where a comprehensive understanding of LC reinforced polymer composites' behavior has been reviewed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984094
       
  • Characterization and modeling of thermal protective fabrics under Molotov
           cocktail exposure

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      Authors: Sumit Mandal, Guowen Song, Rene M Rossi, Indu B Grover
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to characterize and model the thermal protective fabrics usually used in workwear under Molotov cocktail exposure. Physical properties of the fabrics were measured; and, thermal protective performances of the fabrics were evaluated under a fire exposure generated from the laboratory-simulated Molotov cocktail. The performance was calculated in terms of the amount of thermal energy transmitted through the fabrics; additionally, the time required to generate a second-degree burn on wearers’ bodies was predicted from the calculated transmitted thermal energy. For the characterization, the parameters that affected the protective performance were identified and discussed with regards to the theory of heat and mass transfer. The relationships between the properties of the fabric systems and the protective performances were statistically analyzed. The significant fabric properties affecting the performance were further employed in the empirical modeling techniques − Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the protective performance. The Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the developed MLR and ANN models were also compared to identify the best-fit model for predicting the protective performance. This study found that thermal resistance and evaporative resistance are two significant properties (P-Values 
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984973
       
  • Using a thermal manikin to determine evaporative resistance and thermal
           insulation – A comparison of methods

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      Authors: Róbert Toma, Kalev Kuklane, Miloš Fojtlín, Jan Fišer, Miroslav Jícha
      Pages: 1493 - 1515
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Volume 50, Issue 9, Page 1493-1515, April 2021.
      Heat transfer from the human body, especially through the evaporation of sweat from the skin, is often restricted when protective clothing is used, which may result in overheating. For this reason, it is important to consider the parameters of protective clothing as input data in physiological models, such as predicted heat strain. The two most important parameters are thermal insulation and evaporative resistance with clothing area factor strongly influencing both. These parameters were determined for two clothing ensembles using a (dry) non-sweating thermal manikin. First, the clothing area factor was determined using the photographic method. Second, thermal insulation was measured in both static and dynamic conditions, and multiple equations for predicting dynamic thermal insulation from static ones were evaluated. Third, methodology for measuring evaporative resistance based on pre-wetted skin was adopted and multiple corrections were assessed. Finally, sensitivity analyses were completed using PHS to determine the impact of different equations on the duration limited exposure. For the thermal insulation measurements, we found that predictive equation (32) from ISO 9920 was the most accurate, but choosing the correct equation for protective clothing proved challenging. Although a manikin’s surface temperature is widely used for calculating evaporative resistance, the skin temperature should be used instead, since it is correct from a physical point of view and there is a difference of up to 15% in the results. Because these measures are used in thermal risk analyses conditions, a high degree of accuracy and a knowledge of the inputs must be guaranteed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-15T03:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719900672
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Investigation on the rebound rate for polymeric composites and nonwoven
           needle punched fabrics at various depths

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      Authors: Jia-Ci Jhang, Ting Ru Lin, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Pages: 1516 - 1527
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Volume 50, Issue 9, Page 1516-1527, April 2021.
      The study employs the mechanical interlocking theory and hot pressing treatment to generate nonimpregnation of highly rebounding composites. This design preserves the high flexibility, elasticity, and stability of elastic polymer while reserving the skin-friendly feature, resilience, and recovery of the highly elastic nonwoven fabrics without using an adhesive. During the preparation of highly rebounding composites, elastic polymers are hot pressed to form films, after which they are combined with highly elastic nonwoven fabrics. The composites are then examined in terms of the mechanical properties and the level of adhesion. Fluffy nonwoven fabrics and elastomer polymers are hot pressed in order to obtain better adhesion and puncture resistance. The tensile and hammer rebound rate test results show that highly rebounding composites that are reinforced using stiff nonwoven fabrics exhibit greater resilient and tensile properties. Comparing to pure nonwoven fabrics, the proposed highly rebounding composites have a structure that is 1.5 time greater compactness, as well as 1.5 times greater a tensile strength and 1.6 time greater resilience. Namely, they provide great variety according to the users’ ends as their performances are better and adjustable. For example, shallowly or deeply needle punched nonwoven fabrics can be separately used in the garments or cushions. The proposed highly rebounding cushion composites are protective materials and are suitable for the application as in cushions, packaging, and buffering protective equipment.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-25T04:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719899654
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Experimental investigation of process parameters for the filtration
           property of nanofiber membrane fabricated by needleless electrospinning
           apparatus

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      Authors: Liang Wei, Haonan Yu, Runjun Sun, Chengkun Liu, Meiyu Chen, Huijing Liu, Jian Xiong, Xiaohong Qin
      Pages: 1528 - 1541
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Volume 50, Issue 9, Page 1528-1541, April 2021.
      In recent years, mass production of nanofiber has attracted attention of many researchers. Needleless electrospinning technology has been studied and developed to fabricate high-yield nanofibers, which could overcome the shortages of traditional single electrospinning apparatus, such as low efficiency, uneven nanofiber membrane, and difficulty in cleaning single needle. In this study, a novel needleless electrospinning apparatus was used to produce high-quality nanofiber membrane in terms of the features of small nanofiber diameter and narrow diameter distribution. Multiple jets were formed on the edge of the needleless electrospinning spinneret. The number of jets had a significant increase trend with the increase of the applied voltage. Wide-width nanofiber membrane could be fabricated by using this needleless electrospinning setup. This study also investigates the effects of process parameters on surface morphology, stress–strain, pore diameter, and filtration property of nanofiber membrane. This needleless electrospinning apparatus is suitable for industrialization production of nanofiber membrane.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-25T04:31:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720901357
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 9 (2020)
       
  • Multi-scale strength and buckling analysis of 3D woven composite spherical
           shells subjected to hydrostatic pressure

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      Authors: Xiaoxu Wang, Hongyun Li, Tiantian Yang, Zhuhui Zhang, Chengyan Zheng, Weibo Wang, Diantang Zhang, Kun Qian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D woven composites are considered as the ideal materials for subsea pressure shells owing to their exhibit excellent out-of-plane properties of delamination resistance and compressive damage resistance, which greatly improves the bearing capacity of the structure. This paper presents the influence of the radius-to-thickness ratio and the initial defects on the 3D woven composite spherical shells subjected to external hydrostatic pressure using the multi-scale finite element and theoretical methods. Two kinds of typical 3D woven structures, curved shallow-crossing linking 2.5D, and straight shallow-crossing linking 2.5D, are selected. The results show that the proposed multi-scale finite element method is capable of accurately predicting the strength and buckling behavior of 3D woven composite spherical shells under external hydrostatic pressure loadings, validated by the comparison of theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the fabric structures, radius-to-thickness ratio, and initial defects affect importantly the mechanical behavior of 3D woven composites pressure shells.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T04:31:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720981999
       
  • Investigation of some weathering impacts on tearing properties of
           PVC-coated fabrics used for architectural purposes

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      Authors: Vaida Dobilaitė, Milda Jucienė, Raimondas Bliūdžius, Loreta Šveikauskaitė
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports the comprehensive experimental study of the tearing behaviour of PES/PVC-coated architectural membranes exposed to different accelerated aging conditions. Coated fabrics intended as building envelopes are constantly exposed to the environmental impacts, therefore, it is important to determine the influence of these factors on changes of mechanical properties, and the tear strength was considered to be one of the essential characteristics associated with the life span of a tensioned membrane structures. An accelerated aging model was developed based on the analysis of the aging factors significantly relevant to the building operation. The effect of abrasion, higher temperature and humidity as well as set of these aging factors on tear performance were investigated. The results show that in most cases the tear strength of architectural membranes changes marginally within the limits after exposure to artificial aging. The biggest contributor to tearing changes was high temperature, which could be the dominant component in the aging model. The study provides a better understanding of tearing performance of PVC-coated fabrics in real environmental conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-24T04:41:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720982384
       
  • The friction and wear behaviors of self-lubricating composites with two
           types of warp-knitted fabric structures

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      Authors: Mingming Yu, Sha Wang, Fang Ren, Ying Wu, Musu Ren, Yingjun Li, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Replacing the traditional self-lubricating fabric composites with new type of wear-resistant composite reinforced by warp-knitted fabrics PTFE-Nomex and PTFE-Nomex/Nomex (self-lubricating fiber: PTFE, reinforcing fiber: Nomex), in which the hybrid graphite/graphene particle modified phenolic is used as the adhesive resin. The influence of the fabric structure on the friction and wear properties of self-lubricating fabric composites was evaluated by the ball-on-disk and bearing friction tests. And the wear mechanism of the composites was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests. The ball-on-disk friction test shows that the friction and wear properties of two kinds of composites with different structures are different with the increase of friction distance. In addition, the self-lubricating warp-knitted composite materials were prepared as self-lubricating joint bearing liners to evaluate the bearing application. It is proposed that the wear resistance of the two kinds of warp-knitted composites is poor, and the single layer is slightly better. It is related to the friction mode, mechanical and bonding properties of the bearing liners.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T08:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980172
       
  • Filtration mechanisms and manufacturing methods of face masks: An overview

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      Authors: Sabit Adanur, Ajay Jayswal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Face masks are loose-fitting masks that cover the nose and mouth and have ear ties at the back of the head whereas respirators are tight-fitting face covering devices which filter the air during inhalation and exhalation. Guidelines issued by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regarding proper design, filtration process and wearing should be followed. The mask equipment provides protection against the infections caused by particulate matters (PM), especially PM2.5, and biological pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. Although face masks offer benefits to a greater extent, it is not recommended to wear them for a long period of time. As N95 masks closely fit with the face, it may result in negative impact on respiratory and dermal mechanisms of human thermoregulation. In this article, currently available face masks including cloth masks, their filtration mechanisms, manufacturing methods and decontamination methods are reviewed for the purpose of helping with the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19).
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T08:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980169
       
  • Fabrication of gelatin/sodium alginate-poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid)
           bilayer electrospun biosheet as wound healing material in nursing care on
           pediatric fracture surgery

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      Authors: Daiqi Jiang, Zaiju Tong, Lingjun Peng, Lingzhi Zhang, Qianzi Ruan, Yongli Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Novel the bilayered electrospun biosheet with rapid cell mimiciking and proliferative efficacy will be suitable for wound healing application. The optimized concentration of gelatin (G) and sodium alginate (A) biosheet with nanofibrous Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) (P) as a bilayered elctrospun matrix through electrospinning. The engineered GAP bilayered biosheet involves tissue formation at extra cellular matrix (ECM) which further characterized its function in vitro and invivo. Here we fabricated GAP which exhibit better physiochemical properties, biological and mechanical properties with superior prosomes it enhance air passable at skin wounds. The Bilayered biosheet matrix possess better biocompatibility, cell adherence, fructuous and cell to cell interactions evaluated using cell lines. Furthermore, GAP bilayered matrix regulates growth factors to attain maximum wound closure efficiency during invivo. Thus, the fabricated GAP electrospun biosheet would be a possible wound dressing for skin wound applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T02:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720976346
       
  • Developing of thermal energy storing visual textile temperature indicators
           based on reversible color change

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      Authors: M Selda Tözüm, Cemil Alkan, Sennur Alay Aksoy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to fabricate cotton and wool fabrics with both of thermoregulation and thermochromic properties. For this aim, three-component thermochromic systems (TCTS) were microencapsulated and applied to the pure cotton and wool textile fabrics. In the study, TCTSs consisting of crystal violet lactone (CVL), bisphenol A (BPA), and myristyl alcohol were microencapsulated in shell of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(MMA-co-MAA)) by emulsion polymerization method. Microcapsule wall structures were designed to exhibit affinity for cotton and wool fibres under appropriate reaction conditions. Microcapsules having spherical shape, compact morphology and average size of 23.24 µm were prepared successfully. These microparticles exhibited latent heat energy storage capacity of 197.7 J/g and considerable thermal stability required for textile application process conditions. P(MMA-co-MAA)/TCTS microcapsules were applied to the cotton and wool textiles by exhaustion method. In the method, a substrate takes the chemicals in the bath and the affinity between the chemicals and substrate molecules is determinant on exhaustion process. The structural, colorimetric and thermal characteristics of the microcapsule applied fabrics were analyzed. The fabrics had reversible color change with a function of temperature. Their colors were blue at room temperature and original color of the fabric at temperatures above activation point of the thermochromic system. Additionally, the cotton fabric stored the latent heat of 23.4 J/g while the wool fabric stored the latent heat of 62.1 J/g. They exhibited thermoregulation property resulting from the absorbed latent heat.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-17T05:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980831
       
  • Modeling and simulation of impact behavior of 3D woven solid structure for
           ballistic application

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      Authors: Lekhani Tripathi, Soumya Chowdhury, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study was carried out to understand and evaluate the response of 3 D woven fabrics upon the simulated ballistic forces. Under the low-velocity impact, analytical and numerical models were developed for determining the impact energy, which was used to evaluate the ballistic impact of projectile onto multiple-layered woven fabric panels based on the ballistic impact of single textile yarns. The behavior of primary and secondary yarns in a fabric under the ballistic impact was analyzed by both the models. The mechanisms of failure and energy dissipation of Kevlar fabric subjected to low-velocity impact were numerically investigated by using the ABAQUS platform as a tool of finite element method (FEM). The results obtained from numerical and analytical approaches were validated against experimental value which showed a good agreement.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-17T05:41:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980467
       
  • Intensification of auxetic effect in high stiffness auxetic yarns with
           potential application as the reinforcing element of composite

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      Authors: Asal Lolaki, Mohammed Zarrebini, Davood Mostofinejad, Mohsen Shanbeh, Sayyed Mahdi Abtahi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Helical auxetic yarn (HAY) is a newly developed composite yarn with negative Poisson’s ratio. HAYs offers advantageous merits as a reinforcing element in composite materials. In this paper high stiffness HAYs composed of Nylon filament core and fine steel wire wrap yarns were developed. The importance of the stiffness ratio of the wrap to the core components in the resultant auxetic yarn was examined. The differences between instantaneous and engineering Poisson’s ratio analyses in the understanding of the strain-dependent behavior of HAY was investigated. Results revealed that the utilization of the fine steel multifilament in the developed HAY samples enormously improves the stiffness of HAY. It was possible to obtain an elastic modulus of 9 GPa and a maximum auxetic effect of –16.82 in the samples. It was concluded that such highly stiff auxetic yarn can successfully be used as reinforcement in various composite materials such as cementitious composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T06:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720978918
       
  • A novel plaster containing benzoyl peroxide microsponges: Formulation,
           development and evaluation

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      Authors: Nihal Atabay, Ayse Merih Sariişik, Sinem Yaprak Karavana, Seda Rençber
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Benzoyl peroxide is a widely used active agent for acne vulgaris treatment that has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic and wound-healing properties. The common complaints for benzoyl peroxide are skin irritation and dryness. To reduce these side effects, microsponge formulations are used as an effective tool in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, a medical plaster was developed containing benzoyl peroxide microsponges which gives an opportunity to explore the potential of the microsponge systems in textile industry. Benzoyl peroxide microsponge was obtained by using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, particle size analysis and porosity studies. The microsponges were applied onto 100% cotton woven fabric by using dip-coating technique. In the treatment solution, different binding agents as acrylic binder, and cross-linking agents as poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid were used. Microsponges were around 78.4 µm in diameter and had a spherical porous surface. SEM analyses of the treated fabrics proved that the microsponges were succesfully transferred on cotton fabrics. The drug contents of the fabrics containing Benzoyl peroxide loaded microsponge were found to be within the range of 68.512–102.873%. The in vitro drug release results show that the release from both samples was more than 40% within 6 h. The water vapor permeability of plaster prepared with acrylic binder (S1) was significantly higher than the other plasters. This study presents a novel approach for acne treatment based on textiles containing microsponges. The results revealed that microsponges had a promising potential in textile field.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T06:35:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980466
       
  • A computational approach with surface-based cohesive contact for
           meso-scale interface damage simulation in 3D braided composites

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      Authors: Chao Zhang, Jianchun Liu, Tinh Quoc Bui, Jose L Curiel-Sosa, Jinzhong Lu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The yarn/yarn and yarn/matrix interface debonding has been recognized as a vital failure mode of 3 D braided composites. We present in this paper a meso-scale finite element (FE) model, which considers yarn/yarn and yarn/matrix interface debonding, for modeling progressive damage evolution of 3 D braided composites under typical tensile and shear loadings. In this setting, the damage state of braiding yarns and matrix is described through a continuum damage model (CDM) coupled with Murakami damage tensor; a bilinear traction-separation description is employed to govern the yarn/yarn and yarn/matrix interface behavior modeled by surface-based cohesive contact. We thus develop a user-material subroutine VUMAT (ABAQUS/Explicit) for our progressive damage simulation, including stress analysis, failure analysis and material properties degradation scheme. The mechanical properties of 3 D braided composites, and more importantly the damage evolution of interface debonding are thoroughly analyzed. The proposed FE modeling strategy provides a new perspective for the interface response study of other textile composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T06:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980171
       
  • Effect of the viscosity of polyvinyl chloride resin and weaving structures
           of polyester fabric on the off-axis mechanical properties of PVC coated
           fabric

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      Authors: Jong Hyun Eun, Min Seong Kim, Sun Min Sung, Bo Kyoung Choi, In Uk Jang, DoHyun Kim, Joon Seok Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      PVC coated fabric is a useful structural material mainly used as a roof material because of its lightweight, flexibility. However, the main issues of this PVC coated fabric product is that it is damaged such as tensile failure, peel, and tear when exposed to extreme environments such as strong rain and wind owing to its inferior mechanical properties. Various studies have been reported to improve the mechanical properties of PVC coated fabric, there have been no significant improvement. Therefore, in this study, to improve the mechanical properties of the PVC coated fabrics, applied the low viscosity PVC resin and 4 [math] 4 matt weave structure polyester fabric. In addition, the mechanical properties of PVC coated fabrics with various viscosity PVC resins (D10, D8, D5, D2 and D0) were investigated and the mechanical properties of PVC coated fabrics with various weaving structure such as plain weave structure (1 [math] 1), matt weave structure (2 [math] 2, 3[math] 3, and 4 [math] 4) were studied. The PVC coated fabric fabricated by low viscosity PVC resin (D10), the tensile strength, tear load, and peel strength improved about 3%, 11%, and 29% compared to the PVC coated fabric fabricated by high viscosity PVC resin (D0). The mechanical properties of the PVC coated fabric fabricated by 4 × 4 matt weave structure polyester fabric was superior to the 1 × 1 plain weave structure polyester fabric and 2 × 2, 3 × 3 matt weave structure polyester fabrics because of the low crimp rate and low intersection point of the warp yarn and weft yarn of the fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T06:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980170
       
  • Development of bacterial cellulose nanocomposites: An overview of the
           synthesis of bacterial cellulose nanocomposites with metallic and
           metallic-oxide nanoparticles by different methods and techniques for
           biomedical applications

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      Authors: Muhammad Wasim, Muhammad Mushtaq, Saif Ullah Khan, Amjad Farooq, Muhammad Awais Naeem, Muhammad Rafique Khan, Abdul Salam, Qufu Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Bacterial cellulose is the three-dimensional network structure of nanofibers. The bacterial cellulose materials have outstanding characteristics of high surface area and high crystallinity (84%–89%). It has greater compatibility with the degree of polymerization and has excellent mechanical properties. The water-holding capacity of bacterial cellulose (over 100 ti) makes it stand out from other cellulose materials. This is because bacterial cellulose has high purity due to a lack of lignin and hemicellulose. Bacterial cellulose is considered as a non-cytotoxic, non-genotoxic, and highly biocompatible material, which has broad appeal in the medical field and has attracted widespread attention. The proposed review summarizes the microbial effects of enlisting bacterial strains with carbon sources, and culture media on bacterial cellulose production. In addition, it provides a variety of physical and chemical methods that can be used to modify bacterial cellulose with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles; like the common structure of zinc oxide/bacterial cellulose represent antibacterial characteristics against C.freundii, S.aureus, E.coli, and P.aeruginosa with 90.9%, 94.3%, 90.0%, and 87.4% strength respectively. The wound healing properties of such metallic oxide structure with bacterial cellulose presents the characteristics, which confirms its application in 66% of strength, especially for bionic designs for medical applications, including wound healing and artificial skin, vascular and neurosurgical covering materials, dural prosthesis, arterial stent coating, cartilage, bone repair grafts, and biomedicines. Because of the further exposure of value-added medical material application, our review ends with challenges and perspectives in the production of bacterial cellulose nanocomposite.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T06:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720977201
       
  • A facile design of EGF conjugated PLA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers for
           nursing care of in vivo wound healing applications

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      Authors: Fei Xu, Helin Wang, Jielin Zhang, Linli Jiang, Wenting Zhang, Yuhua Hu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nano (or) microfiber structures made from biodegradable polymers offer many benefits for biomedical applications, including the tissue engineering system. In this study, a mixture of poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/gelatin (GEL) conjugated epidermal growth factor (EGF) electrospun nanofiber scaffolds, which may have potential applications for nursing care of diabetic wound healing. The amount of EGF conjugation on the PLA/GEL nanofibers was quantitated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A morphological examination of the electrospun nanofibers was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which has bead-free morphology nanofibers. After characterizing, the PLA/GEL and PLA/GEL/EGF scaffolds were selected for further investigation based on their superior mechanical properties, including tensile strength, maximum elongation, and tensile modulus. We evaluated the antibacterial activity, cell proliferation and the efficiency of diabetic wound healing in vivo. The antibacterial effect of EGF present in the PLA/GEL nanofibers was assessed using the zone inhibition test against S. aureus and E. coli. In vitro cell proliferation activity was well maintained after the PLA/GEL conjugation and was compared to that of EGF with L929 fibroblast cells. The nanofiber PLA/GEL conjugated with EGF exerted greater curative activities in vivo compared to the control groups or EGF solutions. This study showed that the nanofiber PLA/GEL in combination with EGF could potentially be used as a novel material for nursing care of wound healing by antibacterial, increasing inflammatory cell, and re-epithelialization.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T06:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720976348
       
  • Modification of the cotton woven fabrics with Tancho® for using on
           the diabetic foot symptom

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      Authors: Marwa A Ali, A Amr
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Diabetes is a chronic disease that is widely spread in this time. Diabetic foot is one of the most common symptoms, it starts when the dryness emerge after that the cracks appear on the back or outcrops of the foot. The primary treatment for these symptoms is considered the best choice to prevent diabetic foot diseases. The aim of this study is using treated fabric with Tancho® (based on olive oil) to give the cracked or pre-ulcer foot the sufficient hydration for skin cells during the rest periods to heal. The study was based on using 100% cotton woven fabrics with three structures that are treated with Tancho® petroleum jelly as emulsion using two techniques; Pad/Batch and Pad/Dry/Cure methods, to compare between them in the improvement of fabric for healing. Weight and thickness were conducted to evaluate the fabric functional performance before and after treatment with Tancho®. The antimicrobial activity was done for samples to determine the biological property. Roughness, SEM and TEM were done to study the morphological surface of samples produced. Finally, the best samples performances as a result from radar chart analysis were applied in vivo for rats, to determine the efficiency of the treated samples through clinical observation and histopathological changes. The results of the produced samples that weaved by three different structures and treated with Pad/Batch method were increased of the stimulation of skin cells to heal after surgical either in case of use for surface skin scratches or as scaffold for skin layers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T05:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720976347
       
  • Permeability prediction of fibrous porous media by the lattice Boltzmann
           method with a fluid-structure boundary reconstruction scheme

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      Authors: Suguru Ando, Masayuki Kaneda, Kazuhiko Suga
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The D3Q27 lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) combined with the fluid-structure boundary reconstruction (fsBR) scheme and the interpolated bounce back (IPBB) method is extensively evaluated to predict the permeability of nonwoven fibrous porous media. The fsBR-IPBB method transfers digitally defined step-like boundary data, e.g. the three-dimensional structure data obtained by the X-ray computed tomography, to continuous smooth boundary data via level-set functions. It leads to highly accurate calculations despite low lattice resolutions of thin fibers with circular cross-sectional shapes, compared to the conventional half-way bounce back (HWBB) method. The fsBR-IPBB method is first applied to predict the permeability of two different arrays of impermeable circular cylinders and verified by comparing the results with the data in the literature. We then validate the method referring to the numerically and experimentally obtained permeability of six types of nonwoven fabrics prepared by the industrial hydroentanglement process. Finally, the discussion on the applicability and the limitation of the macroscopic correlation models to estimate permeability of porous media is carried out. The results show that although the calculated permeability is in reasonable agreement with the measured one with an error of 8.1–16.3%, analytical or empirical correlation models fail to give the correct trend due to the highly inhomogeneous and anisotropic properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T05:32:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720978913
       
  • Experimental study on the hot-melt adhesive pattern produced by melt
           blowing nozzle designs

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      Authors: Ignacio Formoso, Alejandro Rivas, Gerardo Beltrame, Gorka S Larraona, Juan Carlos Ramos, Raúl Antón, Alaine Salterain
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The high-quality standards of bodily absorbent hygiene products require that the adhesive bond between layers be as uniform and consistent as possible. The final adhesive pattern of the product is determined by the dynamics of the adhesive fibre, which in turn depends on the nozzle geometry and on its operating conditions. In order to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of adhesive fibres and the deposited application pattern, an experimental study was conducted on two multi-hole melt blowing (MB) nozzles designed for producing hot-melt adhesives. To this end, the fibre dynamics were captured through the use of high-speed imaging (HSI). The main parameters that govern the fibre dynamics, including its frequency of oscillation, were quantified through use of image analysis. The effect of the operating conditions on the fibre’s frequency of oscillation at the nozzle exit region was studied and the results indicate that increasing air-polymer flux ratios [math] and decreasing dimensionless temperature ratios [math] both increase the fibre whipping frequency. Additionally, information on the fibre dynamics on the two planes of oscillation is obtained by studying the deposited application pattern of hot-melt applications. Other related matters are also treated throughout the article, such as fibre contact in adhesive patterns, which represent one of the major defects that the melt blowing technology of hot-melt adhesives is trying to mitigate. Experimental measurements are presented throughout the article to support the validity of the conclusions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T05:32:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720978401
       
  • Effect of stacking sequence on the mechanical properties of pseudo-ductile
           thin-ply unidirectional carbon-basalt fibers/epoxy composites

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      Authors: SM Saleh Mousavi-Bafrouyi, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Abdolreza Geranmayeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the flexural and impact properties of hybrid composites including the thin-ply unidirectional (UD) carbon fibers and basalt fabrics with different stacking sequences were investigated. Hybrid composites were fabricated by 2 layers of thin-ply UD carbon fibers and 6 layers of basalt fabrics in which the position of thin-ply UD carbon fibers was changed from the center to the outermost layers for different samples. Results indicated that by embedding the thin-ply UD carbon fibers in the laminates, both flexural and impact properties of the samples were considerably improved. The highest flexural strength (451 MPa) and modulus (37 GPa) values were achieved when the thin-ply UD carbon fibers were placed at the outermost layers; these values were respectively 24% and 44% higher than those of the sample without these fibers. However, results indicated that by placing the thin-ply UD carbon fibers at the center of samples, the failure behavior of samples was changed from catastrophic failure to progressive; and a pseudo-ductile behavior was observed in the mentioned samples. The highest pseudo-ductile strain value of 0.0054 was obtained by placing the thin-ply UD carbon fibers at the center of samples. Similar to the trend pseudo-ductility of samples, the flexural strain of samples improved by nearing the thin-ply UD carbon fibers to the center of samples. Similar to the flexural strain of samples, the results of Charpy impact tests indicated that by nearing the thin-ply UD carbon fibers to the outermost layers, the absorbed energy values decreased.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-06T06:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720978400
       
  • Thermo-physiological properties and burning behaviours of automotive
           upholstery fabrics woven with aramid and wool yarns

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      Authors: Sibel Şardağ, Medine Türk
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Today, people’s expectations of cars have changed because they travel more frequently and take much longer trips in their automobiles. Therefore, auto manufacturers have come to realize that comfort properties of automobiles should be improved in addition to their mechanical, technical and aesthetical properties. This study aimed to investigate the thermophysiological properties of the automotive upholstery woven fabrics produced with different blend ratios of flame resistant meta-aramid and wool yarns. For this purpose, twenty-eight automotive upholstery woven fabric samples were produced using two different weaving patterns and different blend ratios of flame resistant meta-aramid and wool yarns. Thermophysiological properties of the samples such as water vapor permeabilities, air permeabilities and thermal conductivities were measured, and their burning behaviours were tested according to the standards. The results obtained in this study were assessed by means of statistical methods, and the results of the statistical analysis showed that blending ratios of flame resistant meta-aramid and wool fiber had statistically significant effects on both the thermo-physiological properties and burning behaviours of automotive upholstery fabrics. This study showed that the thermal comfort values of the automotive upholstery fabrics of different meta-aramid/wool blend ratios were very close to one another. In addition, the air permeability values of these fabrics were increased with the increase of the meta-aramid content in the blend. The blends containing 25% meta-aramid fiber exhibited the highest increases in air permeability values of the fabrics. Besides, the blend of 25% meta-aramid and 75% wool fiber was found to be the optimal blending ratio in terms of the total burning time after the removal of the ignition source. Therefore, it can be concluded that thermo-physiological comfort properties and burning behaviours of automotive upholstery fabrics can be improved by using the blends with different meta-aramid contents, depending on desired fire performance levels and thermophysical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-01T10:21:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720974042
       
  • Hybrid PTFE-glass hierarchical braided/epoxy composites with
           self-lubricating and high tribological performance

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      Authors: Saeed Reza Zahabi, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh, Saleh Akbarzadeh, RamazanAli Abuzade, Frank Ko
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study hybrid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/glass fibers were employed in hierarchical braided structure as a composite reinforcement. PTFE-covered glass fibers were braided to achieve the hierarchical structure, then the composites were prepared through vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. Tribological experiments were performed on the composites. The results showed self-lubricating and lower dynamic friction coefficient due to the PTFE transfer film formation. SEM micrographs confirmed the transfer film formation. Friction coefficient of 0.112, 0.105 and 0.096 were obtained under loading of 20, 30 and 40 N forces, respectively. The experimental coefficient of friction results were confirmed by mixture theory. The self-lubricating feature of PTFE-glass braided epoxy composite along with its mechanical characteristics makes it a feasible alternative for traditional wet bearing parts.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-12-01T10:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720977210
       
  • Mechanically robust and highly stretchable woven fabric containing metal
           wire for personal protective clothing

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      Authors: Yong Wang, Changliu Chu, Jiqiang Cao, Stuart Gordon
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Highly stretchable composite yarns containing metal wire have attracted great interest as a fundamental building block for special protective fields. A method for producing tri-component elastic-conductive composite yarns (t-ECCYs) has been described previously. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanical behavior and structural stability of a highly stretchable woven fabric containing t-ECCYs inserted in its weft direction. By virtue of the unique structure of t-ECCYs, the woven fabric has a denser and tighter surface than the reference fabric (100% cotton), which facilitates its weft elastic stretchability in excess of 40%. Furthermore, a typical initial low-stress tensile curve characteristic and an acceptable cyclic elastic recovery stability at a higher strain of 25% were observed, indicating excellent mechanical robustness of as-prepared woven fabric. Also, a modified standard solid model by introducing an exponent to the exponential function can fairly well replicate the tensile characteristics during stretch. Importantly, the structural stability of the fabric remained nearly unchanged following cyclic expansion (≈43%) and washing-drying (10 times) cycles. It is promising that this kind of mechanically robust and highly stretchable woven fabric containing metal wire is prerequisite for the next wave of superelastic electromagnetic shielding materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T05:33:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720975655
       
  • Quick laboratory methodology for determining the particle filtration
           efficiency of face masks/respirators in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Manish Joshi, Arshad Khan, BK Sapra
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recent crisis in the form of COVID-19 has rendered wearing of mask mandatory for patients, health care workers and members of public worldwide. This has caused a sudden shift of focus on availability, effectiveness, re-use and development of face masks/respirators. In the current pandemic situation, the shortage of masks has also led to rethinking on strategies of reuse of masks after due sterilization. This work discusses a quick laboratory methodology to test/determine the particle filtration efficiency of face masks/respirators. The testing parameters include the particle capture efficiency of the mask material/full mask, pressure drop and the fit factor. Two different, simple, make-shift set-ups have been adopted for the present context. The first is used to measure the intrinsic particle capture efficiency and pressure drop of the filter material and the second as a ‘full mask sampler’ to assess the leakages through seams and joints of the mask. Experiments conducted with atomized NaCl test particles on three types of mask viz. commercial N-95 respirator, surgical mask and cloth mask have been used for evolving the methodology. The differences in terms of capture efficiency of aerosol particles for the filter material and for the full mask in face fix/sealed fixture have been linked to improvement of the mask design in development phase. This paper hopes to provide a crucial laboratory link between the mask developers and the certification agencies in the times of urgency. Needless to mention that commercialization of the same is subject to certification from authorized agencies, following standard procedures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T05:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720975084
       
  • Smart polyester fabric with comfort regulation by temperature and moisture
           responsive shape memory nanocomposite treatment

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      Authors: Nazife Korkmaz Memiş, Sibel Kaplan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, clothing comfort and ease of use have become an indispensable expectation especially in sports and functional clothing which have led researchers to focus on development of smart textiles including new functionalities such as active thermoregulation. Therefore, a novel nanocomposite finishing treatment consisting of temperature responsive shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) was developed and applied to polyester fabric to produce smart fabric having dual responsive performance to moisture besides temperature. Water vapour, air permeability and sweat absorption properties were investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions to test thermoregulation performance of the treated fabrics. Physical, mechanical properties (weight, thickness and bursting strength) and durability of treated fabrics were also tested. Morphology, chemical compositions and thermal characterization of treated fabrics were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, respectively. It was found out that polyester fabric exhibited dynamic breathability and sweat absorption with temperature and relative humidity of body or environmental conditions thanks to the obtained dual responsive shape memory function. Also, mechanical and end use performances such as bursting strength and washing fastness of polyester were enhanced with this treatment. Summing up, SMPU-CNW nanocomposite treatment can be a good alternative for smart sports clothing having thermoregulation function for enhanced comfort besides desired mechanical and end use performances.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T12:39:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720975652
       
  • Water absorption behavior of cellulosic fibres polymer composites: A
           review on its effects and remedies

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      Authors: Parul Sahu, MK Gupta
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, researchers and scientists are trying to overcome the environmental burden by using biocomposites in engineering applications as far as possible. The main source of biocomposites is cellulosic fibres which is a class of natural fibres. Instead of many advantages of cellulosic fibres, they and their polymer composites suffer from some limitations as well. The environmental conditions are one of the most important issues to degradation behavior of the cellulosic fibres polymer composites (CFPCs). Among the environmental conditions, water absorption is an important ground to degradation in the mechanical performance of the CFPCs, which resists them to be used in outdoor applications. Several studies have been presented on water absorption characteristics of cellulosic fibres and its polymer-based biocomposites. Further, the consequence of water uptake on the mechanical performance of biocomposites was also reported in many studies. In most of the cases, a negative effect of water absorption was observed, whereas in a few cases a positive effect was also seen. In the present study, mechanics and kinetics of water absorption for CFPCs are discussed. Further, a detailed literature review on water absorption of cellulosic fibres and their different types of polymer-based biocomposites has also been carried out. Furthermore, studies reported on the effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties were also systematically presented. Moreover, all the possible remedies to lower the water absorption capacity were also discussed in the present review paper.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T12:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720974424
       
  • Dependence of poly(vinyl butyral) electrospun fibres diameter on molecular
           weight and concentration

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      Authors: Petr Filip, Petra Peer, Jana Zelenkova
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In electrospinning, a proper choice of a mean diameter for electrospun fibres plays a significant role in a number of applications. The diameter is dependent on various entry parameters (concerning polymer, solvent, solution or the process of electrospinning itself) and is qualitatively evaluated based on a series of experiments. However, the studies on quantitative evaluation are rather scarce. The aim of this contribution is to propose and experimentally verify simple algebraic relationships; interlacing the mean diameter, concentration of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) dissolved in ethanol, molecular weight, and viscosity. The proposed explicit relationship for evaluating a mean diameter is valid for discrete values of specific molecular weights and is also applicable in continuous ranges of the studied parameters with a mean deviation not exceeding 10%, where PVB molecular weight is 30-60 kg/mol and PVB concentration is full range. Hence, it also provides the ability to determine optimised values of molecular weight for a chosen mean diameter including a dispersion of its value dependent on dispersion of molecular weights for the individual PVB charges. A direct evaluation of mean diameter can substitute a classical trial-and-error method for determining a required diameter.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-18T12:58:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720974038
       
  • Thermal and thermo-mechanical characterization of MWCNTs integrated
           E-glass/carbon fabric reinforced composites

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      Authors: Hande Sezgin, Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Omer Berk Berkalp
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The prime objective of this work is to interpret the effects of different kinds of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of E-glass/carbon fabric reinforced hybrid composites. MWCNTs enhanced composites are fabricated by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding method. The thermal and thermo-mechanical characterizations are carried out using a differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer and dynamic mechanical analyzer, while the morphological structure is examined by scanning electron microscope. The results show that the addition of MWCNTs and changing the fabric stacking sequences do not have effects on the phase changes of the materials but have reducing effects on the void ratio. Besides, it is observed that the added MWCNTs increase the degradation temperature of the composite material and the modulus values. The pristine MWCNT is found more effective on thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of composite structures than functionalized ones.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-16T11:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720973457
       
  • Influence of different textile structure reinforced composite leaf spring
           on their fabrication potential

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      Authors: Vikas Khatkar, Bijoya Kumar Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In advanced engineering applications, machining of composite material is a must to perform necessary assembly operations. This work deals with the investigation of fabrication potential of Glass/epoxy composites reinforced with different textile structures in the form of E-glass based chopped fiber, unidirectional (UD) tow, bidirectional (2D) plain woven, four different 3D woven orthogonal solid structures with varying binder percentage and one 3D woven angle interlock structure. The Influence of reinforcement architecture on tensile strength, drilling damage, bearing response, specific energy absorption (bending), and spring stiffness of composites structure was investigated. Damage analysis due to drilling was primarily assessed in terms of delamination whereas bearing strength, bearing strain and common bearing failure were examined from the bearing strength test. Different bearing failure was observed for different composite structures; UD composite was noticed with complete shear out failure while chopped failed due to tearing and 2D structure reinforced composite predominantly failed due to tearing and delamination failure. 3D orthogonal composite failed due to tearing in the warp direction and shear out in weft direction whereas 3D interlock failed due to tearing in both warp and weft direction. 3D orthogonal based composite structure exhibited the highest specific energy absorption (SEA) along with improved spring stiffness and therefor it could be a potential material for automotive leaf spring application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-16T11:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720974421
       
  • A study on design and properties of woven-nonwoven multi-layered hybrid
           geotextiles

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      Authors: Ting-Ting Li, Xiangyu Zhou, Zhike Wang, Yuyang Fan, Xiayun Zhang, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The area of forests continues decreasing while the water/soil loss becomes worse. In these complicated environments, mechanical properties, stability, high modulus and low elongation of geotextiles are required. On a premise of the acquisition of good mechanical properties and the improvement in the deformation and puncture resistance of nonwoven fabric, woven/nonwoven hybrid geotextiles are designed and made with needle punch processing technology in this study. The test results indicate that the mechanical properties of hybrid geotextiles are improved significantly when the areal density of nylon fabrics is increased. In particular, with the areal density of 400 g/m2, hybrid geotextiles exhibit the maximal mechanical properties and puncture resistance. Moreover, the pore fraction of hybrid geotextiles decreases as a result of a rise in the areal density of nylon top/bottom layers. The use of a 3 D mesh fabric as the interlayer provides the needle punched composite geotextiles with the highest tensile resistance, puncture resistance. The composite geotextiles are treated with acid and alkali to simulate the corrosion under natural conditions of stabilized soil. The resultant geotextile has good mechanical properties and acid/alkali degradation resistance. This allows the hybrid geotextiles to stabilize water and soil conservation in complicated conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T04:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720964703
       
  • Mechanical, water absorption and wear characteristics of novel polymeric
           composites: Impact of hybrid natural fibers and oil cake filler addition

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      Authors: KR Sumesh, V Kavimani, G Rajeshkumar, S Indran, Anish Khan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A novel epoxy-based composites were fabricated by reinforcing pineapple/flax (PF) fibers and peanut oil cake (PCF) filler using the hand layup cum compression moulding technique and investigated its mechanical, water absorption and wear properties as a function of wt.% of PF fibers (20–40 wt.%) and PCF (1–3 wt.%). The XRD and FTIR results proved the presence of lignocellulosic nature in PCF. Mechanical test results showed significant enhancement in the properties after the addition of PCF. The maximum tensile, flexural and impact properties of 37. 89 MPa, 70.28 MPa and 96.99 J/m were observed in the composites having 20 wt.% of PF and 2 wt.% of PCF. Taguchi based optimization observed a lower specific wear rate (SWR) with 2 wt.% PCF/20 wt.% PF/5 N load and 1500 m sliding distance (SD) combination. The ANOVA results proved the significance of PCF, PF fiber, sliding distance, and load for SWR in this experimentation. The Taguchi optimized results observed a lower coefficient of friction (COF) in 2 wt.% PCF/20 wt.% PF/5N load/500 m SD combination. SEM results displayed surface deformations in the wear-tested composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-09T07:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720971344
       
  • Effect of ethanol on the mold filling-time and mechanical properties of
           woven glass fiber reinforced epoxy filled with TiO2 nanoparticles

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      Authors: Sherif M Youssef, M Megahed, Soliman S Ali-Eldin, MA Agwa
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Vacuum resin infusion (VRI) is a promising technique for manufacturing complicated structural laminates. This high viscosity of nanofilled resin increases the filling time and leads to an incomplete mold filling. The mold filling time can be reduced either by making the fiber dimensions smaller than the mold (gaps around the fibers) or by adding ethanol to nanofilled epoxy. However, ethanol addition influences the mechanical properties of composite laminates. In this study, different amounts of ethanol (0.5 wt. % and 1 wt. %) were used as a diluent to both neat epoxy and epoxy filled with (0.25 wt. %) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. From results, it was found that ethanol addition saves the time for neat and nanofilled epoxy by 47.1% and 24.1%, respectively. It was found that adding 0.5 wt. % of ethanol to 0.25wt. % of TiO2 nanoparticles (GT0.25E0.5) enhances the tensile and flexural strength by 30.8% and 55.9%, respectively compared with neat specimens. Furthermore, the tensile and flexural moduli increased by 62% and 72.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the mold filling time was investigated experimentally and validated numerically using ANSYS FLUENT software. The mold filling time prediction using ANSYS FLUENT can be used to avoid resin gelation before the incomplete mold filling and thus can be considered a cost-effective methodology. The results showed that the gaps around the fibers reduce the time by 178% without affecting the mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T07:04:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720971345
       
  • Study on the properties of complex red luminescent fibers:
           Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, Dy3+/light conversion agents-polyacrylonitrile

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      Authors: Yanan Zhu, Liubin Zheng, Mingqiao Ge
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to improve the red luminous properties of luminescent fibers, Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, Dy3+ and light conversion agents were treated with silane (KH560), aluminate (DL-411-A), and aluminum zirconium coupling agents (LD-139-3) to prepare composite luminescent materials. And then they were added to a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber-forming polymer and through wet spun to form composite red light-emitting fibers. The surface morphology, phase structure, and luminescence properties of the composite red light-emitting fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectrometry, and afterglow brightness tester. Results showed that all of the three kinds of coupling agents influenced the red light of the luminescent fibers. The aluminate ester coupling agent had more effect than that of the other two coupling agents. After treatment with the aluminate coupling agent, the surface of the luminescent material became rough and adhered to the particles of light conversion agent. The intensity of the emission peak of the luminescent fibers at 470 nm decreased, and the emission peak intensity at 595 nm improved. The initial afterglow brightness and afterglow duration remained unchanged after 15 min of ultraviolet light excitation, as well as the color purity increased by approximately 1.6 times.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T07:04:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720971341
       
  • Development and auxetic characterization of 3D composites produced with
           newly-designed multi-cell flat-knitted spacer fabrics

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      Authors: Zahra Moshtaghian, Hossein Hasani, Mohammad Zarrebini, Mohammad Pourheidar Shirazi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The paper deals with development and characterization of 3D sandwich composite structures reinforced with newly-designed multi-cell flat-knitted spacer fabrics in terms of compressive behaviour and Poisson’s ratio. Multi-cell spacer knitted preforms was produced on a computerized flat knitting machine. 3D composite samples with three different cross-sectional geometries were prepared via vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding method. Quasi-static compressive experiments were carried out on the prepared 3D composite samples. The Poisson’s ratio of re-entrant 3D knitted composite varied between -6 and -1, which clearly points to existence of auxetic behaviour of the samples. The re-entrant 3D composites also demonstrated the highest initial slope and area under the compression force-displacement curve than spear-head or hexagonal composite structures which refer to higher energy absorbing capacity. The Poisson’s ratio of 3D regular hexagonal knitted composites at small strain was usually 4 which gradually decreased to 1.6 as the exerted compressive strain increased. Additionally, 3D spear-head knitted composite having zero Poisson’s ratio was also developed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T06:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720971696
       
  • Polyvinyl fibers as outperform candidature in the solid polymer
           electrolytes

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      Authors: Muhammad Yameen Solangi, Umair Aftab, Muhammad Ishaque, Aqeel Bhutto, Ayman Nafady, Zafar Hussain Ibupoto
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are the best choice to replace liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells and batteries. The main challenge in this filed is the ionic conductivity and thermal stability of SPEs which is still not up to mark, therefore more investigations are needed to address these issues. In this study, PVA/salt based SPEs was fabricated using both solution cast and electro-spinning methods to probe the effect of different salts such as (NaCl, KCl and KI) and their concentrations on the ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) x and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) have been employed to study the morphology as well as the different functional groups of SPEs, respectively. It was noted that small addition of NaCl, KCl and KI salts in SPEs dramatically increased the ionic conductivity to 5.95×10−6, 5.31×10−6 and 4.83×10−6 S/cm, respectively. Importantly, the SPEs obtained with NaCl via electro-spinning have higher ionic conductivity (5.95×10−6 S/cm) than their casted SPEs (1.87×10−6 S/cm). Thermal stability was also studied at two different temperatures i.e. 80 °C and 100 °C. The weight loss percentage of electrospun SPEs have zero percent weight loss than the solution based SPEs. The combined results clearly indicated that the nature of salt, concentration and fabrication process play a vital role in the ionic conductivity. Also, the NaCl salt with low molecular weight at low concentrations shows an enhanced ionic conductivity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T06:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720970620
       
  • Development, investigation and evaluation of smart multifunctional socks

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      Authors: Laimutė Stygienė, Sandra Varnaitė-Žuravliova, Aušra Abraitienė, Audronė Sankauskaitė, Virginija Skurkytė-Papievienė, Sigitas Krauledas, Virginijus Mažeika
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The use of a new generation chemical fibers with various functional additives offers new possibilities for the development of advanced (multi)functional textile products. Such compounds as phase change materials (PCMs), metals (like cooper, silver), also natural or chemical insect repellents, FIR emitting ceramic particles and etc. incorporated into fibres’ structure are essential for development of knitted fabrics directly contacting to the skin with effective thermoregulation and such protective properties as: antimicrobial, antistatic, repellence against blood sucking insects. The main parts of socks investigated were knitted in plain plated single jersey pattern. The 3-ply twisted yarns of new structures were used in the outer layer of socks. Yarns were made by using single yarns with PCMs, insect repellent permethrin, ceramic and silver additives containing fibres (Cell Solution® Clima, Cell Solution® Protection, Resistex® Silver). The inner layer of socks was made of polyester (PES) 3-ply twisted yarns with different number of filaments resulted in different structures of socks’ fabric. Based on all obtained thermoregulating and protective characteristics of investigated different knitted fabric structures of socks, the optimal knitted socks were selected. The obtained results of investigations are significant for the development of other knitted fabrics worn next to the skin.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T06:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720970166
       
  • Hardness, wear behavior and processing time of diluent and non-diluent
           nanocomposite laminates manufactured by vacuum infusion technique

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      Authors: Sherif M Youssef, MA Agwa, Soliman S Ali-Eldin, M Megahed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The manufacturing of nanocomposites using the Vacuum Resin Infusion (VRI) technique can be considered a challenging task. The reason for this challenge is the high viscosity of the nanofilled resin. For large composite laminates, the nanofilled resin may be cured before complete mold filling, and thus can be considered as a waste of money. In this study, different weight fractions of TiO2 nanoparticles (0.25 wt. % and 0.5 wt. %) were added to epoxy resin. Also, different weight fractions of ethanol (0.5 wt. % and 1 wt. %) were added to both unfilled and nanofilled epoxy. The processing time, hardness, and wear behavior of the composite laminates were investigated. It was found that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improved the hardness and wear behavior of composite laminates but the processing time was high. Also, results showed that adding a small amount of ethanol (0.5 wt. %) and 0.25 wt. % of TiO2 nanoparticles to epoxy reinforced with chopped/woven glass fiber not only reduced the processing time but also improved the hardness and wear resistance as compared to neat composite laminates. Moreover, adding 0.5 wt. % of ethanol and 0.25 wt. % of TiO2 nanoparticles to woven E-glass/epoxy (WN0.25E0.5) gives hardness and wear resistance close to that obtained with woven E-glass/epoxy filled with 0.5 wt. % of TiO2 nanoparticles (WN0.5). It is economical to manufacture WN0.25E0.5 rather than WN0.5 as the cost and processing time of WN0.25E0.5 is lower than WN0.5.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T06:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720970165
       
  • Removal of high concentration Congo red by hydrophobic PVDF hollow fiber
           composite membrane coated with a loose and porous ZIF-71PVDF layer through
           vacuum membrane distillation

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      Authors: Hongbin Li, Wenying Shi, Qiyun Du, Shoufa Huang, Haixia Zhang, Rong Zhou, Xiaohong Qin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Although membrane distillation (MD) technology has the outstanding advantages of almost 100% solute retention and mild operation conditions, its further development is limited by low permeate flux. In order to solve the problem, the improvement of membrane hydrophobicity becomes one of the effective solutions. In this study, a loose and porous hydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-71 (ZIF-71)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) coating layer was composited on the outside surface of PVDF hollow fiber support membrane by the dilute solution coating to enhance membrane hydrophobicity. The prepared hollow fiber composite (HFC) membranes were employed to remove high concentration Congo red (CR) through VMD. The effects of different operation conditions including the dye concentration, feed temperature, vacuum pressure and feed flow rate on CR rejection and permeate water flux were investigated. In the variation range of operating conditions, all the CR rejection of the PVDF HFC membranes shows a slight change and remains above 99.9%. Under the optimal operation conditions including dye concentration 600 mg·L−1, vacuum pressure 31.325 kPa, feed temperature 60°C and feed flow rate 50 L·h−1, HFC membrane exhibit a permeate water flux of 13.15 kg·m−2·h−1. HFC membrane suffers dye fouling during the continuous dye filtration for 100 h. The fouling mechanism was proposed and a combined cleaning way including forward washing, back flushing and chemical desorption has been proved to be effective in recovering membrane water flux.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T06:04:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720967075
       
  • A review of flexible electric heating element and electric heating
           garments

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      Authors: Shu Fang, Rui Wang, Haisu Ni, Hao Liu, Li Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electric heating garment can improve the thermal comfort for people living and working in cold environment. Compared with passive heating materials, electrical heating shows dominant advantages on reusability, controlled temperature, safety and so on. This review article systematically introduced the material preparation, electric-thermal properties, advantages and disadvantages of the existing flexible heating elements, and elaborated the research and application progress of smart garments in detail, providing reference for the research of flexible heating elements and smart garments. And the existing challenges and the possible future perspectives were also discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T06:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720968278
       
  • Finite element analysis of projectile nose shapes in ballistic perforation
           of 2D plain woven Kevlar/epoxy composites using multi-scale modelling

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      Authors: Mithilesh Kumar Dewangan, SK Panigrahi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research deals with the finite element analysis (FEA) considering high strength Kevlar/epoxy composites as a target plate subjected to ballistic impact by varying nose-shaped projectiles. A multi-scale modelling technique has been implemented with FEA to design the intricate weave architecture. The damage properties are adopted using a user-defined function in the explicit analysis. The proposed methodology is validated by the available literature. The conical-shaped projectiles will have more damage and penetration as compared to the flat projectiles, which are studied for two plate thickness. The conical 60° and conical 90° projectiles will have better penetration to the target plate even for the increased thickness, whereas the Conical 120° and Flat projectiles will have a significant reduction in residual velocities. Also, with the increment in thickness, the energy absorption will significantly increase for Flat projectiles as compared to the conical projectiles. For lower velocities, the yarn slippage and puncturing are the major factors of failure along with fiber breakage and matrix cracking. As the velocities increased, the dominant phenomena of failure will be the linear momentum transfer.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T06:04:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720970168
       
  • Development of 3D hollow woven fabrics with superior mechanical properties
           by using nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns

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      Authors: Elif Yılmaz, Sevda Altaş
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns were produced from wires having two different diameters and used as warp yarns to weave 3D woven fabrics in two different fabric constructions. The steel bars with two different diameters were placed into the gaps between fabric layers to create a hollow form after fabric production. The fabrics produced with cold-worked nitinol wire were exposed to heat treatments at high temperatures to provide them shape memory property according to data obtained from DSC analysis. Conventional textile fibers are not durable to these temperatures; for this reason, carbon fiber was used both as sheath material of hybrid yarns and additionally as warp and weft carbon fiber yarns. All yarn and fabric tests were carried out simultaneously to evaluate the mechanical properties of nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns, and wire-reinforced fabrics. Tensile tests were applied to all wire and hybrid yarn samples, DSC and DMA analyses were conducted for only heat-treated nitinol wires. Low-velocity impact, tensile and pull-out tests were applied to fabric samples. Reference fabrics with no wire were produced and evaluated by comparing with wire-reinforced samples to provide a point of comparison to the data from the mechanical properties of wire-reinforced 3D fabrics. The study's results were analyzed with regression analysis using the backward method, and the parameters such as wire type, wire diameter, and fabric gap width for optimum fabric production were determined. Data obtained from all mechanical tests demonstrate that fabric samples with steel wire, thinner wire, and narrow gaps have better results than others. The effect of wire thickness was also found the same for the nitinol wire. DMA analyses show that the thinner nitinol wire is better than, the thicker one. Finally, an innovative technique has been developed in this study to weave carbon fiber on a conventional automatic sample loom without fiber breakage by twisting PVA yarn around the wire core hybrid and twisted carbon fiber yarns.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T07:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720968833
       
  • Tribological behavior and wear mechanism of Cu/CF/phenolic resin sandwich
           composites under current

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      Authors: Enhao Dai, Guangzhen Li, Guixia Lu, Wen Wang, Zhengde Han, Ziyu Song, Quan Zhang, Hua Yuan, Xiaoyu Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The catenary system was an important part of electrified railway, which provided traction power for electric trains. Cu/CF/phenolic resin contact strip (CFRCS) had been designed with excellent mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. The properties of CFRCS and the pure carbon contact strip (PCCS) were also compared. It could be found that CFRCS not only had higher impact strength than PCCS, but also had lower resistivity, which was favorable for current transmission. This paper analyzed the wear behavior of contact strips from two aspects of wear data and abrasive dust, which was mainly determined by the current and its components. The current-carrying wear mechanism of CFRCS was mainly arc erosion wear, oxidation wear and adhesive wear, while that of PCCS was oxidation wear and arc erosion wear.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T07:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720966697
       
  • Corrigendum to A novel yarn spinning method for fabricating conductive and
           nanofiber-coated hybrid yarns

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      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T03:55:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720971527
       
  • Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of agave fibers bio-based
           epoxy laminates reinforced with zinc oxide

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      Authors: Mauricio Torres, Victoria Renteria Rodriguez, Perla Itzel Alcantara, Edgar Franco-Urquiza
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Biolaminates of Ixtle and Henequen natural fibers reinforced bio-based epoxy resin were prepared using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion process. ZnO nanoparticles were added to the bio-based epoxy resin at 1, 2 and 3 wt. % content before impregnation process. The viscoelastic and mechanical properties, as well as the fracture behavior, were evaluated and related to the nature of the fibers and filler content. The viscoelastic results indicated the ZnO particles are effective fillers just at low concentrations, and induce different reinforcement mechanisms attributed to the interaction between the nature of fibers and nanoparticles. The mechanical properties of the Ixtle biolaminates decreased at higher filler concentrations, while Henequen biolaminates showed better mechanical properties just above the 2 wt. % of ZnO. The fracture behavior in mode I registered moderate changes in toughness, related to the ZnO fraction, which promoted different behaviors on the interlaminar adherence of the layers. The results point to the need to continue evaluating the potential application of these green composites for their use in construction and automotive industries.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:43:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720965689
       
  • Cutting resistance of flexible armour using multiple layers of triaxial
           kevlar fabric

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Shaimaa Youssef El-Tarfawy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The textiles capable of cutting resistance found applications in the industrial and military areas to construct flexible lightweight soft body armors. In the present work, a theoretical model to understand the mechanism of fabric cut resistance in a different direction for weft-knitted, triaxial, and multiple layers structures. An experimental study of cutting resistance force was done on weft-knitted fabric with Kevlar 29 triaxial fabrics in multiple layers structure to support derived mathematical model for the effect of multiple layers structure on their cutting force. The study examines specific cut resistance of the structure from four layers of Kevlar triaxial fabrics covered with knitted fabric on both sides. The angle of cutting force varied from 0°, 60°, and 90° with respect to the yarn inclination. Results show that the cutting force of the multilayer structure is linearly proportional to the number of Kevlar triaxial fabrics layers. The specific cut resistance value of the structure from four layers of Kevlar triaxial fabrics, covered with knitted fabric on both sides, reached 544, 435, and 326 (N/g/cm2) for cutting directions: angled 60°, vertical, and horizontal, respectively. In this work, the comparison between the triaxial fabric of high areal density and multiple layers of triaxial fabric with resultant same areal density indicates that a better specific cutting force was achieved in the first case. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between triaxial surface density, the direction of cutting, and the number of triaxial fabric layers and discussed the optimum specific properties of the different structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T03:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720968279
       
  • Study of the potential use of the invasive marine algae Undaria
           pinnatifida in the preliminary development of a functional textile

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      Authors: Maria Alejandra Martinez, Maria Eugenia Becherucci
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Seaweeds are considered to be an important source of relevant chemical substances or bioactive compounds of great usefulness in the medical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical or food industry. Recently, some seaweed had been used to produce or incorporate in fibers in order to manufacture technical textiles in which functional ingredient of the seaweed are exploited in the health and body care area. The brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Undaria) has an important nutritive value being consumed as food in several Asian countries. As well Undaria is required in cosmetic or dermatology medicine given the presence of other bioactive chemical substances known as phycocolloids. The objective of this study was to explore the potential use of Undaria in a preliminary development of a functional textile. A soft bilaminate textile with a high crease recovery and an efficient release of mucilage, was achieved using a fine dust (particle of
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T05:42:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720967067
       
  • Dynamic stab resistance of multi-ply three-dimensional warp interlock
           fabrics with high-performance high-molecular-weight polyethylene yarns for
           protective applications

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      Authors: Mengru Li, Peng Wang, François Boussu, Damien Soulat
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fabrics constructed from 3 D warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) structures provide varying flexibility and durability and are promising structures for protective applications. However, its performance toward stab resistance from knife attack should be investigated before applying. In this work, the influences of fabric architectures, ply orientation of stacking sequences, and the number of fabric plies on the dynamic stab resistance are comparatively studied on high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE) 3DWIFs. It indicates that 3DWIF with orthogonal and through-the-thickness interlock structure reveals a helpful influence on stab resistance. Further investigation on the influence of different ply orientation of stacking sequences, based on the combination of fabrics placed at different angles, is analyzed showing a certain influence of stab resistance. Dynamic stab resistance reveals the linear correlation with a low number of fabric plies (less than 6 plies), but shows a parabolic relationship with the increase of fabric plies (more than 16 plies) until there is no penetration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T07:32:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720965685
       
  • Influence of orthopedic support structure and construction on compression
           and behavior during stress relaxation

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      Authors: D Mikucioniene, L Muraliene
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work was focused on changes of the compression generated by knitted orthopedic supports during the stress relaxation in order to find in which period of the stress relaxation the most significant part of the compression is lost. The influence of knitted structure, elastomeric inlay-yarn insertion density and shape/orientation of the rigid element fixed on the fabric on the compression and its changes under the stress relaxation was also investigated in this study. 11 different knitted structures and constructions were used in this research. It was found that the higher density of elastomeric inlay-yarn insertion into the knitted structure is not only responsible for higher compression generation, but also makes compression degradation during the time slower. In addition, the higher pre-tension of the elastomeric inlay-yarn leads to the faster relaxation process. Moreover, the shape and orientation of the rigid element can significantly affect the compression generation, however behavior of all variants during the stress relaxation is very similar. Evaluation of the tensile force after at least 120-300 s of the stress relaxation has to be used in design algorithm of very different compression products and applied in estimation of the compression at different manufacturing stages of the product.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T07:39:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720964695
       
  • A facile approach to prepare a flexible and durable electrically driven
           cotton fabric-based heater

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      Authors: Zhaoqun Du, Zhiliang Chen, Jiaying Xu, Dongming Zheng, Haochen Zou, Jinkang Liu, Mingxing Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible and durable electrically driven heaters (EDHs) was prepared by using silver nanowire/polydopamine modified cotton fabric (AgNW/PDA-C) as Joule heat generator and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as stretchable matrix.The electric property of the EDHs was investigated, and it can show excellent electrical property and stability. The EDHs can be seen from the SEM morphology that cotton fabric was well protected by the PDMS and has good conductive network. The EDHs also exhibit excellent electrothermal performance under applied voltage. At low-voltages, it can quickly reach satisfactory steady-state temperatures that meet the needs of wearables. By improving the electrothermal model, it can be verified that there is a quadratic function relationship between electric power and steady-state temperature. Under cyclic voltage and bending tests, the EDHs can well maintain steady-state temperature and exhibit excellent dynamic and static electrothermal performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T05:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720965678
       
  • Similarity criteria for canopy porosity and environmental impact analysis
           of air permeability

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      Authors: Siyu Zhang, Li Yu, He Jia, Xiaoshun Zhao
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The porosity is one of the important properties of canopy fabric, which affects the stability, aerodynamic performance and inflation performance of parachutes. The similarity criteria for canopy porosity were presented on the principle of similarity analysis. The Ergun theory of porous medium was introduced to establish the model of air permeability and differential pressure between canopies fully considering the air flow property during decelerating process of parachutes. And the differential pressure equation of micro-pore jets of fabric was established based on Bernoulli's theorem. Then, a novel model of air permeability for parachute canopy under different flying environment was proposed. The air permeability calculated by the model is in good agreement with the experiment. According to different environmental conditions, the impact analysis of air permeability and effective permeability of parachute canopies was studied. The results show that geometric and dynamic similarity are sufficient conditions for porous similarity of canopy. The air permeability and effective permeability of canopy are positively correlated with flight velocity and air density, negatively correlated with aerodynamic viscosity and less affected. There exists blockage effect in micro-pore jets of fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:16:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720963339
       
  • Development of alkali-treated surface-modified coir fibre filter for 1µm
           to 10 µm particle filtration and process optimization

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      Authors: N Gobi, R Aarthi, A Farzin, R Pazhanishankar, G Monnisha
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Filtration of Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 and PM 10 particles are focused by the filters used in Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Synthetic fibres/filaments are widely used to construct the filters for air conditioning filters and cleanroom filters which is not biodegradable. Natural fibres are easily biodegradable, exhibit better filtration characteristics as like synthetic fibres. In this research, alkali-treated coir fibres are used to construct the filter for filtering the particle range of 1.0 µm to 10 µm. Box- Behnken experimental design was used for the experimental plan and the experiments were conducted to construct the filters. The change in fibre properties by alkali-treatment was observed and the treatment with 5% and 10% alkali increases the crystallinity index of fibres. The influence of independent variables on the performance of developed filters was analyzed in detail. 5% NaOH treated fibre sample with 20% resin proportion and 60 g fibre content in the unit area was identified by a quality factor as the best combination of independent variables for constructing filter.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T04:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720964702
       
  • Enhancing biocompatibility of PCL/PU nano-structures to control the water
           wettability by NaOH hydrolysis treatment for tissue engineering
           applications

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      Authors: Nafiseh Jirofti, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Ramin Masoumi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nano-structures due to their unique properties can provide a biomimetic structure for cell attachment and proliferation in tissue engineering (TE) applications. But sometimes, their surface properties are not particularly suitable for directed tissue growth. In this regard, present study has focused on fabrication and hydrolysis of Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/Polyurethane (PU) by aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with a view to modify the surface and hydrophilicity of the structures. The characterizations and mechanical properties of non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed nano-structures were evaluated by SEM, FESEM, FTIR, water contact angle and tensile stress. The all hydrolyzed nano-structures showed improvement in contact angle after 2h at all concentrations of NaOH. The PCL, PU, PCL75%:PU25%, and PCL25%:PU75% structures have shown 3.8%, 12.5%, 4.1% and 7%, respectively, of shrinkage at hydrolysis at 3 M NaOH and 3 h. The PCL25%:PU75% structure indicated the greatest reduction in stress and strain at 3 M NaOH and 3 h (1.1 ± 0.06 MPa with 52% decreases) and (156 ± 5% with 49% decreases), respectively. Also, the structure with 75% of PCL showed 28% reduction in Young's Modulus (4.33 ± 0.45 MPa) at 3 M NaOH after 2 h. It is noted that the hydrolysis treatment with 3 M of NaOH concentration at 2 h is optimum condition for hydrolysis hybrid nan-structures for TE applications. Also, the results of this study proposed that hydrolyzed PCL75%:PU25% hybrid nano-structures due to its unique mechanical properties and optimum surface modification could be promising candidate for TE applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-12T07:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720963268
       
  • Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with flax-basalt-glass woven fabrics
           for lightweight load bearing structures

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      Authors: Mohamed A Attia, Marwa A Abd El-baky, Mostafa M Abdelhaleem, Mohamed A Hassan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An experimental investigation on the mechanical performance of interlayer hybrid flax-basalt-glass woven fabrics reinforced epoxy composite laminates has been performed. The tensile, flexural, in-plane shear, interlaminar shear, bearing, and impact properties of the fabricated laminates were investigated. Test specimens were fabricated using vacuum bagging process. Failure modes of all specimens were recorded and discussed. Results proved that the mechanical properties of flax-basalt-glass hybrid laminates are highly dominated by the reinforcement combinations and plies stacking sequence. Hybridizing flax fiber reinforced composite with basalt and/or glass fabrics provides an effective method for enhancing its tensile, flexural, in-plane shear, interlaminar shear, and bearing properties as well as controls the impact strength of the composite. The fabricated hybrids are found to have good specific mechanical properties benefits. Amongst the studied flax/basalt/glass hybrids, FBGs has the highest tensile properties, GBFs has the highest flexural and impact properties, and GFBs has the best shear and bearing properties. Flax-basalt-glass hybrid composites with different layering sequence seem to be an appropriate choice for lightweight load bearing structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-10T05:37:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960743
       
  • Fatigue strength prediction of hybrid composites via IR-thermography and
           energy loss methods

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      Authors: Mohaiman J Sharba
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Materials Fatigue life assessment is known to be a time consuming test with high cost and large sample size. To overcome these issues, non-destructive methods provide the possibility for fast determination of material fatigue limit. In the current study the high cyclic fatigue limits of jute/glass reinforced hybrid composites is determined using IR-thermography method by adopting Risitano’s thermographic approach which has not tested yet on natural fiber composites. Also, the effect of jute fiber ratio on fatigue strength of hybrid composites is investigated through three sets of hybrid. In order to validate the determined fatigue limits, the obtained results of thermography were compared with previous conventional fatigue results, also compared with the results of energy loss measurements which effectively predicted the fatigue limit of hybrid composites. Based on the achieved observation and comparisons, the accuracy of measured fatigue limits using thermography method was ranging from 92 - 98% for all composites when compared with corresponded conventional results. In addition, energy loss method has effectively predicted the fatigue limit of hybrid composites that almost matches thermography method results. Lastly, found that there is no significant influence of jute fiber content on fatigue limit detection, as all hybrid composites were almost have similar fatigue strength. According to the results obtained in this work, the reliability of thermographic technique is confirmed to measure fatigue limits of natural fiber composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-07T06:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720964206
       
  • Composite polymer particles containing bismuth vanadate particles for
           self-cleaning fabrics

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      Authors: Chonticha Klubchom, Preeyaporn Chaiyasat, Amorn Chaiyasat
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this research was to prepare composite polymer particles containing bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles through microsuspension iodine transfer polymerization (ms ITP) for fabric coating as a self-cleaning fabric. To reduce the aggregation of pristine BiVO4 particles during the fabric coating process, composite polymer particles containing the visible-light-driven photocatalyst as BiVO4 particles in self-cleaning fabric applications were investigated in the first time. First, BiVO4 particles were prepared via an aqueous chelating method where the stable precursor solutions of Bi3+ and V5+ with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ligand were obtained. After calcination at 500 °C, the BiVO4 particles were obtained. To disperse them well in an oil (monomer) phase in ms ITP, the BiVO4 surface was modified by oleic acid as o-BiVO4 to present a hydrophobic surface. The encapsulation efficiency of the o-BiVO4 (≥60%) in composite poly(methylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) (P[MMA-DVB]/o-BIVO) particles was significantly higher than that (≈10%) of the pristine BiVO4 particles. Using polyethylene glycol 30 dipolyhydroxystearate (DPHS) as a porogen, porous P(MMA-DVB)/o-BiVO4 particles still maintaining their spherical shape were obtained with an 8% particle of DPHS. Furthermore, increasing the hydrophilic polymer shell by adding 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the oil phase of ms ITP, the P(MMA-DVB-HEMA)/o-BiVO4 particles showed a much higher methylene blue (MB) degradation rate under visible light for 1 h (24 mg MB/g BiVO4 or 96% MB degradation) than that (13 mg MB/g BiVO4 or 52% MB degradation) of the pristine BiVO4. Moreover, the fabric coated with porous P(MMA-DVB-HEMA)/o-BiVO4 particles showed a satisfactory self-cleaning property.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-10-07T06:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960752
       
  • Multi-layered sound absorption structure composed of nonwoven fabrics and
           polyethylene membranes

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      Authors: Xiaoning Tang, Xueting Liu, Xiansheng Zhang, Shangyong Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work has focused on the improvement of the sound absorption properties of multilayered structure. Nonwoven fabrics with three different thickness were used to fabricate multilayered absorber. Polyethylene membrane was then incorporated into the multilayered structure with different combinations. The acoustic measurement indicated that polyethylene membrane can improve the sound absorption properties when the thickness of nonwoven fabric is 1.01 mm and 2.38 mm respectively. However, the incorporation of polyethylene membrane will decrease the sound absorption coefficients when the thickness of nonwoven fabric is 3.41 mm. This study has indicated that the thickness of nonwoven fabric and the layer stacking sequence should be focused on consideration to prepare multilayered sound absorber.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T12:01:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720961950
       
  • An experimental study on the interaction between braiding structural
           parameters and their effects on ropes mechanical properties

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      Authors: Tamer Hamouda, Nermin M Aly, MH Elshakankery
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Braided rope configuration and properties are the main key factors to consider on choosing it for various industrial applications. Rope's structure is characterized by high axial tensile strength combined with flexibility. The mechanical properties of ropes are greatly influenced by braiding process settings which have crucial effects on their functional performance. In this study, 27 types of braided polyester ropes were produced and divided into three groups according to their structural parameters and braiding settings, which include take-up and tension rates, yarn count, braid pattern, number of spindles and carriers' settings. The effects of changing these parameters on braid angle, repeat length, linear density, and mechanical properties such as tensile stress, strain and tensile modulus were investigated. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the results using multiple regression analysis, F-test, surface and contour plots to illustrate the relation and the interaction between variables that have significant effects on the ropes' properties and to assess their performance. The results indicated that increasing the take-up rate leads to increase the ropes' braid angle. Whereas, increasing the tension leads to obtain ropes of low linear density with high stress and modulus. Ropes of lower strain were attained by increasing the take-up and decreasing the tension rates. Furthermore, the rope sample produced with pattern 2/2 using the high take-up and medium tension rate achieved the highest mechanical properties of high stress, modulus with low strain among all rope samples in the three groups.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T12:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960732
       
  • Characterization of glass fiber felt and its performance as an air
           filtration media

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      Authors: Chi Zou, Yunlong Shi, Xiaoming Qian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The glass fiber felt made through flame blowing process was characterized on morphology and its filtration performance. Fiber diameter has been measured through SEM and BET methods. Theoretical calculations on pressure drop and filtration efficiency were developed and compared with the experimental measurement. The discrepancy between the calculated results and measurement on filtration efficiency is derived from the presence of fine fiber (
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T05:18:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720961410
       
  • Dual cantilever creep and recovery behavior of sisal/hemp fibre reinforced
           hybrid biocomposites: Effects of layering sequence, accelerated weathering
           and temperature

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      Authors: K Senthilkumar, S Subramaniam, Thitinun Ungtrakul, T Senthil Muthu Kumar, M Chandrasekar, N Rajini, Suchart Siengchin, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, the influence of weathering on the creep behavior of the sisal (SSSS), hemp (HHHH), and their hybrid composites (HSSH, and HSHS) was investigated. Composites were exposed to accelerated weathering for 2222 h, which replicates conditions equivalent to 1 year of outdoor exposure. Bio-epoxy based composites were fabricated by the hot press technique. Creep study was performed in a dynamic mechanical analyzer under the dual cantilever creep mode at 30 °C and 50 °C testing temperature under a load of 5 N. The creep-recovery behavior of the weathered composite specimens was evaluated and compared with the unweathered specimens. The investigation revealed that creep strain decreased with the incorporation of the sisal and hemp fibres into the bio-epoxy matrix. The experimental creep response of the composites was also in good agreement with the analytical results from Burger’s model. Both the weathering and testing conditions at elevated temperature (50 °C) had a significant impact on the creep resistance of the composites. The creep resistance of the hybrid composites was found to be dependent on the layering sequence. HSHS configuration almost displayed similar creep properties before and after weathering. HSSH configuration was found to have lower creep resistance after weathering. Scanning electron microscopy was used out to examine the fibre-matrix interface of the composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T05:18:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720961416
       
  • The mechanical performance of the laminated aluminum-epoxy/glass fiber
           

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      Authors: Marwa A Abd El-baky, Mohamed A Attia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the effect of different weight percentages (wt. %) of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on the mechanical performance of glass laminate aluminum (Al) reinforced epoxy (GLARE) was investigated. GLARE (3/2) laminates with quasi-isotropic lay-up, [Al/[(0°/90°)/(45°/−45°)]s/Al/[(0°/90°)/(45°/−45°)]s/Al] filled with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt. % of HNTs were fabricated using hand lay-up followed by compression molding. To explore the effect of HNTs on the mechanical properties, tensile, flexural, in-plane shear, interlaminar shear, bearing and impact tests were conducted. Results demonstrated that the inclusion of 1 wt. % of HNTs into GLARE leads to maximum improvements of 35.67, 8.50, 28.85, 50.47, 50.27, 30.43, 23.73, 72.08, 30.74, and 51.52% in tensile strength, tensile strain, Young's modulus, modulus of toughness, flexural strength, flexural strain, in-plane shear strength, interlaminar shear strength, bearing strength, and impact strength, respectively, compared to pristine GLARE. An enhancement of 38.89% in the flexural modulus was attained by adding 0.5 wt. % of HNTs to GLARE compared to pristine GLARE. The tensile strength, tensile strain, modulus of toughness, flexural strength, flexural modulus, flexural strain, in-plane shear strength, and interlaminar shear strength of GLARE filled with 3 wt. % of HNTs are 0.91, 0.88, 0.91, 0.91, 0.71, 0.83, 0.85, and 0.91 times those of the original GLARE. But Young’s modulus, bearing strength, and impact strength are 1.10, 1.15 and 1.20 times those of the original GLARE. To investigate the fracture mechanism, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used. The microscopic images revealed that adding HNTs lead to the improvement in the interaction between the epoxy matrix and glass fiber, thereby improving the mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T05:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960735
       
  • Can ultrasonic parameters affect the impact and water barrier properties
           of nano-clay filled glass fiber/polyester composites'

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      Authors: AA Megahed, MA Agwa, M Megahed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Good dispersion of the nanoparticles into the polymer is considered a critical issue, as it can provide higher strength and stiffness while poor dispersion is seen to decrease those properties. In the present work, the effect of three ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, time and cycle of sonication) on sonication technique for dispersing 1 wt.% nano-clay in polyester matrix was investigated. To disperse the nano-clay into the polyester matrix, sonication frequencies of 40% and 80%, sonication times of 0.5, 1 and 2 hours and pulse of 0.5 and 1 cycle were used. The effect of these ultrasonication parameters on water barrier and impact behavior of unfilled and filled glass fiber (GF)/polyester with nano-clay under dry, distilled and seawater conditions was studied. Results showed that, water absorption of nano-filled composites dispersed with all sonication parameters is lower than that of unfilled glass fiber/polyester composites immersed in distilled and seawater. Nano-clay filled GF/polyester composites showed an improvement in impact resistance under dry, distilled and seawater conditions with all sonication parameters. Among the used sonication parameters; time of 2 hours, amplitude of 40% and 0.5 cycle was found as the best parameter which resulted in the maximum enhancement in impact resistance, due to the addition of nano-clay to GF/polyester, of 8.2%, 14% and 19.6% under dry, distilled water and seawater conditions, respectively. Nonlinear minimization approach was exploited using MAPLE commercial software in order to find the suitable fit to the models of Fick and Langmuir. Diffusion coefficients for different sonication times were computed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T05:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960733
       
  • Development of functional knitted fabrics using yarn composed of
           polypyrrole coated cotton fibers

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      Authors: Veerakumar Arumugam, Andrey Lunchev, Yingsi Wu, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Vitali Lipik
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed at developing a knitted fabric using conductive staple spun yarn composed of polypyrrole coated cotton fibers and characterizing its thermal, optical and electrical properties, hydrophobic behavior as well as mechanical stiffness as a factor of weight percentage in fabrics. FTIR spectra, TGA and SEM verify that the polypyrrole ((PPy) has been successfully coated on cotton fibres before and after washing. The results showed that the fabrics containing polypyrrole had lower transmission and reflection percentage as compared with fabric without polypyrrole for wavelengths ranging from 200 to 20000 nm. At the investigated weight percentages, the thermal properties, hydrophobicity and electrical conductivity were found to be increased significantly with increasing amount of polypyrrole coated cotton fibers in the fabric. The thermal conductivity of fabrics with PPy coated fibers were found to be increased around 30-40%. The higher value of electrical conductivity (0.73 µS cm−1) was obtained in course direction and static water contact angle of 138° for fabric with higher polypyrrole content. The stiffness of the fabrics with PPy was found to increase about 10–20% in both wale wise and course wise directions with increase of polypyrrole coated cotton fibers in fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-23T04:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960741
       
  • Optimizing the physical parameters of
           polycaprolactone-gelatin-polydimethylsiloxane composite nanofiber scaffold
           for tissue engineering application

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      Authors: Mahdieh Dehghan, Habib Nikukar, Mohammad Khajeh Mehrizi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A lot of research has already been conducted on tissue engineering as it can have the potential for organ and tissue regeneration and repair. Research on the proliferation of cells on the scaffolds, which are material-based structures in the extracellular matrix, increased efficiency of 3D cultures. In this study, the stages of preparing a nanofiber scaffold with different ratios of three polymers of Polycaprolactone/Gelatin/Polydimethylsiloxane (PCL/G/PDMS) which is biodegradable, non-toxic and biocompatible are explained for tissue engineering and then fibroblast cells cultivation are discussed. The morphology, porosity and hydrophilicity of the prepared scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the liquid displacement method, water contact-angle measurements respectively. The cell growth and proliferation on scaffolds were counted by Digimizer© software. Then morphology, porosity and hydrophilicity of scaffolds and cell growth and proliferation on scaffolds were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that PCL/G/PDMS electrospun nanofibers can be used for tissue engineering applications. The purpose of this scaffold is design a scaffold for elastic tissue engineering, especially uterine tissue, which will be discussed in the following articles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T07:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960156
       
  • Structural and physical characteristics of the yucca fiber

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      Authors: Meghdad Kamali Moghaddam, Ehsan Karimi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Yucca fiber is a natural cellulose fiber that can be extracted from the Yucca plant leaves by retting. The physical properties of the Yucca fiber are extremely sensitive to the retting conditions. This research was designed to study the effects of chemical retting on the structural and properties of this fiber. Chemical retting was done by soaking the Yucca leaf in 10 to 150 g/l sodium hydroxide concentration at 80 to 100 °C for 60 to 240 min. Fiber characteristics such as fineness, tenacity, functional groups, crystallinity, thermal degradation, and surface morphology were then investigated. The Yucca fibers exhibited high crystallinity (56–66%), high tenacity (36–46 cN/tex), and low linear density (3–5 tex). It was also found that the elementary fiber had a mean diameter of about 1.2 [math] and a helical structure of square-shaped spires. The thermogravimetric analysis also indicated that the Yucca fiber had the thermal stability of up to 250 °C. Based on the findings, the Yucca fiber may be suitable for various applications such as a reinforcement material in the composites applications and can be turned to yarn for textile applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T07:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720960756
       
  • Mechanical, chemical and sound absorption properties of glass/kenaf/waste
           tea leaf fiber-reinforced hybrid epoxy composites

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      Authors: L Prabhu, V Krishnaraj, S Gokulkumar, S Sathish, MR Sanjay, S Siengchin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work aims to investigate the mechanical and sound absorption characteristics of industrial waste tea leaf fiber (WTLF), kenaf and E-glass fiber–reinforced hybrid epoxy composites through experimental studies. The WTLF and kenaf fibers were initially treated with 5% sodium hydroxide. Hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding technique with a composition of 40 wt.% fiber and 60 wt.% matrix. The fabricated hybrid composites were subjected to mechanical and sound absorption studies as per ASTM standards. Results revealed better mechanical properties in the composites with 25 wt.% kenaf and 5 wt.% WTLF, whereas sound absorption characteristics were better for composites containing 25 wt.% WTLF and 5 wt.% kenaf fiber. The surface morphology of the fractured specimens such as fiber pullout and matrix crack was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Spectrum investigation of alkali-treated hybrid composites showed excellent interfacial bonding between the polymer and fiber compared to the untreated fiber.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T08:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720957392
       
  • Quasi-static and dynamic mechanical thermal performance of date palm/glass
           fiber hybrid composites

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      Authors: Abderrazek Merzoug, Bachir Bouhamida, Zouaoui Sereir, Abderrezak Bezazi, Ali Kilic, Zeki Candan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present work reports an experimental study on the thermal and mechanical properties of hybrid composites obtained from Petiole Date Palm Fiber (PDPF)/Glass fiber (GF) as reinforcement and vinylester resin (VE). In order to improve the fiber/matrix adhesion, palm fibers were alkali treated with 5% NaOH solution for 24 h–72h. SEM and ATR-FTIR analysis revealed that the 48 h treatment of PDFP with NaOH solution led to rough fiber surface. Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) system was used to produce four hybrid composites (30PDPF/0GF, 20PDPF/10GF, 10PDPF/20GF and 0PDPF/30GF) where the weight ratio of total fiber reinforcement was kept 30%. The treated palm fibers were arranged as a nonwoven mat and placed between woven glass fabrics. Tensile, flexural, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and thermogravimetric (TGA) were carried out to evaluate the performance of the hybrid composites. The flexural strength and modulus for pure PDPF composite were found to be 60 MPa and 3.87 GPa respectively. Addition of 20%wt glass fiber led an increase in the thermal stability and an enhancement in the tensile and flexural strength by 71.72% and 74.51%, respectively compared to pure PDPF composite. However, the incorporation of 10% of PDPF increases the damping factor from 0.2 for the composite glass/VE to 0.54 for the hybrid 10PDPF/20GF. According to findings of this study, PDPF based composites can be used as non-structural parts in automotive and boat industries.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-15T05:30:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720958036
       
  • Three in one: sizing, grafting and fire retardant treatment for producing
           fire-resistant textile material

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      Authors: Adham Salimovich Rafikov, Ozoda Muhammadsodik Kizi Yuldosheva, Sardorbek Khodjibaevich Karimov, Mukaddas Shamuratovna Khakimova, Dilfuza Ozotovna Abdusamatova, Mavlonbek Rajabbaevich Doschanov
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the weaving industry, cotton yarn undergoes mandatory sizing to uniformly pass the threads through the mechanisms of weaving machines, reduce breakage and improve the weaving process. Sizing is only necessary for weaving, and then sizing substances are removed from the fabric. With a successful combination of the sizing process and special processing of fabrics, significant progress is achieved in the technology of manufacturing fire-resistant fabrics and a significant economic, environmental effect. The purpose of the study is the development of a fire-retardant composition based on collagen, a method of grafting collagen to cellulose at the stage of sizing cotton yarn and obtaining fire-resistant textile material. By grafting a sizing composition containing collagen, polyacrylamide, boric acid, urea and potassium persulfate to cellulose, a highly effective fire-resistant material was obtained. The introduction of collagen and polyacrylamide in the composition sticks together the fibers of the yarn, at the same time makes the cotton material non-flammable when exposed to direct fire, reduces the time of smoke and the coefficient of smoke formation, which made it possible to obtain fire-resistant textile material belonging to a high category. By combining the processes of sizing and fire retardant processing of the main and weft yarns using biodegradable collagen, the technological operations of the production of fire-resistant material are reduced, which contributes to the conservation of natural resources and the solution of an acute environmental problem.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:10:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720957410
       
  • Investigation of mechanical properties for 2.5D woven composites with
           different weft-layer-numbers by a triple-cell model system

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      Authors: Junhua Guo, Weidong Wen, Hongjian Zhang, Haitao Cui, Jian Song, Haolong Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      As a new type of textile composites with broad application prospects, it is essential to study the prediction method of the mechanical properties of 2.5 D woven composites (2.5DWC). Currently, the most popular prediction method is to use a representative volume cell (RVC) for numerical simulation, so the reasonableness of RVC determines the prediction accuracy. However, many practical factors are ignored in the traditional periodic unit-cell model (UCM), such as the weft-layer-number (WLN), resulting in low prediction accuracy; while the full-cell model (FCM) in which the surface extrusion effect (SEE) and WLN are considered has the problems of complex modeling and high computational cost. To solve these problems, a triple-cell model (TCM) system is proposed, which includes four RVCs that are applicable to different WLNs, each of which is composed of different sub-cells (surface-cell, transition-cell, and inner-cell) which are categorized according to the characteristics of the actual weft yarn cross-section. Based on the progressive damage method, the stiffness, strength, and damage behavior of 2.5DWC with different WLNs are predicted, and the TCM prediction results are compared with the results of the experiment, the UCM, and the FCM. Compared with the experimental results, the prediction accuracy of the TCM is more than 8% higher than that of the UCM, and the difference between the prediction results of the TCM and FCM is less than 5%. Therefore, the proposed TCM system has the characteristics of high prediction accuracy, relatively simple modeling, and the applicability of any WLN.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:10:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720958046
       
  • Highly stretchable electro-conductive yarn via wrapping carbon nanotube
           yarn on multifilament polyester yarn

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      Authors: Xiaoxiao Wei, Mohamed Amine Aouraghe, Shasha Pang, Farial Islam Farha, Sidra Saleemi, Kun Zhang, Wei Liu, Fujun Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      By virtue of the light-weight, high conductivity, and extraordinary strength, carbon nanotube yarns (CNT yarn, CNTY) are attractive candidates for promoting wearable electronic textiles. However, the unstable conductivity of the CNTY due to piezoelectric characterization of the CNTs may severely affect the conductive performance of the CNTY that is woven into smart textiles. Herein, we report a highly stretchable and stable electro-conductive yarn fabricated by wrapping CNTY on the multifilament polyester yarn (MPY). The stretchable CNTY/MPY wrapping yarn exhibited not only significant-high tensile force (∼727.60 cN) but also ultra-high tensile strain (∼142.76%) compared to pristine CNTY (tensile force ∼211 cN, strain ∼20%). Furthermore, the CNTY/MPY wrapping yarn displayed very limited decrement (
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T06:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720957404
       
  • Study on bonding ability of melt-spun polypropylene/polyethylene blend
           fibers

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      Authors: Tomik Moradi, Mirhadi Seyed Esfahani, Hamid Ebrahimi, Ali Khosroshahi, Siyamak Safapour
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates melt spinning of polypropylene (PP) with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) blend fibers at different compositions, as well as the effects of HDPE and LLDPE on the bonding ability of blend fibers in thermal bonding process at different temperatures have been studied. HDPE and LLDPE were added to PP at 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt% to measure the upper threshold of such blends. While HDPE was added up to 7 wt%, PP/LLDPE blend fibers were only spun up to 3 wt% of LLDPE. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that increasing both HDPE and LLDPE contents lead to higher crystallinity values due to polyethylenes nucleating effect on PP. By adding HDPE and LLDPE, the tensile strength of blend fibers before and after bonding was decreased drastically compared to pure PP fibers. On the other hand, the addition of HDPE to PP and increasing bonding temperature enhanced bonding strength.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T04:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720955210
       
  • Experimental verification of the virtual isotropic material concept for
           the last-ply-failure of U-notched quasi-isotropic E-glass/epoxy composite
           laminates under tension-shear loading

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      Authors: Ali Reza Torabi, Ebrahim Pirhadi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fracture investigation of U-notched E-glass/epoxy laminated composite specimens with various notch root radii is performed under mixed mode I/II loading conditions both experimentally and theoretically. Rectangular E-glass/epoxy composite laminates with two numbers of ply (8-ply and 16-ply) and the quasi-isotropic [0/90/+45/–45]s lay-up configuration are fabricated for conducting the fracture tests. To measure the damage initiation angles (DIAs) and the last-ply-failure (LPF) loads of the fabricated composite samples containing horizontal and inclined U-notches, as the main aim of this study, the specimens are loaded under tension by the universal testing machine. The experimental LPF loads are theoretically predicted with the aid of a novel concept, called the Virtual Isotropic Material Concept (VIMC). The proposed VIMC is linked to the two well-known stress-based fracture criteria, namely the maximum tangential stress (MTS) and the mean stress (MS) criteria, in the context of the linear elastic notch fracture mechanics (LENFM). It is proved that the two combined criteria, namely the VIMC-MTS and VIMC-MS criteria, can predict well the LPF loads of the U-notched laminated composite specimens tested under mixed mode I/II loading conditions. One of the important merits of these new criteria is that the predictions of the LPF loads of the U-notched composite specimens are performed without complicated and time-wasting ply-by-ply damage analyses.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T08:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720955205
       
  • Nonwoven characteristics effective for blood-resistant particulate
           filtration for healthcare application

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      Authors: Seojin Jung, Jehyung Yi, Jooyoun Kim
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The epidemic virus such as COVID-19 can spread via bioaerosol or droplets, and the use of filtering facepiece is crucial in reducing the opportunity of infection. For healthcare application of filters, the fluid penetration resistance is an additional benefit. In this study, nonwoven characteristics that affect the blood penetration resistance were analyzed, using different coverweb materials including electrospun and spunbond webs. The web properties were varied in the basis weight, porosity, and wettability. The blood penetration resistance was tested using the horse blood and human blood simulant at the stream velocity of 2.83 m/s. The blood resistance was affected by both the surface wettability and the physical parameters. When the coverweb and the filter web were hydrophobized, filtration efficiency against oily aerosol was enhanced, without interfering comfort properties. This study is novel in that the comprehensive effects of physical and wetting properties were investigated in terms of fluid penetration resistance, comfort properties and filtration performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720955202
       
  • Recent trend in developing advanced fiber metal laminates reinforced with
           nanoparticles: A review study

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      Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Aghamohammadi, S Mohammad Reza Khalili, Hossein Ebrahimnezhad-Khaljiri, Hamid Jalali
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, fiber metal laminates (FMLs) have attracted considerable application in many industries due to their outstanding properties. FMLs are hybrid materials that are fabricated by adhesion of thin layers of metals and fiber-reinforced composites. It should be noted that the reinforcing mechanisms of nanoparticles on the polymeric composites have been well-established, but there is limited literature regarding the influence of nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of FMLs and adhesively bonded joints (ABJs) between metal sheets and polymeric composites. To date, various nanofillers including carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoplatelets, clay nanoparticles and oxide nanoparticles have been used for improving the mechanical properties of FMLs, and ABJs. The performed studies revealed that the efficiency of nanoparticles in improving the properties of FMLs and ABJs mainly dependent on various factors such as surface treatment of metal sheets, type of nanoparticles, the morphology of nanoparticles, the size of samples, fabrication parameters, etc. However, the effects of parameters on the properties of FMLs and ABJs reinforced with nanoparticles have not considerably discussed in the literature. This review paper aims to review the existing related papers regarding the effects of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of FMLs and ABJs in the term of adhesion between metal sheets and polymers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T06:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720947106
       
  • Influence of the presence of open three-dimensional fiber structures on
           solid liquid cake filtration of limestone

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      Authors: Markus Babin, Bo Liu, Gernot Krammer
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Solid particles in a suspension can be separated effectively through cake filtration where the filter medium is decisive particularly during the initial stage when particle breakthrough can be high. To improve the filtrate quality and throughput, filtration aid additives are used, which are known to alter filter cake structure and thus reduce flow resistance but, in forming clusters, also stabilize fine particles that would otherwise pass through the filter (cake) easily. However, filter aids are costly, increase the complexity of the system and may have adverse effects for subsequent mechanical drying and washing. Instead of supplying additives, four alternative filter media were tested exhibiting an open, three-dimensional structure that reached deeply into the depth of the forming filter cake. An aqueous limestone suspension was investigated in a conventional laboratory test unit. Composite filter medium set-up delivered up to 15% faster filtration. The results indicate that the fiber structures give better performance that reach far into the cake and are oriented not only axially but also radially. In contrary to the initial hypothesis that an axial fiber structure would produce additional drainage channels along the surface of these fibers and thus support but deliquoring, the actual deliquoring performance with air blowing appeared to be slightly less efficient. Although not investigated yet, cake discharge with a 3-D filter layer present poses an additional challenge, rendering the concept of composite filters unpractical.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T05:05:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720949278
       
  • Structural evolutions during creep deformation of polyester industrial
           fiber via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle
           X-ray scattering

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      Authors: Kang Chen, Yanping Liu, Hong Ji, Yang Zhang, Yuzhu Wang, Yumei Zhang, Huaping Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to identify the creep mechanisms of high tenacity (HT) polyester industrial fiber under different loads. In-situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) tests were conducted on a 1000 D HT fiber during the creep and creep recovery process with a low load (15 N) and a medium load (50 N) as well as creep rupture process with a high load (60 N). The measured creep strain-time curves comprised tensile zone (I), creep deformation zone (II) and creep recovery/rupture zone (III). The SAXS indicated that the macroscopic initial creep strain in zone I and creep deformations in zone II were attributed to conformation transition from gauche to trans in amorphous region, increasing the amorphous orientation and long period. Irreversible portion of conformation changes accounts for the small unrecoverable plastic creep strain after removing 15 N load in zone III. The initial creep strain in zone I and creep deformations in zone II of the 50 N creep process were bigger than the microscopic long period strain, because amorphous layers had conformational transformation and microfibril slippage which also produced a higher unrecoverable plastic creep strain in zone III. The long period increased significantly at the beginning of rupture zone with 60 N due to fragmentation of amorphous tie molecular. The disappearance of lamellar peaks at the end of rupture zone implied destruction of periodic lamellar structures, for the entire breakage of amorphous chains. The WAXS suggested that the crystal structure was stable under the creep loads.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T06:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720937379
       
  • The effect of nonwoven structure on thermomechanical properties of feather
           waste reinforced polyester composite

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      Authors: Ouahiba Mrajji, Mohamed EL Wazna, Zineb Samouh, Abdeslam EL Bouari, Omar Cherkaoui, Reddad El Moznine
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fibers offer good prospective as reinforcements in polymer composites due to their superior properties, they are preferred over synthetic fibers in various applications such as construction, automotive and aerospace. This experimental study emphasizes the effect of nonwoven structure on the mechanical, thermal and biodegradability properties of feathers nonwoven reinforced polyester composite. Vacuum molding method was adopted for manufacturing of the biocomposites with two contents of polyester resin (30% and 50%) and different composition of nonwovens. As a result, the morphological analysis revealed excellent compatibility and regular distribution of fiber in the polyester matrix. The thermal conductivity of manufactured composites varies considerably from 0.0378 W/(m•K) to 0.0778 W/(m•K) at 10°C. The origin of the variation of this property is due to differences in composition of nonwovens, densities and the percentage of the resin. After soaking for 240 h, the biodegradability test show that the kinetics of degradation of the composites decreased with the addition of nonwovens. The biodegradability rate was found between 62 to 92% depending on the sample nature. The mechanical results showed that the nonwoven structure clearly affected the performance of the composites. The results obtained from this study can be useful to develop new low cost, sustainable, light product and environmentally friendly materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-19T05:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720947734
       
  • A mathematical model for objective hand evaluation of automotive seat
           fabrics

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      Authors: Meenakshi Ahirwar, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A mathematical model for objective evaluation of hand value of car seat fabrics was developed using a step-wise block regression method. The subjective assessment of fabrics was conducted by a panel of judges to identify the primary hand attributes and the related mechanical parameters playing an important role in the fabric hand evaluation. The primary attributes selected by judges were conformability, smoothness, softness and stretchability. The coefficient of concordance was determined to find out the agreement among the judges. From consumer point of view, conformability got the highest weightage in the survey. There is an excellent correlation between the subjective and objective primary hand values. The correlation between the subjective and the objective total hand values found to be very high (R > 0.9) both with and without stretchability parameter.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T05:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720949446
       
  • Effect of inlaid elastic yarns and inlay pattern on physical properties
           and compression behaviour of weft-knitted spacer fabric

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      Authors: Annie Yu, Sachiko Sukigara, Shunji Takeuchi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Spacer fabrics are commonly used as cushioning materials. Their compression properties are one of the most important concerns in determining their specific end-use. Therefore, it is time and cost- efficient to have another means available that could allow quick and easy modifications to the compression behaviour of spacer fabrics and control them too. In this study, a method that uses an elastic inlay is adopted to modify the physical and compression properties of spacer fabrics. Fifteen samples constructed with different spacer structures and inlay yarns and patterns were fabricated and then evaluated. The results show that spacer fabrics with different thicknesses, densities and compression behaviours can be obtained by using different inlay patterns and elastic yarns. Increasing the number of miss stitches in the inlay pattern can help to increase the thickness and stiffness of spacer fabric and withstand a higher compression strength. However, when the number of miss stitches further increases to 3 miss stitches between every tuck stitch, the irregularity of the spacer structure would increase and could show adverse effects to certain spacer structures. The spacer fabric made by incorporating an elastic inlay can retain air permeability and a lower fabric weight than that made by the knit stitches of elastic yarns together with the surface yarns. By changing the inlay pattern, a spacer fabric with different compression behaviours in different areas of the same fabric can be realised. This novel method can increase the flexibility of creating a spacer fabric with the desired properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T05:05:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720947740
       
  • Experimental study of fibre breakup and shot formation in melt blowing
           nozzle designs

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      Authors: Ignacio Formoso, Alejandro Rivas, Gerardo Beltrame, Gorka S Larraona, Juan Carlos Ramos, Raúl Antón, Alaine Salterain
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The high demand for quality in the manufacture of absorbent hygiene products requires the adhesive bonds between layers to be as uniform as possible. An experimental study was conducted on two industrial multihole melt blowing nozzle designs used for hot-melt adhesive applications for hygiene products, in order to study two defects that influence the quality of the adhesive bond: fibre breakup, resulting in contamination, and the presence of shots, undesirable lumps that end up in the finished product. To this end, the fibre dynamics were captured at the nozzle exit region by using high-speed imaging. From the results it was observed that die drool is the main source of shot formation, while fibre breakup occurs as a result of applying a sufficiently large force in the direction perpendicular to the fibre. In addition, three dimensionless parameters were defined, the first two being the air-polymer flux ratio and the dimensionless temperature ratio, both of which represent the operating conditions, and the remaining one being the force ratio, which represents the nozzle geometry. The effect of these parameters on fibre breakup and shot formation was studied and the results indicate that both the operating conditions and the nozzle geometry were responsible for the onset of the fibre breakup and for the formation of shots. More precisely, both defects turned out to be dominated by the air-polymer flux ratio and the air tilt angle. The results that emerge from this study are useful for the enhancement of industrial melt blowing nozzles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T05:12:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720949276
       
  • Review on the fatigue properties of 3D woven fiber/epoxy composites:
           testing and modelling strategies

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      Authors: Zhenyu Ma, Pingze Zhang, Jianxun Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D woven fiber/epoxy composites as structural components have attracted great attention in the industrial and civil fields due to high resistance to debonding or delamination. Structural components are often subjected to the conditions of cyclic loading, which detrimentally affect the service-life and damage tolerance. In this research, the fatigue properties of 3D woven fiber/epoxy structural composites were discussed, where 3D woven fabrics were embedded in epoxy matrix to enhance their mechanical properties. 3D woven fabrics were classified by the geometrical structures of repeat vertical and inclined units. Based on the testing method, the fatigue properties of corresponding composites have been reviewed. The influence of the internal and external parameters on the fatigue properties were investigated by using various observation methods, and the failure modes were also analyzed. The theorical prediction models were reviewed according to testing method, and future trends and challenges were discussed. The critical review can provide valuable ideas and guidance for future fatigue studies in 3D woven composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T04:53:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720949277
       
  • Thermophysiological comfort properties of woven fabrics produced from
           hybrid yarns containing copper wires

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      Authors: Eren Oner, Ahmet Cagdas Seckin, Huseyin Coskun, Dilara Evsever Kole
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to determine the thermophysiological comfort behavior of fabrics based on copper wire that can be used for electro-textile applications. For this purpose, hybrid folding yarns were produced by twisting cotton/polyester yarn with copper wire. These electrically conductive hybrid yarns were then used to produce upholstery fabrics with different weave types as plain, 2/1 twill and sateen weave in three different density levels as tight, medium and loose. Thermophysiological comfort properties such as air permeability, thermal and water vapor properties of the hybrid fabrics were measured. In addition, the heat transfer properties of the fabrics were investigated with thermal camera videos, and porosity values were determined from microscope images. In this way, the main thermophysiological comfort properties of the basic electro-textile structures were revealed. According to the results obtained, it was found that the use of conductive wire in the fabric structure did not negatively affect the thermophysiological comfort properties of the fabrics, and fabric density was a determining parameter in relation to the thermophysiological comfort properties of the fabrics. The obtained results of this study may be used to improve the design of electro-textile structures taking into account the thermophysiological comfort.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T05:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720947736
       
  • Influence of inlay yarn type and stacking sequence on mechanical
           performance of knitted uni-directional thermoplastic composite prepregs

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      Authors: Zeeshan Azam, Hafsa Jamshaid, Yasir Nawab, Rajesh Mishra, Miroslav Muller, Rostislav Choteborsky, Viktor Kolar, Martin Tichy, Michal Petru
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study is to develop and investigate mechanical properties of knitted unidirectional thermoplastic composite prepregs. Knitted prepregs were fabricated by using thermoplastic yarns (high density polyethylene and polypropylene) and high performance yarns (kevlar, basalt and carbon) in double jersey inlay structure. This is a new approach to combine the reinforcing fiber with resin forming thermoplastic fiber during the knitting operation. The structures were stacked further in three stacking sequences at different angles (0/0/0/0, 0/90/0/90, 0/90/90/0), and hot compression was used to convert them into composite prepregs by melting the thermoplastic component. Mechanical properties e.g. tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact energy absorbed etc. were investigated in detail. Full factorial experimental design was used in order to study the effect of main yarn, inlay yarn and direction of stacking/plying on mechanical properties of composites. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted by Minitab 17 software to estimate the significance of testing direction (T), type of inlay yarn (I), type of main yarn (M) and stacking sequence (S) on mechanical properties. Overall highest tensile and flexural strengths were observed for Carbon fiber based samples followed by Kevlar and Basalt respectively. Theoretical estimation of elastic modulus shows similar trend as the experimental results. The inter-laminar shear strength is maximum when the fiber orientation changes in each layer. Type of main yarn and inlay yarn have significant contribution on impact related properties. Depending upon type of material, these composites can be used in aerospace, automotive, civil and sports goods.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T05:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720947727
       
  • Corrigendum to Nanocomposite cellulose fabrics with in situ generated
           silver nanoparticles by bioreduction method

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      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-08-07T08:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720940877
       
  • Simulation and characterization of the mechanical properties of knitted
           esophageal stents using finite element and mathematical models

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      Authors: Javad Yekrang, Dariush Semnani, Amin Zadbagher Seyghlani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Esophageal stents are used as a clinical method for the treatment of a wide variety of esophageal diseases. Knitted mesh stents have such advantages as high flexibility and ease of production. In this study, an analytical approach was applied to simulate the weft knitted esophageal stents and to investigate the mechanical behavior of these tubular structures against the axial and circumferential stresses by using finite element (FE) and mathematical models. Then, the mechanical properties of the knitted structures were evaluated while the simulated food bolus was passed through the stent channel. The results demonstrated that the FE model had a good performance in simulating the mechanical properties of the esophageal knitted stents. The error of the prediction performance of the FE models was between (10–16)% and (7–11)% for the longitudinal and circumferential directions, respectively. Simulation of the food bolus passage also demonstrated that the esophageal PGA stent wall could tolerate a 7.96 kPa force and a strain of 65% by food bolus; so, it could mimic the real state of esophagus during its application. This model could be applied to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of the knitted stents in clinical application conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T06:38:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720945410
       
  • Simulation of the compression and recovery behavior of nonwoven fabrics
           under dynamic loading for automotive floor-covering application

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      Authors: AA Azami, P Payvandy, M.M Jalili
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental methods have been successfully utilized in the textile industry for understanding the compression and recovery behavior of needle-punched nonwoven textiles under dynamic loading. However, these methods can only be performed after commercial production of textiles. An analytical approach is presented to estimate the Jeffery’s II model parameters and to simulate the compression and recovery behavior of needle-punched nonwoven textiles under dynamic loading before commercial production. These parameters are estimated by a viscoelastic model that explains the compression and recovery behavior according to ISO 2094. The model consists of a combined linear spring and a dashpot set parallel to each other and then connected to a linear dashpot in series. Using the Fourier transform, the periodic excitation is converted to the sum of harmonic forces and differential equations of the system motion are analytically solved. The predicted results of this analytical approach for the compression and recovery behavior of nonwoven textiles in dynamic loading showed the average error of 5.68% and 9.41%, respectively when compared to the experimental results. Therefore, the linear Jeffery’s II model is able to predict the compression and recovery behavior of needle-punched nonwoven textile under dynamic loading with high accuracy before commercial production of textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T06:23:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944616
       
  • In situ deposition of nickel nano particles on polyester fabric and its
           application as a flexible electrode in supercapacitor

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      Authors: Sheila Shahidi, Fatma Kalaoglu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this research work, Nickel was in situ synthesized on polyester fabric using facile method. For this purpose, electroless plating method was used. In the first step, samples were sensitized using copper acetate. Hydrazine were used as reducing agent. In the same bath, Nickle acetate was added and in presence of hydrazine, the Nickle nano particles were deposited on the surface of polyester fibers. The morphological properties of nano particles on the surface were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The electrical resistance of samples after metal plating were measured by two-point probe. The rubbing and wash fastness of samples through electrical resistance were also studied. The results show that, Ni plated sample has very high resistance to rubbing. Even after 8000 cycles of rubbing using Martindale system, the electrical resistance of rubbed samples reaches to 40 Ω/sq. But it should be mentioned that, the wash fastness of prepared samples is not satisfactory. The main purpose of this research was, investigating on the storage properties of Ni plated polyester fabric. The electrochemical properties of samples were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charging–discharging (GCD) measurements (Autolab PGSTAT 302 N). The Ni plated polyester in this work, showed, a specific capacitance of 450 mF/cm2 by GCD test at the current density of 7.5 mA/cm2. Also the integrated area for the CV curves related to rubbed samples, is large enough. The resultant Ni plated fabric provides a promising substrate to prepare textile-based electrodes for flexile supercapacitors.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T05:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944252
       
  • Effect of normal load on the frictional and wear behaviour of carbon fiber
           in tow-on-tool contact during three-dimensional weaving process

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      Authors: Ning Wu, Ximing Xie, Jie Yang, Yajie Feng, Yanan Jiao, Li Chen, Jian Xu, Xigao Jian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of normal load on the frictional and wear behaviour of carbon fiber is investigated by simulating the tow-on-tool friction relevant to the beating-up motion of three-dimensional (3 D) weaving process. The true number of contact filaments over a range of normal loads is calculated by characterizing the cross-section parameters of carbon tow. The real contact area is calculated on the basis of the filaments amount by Hertzian contact model. The friction force values obtained from multiplying the real contact area with shear strength are closely with the measured results. The coefficient of friction increases with the increase of normal loads. When the normal load is 250, 400 and 600 mN, the tensile loss rate of the carbon tow after friction test is 6.3%, 23.2% and 42.4% respectively. The filaments reveal multiple fracture damage patterns which are caused by stretching, shearing and compression during the weaving process.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T05:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944615
       
  • Optimization and physical performance evaluation of electrospun
           nanofibrous mats of PLA, PCL and their blends

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      Authors: Deepika Sharma, Bhabani K Satapathy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The optimization of process parameters such as applied voltage, orifice diameter, solvent system, and solvent ratio for electrospinning of neat polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and poly (є-caprolactone) (PCL), to obtain uniform, randomly oriented nanofibers with minimum diameter variation and beaded structures has been critically discussed. The paper focuses on establishing a sequential optimization technique for arriving at a common set of electrospinning process parameters for individual polymers, such as, applied voltages, orifice diameters, solvent mixtures, solvent ratios, to be used in the fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous mats (ENMs) of blended polymers. In this study, the effect of variation of applied voltages, orifice diameters, solvent mixtures, solvent ratios, PLA/PCL blending ratios, solution concentration of blends and flow rate were reported via morphological analysis of electrospun nanofibers. The set of optimal process parameters obtained for both PLA and PCL were adopted for the fabrication of ENMs based on the PLA/PCL blends. The paper further deliberates on the physical performance of PLA/PCL based ENMs in acidic, basic and neutral release media. Thus, the study establishes a hierarchical processing optimization route for designing blended ENMs by following a set of variable electrospinning process parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T06:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944502
       
  • Natural fibers woven fabric reinforced hydrogel composites for enhanced
           mechanical properties

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      Authors: Umit Koc, Yakup Aykut, Recep Eren
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      One-step and rapid preparation of natural fiber woven fabric reinforced hydrogel composites via simultaneous dissolution and crosslinking of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) yarns in the fabric was reported. In this regards, PVA/Cotton (C), PVA/Flax (F) and PVA/Wool (W) blended woven fabrics were prepared for the manufacturing fabric reinforced hydrogel composites. The hybrid woven fabric reinforced fabrics were treated with different concentrations of borax solutions. Aqueous borax solutions were used to alter the PVA yarns in the fabric into cross-linked structure in order to enhance mechanical performance of the hydrogel composite. Morphological investigation of hydrogel composites in a dried form was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. The chemical characterization of aqueous borax treated samples was examined by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. Mechanical performances of the hydrogel composites were observed by tensile measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to characterize thermal stability of hydrogel composites. The results revealed that natural fiber woven fabric reinforcement significantly enhanced the mechanical strength of hydrogel composites, and wool fabric reinforced composite had better mechanical performance than its cotton and flax counterparts. Due to the low mechanical properties of hydrogels in general, the prepared fabric reinforced hydrogel composites could be used in hydrogel applications where mechanical strength is critically important.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T06:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944485
       
  • Increasing inter-yarn friction to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
           yarns for ballistic application by sol-gel treatment

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      Authors: Yanyan Chu, Riazur Rahman, Haonan He, Weihan Huang, Xiaogang Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibre is popularly used in military for ballistic protection owing to its low density but high modulus and high tenacity. However, the inter-yarn friction in the corresponding ballistic fabric is too low and thus the yarns in the fabric are easily pulled out, in which lowers down the ballistic performance. This paper aims to improve the inter-yarn friction in the fabric by sol-gel method using TiO2/ZnO hydro-sols and investigate the ballistic performance of fabric treated. The results from the coefficient of friction test have showed that the inter-yarn friction treated with TiO2/ZnO hydro-sol can be increased 40%. Moreover, tensile test indicates that the tenacities of yarns after different treatments are increased whereas the strains and moduli of the yarns almost kept unaffected. Through ballistic performance test, the treated fabric displays higher ballistic energy absorption compared with the original one, indicating that higher inter-yarn friction is beneficial to fabric against ballistic impact.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T05:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720942960
       
  • The influence of alkaline treatment on acoustical, morphological, tensile
           and thermal properties of Kenaf natural fibers

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      Authors: Seyed Ehsan Samaei, Hasan Asilian Mahabadi, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi, Ali Khavanin, Mohammad Faridan, Ebrahim Taban
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Among fibers with lignocellulosic origin, Kenaf fiber, because of its advantages and as a sustainable alternative to synthetic fibers has received increasing attention for manufacturing hybrid composites with reasonable acoustical and physical properties. The present study deals with the impact of chemical treatment of Kenaf fibers on the overall properties of hybrid composites fabricated from these fibers. Also, the results from predictive analytical model of sound absorption for these composites were employed for comparison with the experimental findings. Kenaf fibers were treated at room temperature with 6% concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 4 h immersion time. Having manufactured the composites with the treated and untreated fibers, the normal sound absorption coefficients and tensile strength properties of these sample composites were determined according to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM C1557 − 14, respectively. The SEM analysis of the treated and untreated fibers revealed that in terms of fiber diameter and morphology the former was thinner and had better surface appearance. The experimental measurement of acoustic absorption coefficients of the composites made of treated fibers demonstrated superior sound absorption properties and tensile strength. The revised empirical models proposed by Delany & Bazley and Garai & Pompoli along with Nelder-Mead simplex method were employed and well predicted the sound absorption coefficients of the sample composites. There was also a fair consistency between the experimental and predicted results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T05:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720944240
       
  • Improving the repetitive washing and abrasion resistance properties of
           fabrics produced with metallized yarns

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      Authors: Sevda Altaş, Elif Yılmaz, Nildeniz Adman
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Metallized yarns have become an integral part of fashion because they give extra sheen to garments and an inimitable appearance to fabrics, making them special yarns. However, because of repetitive washing and abrasions, the metallic part of the yarn in the fabric is removed and the fabric loses its brightness and becomes transparent. This study aims to solve this issue by searching for high-quality metallized yarn production methods to eliminate problems during usage. In the experimental part of the study, eight different types of metallized films were produced using the lamination technique with two kinds of adhesives. Non-laminated metallized polyester films were used as a reference to understand the effectiveness of the lamination process. Metallized yarns were produced from laminated metallized films by using standard production parameters. After producing nine different types of metallized yarns, monotype knitted fabrics were then from these yarns. Yarn’s basic properties and fabric’s mechanical properties were then measured to compare the effect of the thin film type, lamination process and adhesive type effect on these properties. The test results showed that the lamination technique significantly improves the resistance of the repetitive washing process and the abrasion property of fabrics. The best results were obtained with polypropylene thin films. However, they had a higher friction coefficient and a harder handle property than polyester films. When using a thinner polypropylene film, this problem could be eliminated, and the yarns could be an important alternative choice for commercially producing metallized yarns in the future.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T09:21:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720942961
       
  • Experimental investigations on high precision abrasive waterjet cutting of
           natural fibre reinforced nano clay filled green composites

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      Authors: D Rajamani, E Balasubramanian, G Dilli Babu, K Ananthakumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present investigation focused on abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJC) of natural fibre reinforced nano clay filled polyester composites with the objectives of maximizing material removal rate (MRR) and minimizing the kerf taper (KT) and surface roughness (Ra). The influence of nano clay addition, traverse speed (TS), jet pressure (JP) and stand-off distance (SOD) on the AWJC characteristics of fabricated composite laminates are investigated. The natural fibre reinforced composite (NFRC) laminates are fabricated through hand lay-up technique through varying the wt% of nano clay fillers (0, 1 and 2). The AWJC experiments are planned and rigorous experiments were performed by adopting box-behnken design approach. The relative consequence of process variables on response features and quadratic regression models were assessed through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, multiple response optimization is carried out using statistical desirability technique to enhance the cut quality characteristics. The optimal AWJC parameters such as JP of 316.24 MPa, SOD of 2 mm and TS of 304.24 mm/min with 1.15 wt% of nano clay addition are determined. Microstructure of cut surface is examined to ascertain the morphological behaviour of AWJC surfaces with different processing conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T06:04:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720942962
       
  • An integrated approach to develop performance index of bed linen fabric

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      Authors: Meenakshi Ahirwar, Vikas Khatkar, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The quality of woven bed sheets is often conveyed by the thread count i.e. the number of threads per square inch of the fabric. However, bed linens need to encompass three essential characteristics such as high breathability, moisture absorbency and soft feel to ensure quality sleep. Sleep quality is significantly influenced by thermal regulation characteristics such as thermal conductivity, air permeability and moisture vapor permeability of the sheeting cloth. Hand of sheeting material is also considered as one of the most important attributes of a high quality bed linen as it comes in direct contact with human body for a substantial duration. In this research, an effort has been made to develop an objective method to measure the performance behavior of the bed linen fabric. Performance index is a calculation of how well a material works to meet its defined goals. The subjective assessment of bed linen performance indicators was conducted by expert opinion to decide the properties affecting the bed linen performance index (BLPI) along with their weightage. Discriminant analysis and coefficient of concordance was determined to find the agreement among the judges. The eight shortlisted properties were determined objectively and the results were normalized to shrink the data in the scale 1 to 5. The weightage and normalized data was used to determine the BLPI by using the developed equation. A high correlation of 0.84 was found between the subjective and objective BLPI. This study concludes that the BLPI could be estimated well using the developed equation.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T06:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720942963
       
  • Performance evaluation of conductive tracks in fabricating e-textiles by
           lock-stitch embroidery

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      Authors: Yan Zheng, Lu Jin, Jing Qi, Zekun Liu, Lulu Xu, Steven Hayes, Simeon Gill, Yi Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Lock-stitch embroidery has been the centre of much interest as a versatile and precise method of producing conductive tracks in the fabrication of wearable electronic devices. However, improper fabrication parameter settings could result in the nonconformity of the conductive tracks and damage the conductive coating of the conductive yarns. In this study, we evaluate the appearance quality, dimensional stability and electrical resistance of conductive tracks by taking into account the embroidering speed (ES), stitch length (SL), needle thread pre-tension (NTP) and embroidering direction (ED). The conductive tracks are embroidered onto knitted fabric in different directions with silver-coated polyamide yarn as the needle thread. The results show that stitching the conductive tracks in the wale direction results in a more uniform stitch lines in comparison to the other directions. To resolve the problem of floated stitches, it is recommended that an SL of 4 mm and a higher NTP are used. The percentage of shrinkage in the wale direction is lower than in the course direction. The electrical resistance of the conductive tracks increases with a higher ES and shorter SL. It is also found that a thicker yarn is more sensitive to the NTP and some of the silver coating is rubbed off with an NTP of 50 gf. We also carry out an overlay plot analysis, through which we predict and validate the optimal embroidery parameters that balance appearance quality and electrical resistance. The technique parameters in this study can be used to embroider conductive tracks for smart clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T06:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720937289
       
  • Facile method for tent fabrics with eco-friendly/durable properties using
           waterborne polyurethane/lignin: Preparation and evaluation

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      Authors: Yue Zhang, Ting-Ting Li, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a novel facile strategy is reported for fabricating an environment friendly, aging-resistant, and waterproof-breathable fabric using a “pad-knife” coating technique and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) containing isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and lignin as an antioxidant agent. Morphology, hydrophobic property, accelerated weathering aging property and artificial degradation performance as well as water vapor transmission and tensile property are characterized. Results show that, IPDI can effectively prevent PU discoloration. Lignin amount affects the morphological structure, tearing strength, WVTR and hydrostatic pressure capability of coated fabrics. Moreover, a 2% lignin addition provides fabrics with enhanced waterproof-breathable properties and tearing strength performance compared with pure WPU coated fabrics after accelerated weathering exposure. The facile coating technology can be applied to protective and functional textiles for military and civil polyester tents.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T06:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720931884
       
  • Effect of alkali treatment on performance characterization of Ziziphus
           mauritiana fiber and its epoxy composites

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      Authors: A Vinod, R Vijay, D Lenin Singaravelu, Anish Khan, MR Sanjay, Suchart Siengchin, Francis Verpoort, Khalid A Alamry, Abdullah M Asiri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to investigate the natural cellulosic fibers extracted from novel Ziziphus Mauritiana plants. The fibers were treated with alkali solution and epoxy composites were developed for both untreated and chemically modified fibers through hand lay-up process. Physico-chemical and thermomechanical characterization were carried for both untreated and alkali treated Ziziphus Mauritiana fibers through physical analysis, chemical analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction test and single fiber tensile test. The alkali treatment facilitates to remove amorphous constituents and improves the crystalline index by 1.31 times, thermal stability by 1.15 times and fiber strength by 1.44 times, which is supported by chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Later, developed Ziziphus Mauritiana composites were analyzed as per ASTM for its mechanical and sound absorption characteristics. The reduction in amorphous constituents after chemical treatment improved the surface roughness in alkali-treated Ziziphus Mauritiana fibers which influenced the bonding behavior. Also it improved the ultimate tensile strength by 2.12 times, flexural strength by 1.38 times and sound absorption coefficient by 1.15 times. Thus, the Ziziphus Mauritiana fibers are potentially suitable for use in lightweight structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T06:17:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720942614
       
  • Development of helical auxetic yarn with negative Poisson’s ratio by
           combinations of different materials and wrapping angle

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      Authors: Tehseen Ullah, Sheraz Ahmad, Yasir Nawab
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Auxetic materials have negative Poisson ratio which has a multiple ranges of functional applications. The helical auxetic yarn was successfully developed through direct twist system by using core and wrap yarn or filament, which shows Auxeticity when the HAY is stretched in longitudinal direction in response it expand in transverse direction, Helical Auxetic Yarns were developed using various parameters of the core and warp filament, these parameters are wrapping angle (Twist per meter), diameter ratio, and modulus ratio. The strength of Helical yarn was characterized using single yarn strength and Image J software was used for the calculation of poisson’s ratio. According to test results, it is concluded that the core filament of helical auxetic yarn increased its thickness in transverse direction under stress, and a considerable negative poisson’s ratio was calculated. The values of negative poisson’s ratio described that the auxeticity had a direct relation with core filament thickness or diameter and inversely proportional to the linear density of wrap filament, in case of the wrap angle the auxeticity of HAY yarn had an inverse effect with wrap angle. Kevlar/polypropylene combination sample showed maximum auxeticity at a 15-degree angle while Kevlar/nylon combination sample showed minimum auxeticity at a 25-degree wrap angle.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T05:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720941116
       
  • A critical review: Electromagnetic shielding for pyrrole used textile
           materials

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      Authors: Nurcan Biçer, Irem Tuğçe Çelik, Ishak Afşin Kariper
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we examined the notable textile materials in the literature, which have been produced to prevent the electromagnetic waves emitted by the electronic devices that are a significant part of our lives. Nowadays, these devices and technologies that bring us many advantages in our daily life cause health problems on human beings, which leaded this type of studies to deepen. In this study, non-woven and woven products were examined. Produced tissue types found in the literature were excluded from the research. This literature review is mainly focused on the textile materials treated with pyrrole and having electromagnetic shielding property by producing via different methods either by doping metal in the fabric or yarn structure or by weaving with metal. Because it is known that the most successful studies on electromagnetic shielding were made by polypyrrole coating. In the last part of the study, suggestions have been submitted about the type of studies that should be done to provide electromagnetic shielding feature to the textile materials. We investigated 56 articles about electromagnetic shielding in the literature. 48 of 56 articles were evaluated. It seems that the researchers used to polypyrrole for electromagnetic shielding on textile surface, however they don’t investigate to advantage and disadvantage of polypyrrole for using. We discussed this issue and which material was more effective for electromagnetic shielding on the textile surface in the discussion section.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720938157
       
  • Emulsification and application of a thymol loaded antibacterial fatliquor
           for leather industry

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      Authors: Ali Yorgancioglu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the antibacterial fatliquor emulsion was prepared from castor oil bearing thymol (1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w) to be used in the leather production. The average particle size and zeta potential of the fatliquors were determined by zeta sizer. The thermogravimetric behaviors of fatliquor emulsions under dry air were analyzed in order to determine the weight losses when they are exposed to constant heating rate. After the emulsification process, fatliquor emulsions were applied into chrome tanned cattle leathers. Antibacterial activities of the fatliquored leather were tested according to standard test method for determining the antimicrobial activity under dynamic contact conditions against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis of emulsion was also determined. The bacterial reduction was measured as 99.9% against S. aureus and 98.6% against E. coli bacteria. MIC values obtained from emulsions against bacteria were determined as 6.25 μL/mL and 12.5 μL/mL respectively. The results of antibacterial tests showed that thymol was very efficient in the fatliquor emulsion against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Physical characterization of leather was also carried out with optimum fatliquor emulsion (4% thymol w/w) and the results showed satisfactory physical properties on the fatliquored leathers compared to similar leather made with commercially available fatliquors. The results of the study indicated that thymol loaded fatliquor emulsions with small particle size could be a promising solo fatliquor to provide functional properties such as physical, strength, morphological and antibacterial properties to leather as an efficient fatliquor compared to conventional fatliquors.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720941117
       
  • Microstructure and performance characteristics of acoustic insulation
           materials from post-consumer recycled denim fabrics

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      Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Magdy El Messiry, Partha Pratim Sikdar, Joshua Seylar, Gajanan Bhat
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      One of the key issues of the 21st century is to reduce the rate of continuously increasing environmental pollution from waste generated by human beings. Use of recycled materials and environmentally friendly approaches to manufacturing can be a good way to deal with these challenges. Similarly, sound pollution has been increasing at an alarming rate due to industrialization and modernization. Use of acoustic insulation materials produced from recycled textile waste can play a vital role in reduction of sound pollution while simultaneously helping reduce municipal solid waste. The goal of this study was to evaluate the recycling of used apparels to produce commercially feasible sustainable products using nonwoven fabrication techniques with a biodegradable thermoplastic binder fiber for possible use as acoustic insulation panels. Recycled denim fibers were used with Sorona® or a PLA binder fiber to successfully produce sound insulation with good performance properties. Maximum transmission loss of about 24 dB and transmission coefficient close to zero at around 1000 Hz were observed. The data indicated that there is a direct correlation between loss of sound transmission with increase in thickness, areal density and decrease in air permeability. When compared with commercially available acoustic insulation material (gypsum board), these products had better insulation properties, indicating that recycled textile products can be used to produce such value-added materials, giving them another useful life before safely disposing in composting environments.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:18:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720940746
       
  • Investigation on the processability, structure and properties of
           micro-/nano-fiber composite yarns produced by trans-scale spinning

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      Authors: Yuchen Yang, Zhenzhen Quan, Hongnan Zhang, Xiaohong Qin, Rongwu Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      While the conventional composite yarns are generally confined to micro-scale fibers, composite yarns of micro-/nano-fibers have been fabricated by integrating carded fibrous web with electospun nanofibers, namely trans-scale spinning proposed in our latest works. In the micro-/nano-fiber composite yarns, the nanofibers with low content were embedded uniformly both inside and outside with short fibrous segments, which endows themselves with superior functionality without altering the intrinsic comfort, such as the durably efficient antibacterial capability of comfortable cotton fabric. In the present work, universal applicability of the trans-scale spinning approach has been investigated systematically. Various composite yarns were successfully fabricated by the novel spinning technique. The effects of three critical factors, microfiber materials, nanofiber polymers and spinning methods, on the structural characteristics and physical properties of composite yarns were demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. It was indicated that nanofibers are distributed uniformly in all resulting yarns, but broken segments of them in synthetic microfiber composite yarns are shorter than that in cotton composite yarns, which may result from different fiber appearance. Besides, the composite yarns present comparable physical properties (tensile performance, hairiness, unevenness) to those of pristine microfiber yarns, which enable themselves of being manufactured into all kinds of fabrics for industrial applications. The results reported in the current study would facilitate the design and preparation of composite yarn and the development of functional textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T04:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720941177
       
  • Intumescent flame retardant finishing for polypropylene nonwoven fabric

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      Authors: Peng Qi, Xuefei Wang, Yufei Wang, Xiaoyu Gu, Sheng Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work reports our recent efforts on improving the fire safety of nonwoven polypropylene fabric by increasing surface polarity followed by a conventional finishing. The fabric was firstly surface treated in a surfactant solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium chloride under ultrasonic to increase the hydrophilicity, and then was treated by a pad-dry process with a water solution of ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol. The contact angle of polypropylene fabric treated with 0.2% cetyltrimethylammonium chloride was decreased to 71° from 130° of the control sample. The flammability was evaluated by limiting oxygen index, vertical flammability test, and cone calorimetry test. The limiting oxygen index value was increased to 23.5% from 18.1%, the peak heat release rate was decreased to 159.1 from 292.5 kW/m2, and the melt dripping was completely eliminated by the finishing treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that treated polypropylene fabric samples had higher thermal stability and formed more char residue in high temperature range (above 450 °C) than the control polypropylene sample. The char morphology observation by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the treated fabric sample formed continuous char structure without voids, which effectively isolated underlying polypropylene fabric materials from fire and oxygen. It is proposed that decomposition compounds from both cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and ammonium polyphosphate catch free radicals in the gas phase, and the presence of ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol promote char formation in the condensed phase during the burning process of polypropylene fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T05:56:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720938158
       
  • Hydrophobic silica-aerogel integrated polyacrylonitrile nanofibers

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      Authors: Refik Arat, Havva Baskan, Gulay Ozcan, Pelin Altay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Owing to its high specific surface area, high thermal stability and excellent thermal insulation, silica aerogel is used as an insulating material in protective clothing. In this study, the hydrophobicity and thermal insulation properties of the electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were enhanced by integrating silica aerogel (SA), which was synthesized using silicic acid as silica precursor instead of silicon alkoxides or sodium silicate and modified with phenyltrimethoxysilane. The electrospun PAN-SA composite nanofibers showed higher surface roughness and hydrophobicity (water contact angle of 142°) compared to the smooth and hydrophilic PAN (control) nanofiber. Further, the thermal stability of the PAN nanofibers was increased by 17 °C while their thermal conductivity was decreased from 15.8 W/mK to 0.4 W/mK (reduction of 97.5%). These features make the PAN-SA composite nanofibers particularly suitable for use in thermal insulation protective clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T05:56:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720939670
       
  • The influence of kenaf contents and stacking sequence on drop-weight
           impact properties of hybrid laminated composites reinforced polyvinyl
           butyral composites

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      Authors: Suhad D Salman
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      For the high cost of aramid fibres and the necessity for finding alternatives which are environmentally friendly, a portion of aramid was substituted by woven kenaf at various sequences and thicknesses, to identify the proper arrangement for producing helmet shell. Drop-weight impact tests were conducted on different configurations of 19 layers of kenaf and aramid reinforced polyvinyl butyral film, which were fabricated by the hot press method. Effects of fibre content, layering sequence and energy absorption of the laminated composites were studied at three different impact energies 50, 75, 100 J. Results suggested that the behaviour of hybrid laminates has a positive effect in terms of energy absorbed and impact resistance, due to lower failure strain of kenaf fibres. Additionally, placing woven kenaf layers alternate with aramid layers provides higher impact loads and absorbed energy than placing woven kenaf and aramid separately, especially at impact level 100 J. For example, the absorbed energy of the 17 Aramid/2 Kenaf Alt. (H1A) is 72.99 J, while for 17 Aramid/2 Kenaf (H1) is 66.04 J. The closed curves indicated the success of the samples in absorbing the dissipated energy at various impact energies values. It could be deduced that it is possible to replace the aramid fibre in various composites industries by kenaf fibre, to minimize harmful environmental effects and cost of petroleum products.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T06:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720937388
       
  • The mechanical, thermal and sound absorption properties of flexible
           polyurethane foam composites reinforced with artichoke stem waste fibers

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      Authors: Hilal Olcay, Emine Dilara Kocak
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, due to environmental concerns and dependence on depleted resources, the use of renewable resources has become important in the preparation of various industrial materials. The use of natural fibers instead of petroleum-based synthetic fibers traditionally used in the production of composite materials provides many advantages in terms of both environmental and cost. The utilization of agricultural wastes as natural fibers also contributes significantly to the reduction and reuse of wastes, which is one of the objectives of sustainable development. In this study, artichoke stem waste fibers reinforced polyurethane foam composites were obtained. The fibers were treated with alkaline surface treatment at different concentrations (5% and 10%) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and durations (5, 10 and 15 min). The optimal alkali method was determined and applied to the fibers and its effect on composites was also investigated. Treated and untreated fibers were combined with polyurethane (PU) matrix at different reinforcement ratios (5, 10, 15 and 20%) to produce bio-fiber based composites. Depending on these reinforcement rates and alkali treatment, the mechanical properties of composites such as strength, elongation and modulus were investigated. The composites, which have the best mechanical properties, were selected and these composites were evaluated in terms of thermal and sound insulation with considering their morphological properties. It has been determined that artichoke stem waste fibers can provide good mechanical, thermal and sound insulation properties in the composites, and thus it has been found that great advantages can be achieved in terms of cost and ecology.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T06:08:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720934193
       
  • Development and characterization of warp knitted spacer fabrics for helmet
           comfort liner application

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      Authors: N Muthu Kumar, G Thilagavathi, S Periasamy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The inner padding layer of the motorcycle helmet is one of the important components that control the factors of comfort during wearing the helmet and provides a perfect fit and stability of the helmet on the head. The inner padding consists of a low-density flexible polyurethane layer attached to a soft fabric layer that is in direct contact with the head. The present study aims to replace foam in the comfort liner of a helmet with spacer fabrics to avoid the risk of heat stress during the use of the helmet. In this work, 9 warp-knitted spacer fabrics were produced by varying the course/cm (10, 12 & 14) and thickness (3, 3.5, and 4 mm). Air permeability, thermal, and water vapour resistance of the developed spacer fabrics were characterized along with compression properties and compared with commercially available standard liner. The results showed that warp-knitted spacer fabrics had better energy absorption compared to the standard liner. Also, the developed spacer fabrics had better breathability and evaporative heat transfer compared to the standard liner.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T06:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720939215
       
  • Mechanical properties of hybrid vetiver/banana fiber mat reinforced vinyl
           ester composites

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      Authors: A Stalin, S Mothilal, V Vignesh, MR Sanjay, Suchart Siengchin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Green sustainable life and biofibers play a vital role in achieving eco-friendly environment and great opportunities for fabricating the products. This work focused on the effect of the hybrid mat as reinforcement in vetiver/banana fiber mat reinforced vinyl ester composites. Composites plates were fabricated at 45° and 90° directions in ten different combinations by the compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of composites plates were tested as per ASTM standard. The morphological behaviour of tested specimens were evaluated by SEM. The hybrid double-layer fiber mat composites in longitudinal direction exhibit optimum results in tensile and flexural properties. However, it is found that vetiver double-layer fiber mat composites at 90° direction, indicating better impact strength than a banana and hybrid fiber mat composites. SEM images provided that composite properties are dependent on interface bonding between the fibers and matrix.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T06:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720938161
       
  • Design and development of glass/basalt fiber reinforced composite material
           for automobile applications

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      Authors: Chandrasekaran Paramasivam, Rameshbabu Venugopal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main focus of automotive industry is on developing and applying new materials and technologies for enhancing the comfort and security levels in the vehicles. To fulfill this requirement high strength and high modulus fiber reinforced composite structures play an important role in the automotive industry. The novelty in this research work is that the composite panel made by 2 D woven fabrics by using Glass and Basalt fabric material composite structure by suitable incorporation of panel design which enhanced the mechanical properties. The blend proportion of Glass and Basalt fabric reinforcement was 100% Glass, 100% Basalt and 50:50 Glass/Basalt fabrics. Hand lay-up process was adopted to fabricate the composite panels. Different sets of panel were produce by varying the curing time, pressure. The resultant panels were analyzed for the mechanical properties such as Tensile strength, Flexural strength and Impact strength tests. From the analysis of results the panel made by using 100% Basalt fabric with 20 bar pressure and 15 minutes curing time showed a better tensile strength of 95 MPa, flexural strength of 29.91 MPa and impact strength of 12.50 MPa. Similarly, the results of 50:50 Glass/Basalt fibre with 30 bar pressure and 15 minutes curing time showed a better tensile strength of 94.83 MPa, flexural strength of 29.51 MPa and impact strength of 12.30 MPa. The outcome of the findings is that the mechanical properties of panel are directly proportional to pressure and time and blend type.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-07-01T05:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720939575
       
  • Design of simple and efficient metal nanoparticles templated on
           ZnO-chitosan coated textile cotton towards the catalytic reduction of
           organic pollutants

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      Authors: Sher Bahadar Khan, Muhammad Ismail, Esraa M Bakhsh, Abdullah M Asiri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study simple, facile and highly active silver coated ZnO-chitosan (Ag/ZnO-CH) textile cotton supported nanocomposites were developed. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). The prepared nanocomposite fibers were used for the selective removal of seven model pollutants, including para-nitrophenol (p-NP), meta-nitrophenol (m-NP), ortho-nitrophenol (o-NP), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), and dyes of methyl orange (MO), congo red (CR), and methyl red (MR). The apparent rate constant (Kapp) of pseudo first order kinetic for p-NP was 2.813 × 10−3 s−1 and 1.663 × 10−3 s−1 for MO dye. Among the different nitroarenes, the reaction rate matched the ordered of p-NP>TNP > m-NP > o-NP, while for the dyes it was MO > CR > MR. Ag/ZnO-CH nanocomposites were recycled multiple times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity. The higher stability of the Ag/ZnO-CH nanofibers also allows the catalyst to be separated easily by just pulling the catalyst from the reaction mixture and reused. The clean and facile, simple synthesis procedure, outstanding properties and low-cost supports allow these catalysts to be used in the reduction of the organic pollutants individually as well as collectively in the mixture of dyes in wastewater at room temperature.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:56:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720931481
       
  • Yarn degradation during weaving process and its effect on the mechanical
           behaviours of 3D warp interlock p-aramid fabric for industrial
           applications

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      Authors: Mulat Alubel Abtew, François Boussu, Pascal Bruniaux, Carmen Loghin, Irina Cristian, Yan Chen, Lichuan Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabric becomes a promising structure due to its good mechanical performances. However, its complex manufacturing process can cause severe yarn damage and affects its overall final performances. The current study addressed the effects weaving process and warp yarn ratios on the multi-filaments yarn degradations and its mechanical performances while 3D warp interlock fabric manufacturing. Four different 3D warp interlock variants having similar fabric architecture, and yarn densities but different warp yarns interchange ratios were manufactured using 930dTex high-performance multi-filament (Twaron® f1000). The multi-filaments yarns at different weaving processes were tested for their tensile properties. The results show that the average tensile strength of twisted yarns show a decrement of 5.68% as compared to the bobbin yarns. Meanwhile, warping process also showed a 16.11% maximum breaking load reduction as compared to the bobbin yarn. Besides, the tensile strength of binding yarn after weaving process for samples 3D-8/0, 3D-8/4, and 3D-8/8 was reduced by 12.79%, 5.22%, and 14.22% respectively as compared to the yarn after warping process. In conclusion, yarn degradation inside the 3D woven structure was affected not only by the various process parameters but also by the type of fabric architecture made with different warp yarn ratios. These phenomena ultimately bring a great influence both on the yarn and overall mechanical performance of the final products. For this, further studies are planned to investigate the multi-filaments yarn degradation effect on the ballistic performances fibrous material as it is directly linked to the yarn performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-30T04:56:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720937288
       
  • Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of hybrid composites
           through addition of halloysite nanoclay for light weight structural
           applications

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      Authors: K C Nagaraja, S Rajanna, G S Prakash, G Rajeshkumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this work the effect of stacking sequence of Carbon (C)/Glass (G) fibers and halloysites addition (1, 3 and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical and thermal properties of the hybrid composites were explored. The composite laminates were prepared by using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Technique (VARIT). The outcomes disclosed that the hybrid composites having sequence of C2G3C2 (2-Carbon/3-Glass/2-Carbon layers) showed better overall properties. Moreover, the addition of halloysites enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the C2G3C2 hybrid composites. In particular, the hybrid composites added with 3 wt.% of halloysites showed higher overall properties among the other hybrid composites investigated. Finally, the morphological analysis was performed on the fractured surface of mechanical tested composites to study the failure mechanisms occurred. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the C2G3C2 hybrid composites added with 3 wt.% of halloysite could be a suitable alternative light weight material for automobile, aerospace and building structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-25T06:36:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720936624
       
  • A novel method to construct antimicrobial surface by decorating
           polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane with nanoparticles

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      Authors: Mohammed Awad Abedalwafa, Huiru Zhang, Qianqian Mei, Yan Li, Fujun Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) were prepared by electrospinning technology. Copper (Cu) or/and zinc (Zn) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on the surface of PAN NFMs by spark ablation technology to fabricate a surface structure with antibacterial and hydrophobic properties. The deposition of NPs was controlled using current, voltage, carrier gas flow rate, and load time. The fabricated NFMs were characterized by FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, and water contact angle. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the fabricated NFMs were studied using the agar-diffusion test method. The results showed that Cu, or/and Zn NPs successfully deposited on the surface of PAN NFMs, which improved the hydrophobicity by increasing the water contact angle from 46° to 128°, 130°, and 136°, respectively. Besides, the Zn@PAN NFMs sample was showed good antibacterial property against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. Overall, the NPs@PAN NFMs based spark ablation technology might afford an easy-to-operated design pattern for constructing potential materials for water treatment applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T06:04:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720934198
       
  • Performance of fiber metal laminate composites embedded with AL and CU
           wire mesh

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      Authors: Prabu Krishnasamy, G Rajamurugan, M Thirumurugan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work was investigated that the effect of aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) wire mesh embedded as a structural reinforcement on jute epoxy hybrid composite. The hybrid composites were prepared by epoxy LY556 with HY951 hardener as a matrix; jute and wire mesh as reinforcements using the compression molding technique. In hybrid composites, the aluminium wire mesh (AWM) and copper wire mesh (CWM) were embedded as 45° & 90° orientation to the jute fiber (AWM45/90 and CWM45/90). The performance of the fabricated hybrid composites was studied by conducting various mechanical, thermal, and dynamic characterizations. The test results were shown that the tensile strength of the fabricated composite was improved by 14.12% in AWM45 and 9.28% in CWM45 compared to AWM90 and CWM90 composites respectively. The TGA result expressed that the thermal stability of the CWM45 composite was enhanced with the residue of 18.33% at 800 °C due to the influence of Cu-wire mesh. In the transition region, the 45° oriented wire mesh improved the loss modulus (E″) peaks about 31.74% in CWM and 11.49% in AWM composite to 90° oriented mesh.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T06:55:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720935570
       
  • Tearing analysis of PVC coated fabric under uniaxial and biaxial central
           tearing tests

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      Authors: Han Bao, Minger Wu, Xubo Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, detailed uniaxial and biaxial central tearing tests of a type of PVC coated polyester fiber fabric for buildings were carried out. The characteristics of the damage morphology, the formation of the triangle area at the crack tip, crack propagation, and failure modes during the entire tearing process were studied. The influence of crack orientation, crack length, and load ratio on tearing behaviors were analyzed, and it was found that the two parameters of crack orientation and length could be combined into a single variable of the number of cutting-off yarns in the direction perpendicular to crack propagation. For the uniaxial central tearing test, four widely used theoretical models were used to fit the experimental results, which led to the conclusion that Thiele’s empirical formula was the most suitable theory for predicting the tearing strength of PVC fabrics. Finally, the strain of all yarns across the crack section before and at the moment of crack propagation was recorded by the DIC equipment, and the load borne by each yarn was calculated based on the uniaxial tension curve of this material. In this way, the strain and load distributions were obtained for the first time, from which it was observed that the maximum strain almost always concentrated in the del-zone at crack tips, and the number of cutting-off yarns significantly affected the strain distribution. Specifically, the more yarns were cut off, the more difficult it was for other yarns far from the crack to exert their load-carrying capacity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T06:44:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720934513
       
  • Graphene nanoplatelets electrical networks as highly efficient
           self-heating materials for glass fiber fabrics

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      Authors: R Moriche, MA Moreno-Avilés, A Jiménez-Suárez, SG Prolongo, A Ureña
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Self-heating GNPs-based electrical networks were successfully obtained for their use in electrothermal applications. The electrical resistance of the GNPs-networks created on glass fiber fabrics was strongly dependent on fiber direction. The electrothermal response was fast and the maximum temperature was achieved in the system after ∼20 s. Increments in temperature above 80°C were obtained at the surface of the coated glass fiber fabric at relatively low intensity currents. Cyclic self-heating did not cause appreciable diminution in performance. Additionally, their potential application in evaluation of the quality of dispersion of the nanoreinforcement was demonstrated, as regions with lower contents in GNPs showed higher temperature due to weak links between GNPs located in highly conductive paths forming the electrical network.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T04:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720931482
       
  • Integrated vacuum assisted resin infusion and resin transfer molding
           technique for manufacturing of nano-filled glass fiber reinforced epoxy
           composite

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      Authors: MA Agwa, Sherif M Youssef, Soliman S Ali-Eldin, M Megahed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Vacuum-Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) and Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) techniques are the most common techniques for the manufacturing of polymeric composite laminates. The VARI technique has a lot of advantages such as low cost, free voids laminates and the ability to produce complex shapes. However, it has some drawbacks such as poor surface finish and temperature instabilities. On the contrary, the RTM technique can withstand high temperature, producing a good surface finish and complex shape laminates. However, it has a high tooling cost and poor quality laminates due to void contents. In this study, a new technique integrated both VARI and RTM techniques is developed to minimize their drawbacks. This technique involves using a semitransparent composite plate instead of a vacuum bag in the VARI technique. This semitransparent plate takes the inverse shape of the composite laminate similar to the RTM tooling. However, this plate has a low cost compared with RTM tooling and allows monitoring of the resin flow during the infusion process. To validate the integrated technique, the mechanical properties of composite laminates are compared with that produced by hand layup technique (HLT). Moreover, the influence of incorporation of 0.25 wt. % and 0.5 wt. % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle into woven and chopped fiber/epoxy composite laminates was demonstrated. The results indicated that the laminates fabricated by the integrated VARI method showed higher mechanical properties than those produced by the hand-layup technique. Moreover, glass fiber/epoxy filled with 0.25 wt. % of TiO2 nanoparticles gives high mechanical properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720932337
       
  • Effect of graphene on the interfacial and mechanical properties of hybrid
           glass/Kevlar fiber metal laminates

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      Authors: S Navid Hosseini Abbandanak, Mehdi Abdollahi Azghan, Amin Zamani, Mehrdad Fallahnejad, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hossein Siadati
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The remarkable resurgence of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) is certainly attributed to the hybrid properties inherent to light metals and fibers reinforced polymer (FRP). There are few reports on the role of nano-size reinforcements in these composites. In this study, the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the flexural and Charpy impact properties of FMLs of aluminum (Al) 2024 reinforced with hybrid glass/Kevlar fibers-epoxy was investigated. Different wt.% of GNPs (0.0, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5) and hand lay-up method were used to fabricate nano-FMLs followed by evaluating them in three-point bend and Charpy impact tests. Before making the FMLs, the surfaces of Al sheets were modified to generate surface pores/nano-pores in order to improve the interfacial bonding within the FMLs layers. The FMLs containing 0.1 wt.% GNPs exhibited 10%, 9% and 11% improvement in flexural strength and modulus and impact strength, respectively, compared to the FMLs containing 0.0 wt.% GNPs. Increase of the GNPs to 0.25 wt.% caused a reduction of the flexural strength and modulus and impact strength values; 13.7%, 3% and 25.5% compared to the samples without GNPs. Also increase of the GNPs to 0.5 wt.% decreased these properties to 31.3%, 8.8% and 29.5%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of their fracture surfaces showed better adhesion at both polymer/fibers (within the FRP) and Al/FRP interfaces. However, at higher wt.% of GNPs, the FMLs became weaker and more brittle. Agglomerated GNPs at the Al/FRP interface penetrated/filled the surface pores/nano-pores on the Al surfaces. Therefore prevent the polymer penetration in pores, resulting in weak interfacial bond and thus overall weaker and less ductile FMLs. As a result, the Charpy impact values for the 0.25 and 0.5 wt.% GNPs samples were respectively 33 and 37 percent smaller than that for the 0.1 wt.% GNPs sample.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720932222
       
  • Geometrical modeling of 3D woven honeycomb fabric for manufacturing of
           lightweight sandwich composite material

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      Authors: Lekhani Tripathi, Ghanshyam Neje, Bijoya Kumar Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Sandwich structures with composite honeycomb core and skin have been mostly used for a variety of engineering applications. There are different man-made honeycomb structures with metal, polymer, and paper honeycomb cell geometry which provide minimum weight, least material content and minimal material cost. In this paper, the textile fiber-based 3 D woven honeycomb structure is engineered by using fabric geometrical parameters and mathematical expressions have been developed to calculate the repeat unit weight, fiber volume fraction (FVF) and specific weight of 3 D woven honeycomb structures. Five 3 D woven honeycomb fabric samples with different cell sizes were produced using model-based construction parameters on a customized rapier weaving machine. Fabric dimensional parameters were determined experimentally to validate the model value with actual results. A reasonably high agreement was observed between experimental and theoretical values. The model can be used as a tool to engineer woven honeycomb reinforcement architecture to produce lightweight structural composite materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T03:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720931472
       
  • Investigation on low-velocity impact and interfacial bonding properties of
           weft-knitted UHMWPE reinforced composites

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      Authors: Ruosi Yan, Qianyu Zhang, Bao Shi, Shixin Liu, Zhigang Qin, Lixia Jia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, low-velocity impact and interfacial bonding properties of weft-knitted ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) filaments reinforced epoxy resin and vinyl ester resin composites were investigated. UHMWPE filament yarns of 600 D were applied to fabricate three weft-knitted structures of plain stitch, interlock air space stitch and swiss double pique. Vacuum-assisted resin infusion (VARI) technology was utilized to combine resin and fabric to form inter-ply hybrid rigid composites. The basic mechanics, impact resistance and puncture performance of the hybrid composites were evaluated and their interfacial bonding was analyzed. It was revealed that composites with interlock air space stitch reinforcement exhibited the highest mechanical properties and puncture resistance. Under the same weft-knitted reinforcement, the tensile and flexural properties of the epoxy matrix composites were better than vinyl ester matrix composites. However, their low-velocity impact resistance was a bit inferior. The interfacial bonding ability between vinyl ester resin and weft knitting structure reinforcement was stronger because of the similar material structure between resin and reinforcement. This process is important for determining the optimum bonding method to achieve extensive application and improve the shelf life of UHMWPE composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T03:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720931474
       
  • Using antibacterial fibers and metallic wires to make woven fabrics used
           as smart diapers

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      Authors: Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Jia-Ci Jhang, Ting-Ting Li, Hao-kai Peng, Li-wei Wu, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Cloth diapers also known as eco-diapers, traditional sandwich-structured eco-diapers are composed of top and bottom layers that are made of cotton or polyester nonwoven fabrics. On account of the hydrophilic bottom layer, urine permeates when the water absorption reaches saturation. In this study, polypropylene is melt-blown into hydrophobic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics to be used as the top and bottom layer. Polypropylene is hydrophobic but after being fabricated into nonwoven fabrics, the porous structure enables the urine to leak to the absorbent interlayer of eco-diapers. Hence, the top layer of diaper does not contain urine, which makes smart diapers more comfortable than cloth diapers that are made of cotton or other moisture-absorbent materials. Moreover, the sensing mechanism via Bluetooth module can detect the water content of the interlayer with a view to improving the demerit of urine leakage. The interlayer is the sensing layer that has antibacterial function. Two types of antibacterial yarns are treated by zinc oxide and silver ions. The yarns are fabricated into antibacterial woven fabrics, after which the antibacterial properties of fabrics are investigated with quantitative and qualitative tests. Next, two parallel metallic wires are assembled in order to trigger short circuit when sensing moisture, thereby obtaining different electric resistance based on different moisture levels. Furthermore, the miniature senor can signify the cellular phones or buzzers when the two metallic wires generate electrical resistance due to the presence of urine. The metallic wires are silver-plated copper yarns, stainless steel fibers, and copper fibers, which possess different electric resistance for the corresponding miniature sensors. This study proposes an efficient manufacture of smart diapers that require only a combination of woven fabrics and two metallic wires to sense moisture, the design of which can be encompassed in diverse fields.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-14T11:08:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720930378
       
  • Tuning energy harvesting devices with different layout angles to robust
           the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion performance

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      Authors: Samane Azmi, Seyed-Mohammad Hosseini Varkiani, Masoud Latifi, Roohollah Bagherzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This research presents an engineering approach to fabricate multilayered electrospun nanofiber mats with high conversion performance of mechanical to electrical energy as well as improved physical stability. Electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber webs were prepared with predefined nanofiber alignments. Fiber alignments and layer-by-layer deposition angles are considered as a tool to adjust the piezoelectric responses of multi-layered fibrous mats. Samples with optimized drum speed and maximum aligned nanofibers were utilized to fabricate multi-layered mats in different layering angles from the fiber direction of base layer (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 150°, and 180[math]). The effect of layering angle of multi-layered nanogenerators on their piezoelectric responses was investigated using an image analysis approach based on the fast Fourier transform. Multivariate analyses (ANOVA) performed to reveal the relationship between increasing drum speed and nanofibers alignment and the degree of crystallization as well as the formation of β-phase in the fiber crystalline structure. Results showed that increase in drum speeds had a relative improvement in the crystal structure and the formation of β-phase in the electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber webs. Furthermore, electrical response of samples with well-aligned polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibers collected at 1800 r/min led to 94.49% improvement when they were exposed by a periodic mechanical impact compared to non-aligned polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber webs. Piezoelectric response of multilayered samples with layering angles of 120[math] showed 41% improvement in their electrical output compared to those with 0[math]. These results teach us to establish engineering design rules for textile-based energy conversion devices with different piezoelectric coefficients.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:33:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720928822
       
  • Characterization of electrospun polylactide nanofibers modified via atom
           transfer radical polymerization

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      Authors: Muhammad Mushtaq, Rahim Jindani, Amjad Farooq, Xin Li, Hina Saba, Muhammad Wasim, Qufu Wei, Qasim Siddiqui
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polylactic acid-based membranes received considerable attention due to its novel biocompatibility, renewability, and biodegradability. In this study, PLA electrospun nanofibrous membrane was prepared and 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was used as a monomer for surface grafting of polymer chains via the atom transfer radical polymerization method. Then the PLA nanofibers were quaternized by using bromoethane. The characterization of poly(DMAEMA) graft PLA nanofiber (poly(DMAEMA)-g-PLA) membranes was done by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the diameter of PLA nanofibers increased 15% as the concentration increased from 10% to 12% and then increased 23% as the concentration of PLA solution increased from 10% to 15%. But the regularity of average diameters is best achieved at 12% concentration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T04:36:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720930381
       
  • Optimizing various parameters influencing mechanical properties of
           banana/coir natural fiber composites using grey relational analysis and
           artificial neural network models

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      Authors: KR Sumesh, K Kanthavel
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The natural fibers of banana and coir from southern part of India was taken as the reinforcement material. Taguchi-based grey relational analysis was used for optimizing the factors influencing tensile, flexural and impact strength of banana/coir composites. Banana wt%, coir wt%, alkali treatment %, pressure and temperature during compression moulding process were the five major factors used for optimizing the mechanical strengths of epoxy-based composites. Grey relational analysis observed 20% banana/15% coir/3% alkali treatment/16 MPa pressure and 100°C temperature combination having the maximum mechanical properties in 16 trial combinations. The signal-to-noise ratio table of grey relational analysis showed combination with 20% banana /15% coir/5% alkali treatment/16 MPa pressure and 100°C temperature having optimized mechanical properties. Banana has the highest rank in improving the mechanical strength of natural composites, followed by coir, alkali treatment %, pressure and temperature. The graph between actual and artificial neural network computed results observed high correlation, proving that network topology of 5-3-1 with five factors, three hidden nodes and one response is the best method for analyzing the parameters in mechanical strength. Hybrid fiber composites with NaOH treatment showed hackles in interface with improved interfacial bonding during SEM analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T04:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720930304
       
  • Grey relational optimization for factors influencing tensile, flexural,
           and impact properties of hybrid sisal banana fiber epoxy composites

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      Authors: KR Sumesh, K Kanthavel
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigates factors contributing mechanical stability of epoxy based composites using Taguchi optimization based grey relational approach. Natural fibers of sisal, banana reinforcement along with epoxy was used as the matrix material for this compression molding technique. The grey relational results observed 7th and 14th trials were having first and second position in mechanical properties: 10% sisal, 15% banana, 8% NaOH, 10 MPa pressure, and 100°C temperature composites; 20% sisal, 10% banana, 5% NaOH, 10 MPa pressure, and 120°C temperature were the combinations. The signal to noise ratio showed the optimized data as 20% sisal, 15% banana, 5% NaOH, 10 MPa pressure, and 100°C temperature. The relation between experimental and predicted grey relational grade using artificial neural network showed good correlation stating the network topology of 5-5-1 with good predictability for analyzing factors influencing mechanical properties. SEM analysis observed pullouts of fiber, breakage in the matrix, and these two causing voids in the single reinforcement substitution using sisal and banana. Hybridization using both the fiber reduces the surface abnormalities and adds to the properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T04:39:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720928501
       
  • A comparative study of mechanical, dynamic mechanical and morphological
           characterization of tampico and coir fibre-reinforced LLDPE processed by
           rotational moulding

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      Authors: SS Abhilash, D Lenin Singaravelu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fibres find their application as a reinforcing agent for polymer composites to obtain parts with improved mechanical properties. Manufacturing of non-metallic products is incorporated with natural fibres for better strength and to reduce cost. Rotational moulding is a process used for the manufacturing of hollow plastic products, especially water tanks, plastic fuel tanks, barrels, kayaks, refrigerated panels, etc. Incorporation of natural fibres to reinforce polymers in rotational moulding process is a tedious task; since there is no control over fibre and polymer powder mixture, which is rotating bi-axially, it may lead to fibre agglomeration. The present work investigates the mouldability of linear low density polyethylene composites with tampico and coir fibre as the reinforcement agents using a bi-axial rotomoulding machine. NaOH-treated fibres with 5, 10 and 15% by weight have been added to the linear low density polyethylene matrix, and the composites were prepared by rotational moulding process. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and hardness have been investigated. Dynamic mechanical behaviour such as storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ of the different composites has been investigated with dynamic mechanical analyser. Fractured surfaces were examined qualitatively with the help of a scanning electron microscope for determining the interfacial properties and fibre adhesion between the fibres and the linear low density polyethylene matrix.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T04:34:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720929363
       
  • A novel approach to determining piezoelectric properties of nanogenerators
           based on PVDF nanofibers using iterative finite element simulation for
           walking energy harvesting

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      Authors: Mohammad Kashfi, Parisa Fakhri, Babak Amini, Neda Yavari, Bahram Rashidi, Lingxue Kong, Roohollah Bagherzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents the experimental characterization and finite element investigation of a piezoelectric nanogenerator based on electrospun poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers walking energy harvesting applications. The piezoelectric response of nanogenerator device was experimentally evaluated under low frequency cyclic impacts using PiezoTester. The impact test was then simulated and the obtained experimental applied force-time curve is implemented into the finite element model as the impactor external force. Based on mentioned procedure, a novel iterative finite element simulation was then introduced to determine the piezoelectric properties of PVDF nanofibers to avoid any redundant experiments. The experimental voltage-time was compared with voltage time obtained from optimized finite element model and a reasonable agreement was achieved between the numerical and experimental curves. Thereinafter, as a case study, a PVDF nanofibers nanogenerator integrated foam (PNIF) was simulated to use as an energy harvester in the shoe insole. The validated finite element model was then constructed to optimize the PNIF elasticity modulus to reach the maximum efficiency of energy harvester during human walking. The results showed that the best efficiency of the energy harvesting is achieved for 211.27 kPa PNIF modulus, which can generate 15.1 V. These results lead to the establishment of engineering design rules in the industrial scale for wearable power harvesting devices in the footwear industry.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-28T07:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720926493
       
  • Research of 3D weft-knitted fabrics designed to protect against mechanical
           risks and suitable for contact with skin

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      Authors: Julija Krauledaitė, Kristina Ancutienė, Sigitas Krauledas, Virginijus Urbelis, Virginija Sacevičienė
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Eight different 3D weft-knitted fabrics, consisting of outer, binding, and inner layers, were designed and produced on E20 and E28 circular weft-knitting machines. First, in the outer layer, high molecular weight polyethylene multifilament yarns and steel wire (0.05 mm diameter), twisted with high molecular weight polyethylene multifilament yarns, were used because of their exceptional properties to resist the mechanical risks. Second, in the inner layer, hydrophobic polyester spun yarns were chosen for their suitability to be used in contact with skin. Finally, in the binding layer, synthetic elastic textured polyamide yarns were used to connect the outer and inner layers. Following the standard EN 388, diverse tests were conducted to determine the resistance of the developed 3D weft-knitted fabrics to mechanical risks, i.e., circular blade cut, puncture, abrasion, and tear. The analysis showed that the quantity of steel wire in knitted structure highly influences circular blade cut and abrasion resistance, and moderately influences tear resistance for all the investigated knitted fabrics. While a strong positive correlation between the quantity of steel wire and the puncture force was defined only for 3D fabrics knitted on an E20 circular weft-knitting machine. The findings of the research lead to the conclusion that the designed 3D weft-knitted fabric structures, where the outer layer ensures protection against mechanical risks, while the inner layer is designed for contact with skin, provide complex protection against diverse mechanical risks.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-28T07:59:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720925831
       
  • A model for predicting electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of
           conductive fiber plain fabric

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      Authors: Jianjun Yin, Wensuo Ma, Zhaohua Huang, Kui Liu, Zhuang Leng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Conductive fiber plain fabric can be used for manufacturing electromagnetic protective products, due to the capacity of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and deformability. A model was established to predict the shielding effectiveness of conductive fiber plain fabric. The curved surface of fabric can be decomposed into countless ideal planes. The vertical incidence of electromagnetic waves on plain fabric surface can be regarded as the oblique incidence on the ideal plane. The transmission coefficients of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized waves were different in each point of fabric surface through the surface equation. The weight factor was supposed as the value of small area at each incident point, and the weighted average of transmission coefficients was deduced. The results showed that, the values of shielding effectiveness increased with the decrease of the pitch of conductive fiber plain fabric and increased with the increase of frequency in the range of 0.1–2 GHz. The trends of theoretical prediction values were consistent with the simulation and experimental values, which proved the rationality of the model.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-28T07:59:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720929356
       
  • Preparation of auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabric impregnated with shear
           thickening fluid for low-velocity impact resistance

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      Authors: Wanli Xu, Biao Yan, Dongmei Hu, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports the preparation of auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabric impregnated with shear thickening fluid and studied its impact behavior under low-velocity impact loading. The shear thickening fluids have been prepared by mechanically dispersing 12 nm silica particles with weight fraction of 10, 15, 20, and 25% in various carriers (PEG200, PEG400, and PEG600). Rheological results indicate that shear thickening fluid experiences shear thickening transition at a specific shear rate. The critical shear rate reduces, and initial viscosity and maximum viscosity increase with the increase of silica weight fraction. The higher molecular weight of polyethylene glycols can lead to lower critical shear rate. The impact process of composite under impact loading can be divided into three stages. The warp-knitted spacer fabric with different negative Poisson’s ratio has a significant effect on the impact behavior. The warp-knitted spacer fabric with better auxetic performance endows composite better impact resistance, the specific performance is the deformation depth, and energy absorption and peak load increase with the increase of auxetic effect of fabric. The silica weight fraction of shear thickening fluid can increase the energy absorption of composite due to the shear thickening transition of shear thickening fluid. Shear thickening fluid has a synergistic effect with the auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabric on impact resistance of composite. The various carriers have no obvious influence on the overall energy absorption and impact load of composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-25T09:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720927013
       
  • Influence of matrix systems on the deformation behavior of adaptive
           fiber-reinforced plastics

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      Authors: Moniruddoza Ashir, Chokri Cherif
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Adaptive structures contain actuators that enable the controlled modification of system states and characteristics. Furthermore, their geometric configuration as well as physical properties can be varied purposefully. The geometric configuration of adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics can be changed by varying the bending modulus of the matrix material. Hence, this research work presents the influence of thermosetting matrix material with different bending moduli on the deformation behavior of adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics. Firstly, shape memory alloys were converted into shape memory alloy hybrid yarn in order to realize this goal. Subsequently, shape memory alloy hybrid yarn was textile-technically integrated into reinforcing fabrics by means of weaving technology. The bending modulus of the thermosetting matrix material was changed by mixing modifier into it. The Seemann Corporation Resin Infusion Molding Process was used for infusion. Later, the deformation behavior of adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics was characterized. Results revealed that the maximum deformations of adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics with resin and modifier at a mixing ratio of 9:1 and 8:2 were increased to 34% and 63%, respectively, compared to adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics infiltrated by the reference resin. The maximum deformation speed during heating and cooling of adaptive fiber-reinforced plastic with the mixing ratio of resin and modifier at a value of 8:2 were 41.17 mm/s and 26.89 mm/s, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-23T06:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720927010
       
  • The electrical properties of
           poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) films and its
           effect onto sensor yarn coating

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      Authors: Ivona Jerkovic, Ana Marija Grancaric, Vladan Koncar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) conductive dry films were observed in terms of their thicknesses versus electrical resistances measured and related electrical resistivities calculated. The evolution of their electrical resistances was monitored in 75 days. Three groups of sensor yarns were studied also where the percolation threshold of the polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) had a crucial role in their manufacture. More glass component in sensor yarns led to less coating thickness what is in correlation with their interface phenomena and adhesion.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T04:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720924843
       
  • Configuration of a unique antibacterial needle-punched nonwoven fabric
           from silver impregnated polyester nanocomposite fibres

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      Authors: Rahul Rajkumar Gadkari, Wazed Ali, Apurba Das, Ramasamy Alagirusamy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The current study aims to mitigate the problems arising due to leach-out of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from an antibacterial material developed using silver coating or finishes. Polyester (PET) staple fibres with Ag-NPs firmly integrated within them were used to prepare needle-punched nonwoven fabric. To further enhance the antibacterial efficiency, the nonwoven surface was etched via alkaline hydrolysis such that the Ag-NPs are exposed to the bacterial cell wall. The antibacterial activity of the nonwoven made of PET-Ag-NPs nanocomposite fibres (P/Ag-NFs) against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria was found to be increased after hydrolysis by 4.5% and 6.5%, respectively. The amount of silver leach-out from the developed antibacterial media was 0.01 ppm for 24 h immersion time, which is in compliance with regulations of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (0.01 mg/m3), as well as that of WHO (0.1 ppm). Moreover, the nonwoven was effective in killing up to 94% and 98% S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, respectively. Hence, the developed nonwoven fabric can safely be used for medical and health care textiles, antibacterial clothing and for the development of dry/wet filtration media.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T04:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720924727
       
  • Life-cycle and environmental impact assessments on processing of plant
           fibres and its bio-composites: A critical review

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      Authors: M Ramesh, C Deepa, L Rajesh Kumar, MR Sanjay, Suchart Siengchin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      From the beginning of humanity, our generation has been on the edge of finding suitable solutions to increase the product’s life-cycle and reduce the environmental impact of the product. Life-cycle assessment is a process to evaluate the effects of products or services whereas environmental impact assessment is an inter-related process of evaluating the environmental impact of a product or service. Plant fibre reinforced composites are developed by researchers, which are kindled by economic and environmental trepidations. The forest’s wood resources will decline and deplete due to environmental issues caused by natural and renewable resources. The main objective of this review is to conduct life-cycle assessment and environmental impact assessment studies on plant fibres and manufacturing of bio-composites from these fibres. It identifies the differences and causes to the environment, in particular about the total effect on the surrounding atmosphere. Another aim of this work is to assess a techno-economic feasibility based on the environmental impact category. In addition to this, inventory assessments of these composites are also dealt with, alongside the industrial applications. This review concludes a summary of current research and point out the opportunities and challenges for future researchers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T04:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720924730
       
  • Effect of surface treatment on moisture absorption, thermal, and
           mechanical properties of sisal fiber

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      Authors: Adane Dagnaw Gudayu, Leif Steuernagel, Dieter Meiners, Rotich Gideon
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fibers are increasingly being used as composite reinforcement for both thermoplastic and thermoset resin, mainly for automotive application. Due to their hydrophilic nature, natural fibers have certain limitations during composite manufacture especially owing to their poor resin wettability, weak fiber–polymer interface, high moisture absorption, and being affected by high temperature in case of thermoplastic resin. This work investigates the impact of sisal fiber modification techniques on moisture absorption, thermal, and mechanical properties of the fiber. Four sisal fiber samples were prepared; untreated, alkaline treated, acetylated, and a combined alkaline-treated/acetylation samples. The samples were evaluated for their hygroscopic nature, thermal stability, and tensile properties. It is found that acetylation resulted in a reduction of moisture absorption of sisal fiber as the acetylated and alkaline-treated/acetylated samples recorded a decrease of 42% and 28%, respectively. Alkaline treatment increased the absorbency owing to the removal of hemicellulose and lignin. The thermogravimetric result revealed that alkaline treatment improved the thermal stability as the alkali-treated and alkali-treated/acetylated samples showed improvement in thermal properties. The acetylated sample resulted in a significant reduction in tensile strength. But, the results from tensile tests of the alkaline-treated samples showed an insignificant decrease in tensile strength and improvement in the modulus for all treated samples. Fourier-transform infrared and scanning electron microscopic analysis were included in the study to supplement the results with structural and microstructural changes. The effect of those treatments on the sisal–PET composite properties was studied and will be submitted in part 2 of the study.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-19T08:13:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720924774
       
  • Bacterial cellulose-natural fiber composites produced by fibers extracted
           from banana peel waste

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      Authors: Muhammad Awais Naeem, Qasim Siddiqui, Muhammad Rafique Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Wasim, Amjad Farooq, Tayyad Naveed, Qufu Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent times, there is a growing demand for low-cost raw materials, renewable resources, and eco-friendly end products. Natural fibers are considered as strong candidates to be used as a potential reinforcement for composite manufacturing. In the current study, natural fibers extracted from banana peel were coated with bacterial cellulose through a green biosynthesis approach as well as by a simple slurry dipping method. Thus, natural fibers from banana peel waste were used the first time, to produce bacterial cellulose-natural fiber composites. SEM analysis revealed good interaction between the hybrid fibers and the epoxy matrix. Thermal gravimetric analysis results revealed that the degradation temperature increases because of the addition of bacterial cellulose on fiber surface, which improves the thermal stability. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (405°C) was noticed for nanocomposites reinforced by banana fibers with bacterial cellulose deposited on their surface. Whereas the lowest weight loss was also found for the same sample group. The highest tensile strength (57.95 MPa) was found for SBC-BP/epoxy, followed by DBC-BP/epoxy (54.73 MPa) and NBP/epoxy (45.32 MPa) composites, respectively. Composites reinforced by both types of hybrid banana fibers shown comparatively higher tensile performance as compared with the neat banana peel fiber-epoxy composites, which can be attributed to the high strength and stiffness associated with the bacterial cellulose. Overall, this study suggests a successful and green route for the fabrication of natural fiber-reinforced composites with improved properties such as tensile strength and thermal stability.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-16T09:52:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720925848
       
  • Comparative study on compressional recovery performance of vertically laid
           and cross-laid highloft nonwovens

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      Authors: Lizhe Zhang, Jonathan Y Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Vertically laid nonwoven fabrics are structurally different from conventional cross-laid nonwoven fabrics, resulting in an exceptional bulkiness and unique compressional recovery performance. In this paper, two testing methods (manual procedure vs. machine procedure) to determine bulky nonwoven thickness were first studied and statistically analyzed. Then, pore sizes of selected nonwoven samples were measured by a porosimeter to examine relationship between the pore size and nonwoven structural parameters. Finally, compressive properties of the nonwoven samples were measured by an Instron tester for assessment of main effects of nonwoven structural parameters in terms of thickness, gram weight, bulk density, and porosity on nonwoven compressional properties. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two thickness measurement methods, and the manual measurement was basically consistent with the machine measurement. Bubble point pore size and average flow pore size were correlated with the structure parameters in varied correlation coefficients. Compared to cross-laid nonwovens, vertically laid nonwovens exhibited a greater compressive energy and linearity and a lower compressive resilience.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-16T09:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720925828
       
  • Nanocomposite cellulose fabrics with in situ generated silver
           nanoparticles by bioreduction method

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      Authors: Suchart Siengchin, Pawinee Boonyasopon, Vajja Sadanand, Anumakonda Varada Rajulu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, nanocomposite cellulose fabrics with in situ generated silver nanoparticles were prepared by bioreduction method employing aqueous dispersion of low-cost natural turmeric powder as a reducing agent and different concentrated aqueous AgNO3 as source solutions. The prepared nanocomposite cellulose fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and antibacterial tests. The nanocomposite cellulose fabrics had roughly spherical silver nanoparticles in the size range of 41–130 nm with an overall average of 78 nm. The X-ray analysis indicated the generation of both silver nanoparticles and Ag2O nanoparticles in the nanocomposite cellulose fabrics. The nanocomposite cellulose fabrics retained the generated AgNPs even after repeated detergent washings. The prepared nanocomposite cellulose fabrics exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and hence can be considered as antibacterial hospital-bed materials, apparels, etc.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T04:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720924731
       
  • Branched nanofibers with tiny diameters for air filtration via one-step
           electrospinning

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      Authors: Bilal Zaarour, Hussen Tina, Lei Zhu, XiangYu Jin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Engineering the surface morphology of fibers has been attracting significant consideration in various areas and applications. In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) branched nanofibers with a diameter of less than 50 nm are electrospun directly at a low relative humidity by adding tetrabutylammonium chloride. The effects of the branched structure on the specific surface area and pore size distribution are investigated, and the filtration properties of the air filter based on branched nanofiber webs with different basis weights are studied. The results exhibit that the air filter based on PVDF branched nanofibers with the basis weight of 1 g/m2 has an outstanding filtration efficiency (99.999%) to 0.26 µm sodium chloride particles under the pressure drop of 126.17 Pa. We believe that this study can be used as a useful reference for the preparation of branched nanofibers through one-step electrospinning.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T04:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720923773
       
  • The mechanical and ultraviolet aging properties of needle-punched nonwoven
           geotextiles made with recycled fibers

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      Authors: Wei Tan, Fan Fu, Fei-Fei Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Ping Wang, Diantang Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      There are more and more waste textiles in modern times while the recycling efficiency is relatively low. In order to increase the recycling of waste textiles, this paper proposes a kind of low-cost, environmental protection, good permeability, tough and anti-aging substrate geotextile which can replace the riparian soil to support normal growth of plants. First of all, the fiber web was formed by waste fibers (polyester 78 wt%, cotton 20 wt%, others 2 wt%) after carding and reinforcing with different needling parameters. The comprehensive properties of designed nonwoven geotextiles were estimated via a series of tests such as tensile, bursting, air permeability, morphology, thermal stability and porosity. Moreover, the ultraviolet-aging tests were also conducted with both an accelerating aging box and natural aging methods to assess the possibility of outdoor-usage as plant blanket. The comprehensive assessment of results has shown that the optimum processing parameter was the needle depth of 12 mm combined with the needling frequency of 700 times/min. The ultraviolet-aging results have revealed that manufactured geotextiles have comparatively good anti-aging performance, which is suitable for long-term exposure outside. This result of this research provides a feasible and convenient application field for recycled textiles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T03:18:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720921580
       
  • Preparation and characterization of copper/zinc nanoparticles-loaded
           bacterial cellulose for electromagnetic interference shielding

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      Authors: Muhammad Wasim, Muhammad A Naeem, Muhammad R Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Qufu Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work describes that bacterial cellulose was successively modified by copper/zinc nanoparticles with the help of direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputter-coating method for electromagnetic interference shielding to enhance its hydrophobic, mechanical, and conductive properties. The surface morphology and properties of bacterial cellulose/copper/zinc nanocomposite were analyzed by various testing methods (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction) and instruments to analyze smooth deposition of metallic nanoparticles. The conductive and shielding effects were examined by a four-point probe and vector analyzer. The mechanical properties were investigated by a uniaxial testing machine. The combined structure of bacterial cellulose, copper, and zinc nanoparticles (Zn–Np) improves the surface hydrophobicity, mechanical strength, as well as electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness, while zinc nanoparticles act as a protective layer over the surface of bacterial cellulose/copper nanocomposite. So, the findings revealed that the bacterial cellulose/copper/zinc nanocomposite has excellent hydrophobic (θ; 143.7°), good mechanical (T.F; 39.67 MPa, elongation; 13.1%, Y.M; 5.90 MPa), conductive (50 W; 0.0323 S/m), and electromagnetic interference shielding (28.54 dB) properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-05-01T12:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720921531
       
  • Developing a thermo-regulative system for nonwoven textiles using
           microencapsulated organic coconut oil

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      Authors: Saraç E Gözde, Öner Erhan, Kahraman M Vezir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Organic coconut oil was investigated as a bio-based phase change material in core, and melamine formaldehyde was used as shell material to fabricate microencapsulated phase change material for thermo-regulation in nonwoven textiles. The microcapsules were synthesized using in situ polymerization method. The produced microcapsules (microencapsulated phase change material) were applied by knife coating in different ratios (1:5 and 1.5:5; MPCM: coating paste by wt.) to 100% polypropylene nonwoven, porous, and hydrophilic layer of a laminated, spunbond, and double-layer fabric. The coated layer was confined within two layers of the fabric to develop a thermo-regulative system on the nonwoven fabric to regulate the body temperature in surgeries. The two layers were composed by applying heat (140°C) and pressure (12 kg/cm2). Organic coconut oil, the fabricated microcapsule, and the composite fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that spherical and uniform microcapsules were obtained with an approximate particle size of 2–6 µm. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that microencapsulated phase change material and the composite fabrics possessed significant melting enthalpies of 72.9 and 8.4–11.4 J/g, respectively, at peak melting temperatures between 21.6 and 22.8°C within human comfort temperature range. The utilization of coconut oil as a phase change material and the composite integration of this phase change material to a nonwoven fabric bring forward a novelty for future applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-29T01:59:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720921490
       
  • Evaluation and prediction of fused fabric composites properties – A
           review

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      Authors: R Sudhakar, G Renjini
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T04:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720919859
       
  • Expected lifetime of fibrous nanogenerator exposed to cyclic compressive
           pressure

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      Authors: Mohammad Sajad Sorayani Bafqi, Masoud Latifi, Abdol-Hossein Sadeghi, Roohollah Bagherzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T04:06:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720915835
       
  • Damage evaluation of quartz woven fabrics during needle punching process

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      Authors: Peijian Du, Li Chen, Junbo Xie, Qingtao Lv, Xiaoming Chen, Xinmiao Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T04:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720912985
       
  • Hybrid electrospun nanofibrous membranes: Influence of layer arrangement
           and composition ratio on tensile and transport properties

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      Authors: Meisam S Sangtabi, Mehdi K Dolatabadi, Mohsen Gorji, Ali A Gharehaghaji, Abosaid Rashidi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T04:06:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720917948
       
  • Providing antifouling properties to fishing nets with encapsulated econea

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      Authors: Gülşah Ekin Kartal, Ayşe Merih Sarıışık
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720920568
       
  • Development and characterization of thermoset nanocomposites reinforced
           with cotton fibres recovered from textile waste

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      Authors: Zunjarrao Kamble, Bijoya Kumar Behera, Teruo Kimura, Ino Haruhiro
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T02:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720913535
       
  • A novel geometric model of four-directional 3D braided preforms

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      Authors: Zunjarrao Kamble, Bijoya K Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T02:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720918856
       
  • Experimental assessment of adding carbon nanotubes on the impact
           properties of Kevlar-ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fibers hybrid
           composites

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      Authors: Mansour B Bigdilou, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hossein Ebrahimnezhad-Khaljiri, Mohammad A Mohammadi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T02:35:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720921483
       
  • A novel yarn spinning method for fabricating conductive and
           nanofiber-coated hybrid yarns

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      Authors: Gizem Kayabaşı, Özgü Özen, Demet Yılmaz
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electronic or conductive textiles have attracted particular attention because of their potential applications in the fields of energy storage, supercapacitors, solar cells, health care devices, etc. Contrary to solid materials, the properties of textile materials such as stretchability, foldability, washability, etc. make the textiles ideal support materials for electronic devices. Therefore, in recent years, various conductive materials and production methods have been researched extensively to make the textiles conductive. In the present study, an alternative method based on imparting the conductivity to the fiber-based structure for the production of conductive textiles was established. Considering the contribution of unique characteristics of the fiber-based structure to the clothing systems, imparting the conductivity to the fibrous structure before yarn and fabric production may help to protect the breathable, lightweight, softness, deformable and washable of textile structure, and hence to improve the wearability properties of the electronic textiles. In the study, carbon black nanoparticles were selected as a conductive material due to low cost and easy procurable while cotton fiber together with other fiber types such as polyester, acrylic and viscose rayon fibers were used due to their common usage in the textile industry. In addition, various production parameters (CB concentration, feeding rate, etc.) were analyzed and the results indicated that the developed alternative method is capable to produce conductive yarns and electrical resistance of the yarns was about 94–4481 kΩ. The yarns had comparable yarn tenacity and breaking elongation properties, and still carried conductive character even after washing. In literature, there has been no effort to get conductivity in this manner and the method can be considered to be a new application for added-on or built-in future wearable electronics. Also, in the study, produced conductive yarns were used as a collector to gather the nanofibers onto the yarn to produce hybrid yarns enabling the production of functional textile products.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T02:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720914412
       
  • Enhanced flexural and tribological properties of basalt fiber-epoxy
           composite using nano-zirconia/graphene oxide hybrid system

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      Authors: Davood Toorchi, Esmaeil Tohidlou, Hamed Khosravi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T02:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720920573
       
  • Effect of ultrasonic parameters on the mechanical properties of glass
           fiber reinforced polyester filled with nano-clay

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      Authors: M Megahed, MA Agwa, AA Megahed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-22T05:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720918348
       
  • Numerical simulation analysis of the influence of ultra-fine glass fiber
           production process on product homogeneity

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      Authors: Chi Zou, Xiaoming Qian, Yang Ruiliang, Yongsheng Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-19T12:05:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720912545
       
  • Preparation of electrospun silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) fibrous membranes
           and characterization of the effect of sterilization processes on the
           antibacterial activity

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      Authors: Wen-Cheng Chen, Chia-Ying Ko, Kai-Chi Chang, Chih-Hua Chen, Dan-Jae Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-19T12:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720913345
       
  • Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on dry sliding wear behavior of
           Phoenix sp. fiber reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: G Rajeshkumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-17T02:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720918948
       
  • Interfacial modified unidirectional wheat straw/polylactic acid composites

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      Authors: Wuzhou Li, Liangang Zheng, Defang Teng, Dongsheng Ge, Farial I Farha, Fujun Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-17T02:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720918172
       
  • Dielectric constants of sewed multilayer fabric for wearable e-textiles

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      Authors: Yaya Zhang, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-04-09T02:27:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720915542
       
  • Processing of waste carbon and polyamide fibers for high-performance
           thermoplastic composites: Modifications to the auto-leveling system to
           enhance the quality of hybrid drawn sliver

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      Authors: Muhammad F Khurshid, Markus Hillerbrand, Anwar Abdkader, Chokri Cherif
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-30T05:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720913530
       
  • Objective evaluation of sizing morphology of E-glass filament yarn

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      Authors: Tianyong Zheng, Kaidao Yang, Xi Wang, Xiangchun Ning
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-22T02:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720911218
       
  • Impact of fibre orientation on thickness and tensile strength of
           needle-punched nonwoven: Optimization of carding parameters

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      Authors: Rupayan Roy, SM Ishtiaque, Priyal Dixit
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T05:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720910706
       
  • Analysis of longitudinal and innovative transversal 3D printed lattice
           

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      Authors: Mohammad Amin Rahiminia, Masoud Latifi, Mojtaba Sadighi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-19T05:36:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720912213
       
  • Textile-based thermoelectric generator fabricated from carbon fibers

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      Authors: Hardianto Hardianto, Gilbert De Mey, Benny Malengier, Lieva Van Langenhove
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T05:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720910686
       
  • A study on fluorinated ethylene propylene/polytetrafluoroethylene foam
           coating composite as potential flue gas filtration materials

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      Authors: Miaomiao Chen, Yue Zhang, HaiBo Wu, Li Liu, Hong Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T05:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720911374
       
  • Effect of layering sequence on mechanical properties of woven kenaf/jute
           fabric hybrid laminated microwave-processed composites

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manoj Kumar Singh, Sunny Zafar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T05:55:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720911219
       
  • Investigation on influence of time on tear behaviour of airship envelope

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      Authors: Gaurav Singh, Dev K Bairwa, R Chattopadhyay, Mangala Joshi, DK Setua
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T05:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720907704
       
  • Concentration effect of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) crude extract on
           size and properties of gelatin nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning
           process

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      Authors: Naris Barnthip, Jarinee Paosoi, Onruthai Pinyakong
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T05:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720910239
       
  • Effects of bi-particle-sized shear thickening fluid on rheological
           behaviors and stab resistance of Kevlar fabrics

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      Authors: Xiayun Zhang, Ting-Ting Li, Hao-Kai Peng, Zhike Wang, Junli Huo, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-06T05:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720907400
       
  • Sound absorption properties for multi-layer of composite materials using
           nonwoven fabrics with kapok

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      Authors: Xueting Liu, Xiaoning Tang, Zhongmin Deng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-05T05:44:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720904926
       
  • The effect of macrostructure and stability on the flammability of
           non-woven fabrics

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      Authors: Zsuzsanna Kerekes, Katalin Kopecskó, Éva Lublóy, János Szép
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T06:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720908803
       
  • Characterization of thermoplastic nonwovens of copolyamide hot melt
           adhesives filled with carbon nanotubes produced by melt-blowing method

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      Authors: Paulina Latko-Durałek, Paweł Durałek, Anna Boczkowska, Rafał Kozera, Małgorzata Wróblewska, Anna Mazik
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T06:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720910213
       
  • High-strength protective polyester textiles incorporated with metallic
           materials: Characterizations and radiation-shielding effectiveness

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      Authors: Ting An Lin, Mei-Chen Lin, Ting Ru Lin, Keng Siang Sim, Jia-Horng Lin, Ching-Wen Lou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T05:28:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720904678
       
  • Engineered multicomponent electrospun nanocomposite scaffolds comprising
           polyurethane loaded with ghee and propolis for bone tissue repair

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T07:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720908802
       
  • Effects of surface morphology of electrospun polystyrene fiber on its air
           filtration performance

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      Authors: Yuansheng Zheng, Xueqin Li, Binjie Xin, Na Meng, Xiaowei Helian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T07:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720909462
       
  • Antibacterial wound dressing electrospun nanofibrous material from
           polyvinyl alcohol, honey and Curcumin longa extract

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      Authors: Md. Abdus Shahid, Ayub Ali, Md. Nur Uddin, Sumon Miah, Syed Maminul Islam, Md. Mohebbullah, Mohammad Salman Ibna Jamal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-24T05:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720904379
       
  • Preparation of antibacterial conductive cotton fabrics via silane-modified
           polypyrrole

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      Authors: Xintong Xiao, Wei Ma, Xuehong Ren, Tung-Shi Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-19T05:28:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720906808
       
  • Development and blood compatibility evaluation of novel fibrous textile
           scaffold based on polyurethane amalgamated with Alternanthera sessilis oil
           for the bone tissue engineering

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      Authors: Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mohan Prasath Mani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T08:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720906809
       
  • Influence of fabric structure on the tensile and flexural properties of
           three-dimensional angle-interlock woven composites

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      Authors: Zhenyu Ma, Pingze Zhang, Jianxun Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T08:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720906804
       
  • A new method for preparing needle-free cylindrical nozzle nanofibers

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      Authors: Hao Shi, Pingjuan Niu, Pingfan Ning, Shan Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T08:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720907058
       
  • An investigation on the flammability and dynamic mechanical behavior of
           coir fibers reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: Tanmayee Khuntia, Sandhyarani Biswas
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-14T05:11:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720905031
       
  • Sound absorption of warp knitted spacer fabrics based on knit structure
           and nanofiber enhancement

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      Authors: M Davoudabadi Farahani, M Jamshidi Avanaki, Ali AA Jeddi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-14T05:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720903411
       
  • A photovoltaic textile design with a stainless steel mesh fabric

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      Authors: İsmail Borazan, Ayse C Bedeloglu, Ali Demir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T05:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720904053
       
  • Hybrid electrospun membrane based on poly(vinylidene
           fluoride)/poly(acrylic acid)–poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel for waterproof
           and breathable applications

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      Authors: Golchehr Amini, Mohammad Karimi, Farzin Zokaee Ashtiani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T05:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720904675
       
  • Binary structured polypropylene-/propylene-based elastomer fibrous
           membranes with enhanced flexibility

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      Authors: Heng Zhang, Qi Zhen, Yong Liu, Liang Wang, Xiaoyu Guan, Yifeng Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T06:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720903041
       
  • Facial cleansing wipes: A predictive model between consumer perception and
           in vitro lab measurements for rapid prototype screening

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      Authors: Huajing Xing, Hal Macfie, Claudette Vaught, Rui Luo, Edgar Chambers
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-31T05:29:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720901605
       
  • Properties and application of multi-functional and structurally colored
           textile prepared by magnetron sputtering

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      Authors: Xiaohong Yuan, Wei Yin, Huizhen Ke, Qufu Wei, Zujian Huang, Dongsheng Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T05:14:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719900671
       
  • Development of laid-in knitted fabric for buoyant swimwear

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      Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T10:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719900932
       
  • Investigation of the mechanical, thermal, and acoustical behaviors of
           cotton, polyester, and cotton/polyester nonwoven wastes reinforced epoxy
           composites

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      Authors: Wafa Baccouch, Adel Ghith, Ipek Yalcin-Enis, Hande Sezgin, Wafa Miled, Xavier Legrand, Fayala Faten
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T05:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720901864
       
  • Quick measurement of all filaments' diameters in E-glass yarn by Image-Pro
           Plus

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      Authors: Tianyong Zheng, Kaidao Yang, Xi Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T05:21:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719901018
       
  • Banana fibre-based structures for acoustic insulation and absorption

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      Authors: Vikas Kumar Singh, Samrat Mukhopadhyay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T05:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720901823
       
  • Design and preparation of mixed special wettability fabrics based on
           backed weave for separation of light oil/water/heavy oil mixtures

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      Authors: Meiyin Luo, Chengjian Yao, Shixiong Zhai, Kaili Jin, XiQin Huang, Man Zhou, AiRong Liu, Bi Xu, Zaisheng Cai
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T06:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719900933
       
  • Design and fabrication of lab-scale wet-laid equipment to develop wet-laid
           nonwoven for the application of absorbent core of disposable nursing pad

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      Authors: M Aswini
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T06:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719893715
       
  • Investigation of the impact and post-impact behaviour of glass and
           glass/natural fibre hybrid composites made with various stacking
           sequences: Experimental and theoretical analysis

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      Authors: Erdem Selver, Hussein Dalfi, Zeshan Yousaf
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T06:41:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083719900670
       
  • Heat and air transport in differently compacted fibre materials

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      Authors: Lasse Christiansen, Yovko Ivanov Antonov, Rasmus Lund Jensen, Emmanuel Arthur, Lis Wollesen de Jonge, Per Møldrup, Hicham Johra, Peter Fojan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2020-01-15T03:39:23Z<