Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AATCC Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Industrial Textiles
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.377
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1528-0837 - ISSN (Online) 1530-8057
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • A test device to characterize cold-contact protective performance of
           fabrics

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      Authors: Yange Wei, Yun Su, Jun Li, Jianda Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Workers are exposed to skin frostbite in extremely cold environments, especially in contact with cold surfaces. They must wear cold-resistant clothing/gloves to avoid frostbites. However, there was a lack of an accurate method to evaluate the cold-contact protective performance (CPP) of fabrics. In view of this, a test device was developed to simulate the cold-contact exposure by controlling cold-contact temperature and pressure. Then, a frostbite prediction model was proposed to predict the time to skin-frostbite (TSF) as an index for characterizing the CPP. It was found that the standard deviation of cold-contact temperature fluctuated within 0.03°C to 0.51°C in the same second, and the coefficient of variations of the TSF were from 1.35% to 6.97%, indicating that the device presents good stability, reliability, reproducibility. The TSFs for different fabric systems ranged from 35 s to 419.33 s, mostly depending on the fiber type, the thermal resistance, the thickness of fabric and the air content in the fabric. Finally, it was concluded that the proposed device provides a scientific and realistic measurement of CPP of fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T06:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011777
       
  • Modeling and experimental study of pore structure in melt-blown fiber
           assembly

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Yu Chen, Yanwen Ruan, Guanzhi Li, Wenfeng Hu, Sanfa Xin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely known that the pore size of a meltblown fiber assembly extensively affects the final applications of its products. We have developed a model for simulating melt-blowing production to investigate the formation mechanism of a fiber assembly. In this study, we calculated the pore size under different production conditions using the model. The predicted results reveal the relationship between the pore size and the production conditions, namely, the air jet pressure, suction pressure, die temperature, polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector speed. The predicted results also verified the experimental trends reported in previous studies. High air jet pressure and die temperature tend to generate smaller pores, while a large polymer flow rate, die to collector distance, and collector movement speed contribute to the production of larger pores in the fiber assembly. In addition, the circularity was predicted in this study to describe the pore shape. The numerical investigation of virtual production is a novel method in which the expected pore size and corresponding production conditions can be easily obtained using a computer with a few keystrokes and mouse clicks.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211011776
       
  • Ecofriendly development of electrospun antibacterial membranes loaded with
           silver nanoparticles

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      Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Zia Uddin, Faheem Ahmad, Abher Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Sheraz Ahmad, Yakup Aykut, Ahsan Nazir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional polymeric membranes with antibacterial properties have gained significant importance in many applications. Silver NPs offer advantage over other materials for their effective antibacterial properties and being safer for humans at low concentrations. The synthesis of silver NPs may not always be environmental friendly and their incorporation in the polymer membranes is usually a multistep process. In this study, PVDF/PVP/AgNPs electrospun membranes were developed in a single step process where silver NPs were synthesized using reducing and stabilizing properties of PVP. The UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of silver NPs in PVP solution by sharp absorption peak at 398 nm. The membranes were loaded with various concentrations of silver NPs (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt%). The scanning electron microscopy of the developed membranes showed nano fibers of uniform diameter at optimized electrospinning conditions. FTIR spectroscopy also confirmed the successful development of polymeric composite (PVDF/PVP/AgNPs) membranes. The composite membranes demonstrated effective antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion test. The size of the inhibition halo increased with the concentration of the silver NPs in electrospun membranes. The findings of this study will be helpful in the simple and environmentally friendly development of antibacterial membranes for applications such as air and water filtration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T06:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211012590
       
  • Biodegradation properties and thermogravimetric analysis of 3D braided
           flax PLA textile composites

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      Authors: Sateeshkumar Kanakannavar, Jeyaraj Pitchaimani, Arunkumar Thalla, M Rajesh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in the development and application of bio-based (natural fiber and biopolymer) composites are gaining broad attention because the resulting polymer completely degrades and does not release harmful substances. In this study, natural fiber 3 D braided yarn textile PLA (Polylactic acid) bio-composites are developed by film sequencing followed by hot-press compression molding. Bio-deterioration and thermal stability of the composites are analysed for storage, machining, transportation, and in-service uses in different environmental conditions (compost and thermal). Composite samples with different fiber wt.% (0, 22, 44) are exposed to compost soil. Tensile testing is performed under different configurations to characterise the tensile properties. Prepared bio-composite specimens are evaluated for weight loss and reduction in tensile properties over soil burial time, to observe the rate of biodegradation of braided yarn textile bio-composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to analyse the biodegradability of the composites. To study the thermal stability of the prepared bio-composites thermogravimetric (TG) analysis is carried out. Results showed that biodegradability, tensile properties and thermal stability of the composites are enhanced significantly with the reinforcement of 3 D braided yarn fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T10:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010666
       
  • Experimental simulation of bending damage of silicon nitride yarn during
           3D orthogonal fabric forming process

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      Authors: Ning Wu, Shuai Li, Meiyue Han, Chao Zhu, Yanan Jiao, Li Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study executed on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) yarn is to examine some bending damage behaviors and fracture mechanisms that occur during the 3D orthogonal fabric forming process. A three point bending experiment device has been developed in order to simulate the Z-binder yarn bending condition. The effects of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension have been studied. The Weibull analysis of the tensile strength show that the bending damage increases with the increase of weft density, fabric thickness, and yarn tension. The resulting bending damage causes a reduction in yarn strength of between 2.5 and 17.2% depending on the bending parameters of yarn. The growth of the fibrillation area also reflects similar trends with tensile strength loss rate. The fibrillation length produced by the yarns is mostly distributed within the range of 0.3 to 0.9 mm. A comparison of the calculation result to experimental data shows the bending fracture probability of filaments inside yarn are less than that of monofilament. The tensile and bending fracture of Si3N4 filaments exhibit typical brittle fracture characteristics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T04:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010681
       
  • Simulation of polymer jet motion during melt blowing with phase field
           method

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      Authors: Xibo Hao, Zhiying Zhao, Jing Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the past two decades, a number of models have been built to simulate the motion of polymer jet during melt blowing. Unfortunately, the complex interaction between polymer jet and air flow field has been rarely reported. In this work, a phase-field method was applied to simulate the coupling effects between polymer and air flow during melt blowing and the computed results were compared with the results of the model built through level-set method and experimental results. Velocity in the x direction, velocity in the y direction, whipping amplitude and diameter of polymer jet were discussed, respectively. It was found that the velocity predicted by the present model was higher than that predicted by the level-set method. However, both of them are close to the experimental value. The calculated final fiber diameter based on the phase-field method is much closer with the experimental value than that based on the level set method. Based on the model, the effect of polymer surface tension and slot angle on the polymer jet velocity were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006670
       
  • Effect of graphite particulate on mechanical characterization of hybrid
           polymer composites

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      Authors: BN Dhanunjayarao, Usha Kiran Sanivada, NV Swamy Naidu, Raul Fangueiro
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Quest for producing lightweight and biodegradable materials has encouraged researchers to replace synthetic fibers with natural fibers. Hence a study is made to investigate the effects of introducing secondary reinforcement (natural fibers), stacking sequence, and addition of graphite particles on the mechanical characteristics and water uptakes along with diffusivity of hybrid (glass\jute) composites. Different weight fractions of graphite particulates are incorporated into the epoxy to produce different samples having 4 plies for each sample by hand layup vacuum bagging method. The obtained specimens are subjected to various mechanical tests, water absorption tests as per the ASTM standards, and optical microscopy was used to study the fracture morphology of the samples. The results displayed that the properties are deteriorated a little with the addition of secondary reinforcement, however they have improved with the addition of graphite. E-Glass as skin layer and treated jute as core layer composite exhibits ameliorate tensile strength (201.5 MPa), compression strength (515.12 MPa), flexural strength (106.9 MPa), hardness (25 BHN). However highest impact energy of 26 J is recorded for the sample with jute as skin layer and E-Glass as the core layer. Water absorption tests revealed that the addition of graphite has reduced the water absorption in the hybrid samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T06:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211010670
       
  • Effect of extraction method on properties of feather keratin grafted
           modified cotton nonwoven fabric for biomedical applications

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      Authors: Khalilorrahman Khalilipourroodi, Fatemeh Dadashian, Atefeh Solouk
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study offers a new wound dressing by immobilization of amino acid residues on partially carboxymethylated cotton nonwoven fabrics (CM-CN). To improve the absence of capacity to protect the open wound from infection, firstly, a usual cotton nonwoven fabric was chemically modified by utilizing a pad-dry-cure technique including a carboxymethylation procedure. Subsequently, the chicken feather wastes as a natural source were used for the cationization of CM-CN by the same method. Keratin successfully was extracted from chicken feathers using both chemical and enzymatic processes. Physicochemical and biological properties of the prepared samples were evaluated by FTIR, SEM, mechanical properties such as tensile, bending test and wrinkle recovery, biodegradation, permeability (air and water vapor), and MTT assay for cell viability and proliferation. The tensile strength increased to 200%, the air permeability almost doubled, and the greatest cell growth was observed for modified samples. According to the obtained results, enzymatic extraction was influential and the samples coated with enzyme-extracted keratin showed enhanced properties suitable for wound dressing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006208
       
  • Effect of alkyl derivatization of gellan gum during the fabrication of
           electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Fabio Salvatore Palumbo, Salvatore Federico, Giovanna Pitarresi, Calogero Fiorica, Roberto Scaffaro, Andrea Maio, Emmanuel Fortunato Gulino, Gaetano Giammona
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofibers based on polysaccharides represent a consolidated approach in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) and nanomedicine as a drug delivery system (DDS). In this work, two chemical derivatives of a low molecular weight gellan gum (96.7 kDa) with aliphatic pendant tails were processed by electrospinning technique into non-woven nanofibrous mats. In order to generate spinnable blends, it was necessary to associate poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The relationships between the physicochemical properties and the processability via electrospinning technique of gellan gum alkyl derivatives (GG-C8 and GG-C12 having a degree of alkyl chain derivatization of 17 mol % and 18 mol %, respectively) were investigated. The deposition of nanometric fibers (212.4 nm ± 60.0) was achieved by using the blend GG-C8/PVA spinned at 5% w/v in water. The use of a binary solvent composed of water and ethanol in a volumetric ratio 95:5 improved further spinnability obtaining similar nanofiber diameters (218.0 nm ± 96.0). The rheological analysis has allowed to highlight the role of the alkyl portion (C8 and C12) on the spinnability of the blended polymers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007508
       
  • Analysis of woven fabric behavior under punching force

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Eman Eltahan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In several applications, the industrial and protective fabrics might be subjected to punching by the rigid sharp spikes. Fabric resistance to the penetration of the puncher at a constant rate was studied. The analysis of the factors influencing the resistance of the fabric and an explanation of the puncture mechanism were generated. Punching force-displacement curves were obtained and four noticeable fabric failure modes were observed. A special setup was designed so that the fabric sample can be subjected to the biaxial stresses during the puncture tests. This paper studies the puncture behaviors of the plain, twill 1/3, and twill 2/2 woven fabric designs. It was found that the increase in the number of fabric layers from one to three and the number of picks/cm from 17.6 to 27.2 would elevate the punching resistance and the punching energy by 354% and 333%, respectively, with the insignificant change in the values of specific punching force and energy. Plain weave design proved to have higher values than twill design. A high correlation was observed between fabric tensile strength, fabric Young’s modulus, fabric failure energy and its punching force and punching energy.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T08:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211008616
       
  • Characterization of industrial discarded novel Cymbopogon flexuosus stem
           fiber: A potential replacement for synthetic fiber

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      Authors: S Raja, R Rajesh, S Indran, D Divya, G Suganya Priyadharshini
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this research article, a leftover of Cymbopogon flexuosus stem (CFS) collected from the oil extraction industry was examined for its ability as a reinforcing agent in a polymer composite. Anatomical, morphological, physical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the CFS fiber were examined. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of higher amount of cellulose (68.13%), which offers better bonding properties and higher tensile strength (431.19 ± 23.96 MPa). Moreover, the density of the fiber (1270 kg/m3) found using physical analysis was less than that of synthetic fibers, which paves a path in replacing hazardous synthetic fiber. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectrum spectroscopy analyses were conducted to study the functional groups of the extracted CFS fiber. The thermal stability (253.17°C), activation energy (73.01 kJ/mol), and maximum degradation temperature (345.08°C) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the semi-crystalline nature of the fiber with crystallinity index (46.02%) and crystallite size (13.96 nm). The CFS had a smooth surface, as conformed by an atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis. Altogether, this study highlights the feasibility of leftover CFS fiber residue as reinforcement in biopolymer matrices replacing synthetic fiber.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T06:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211007507
       
  • A novel composite cotton yarn with phase change and electrical
           conductivity functions

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      Authors: Guizhen Ke, Xinya Jin, Guangming Cai, Wenbin Li, Anchang Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      PAN/PEG/CNT/cotton composite yarn (PPCCY) was fabricated by impregnating PEG2000–10000 into CNT/cotton yarn (CCY) and coating electrospun PAN around its surface. The effects of PEG type on the morphology, structure, electrical resistance and phase change behavior of the produced composite yarns were studied thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric(TG), electrical resistance tester and infrared thermal images. The experimental results indicated that the resulting compound yarn consisted of conductive yarn within which the spacing between cotton fibers was fulfilled by PEG, rendering phase transition enthalpy from 126–150 Jg−1. The composite yarn exhibited adjustable temperature and thermal storage and electrical conductivity abilities. The composite yarn demonstrated good responsive properties to external electrical and thermal stimuli and had reversible heat conversion and storage, which shows a promise for applications in electrical wearable fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003166
       
  • Theoretical prediction and experimental characterization of radiative
           properties and thermal conductivities of fibrous aramid fabrics

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      Authors: FL Zhu, Yonggui Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nonwoven aramid fabric is widely used as thermal barrier of fireproofing clothing due to its inherent flame retardancy and light weight. In fire or high temperature scenario, radiative heat transfer becomes the predominant heat transfer mode inside firefighters’ clothing. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was adopted to measure the spectral transmittance and spectral extinction coefficients of four aramid fabrics with different porosity in infrared wavelength range between 2.5 and 25 μm. It was found that the radiative properties of fibrous aramid fabric are strongly dependent on its bulk density or porosity. The spectral extinction coefficient decreases with increasing porosity or decreasing bulk density. The infrared optical properties combined with infrared imaging measurements demonstrate that aramid fabric may be used as infrared semi-transparent textile. A predicted model, combined the effects of conduction-radiation heat transfer, has been developed to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of aramid fiber materials. The model implemented the Rosseland diffusion approximation to evaluate radiative thermal conductivity, and the Parallel-Series structural model to evaluate tortuosity-weighted phonic thermal conductivity. The predicted results were also compared with experimental data obtained from TPS method. This work provides useful information for future studies of heat transfer mathematical modeling of firefighters’ clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006209
       
  • Evaluation of electrospun polyurethane scaffolds loaded with cerium oxide
           for bone tissue engineering

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun polyurethane (PU) scaffolds were developed containing cerium oxide (CeO2). Photomicrograph of the composites revealed the diameter of the PU/CeO2 (264 ± 169 nm) was smaller than the polyurethane scaffold (994 ± 113 nm). The fabricated PU/CeO2 (110° ± 1) scaffold displayed a more hydrophobic nature as depicted by increasing contact angle compared to the pristine PU (105° ± 3). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results presented evidence for the cerium oxide presence in the PU matrix through the formation of the hydrogen bond. The surface roughness of PU/CeO2 (301 ± 52 nm) was reduced in comparison with pristine PU (854 ± 32 nm) as estimated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Cerium oxide enhanced the thermal and tensile behaviour of the pristine PU. Coagulation assays indicated delayed clotting time and a less toxic nature to red blood cells of PU/CeO2 than pristine PU. Further, the calcium deposition in the nanocomposites (10.5%) was higher compared to pure PU (2.4%) as showed in bone mineralization testing. Hence with these potent properties, PU/CeO2 holds as a promising candidate for bone regeneration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T03:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211006668
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of coating knitted fabrics with silica
           nanoparticles for protection from needle-stick injuries

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      Authors: Jaouachi Boubaker, Cheriaa Rim, Bouallagui Nihed
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this work is to investigate the penetration properties of knitted fabrics coated with silica nanoparticles to make protective gloves. Silica nanoparticles are well-known and useful for several applications. Hence, in the environment where glove material is exposed to harmful chemicals, hazards related to faster penetration of dangerous substances into the glove interior may cause needle-stick injuries and micro damage. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is to use knitted fabrics coated with acrylic pastes containing silica nanoparticles (average size 20 nm in diameter). To study the effectiveness of developed gloves for protection against needle-stick injuries, overall knitted fabrics with a similar structure (interlock) and differentiated raw material composition were selected: polyamide 6-6/elastane and polyester. Evaluation of the needle-stick injuries process of the coated plated knits based on silica nanoparticles was performed. For this purpose, the assessment of the surface morphology of materials has been examined before and after the dexterity and penetration process. The studied composite samples showed an increased resistance to hypodermic needle penetration as the nano-silica particles content and the coating layers increase. Coated knitted fabrics allowed us to obtain promising results in terms of fabric stiffness. However, the manual coating application explained the observed imperfections.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001352
       
  • Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane electrospun webs of fibers
           modified with biocompatible graphene oxide nanofiller

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      Authors: Aleksandra Ivanoska-Dacikj, Petre Makreski, Gordana Bogoeva-Gaceva
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A successful optimization of the electrospinning parameters for obtainment of biodegradable polyester urethane (DP) webs of fibers, neat and graphene oxide (GO) modified, was performed. The effect of the processing parameters (distance between the needle tip and the collector, applied voltage, and flowing rate), solution type and polymer concentration, on the fiber-forming process and the obtained fibers’ morphology was examined. The best homogeneity of the fibers was achieved for 12 wt% DP dissolved in 80:20 wt% mixture of chloroform and ethanol, applying similar processing parameters for the neat and modified samples (0.5 ml/h pumping rate, 15 kV applied voltage, and 150 mm distance to the collector, for the neat sample, and 0.4 ml/h, 18 kV, and 110 mm, for the GO modified samples). The main novelty of this work is the modification of DP with low quantities (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%) of GO – the “next generation” nanomaterial for stem cell control. The morphological characterization revealed a fibrous microstructure consisting of randomly oriented fibers with a diameters ranging from hundreds nanometers to couple micrometers, representing a feasible imitation of the structure of extracellular matrix (ECM). The XRD studies showed high dispersion of GO in DP matrix and even exfoliation for the sample that contains 2 wt% GO. Raman studies neatly complemented the highest filler/matrix interactions and the superior levels of dispersion for this sample. TGA was used to analyze the thermo-oxidative degradation and also to determine the actual content of GO present in the samples.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211003165
       
  • A transversely hyperelastic constitutive model of flexible film composite

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      Authors: Zhipeng Qu, Houdi Xiao, Mingyun Lv
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a transversely hyperelastic constitutive model for predicting mechanical properties of flexible composites under unidirectional tension. A strain energy function which reflects the behavior of anisotropic elastic material is decomposed into three parts: matrix, fiber and fiber-matrix interaction. The fiber-matrix interaction was decomposed into in-plane shear stresses and out-of-plane shear stress, the in-plane shear stresses were related to the fiber elongation invariants, and the out-of-plane shear stress was related to the fiber elongation invariants and the matrix invariants. The fiber-matrix interaction considering shear factor was established. Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics, a transverse hyperelastic constitutive model including fiber, matrix and their interaction is developed. The transversely hyperelastic constitutive model is verified by the uniaxial tension tests. The constitutive model can be used to design the flexible structure of stratospheric airship.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001783
       
  • Microstructure and physical properties of composite nonwovens produced by
           incorporating cotton fibers in elastic spunbond and meltblown webs for
           medical textiles

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      Authors: Partha Sikdar, Gajanan S Bhat, Doug Hinchliff, Shafiqul Islam, Brian Condon
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to produce elastomeric nonwovens containing cotton by the combination of appropriate process. Such nonwovens are in demand for use in several healthcare, baby care, and adult care products that require stretchability, comfort, and barrier properties. Meltblown fabrics have very high surface area due to microfibers and have good absorbency, permeability, and barrier properties. Spunbonding is the most economical process to produce nonwovens with good strength and physical properties with relatively larger diameter fibers. Incorporating cotton fibers into elastomeric nonwovens can enhance the performance of products, such as absorbency and comfort. There has not been any study yet to use such novel approaches to produce elastomeric cotton fiber nonwovens. A hydroentangling process was used to integrate cotton fibers into produced elastomeric spunbond and meltblown nonwovens. The laminated web structures produced by various combinations were evaluated for their physical properties such as weight, thickness, air permeability, pore size, tensile strength, and especially the stretch recovery. Incorporating cotton into elastic webs resulted in composite structures with improved moisture absorbency (250%-800%) as well as good breathability and elastic properties. The results also show that incorporating cotton can significantly increase tensile strength with improved spontaneous recovery from stretch even after the 5th cycle. Results from the experiments demonstrate that such composite webs with improved performance properties can be produced by commercially used processes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004287
       
  • Prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of 3D woven solid
           structures by mathematical coding

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      Authors: Vivek R Jayan, Lekhani Tripathi, Promoda Kumar Behera, Michal Petru, BK Behera
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The internal geometry of composite material is one of the most important factors that influence its performance and service life. A new approach is proposed for the prediction of internal geometry and tensile behavior of the 3 D (three dimensional) woven fabrics by creating the unit cell using mathematical coding. In many technical applications, textile materials are subjected to rates of loading or straining that may be much greater in magnitude than the regular household applications of these materials. The main aim of this study is to provide a generalized method for all the structures. By mathematical coding, unit cells of 3 D woven orthogonal, warp interlock and angle interlock structures have been created. The study then focuses on developing code to analyze the geometrical parameters of the fabric like fabric thickness, areal density, and fiber volume fraction. Then, the tensile behavior of the coded 3 D structures is studied in Ansys platform and the results are compared with experimental values for authentication of geometrical parameters as well as for tensile behavior. The results show that the mathematical coding approach is a more efficient modeling technique with an acceptable error percentage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T06:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001348
       
  • Filtration performance of biaxial circular seamless knitted filter
           material based on electrostatic adsorption

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      Authors: Haiwen Mao, Zhijuan Pan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to solve the problem of dust accumulation at the joints of traditional filter materials and the reduction of filtration efficiency, weft knitting was selected to make the fabric cylindrical unwinding machine. The cylindrical filter material was formed by cylindrical needling machine in the later period. This type of novel seamless filter material was compared with the traditional one on the filtration performance and numerical simulation of filtration performance. The results show that when the warp and weft lining yarns in the seamless filter material were PTFE monofilaments containing tourmaline particles, the filtration efficiency was the optimal due to the presence of the surface static voltage. The filtration efficiency could greatly be improved by 7.24%. The relationship between the surface static voltage and distance was exponential. The filter material with electrostatic field on the surface increased the active filtration of electrostatic adsorption in addition to the passive filtration. This type of seamless filter material provided research and development ideas and theoretical guidance for the development and application of filter materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T05:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211001786
       
  • Corrigendum to Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin
           electrospun nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T02:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211004855
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of polyester-cotton/wire blended conductive
           woven fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

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      Authors: Ching-Wen Lou, Yan-Ling Liu, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Hao-Kai Peng, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      For the pursuit of conductive textiles with high electromagnetic shielding performance, specified yarns are processed with a special spinning feeding device with twist counts of 40 T, 50 T, 60 T, 70 T, 80 T, and 90 T, for Next, the optimal yarns from each group are made into SS/Pc-70 and Cu/Pc-80 conductive woven fabrics with a plain weave structure design. In addition, the surface resistivity, electromagnetic shielding effectiveness measurement and air permeability of the two conductive woven fabrics were tested and analyzed. Regarding the electromagnetic shielding performance test, the effects of the complete shielding network, the lamination layers of fabric, and lamination angle on the electromagnetic shielding performance are discussed. The test results indicate that Cu/Pc-80 woven fabrics has the lowest surface resistivity, which means it has the best electrical conductivity; Moreover, different types of metal wires provide the conductive fabrics with different levels of surface resistance. The variations in the lamination angles help attain a complete conductive network that significantly enhances the EMSE, and Cu/Pc-80 have a greater average shielding value comparatively and thus greater EMSE. For both types of conductive woven fabrics, one-layered conductive woven fabrics exhibit the maximal air permeability. As the air permeability of conductive woven fabrics is correlated with the thickness of fabrics, the greater the number of lamination layers, the lower the air permeability of the conductive fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T01:48:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997184
       
  • Co-electrospun-electrosprayed PVA/folic acid nanofibers for transdermal
           drug delivery: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro
           cytocompatibility

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      Authors: Fatma Nur Parın, Çiğdem İnci Aydemir, Gökçe Taner, Kenan Yıldırım
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, hydrophilic based bioactive nanofibers were produced via an electrospinning and electrospraying simultaneous process. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(vinyl alcohol)-gelatin (PVA-Gel), and poly(vinyl alcohol)-alginate (PVA-Alg) polymers were used as the matrix material and folic acid (FA) particles were dispersed simultaneously on the surface of the nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers (NFs) was uniform and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behavior, chemical structure of the composite nanofibers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which showed that no chemical bonding between vitamin and polymers. A fast release of FA-loaded electrospun fibers was carried out by UV-Vis in vitro study within the 8 hour-period in artificial sweat solutions (pH 5.44). The obtained PVA/FA, PVA-Gel/FA, and PVA-Alg/FA fibers released 49.6%, 69.55%, and 50.88% of the sprayed FA in 8 h, indicating the influence of polymer matrix and polymer-drug interactions, on its release from the polymer matrix. Moreover, biocompatibility of all developed novel NFs was assessed by two different cytotoxicity tests, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in L929 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In all cases, it is concluded that these new electrospun fibers had fast-release of the vitamin and the hybrid process is suitable for transdermal patch applications, especially for skin-care products. The results of cytocompatibility assays on L929 reveal that all prepared NFs have no or slight cell toxicity. PVA and PVA-Gel with/without FA nanofibers seems more biocompatible than PVA-Alg nanofibers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997185
       
  • High velocity impact properties of composites reinforced by stitched and
           unstitched glass woven fabrics

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      Authors: Zeynab Behroozi, Hooshang Nosraty, Majid Tehrani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research aimed to investigate the effect of stitching angle and stacking sequence of stitched layers on high velocity impact behavior of composites reinforced by glass woven fabrics. To study the effect of stitching angle on ballistic impact behavior, six different angles of (0°), (90°), (45°), (0°,90°), (±45°) and (0°,90°,±45°) were chosen as stitching angles. These stitching angles were applied on eight layers of glass woven fabric. To study the effect of stacking sequence of stitched layers, a different number of layers were stitched together with the angle of 0°. Unstitched and stitched composites were exposed to high velocity impact with 180 m/s using a spherical projectile. The residual velocity of projectile and dimensions of damage area on the composites’ front and back sides were measured. It was found that the sample with the 45° stitching angle had the best behavior against ballistic impact and its energy absorption was significantly higher than the other samples. Stitching also reduces damage area in front and back sides of the composites and inhibits delamination.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999865
       
  • Flexural behavior of functionally graded polymeric composite beams

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      Authors: M Atta, A Abu-Sinna, S Mousa, HEM Sallam, AA Abd-Elhady
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The bending test is one of the most important tests that demonstrates the advantages of functional gradient (FGM) materials, thanks to the stress gradient across the specimen depth. In this research, the flexural response of functionally graded polymeric composite material (FGM) is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Fabricated by a hand lay-up manufacturing technique, the unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite composed of ten layers is used in the present investigation. A 3-D finite element simulation is used to predict the flexural strength based on Hashin’s failure criterion. To produce ten layers of FGM beams with different patterns, the fiber volume fraction (Vf%) ranges from 10% to 50%. A comparison between FGM beams and conventional composite beams having the same average Vf% is made. The experimental results show that the failure of the FGM beams under three points bending loading (3PB) test is initiated from the tensioned layers, and spread to the upper layer. The spreading is followed by delamination accompanied by shear failures. Finally, the FGM beams fail due to crushing in the compression zone. Furthermore, the delamination failure between the layers has a major effect on the rapidity of the final failure of the FGM beams. The present numerical results show that the gradient pattern of FGM beams is a critical parameter for improving their flexural behavior. Otherwise, Vf% of the outer layers of the FGM beams, i.e. Vf% = 30, 40, or 50%, is responsible for improving their flexural strength.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T06:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211000365
       
  • Electromagnetic shielding performance of copper and silver-plated hybrid
           yarn based multilayer fabrics in C & X band frequency range

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      Authors: Dharmendra Nath Pandey, Arindam Basu, Pramod Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, a strategic designing of multilayer shield was planned to enhance the multiple reflection phenomenon to achieve maximum absorption properties in microwave frequency (C & X band) range. Multi-layer EMR shields were developed using pure cotton fabric and conductive woven fabrics, incorporated with copper- based & silver-plated hybrid yarn. First of all, single layer fabrics were produced in five variants, nomenclature as L1A (pure cotton) L1B, L1C (copper-based hybrid yarn), LS1B and LS1C (silver plated hybrid yarn). These five variants were used to prepare four sets of double & triple layer fabric. In both double and triple layer composition, L1A fabric (pure cotton) was used as top layer followed by B and C series fabrics, containing copper and silver-plated hybrid yarn. The EMSE performance in C and X band frequency range of single layer, double layer and triple layers in terms of scattering parameters S11(reflectance) & S21 (transmittance) in vertical and horizontal wave polarization was studied. It was found that number of layers, layer composition, orientation of metallic yarn, frequency and EM wave polarization have significant influence on overall electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T04:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999361
       
  • Studies on needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from natural fiber blends
           for oil sorbent applications

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      Authors: R Vijayasekar, Dhandapani Saravanan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Oil retention of needle punched nonwoven fabrics made from coarse cotton, fine cotton, jute, kapok and its blends were reported. Based on the previous research work, oil retention of nonwoven fabrics is highly influenced by fiber diameter, fabric porosity and oil properties. In this study blended needle punched nonwoven samples were produced using fibers with wide variation in fiber diameter. Coarse jute fiber was blended with fine fibers of cotton and kapok to improve structural stability after sorption of oil. Needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced using jute fiber ratio of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% with 25% kapok, 25% coarse cotton and remaining fine cotton fibers. Oil retention capacities of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were found to be in the range of 7.75 g/g to 16.60 g/g under various process conditions. It has been noted that an increase in the jute fiber content in the nonwoven fabrics increases the oil retention capacity of the samples. Jute fibers act as columns in fiber structural assembly and it is the stiffer fiber than other three fibers used in the needle punched nonwovens. Thickness of nonwoven needle punched fabrics change after sorption of oil from 1.5% to 5%, which reduced on increasing jute fiber content in the blends.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T05:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721999360
       
  • Study on tearing tests and the determination of fracture toughness of
           PVC-coated fabric

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      Authors: Han Bao, Minger Wu, Xubo Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, detailed uniaxial in-plane tearing tests including uniaxial central, single-edge notched, and trapezoidal tearing tests of a type of polyvinylchloride (PVC)-coated polyester fiber fabric were conducted. Two types of tearing failure modes, brutal and progressive, were examined. In addition to differences in the descending sections of the stress–displacement curves and the membrane surface morphology near the crack, it was found that the uniaxial central tearing test could be replaced by the corresponding single-edge notched tearing test to minimize the usage of test materials. The configuration of the single-edge notched specimen, including the gauge length and width, was investigated to determine the conditions under which the tearing resistance of the practically nearly infinite membrane surface can be studied with finite-size specimens. To obtain the fracture toughness GIC, which characterizes the ability of materials to prevent crack growth, a theoretical method and two test methods were introduced. After comparing the methods, the test method based on the area of the parallelogram obtained from the zigzag wave in the descending section of the load–displacement curves was proved to be superior. The value of GIC obtained with this simple test method was relatively stable, and it could be used to evaluate the tearing resistance and calculate the tearing strength of the coated fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993943
       
  • Potentiality of MWCNT fillers on the lateral crashworthiness behaviour of
           polymer composite cylindrical tubes under quasi-static loading

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      Authors: A Praveen Kumar, J Nagarjun, Quanjin Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, light-weight nano composite materials have been progressively employed in the aviation, defense, naval and automotive manufacturing applications owing to their outstanding mechanical and crashworthiness characteristics. In this regard, nano composite cylindrical tubes could be significantly utilized as energy absorbing elements for dissipating the impact energy during vehicle collisions. The present research study aimed to examine the lateral crashworthiness response of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) filled epoxy composite (basalt fabric and glass fabric) tubes of three different inner diameters using quasi-static crushing experiments. Crushing profiles and crush force–deformation curves of all the recommended typical tube samples are computed and discussed elaborately. The results obtained revealed that better crashworthiness characteristics of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composite tubes with a larger diameter, were owing to more promising crushing modes occurring during lateral compression. It is also found that the lateral crashworthiness response of the MWCNT filled glass fabric epoxy composite tubes was marginally superior to that of the MWCNT filled basalt fabric epoxy composite tubes. However, both the recommended composite cylindrical tubes with nano-fillers might be employed as energy dissipating elements in modern vehicles.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997927
       
  • A review on the development of conjugated polymer-based textile
           thermoelectric generator

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      Authors: Vivek Jangra, Subhankar Maity, Prashant Vishnoi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Thermoelectric (TE) materials based on conjugated/conductive polymers can directly convert heat into electricity, and thus found promising applications in energy scavenging and cooling technologies. The performance of these thermoelectric materials is governed by different parameters like the nature of the material, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. Although the traditional inorganic semiconductor materials such as PbTe (Lead Telluride), Bi2Te3 (Bismuth Telluride), SiGe (Silicon-Germanium), SnSe (Tin Selenide), and Skutterudite (CoAs2) are giving high performance, they have some inherent limitations, such as poor processability, toxicity, rare availability, and high cost of manufacturing. Whereas, organic conjugated polymers such as polyacetylene (PA), polyaniline (PANi), Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), polypyrrole (PPy), poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), etc. have low cost of synthesis, light in weight, low toxicity and better processibility. Organic textile thermoelectric generators (T-TEG) can be prepared by in-situ polymerization of the conjugated polymers onto textile substrates. This article reviews the preparation, design and performance of these T-TEGs. Various approaches and scopes of improvement of efficiency of the thermoelectric effect of the T-TEGs are discussed. Various potential applications of the T-TEG in different fields are also described.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996732
       
  • Ciprofloxacin-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin electrospun
           nanofiber mats as antibacterial wound dressings

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      Authors: Tittaya Thairin, Patcharaporn Wutticharoenmongkol
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, ciprofloxacin (CIP)-loaded alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (SPG) (CIP–SPG) nanofiber mats were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The average fiber diameters of the mats before and after crosslinking were in the range of 190–260 and 385–484 nm, respectively. The chemical integrity of CIP remained intact after encapsulation into the mats. The degree of weight loss and water swelling decreased with an increase in the gelatin content of the electrospun nanofiber mats. A release study was carried out by total immersion and diffusion methods using phosphate buffer as a release medium. Burst release of CIP was observed in case of the total immersion method, while a more sustained release was observed in case of the diffusion method. The maximum amounts of CIP released during total immersion and diffusion were in the range of 70–90% and 72–85%, respectively. For both the total immersion and diffusion methods, the released amounts of CIP decreased and the release slowed down with an increase in the gelatin content; this result is consistent with the weight loss and water swelling values. The Young’s modulus increased, while the tensile strength and strain at break decreased with an increase in the gelatin content. The CIP–SPG nanofiber mats were slightly toxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts as evaluated by indirect cytotoxicity assay. The electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results reveal that the electrospun CIP–SPG nanofiber mats are potentially promising materials for wound healing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721997466
       
  • Manufacturing a carbon/epoxy NACA 23018 airfoil skin using a circular
           braiding machine: experimental and numerical study

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      Authors: Jalil Hajrasouliha, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the interest of reducing the weight and also cost of blade skins, various automatic preform manufacturing processes were developed including tape laying, filament winding and braiding. Among them, the circular braiding process was found to be an efficient method in producing seamless preforms on mandrels with various geometries. In this regard, an attempt was made to produce a carbon fiber reinforced composite with the shape of NACA 23018 airfoil using a circular braiding machine. Thus, suitable wooden mandrels were manufactured using NACA 23018 airfoil coordinates, which were obtained by assuming the perimeter of 20 cm. Furthermore, both biaxially and triaxially braided preforms were produced and subsequently impregnated with epoxy resin through an appropriate fabrication method. To assess their performance, four-point bending test was carried out on samples. Ultimately, the elastic response of braided composite airfoils was predicted using a meso-scale finite element modeling and was validated with experimental results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T05:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993773
       
  • Compatible properties and behaviour of dually loaded electrospun
           polyurethane bone tissue scaffolds

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      Authors: Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Ahmad Fauzi bin Ismail, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, composite based on polyurethane (PU) containing lemon grass oil (LG) and zinc nitrate (ZnNO3) was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Morphology study revealed the fabricated scaffolds PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3 diameter was lower than polyurethane. LG and ZnNO3 form hydrogen bond with polyurethane as revealed in the infrared analysis. The developed PU/LG composite rendered hydrophobicity while PU/LG/ZnNO3 showed hydrophilic nature than PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted the decrease in surface roughness of the nanocomposite compared to polyurethane. The addition of LG and ZnNO3 improved the mechanical strength of the pristine PU as indicated in tensile analysis. Coagulation assay measurements indicated a delay in the activation of clot and also exhibited reduced toxicity for the developed composites PU/LG and PU/LG/ZnNO3. Moreover, the deposition of calcium in the developed composites were found to be higher compared to the PU as noted in the bone mineralization testing. Hence, these developed nanocomposites with desirable properties will translate them as potential candidates for bone tissue engineering.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721996060
       
  • Nanomaterials for UV protective textiles

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      Authors: Subrata Mondal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Harmful portion of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the significant physical carcinogen in our natural environment. The damage caused by UV exposure to our body is cumulative and builds up over the years. UV protective textiles have been used to protect the wearer from harmful UV radiation. UV blocking effect of textile depends on various parameters viz. fiber type, yarn structure, weave, fabric construction factor, finishes, dyes etc. Further, UV protective property of textiles can be improved by incorporating UV blocking agent in the textile matrix. Several nanomaterial possesses excellent UV blocking effect and these could be incorporated into the textile matrix to improve the UV blocking properties of textiles. In this review, author discuss the various conventional ways to impart UV blocking property to the textile materials. Author also survey the current state-of-the-art of nanomaterials based UV protective textiles, mechanism of UV blocking properties of various nanomaterials, provide an overview of UV protective fabric manufacturing techniques and also discuss the durability of nanomaterials treated UV protective textiles. Finally, the manuscript has been concluded with few major challenges for the development of UV protective textiles by using nanomaterials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T06:03:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988949
       
  • Development of hybrid layered structures based on natural fabric
           reinforced composites and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic
           applications

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      Authors: Nazan Okur, Mustafa Cagatay Yaradanakul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study deals with the development of hybrid layered structures combining natural fabric reinforced composite plates and warp knitted spacer fabric for acoustic applications, and the evaluation of the sound absorption performances. Vacuum infusion technique was used to produce the composite plates. Jute and linen woven fabrics were used as reinforcing materials, and they were impregnated with epoxy resin. The composite plates were combined with warp knitted spacer fabric in different stacking sequences in three-layer structures. All samples were subjected to the measurement of sound absorption property using impedance tube method. The combinations of a single layer and double layers of warp knitted spacer fabric with natural fabric reinforced composite in the appropriate sequences were found to provide superior sound absorption coefficients (SAC) compared to non-hybrid layered structures. Based on the overall evaluation regarding SAC, noise reduction coefficient (NRC), and weight of the structure, the sample with the best performance was regarded as the double layers of spacer fabric backed with a jute fabric reinforced composite plate. The integration of natural fabric reinforced composites with warp knitted spacer fabric had better sound absorption performance compared to the glass fabric reinforced composites, and they were considered to have the potential of being used in interior noise control mainly in vehicles and buildings.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721994677
       
  • Walking–sliding experimental analysis of frictional characteristics
           socked feet

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Hong Xie, Mark J Lake, Jiecong Li, Xiaona Chen, Yanmei Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Simulation experiments and in-vivo experiments were widely employed for investigating sock-skin frictional characteristics. The simulation experiments usually was a type of sliding experiment which described the relative slip between fabric and artificial skin. The in-vivo approaches typically involved subjects adopting a variety of postures and friction between their clothing and the skin was estimated. However, simulation and in-vivo experiments were reported only separately. The connection between the two types of experiments was scarcely reported. To reveal the connection, we synchronously carried out two interrelated experiments, a natural walking experiment and sliding experiment, using the same sock fabric. In the natural walking experiment, the subject wearing socks walked on the force platform. Then the soles of these socks were cut out and were used in the soles-artificial skin sliding experiment. The coefficients of friction in the two types of experiments reflected some correlative frictional characteristics. We found the effect of the walking speed or sliding speed on the friction coefficient was not significant. While, water content increased the friction coefficient in the two experiment. Additionally, the friction in the coronal direction was smaller than that in the sagittal direction during walking. Through our efforts, we hope to bridge the simulation and in-vivo experiments and elucidate the frictional characteristics between the sock and insole.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988083
       
  • Heat and moisture transfer properties of a firefighter clothing with a new
           fire-resistant underwear

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      Authors: SH Eryuruk, H Gidik, V Koncar, F Kalaoglu, X Tao, Y Saglam
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Under dynamic wear conditions, moisture management and heat transfer behaviour of clothing between the human body and its environment are very important attributes for comfort and performance. Especially considering heavy works like firefighting, it is important to analyse liquid moisture management and thermal comfort properties of fabrics that influence moisture sensation and personnel comfort feeling significantly. This study mainly investigates thermal comfort and moisture management properties of a firefighter clothing with a new fire resistant underwear. Analysing single layer fabric (underwear, outer shell, moisture barrier and thermal barrier) performance properties, together with their three-layered and four-layered combinations gives a better understanding of comfort and protective performance. For characterizing the fabric structures, weight, thickness, FTIR analysis and SEM-EDX tests were conducted. Heat and moisture transfer properties were measured with limited flame spread, thermal resistance (skin model), water vapour transmission rate (dish method), thermal conductivity, air permeability, thermal diffusion, water vapour resistance, moisture management transfer (MMT) and water vapour permeability tests.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721993775
       
  • Enhancing the properties of nylon 66 fabric coated with a combination of
           PVA and SiO2 nanoparticles composite for vehicle airbag application

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      Authors: Salma Ali, Ibrahim Abdalla, Magdi Elamin Gibril, Hasab AM Ahmed, Xiaoze Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to increase in fabric thickness and decrease compactness in packing, film bonding is unfavorable for airbag fabrics, furthermore, the uncoated fabric fabricated with a high density but it still has hot gas leakage problems. This study focuses on enhancement of vehicle airbag nylon 66 fabric properties by using a combination of different concentration of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and low-density adhesion polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results illustrated that the nylon 66 fabric, which coated with PVA and SiO2 NPs presents an excellent property such as a thin layer reached at (0.009 mm), also thermal and mechanical properties have been enhanced to include better mechanical properties according to commercial guidelines airbag of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Additionally, the weight per square meter of nylon 66 fabric coated with the PVA and high concentration of SiO2 NPs is 9.9 grams. Besides, the final dry weight of the coating (PVA/SiO2) material taken by the nylon 66 fabric is just 0.4 grams per square meter. The coated fabric demonstrated a hydrophobicity property in addition to the air-permeability has decreased by increasing the amount of SiO2 NPs in the composite material. The PVA and SiO2 NPs dispersed on the surface of the fabrics without any aggregation, as well, the coated fabric is gradually changed from flexible to hard which resulted in the better final performance in the proper and regular thickness along the whole fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T05:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988961
       
  • Comparison of standards for chemical protective clothing on performance
           requirements and measurements

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      Authors: Qing Chen, Rong Zheng, Bailu Fu, Xin Yang, Jing Lin, Jintu Fan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Chemical protective clothing is widely used by emergency teams in certain industries and such as fire-fighting and medical protection fields. Due to the differences of assessment, specific requirements for target products, and test methods, the relevant standards for such clothing vary greatly. By analyzing standards on chemical protective clothing, this study summarized their differences in assessment items and test methods for basic performances such as seam strength, leak tightness, permeability by liquid/gas chemicals, resistance to ignition, liquid repellency and penetration by liquids.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720980774
       
  • Process development and compression behavior of innovative 3D
           bi-directional flat-knitted spacer-reinforced composites

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      Authors: Mohammad Pourheidar Shirazi, Hossein Hasani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D knitted fabrics are regarded as a viable option for advanced composite materials. Flat-knitted spacer fabrics (FKSF) which are in the category of 3D knitted structures have attracted many attentions due to outstanding characterizations such as high formability and good impact behavior. These structures consist of two surface layers which are linked together by multiple knitted connecting layers. Despite the merits of 3D-FKSFs as composite reinforcements, they have some structural restrictions such as limited thickness. This study aims to develop and characterize bi-directional 3D knitted spacer structures which could be replaced with conventional FKSFs. In the developed structures, the upper and lower surface layers are connected together by two truncated pyramids which can be configurated in any dimensions using an innovative knitting technique. For providing a report regarding their compression behavior, these 3D structures were produced in two different thicknesses on an electronic flat knitting machine. Then, they were impregnated with epoxy resin via vacuum resin transfer molding and the cured composites were subjected to compression force. The results revealed that their compression behavior is similar to the behavior of conventional honey-comb sandwich structures.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721992770
       
  • Antibacterial and biological properties of coconut oil loaded
           poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin electrospun membranes

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      Authors: Parian S Mohamadi, Ahmad Hivechi, Hajir Bahrami, Nahid hemmatinegad, Peiman B Milan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Coconut oil (CO) is a naturally derived bio-oil which exhibits specific characteristics such as biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. In this work, the biological properties of poly(caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibers are improved using CO encapsulation. This bio-oil was added to the PCL/Gel polymer solution with different concentrations (5–40%). Nanofibers were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde vapor. Different types of characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, DSC, tensile measurements, water contact angle, and water vapor permeability were used to study the chemical, physical, thermal, and morphological properties of resultant nanofibers. Results showed an average diameter of 300–370 nm for as-spun nanofibers, which increased to 360–470 nm after the crosslinking reaction. The presence of CO was confirmed using FTIR and DSC experiments. Moreover, results indicated that the presence of CO increases the hydrophilicity and water vapor permeability of nanofibers, which are desirable for their final application. Biological tests, such as antibacterial activity, cell viability, and cell morphology tests were performed to evaluate the possible application of the produced nanofibers for wound healing applications. Results indicated that the crosslinked PCL/Gel nanofibers containing 20% CO exhibited the highest cell compatibility and antibacterial activity against gram-positive (S. aureus) and gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T06:27:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721991595
       
  • Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich nylon film for smart thermal management and
           thermo-responsive electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Linghui Peng, Lingling Shen, Weiren Fan, Zichuan Liu, Hongbo Qiu, Aibing Yu, Xuchuan Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the effects of climate changing, the importance of outdoor thermal comfort has been recognized, and has gained more and more research attentions. Unlike indoor space where air conditioning can be easily implemented, outdoor thermal comfort can only be achieved by localized thermal management. Using textile is a simple but energy-saving way to realize outdoor thermal comfort. Herein, we report the design of a smart thermal management film with the silver/vanadium dioxide/silver (Ag/VO2/Ag) sandwich structure prepared by one-dimensional (1 D) nanowires. It was found that the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich film was able to lower the temperature by around 10 °C under intense infrared (IR) radiation. In addition, the Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film showed a thermo-responsive electrical conductivity and an outstanding bending stability, due to network structure formed by nanowires. It was experimentally proved that this sandwich structure was superior to other layer structures in IR shielding performance and thermo-responsive electrical conductivity. The as-prepared Ag/VO2/Ag sandwich structure film has great potential for various applications such as wearable devices, flexible electronics, medical monitors and smart IR radiation management.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720986542
       
  • Designing hybrid nanofibers based on keratin-poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly
           (Ɛ-caprolactone) for application as wound dressing

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      Authors: Marziyeh Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Zahra Arab-Bafrani, Fatemeh Karimi, Naeme Javid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the production of hybrid scaffolds containing keratin/polyvinyl alcohol (Ker/PVA) and poly (Ɛ-caproactone) (PCL) for application in skin regeneration has been investigated. In the first step, the extraction of keratin from wool fibers was done, and then electrospinning process was used to fabricate hybrid nanofibers. Ker/PVA blend solution was extruded from one syringe and poly(ε-caprolactone) solution from the other one and hybrid nanofibers were gathered onto a rotary drum collector. The effect of different ratios of Ker/PVA (30:70), (50:50), and (70:30) with PCL were studied on the morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical features of the scaffolds. The Ker/PVA (50:50)-PCL nanofibers presented an appropriate modulus and mechanical strength similar to the natural skin. These scaffolds possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, which improved cell-scaffold adhesion and increased the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells. Keratin based nanofibers demonstrated antibacterial characteristic against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988978
       
  • Design and development of fibrous filter media induced by structural
           characteristics of needle punched nonwoven

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      Authors: Rupayan Roy, SM Ishtiaque
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This article discussed the structural changes influenced by punching parameters and their impact on the functional properties of needle punched nonwoven. Three punching parameters i.e., punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency were considered as process variables. Three factors three levels Box Behnken experimental design was used for sample preparation. Newly proposed structural indices were used to evaluate the fibre orientation in X and Y direction of fabric using tracer fibre technique. It was found that measured functional properties of fabrics are well correlated with considered structural indices. The fibre coverage area inferred an increase but coefficient of fibre curliness and anisotropy of inclination angle of fibre observed a decrease, with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Mean flow pore size followed an initial decrease and then, increase, but filtration efficiency and pressure drop followed an initial increase and then, decrease with the increase of punch density, needle penetration depth and stroke frequency. Finally, process parameters were optimized to achieve a filter media with maximum filtration efficiency and minimum pressure drop.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T05:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990440
       
  • Evaluation of cutting force of high-performance fibers’ dynamic
           cutting behaviour

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      Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Affaf Eloufy, Samar Abdel Latif, El Shimaa Eid
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers’ Young’s moduli. Higher Young’s moduli give lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fiber Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by both normal force and cutting velocity. The analysis of fiber mechanics during cutting is conducted using a rotating cutting set-up. It was found that high cutting speeds, low cutting angles, and high cutting normal forces lead to low values of cutting force. In this study, a set of high performance organic and inorganic fiber types are tested throughout different conditions of cut testing. Inorganic fibers gave the lowest specific cutting force. Values of cutting stresses on the edge of the blade were proved to be a function of fibers Young’s modulus. Higher Young’s modulus gives lower cutting stresses on the blade edge while cutting fibers. Organic fibers were found to have a higher cutting resistance than carbon and glass fibers. A significant indirect correlation was found between the shear stress of the fibers and the fibers Young’s modulus. The value of the cutting force is significantly affected by the normal force, cutting angle, and cutting velocity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990752
       
  • Effect of S-2304 wire-mesh angle in hemp/flax composite on mechanical and
           twist drilling surface response analysis

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      Authors: Prabu Krishnasamy, G Rajamurugan, B Muralidharan, Akshay P Arbat, Bendre Parag Kishorkumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fiber-based composite materials have found wide applications in Automotive, Aerospace, and Marine Industries. The current study presents the composite preparation, mechanical characterization, and machining behavior of hybrid composite. The fabricated hybrid composite consists of natural fibers (hemp and flax), resin (epoxy and hardener), and S-2304 wire mesh of different orientations (45° and 90°). The mechanical characterization was performed through tensile, flexural, impact, and hardness with ASTM samples. The FRW45 hybrid composite had shown an excellent tensile strength of 43 MPa and 31.57% higher than that of FRW90. Moreover, the FRW45 (82 MPa) flexural strength has shown better results than the HRW45 (76 MPa) composite. The machining performance was studied by drilling experiments, designed by the central composite design (CCD) to study the significant input parameters such as type of composite, speed, and feed rate. The obtained results revealed that torque reduces with the enhancement in feed rate for all types of composites. It was also noticed that at 500 rpm spindle speed, the delamination factor was comparatively 35.03% lower in HRW45 and 58% in HRW90 compared to HR composite. The fiber fracture voids and delamination failures were observed through fractography analysis.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:01:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988477
       
  • An experimental and numerical study of epoxy-based Kevlar-basalt hybrid
           composites under high velocity impact

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      Authors: Azizolrahman Amirian, Hossein Rahmani, Hossein Moeinkhah
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the high velocity impact (HVI) behavior of epoxy-based Kevlar-Basalt hybrid composites was studied experimentally and numerically. The composite specimens were manually placed in nine layers classified into six types of stacking sequences: non-hybrid, sandwich hybrid, and intercalated hybrid. The impact tests were conducted by using a ballistic apparatus at three different energy levels: 150 J, 200 J, and 250 J, and the amount of absorbed energy was calculated based on input velocity and residual velocity of the projectile. The results demonstrated that hybridization improves the behavior of composites in high velocity impacts compared to that of specimen that are not hybridized. The absorption of sandwich hybrids on average increased 23.25% and 11.3% compared to pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively. Moreover, the intercalated hybrids showed an efficiency of about 35.6% and 21.76% better than that of pure Basalt and Kevlar, respectively, in absorbing energy. The same energy absorption pattern was observed in numerical simulation performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. Also, the highest amount of energy absorption and the lowest residual velocity as well as damage occurred when Kevlar was attacked by the projectile and the layers were intercalated.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T06:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721990902
       
  • Comparison of the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic
           modified glass fiber felt

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      Authors: Feiyan Wang, Jianyong Yu, Aixiong Ge, Xunmei Liang, Shide Lu, Chunfeng Zhao, Lifang Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The glass fiber felt owned opening pore structure and chemical stability, which was widely used in various of cabins of vessels, aircraft, vehicles, etc. The surface characteristics of fiber affected the drainage performance of felt, thus affecting the temperature and humidity environment in the cabin. In this paper, the physical properties of heat-treated and hydrophobic modified glass fiber felt were studied and compared. After heat treatment, the surface sizing agents were removed and the felt surface became smoother. The water contact angle (WCA) of all heated felt was 0°. The residual water of 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm felt decreased by 27% and 15%, respectively, while that of 2.5 cm felt increased 324%. The excellent drainage performance could be obtained by reducing the heated felt thickness. However, the tensile strength of felt decreased by 35%–45%. In addition, the fiber diameter, the thickness, and average pore size of heated felt all decreased. After hydrophobic modification, abundant nano particles adhered to the felt surface, making the surface of felt rough. The WCAs of 2.5 cm, 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm hydrophobic modified felt were 152°, 141°, 144°, respectively. The residual water decreased by more than 60%, indicating that the drainage performance of felt could be significantly improved. The tensile strength of felt was increased by 30%–40%. The fiber diameter increased, but the thickness and the average pore size of felt decreased. Compared with the heat treatment, the hydrophobic modification could obtain excellent drainage performance and increased the felt tensile strength, which was suitable for more occasions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988479
       
  • Paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers for thermal hysteresis
           enhancement of paraffin actuators

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      Authors: Ahmet Kutlu, Recep Eren, Yakup Aykut
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fast and facile one-step preparation of paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofibers via single needle (uniaxial) electrospinning system was studied. As-spun paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers were used for thermal hysteresis enhancement of paraffin actuators. Solid paraffin with the melting point of 32, 58, 89 and 114°C were employed for the preparation of the paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that the melting point of the paraffin in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber was clearly detectable and the melting entalpy coming from the paraffin part gradually increased from 9.6 to 101.5 J/g with the increase in the melting points of the added same amount of paraffins in paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. When both calorimetric and weight loss measurements were considered, the paraffin which has the melting point of 32°C was found to be suitable to produce hybrid nanofibers paraffin actuator. Therefore, this hybrid nanofiber was selected for the application in paraffin actuators for e-vehicle battery cooling systems where the battery temperature must be kept between 15 and 35°C. Paraffin compound of the paraffin actuators was prepared with a mixture of pure paraffin and paraffin/polyacrylonitrile nanofiber with the wt.% of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10. In the hysteresis measurements, the hysteresis value at 3 mm stroke was successfully enhanced as 1.7, 3.4, 11.9 and 15.3% sequentially for the samples produced with the above ratios. Beyond hysteresis enhancement, the phenomena of thermal percolation threshold effect and thermal conductivity contrast ratio effect in nano scale were emprically exposed on opening and closing behavior of the paraffin actuator.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988964
       
  • Preparation and properties of graphene aerogel/cotton composite flexible
           fabric with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function

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      Authors: Peng Wang, Shuqiang Liu, Man Zhang, Gaihong Wu, Kaiwen Wang, Huimin Li, Fu Li, Hua Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to alleviate the problems caused by electromagnetic pollution and simultaneously adapt to the future development trend of flexible wearable electronic equipment, it is high time to focus on the research of light weight, flexible and efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material. A graphene aerogel composite EMI shielding composite fabric was prepared by combining graphene aerogel with fabric through the connection of waterborne polyurethane. The influence of aerogel amount on the EMI shielding function of fabric was discussed, and the waterborne polyurethane dosage on fabric mechanics and fabric style was also investigated. The result shows the composite fabric EMI shielding effectiveness reached 28 dB when the graphene aerogel amount was 25 mL (only 0.066 mL/cm2), which has satisfied the civilian requirements (20 dB). A good adhesion fastness between graphene and cotton fabric was obtained and the mechanical strength was also improved when the content of waterborne polyurethane was 20 mL. Graphene aerogel electromagnetic shielding composite fabric with good electromagnetic shielding performance and less consumption of nano carbon materials will have a good industrial application prospect.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989272
       
  • Investigation of poly(lactic acid) nanocapsules containing the plant
           extract via coaxial electrospraying method for functional nonwoven
           applications

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      Authors: Hatice Ibili, Mehmet Dasdemir, İ İrem Tatlı Çankaya, Mehmet Orhan, Cem Güneşoğlu, Serap Arabacı Anul
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on the development of functional nanocapsules via the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (electrospraying) method. These nanocapsules can manipulate nonwoven surface functionality in terms of antibacterial characteristics for medical textile purposes. Electrosprayed nanocapsules were produced from Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer and Plumbago europaea plant extract. Here, we employ optimized solution and process parameters (needle to collector distance, electrical field, application time, and needle dimension) for the coaxial electrospraying process. Different Plumbago europaea extract concentrations and co-fluids’ flow rates were investigated as part of the study. Also, the effect of these parameters on capsule morphology and dimension were investigated. After the formation of PLA nanocapsules, morphological and dimensional characteristics were analyzed through SEM, FESEM, TEM images in addition to FTIR and nanosize measurements. According to our findings, a lower co-fluids’ flow rate gives the smaller nanocapsules with narrow-sized distribution and desired spherical morphology. Antibacterial efficiency doesn’t show any significant difference except the lowest plant extract concentrations. After characterizing the nanocapsules’ structures, the core-sheath structure can be clearly identified. Consequently, the desired capsule morphology and size for nanocapsules were accomplished. The antibacterial efficiency of covered surfaces with nanocapsules is up to 80% for Staphylococcus aureus and about 31% for Escherichia coli, even with low pick-up ratios. Even for a very low amount of extract usage, good antibacterial efficiency can be achieved. The application has endless potential in terms of higher concentration and a wide range of chemical usage.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721988950
       
  • Hardness and flexural performance of 3D orthogonal carbon/glass fibers
           hybrid composites under thermal-oxidative aging

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      Authors: Juanzi Li, Wei Fan, Tao Liu, Lili Xue, Linjia Yuan, Wensheng Dang, Jiaguang Meng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study reports the hardness and flexural performance of the three-dimensional (3 D) orthogonal carbon/glass hybrid fiber/bismaleimide composites subjected to the accelerated aging conditions for 10, 30, 90, 120, and 180 days at 250 °C in an air environment. The rate of reduction in the flexural performance and failure modes were observed, in general, to be related to the aging time. The experimental findings revealed that the significant decline in the flexural performance of the samples aged for less than 30 days was predominantly attributed to the matrix degradation, while for the longer aging durations, the cracks in the composites and decomposition of the residual matrix were responsible for the gradual reduction in the flexural performance. The unaged and 30 days aged samples suffered a brittle failure represented by the macro-cracks and fiber breakage, while the cracked fiber/matrix interface and loosened fiber bundles were the main failure modes for the samples aged for longer times. The changes in the flexural failure modes resulted due to the severe degradation of the matrix under an extreme thermo-oxidative environment. Subsequently, a nonlinear relationship relating the flexural modulus to hardness was proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083721989274
       
  • Super wear-resistant and conductive cotton fabrics based on sliver
           nanowires

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      Authors: Dangge Gao, Jiamin Zhu, Mengyu Ye, Yun Li, Jianzhong Ma, Jingjing Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the effect of linear, rod and granular nano-silver structures on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of cotton fabrics, silver nanowires (AgNWs), silver nano-rods (AgNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were separately obtained by solvothermal method, and then adsorbed on the cotton fabrics. Compared with AgNRs and AgNPs that silver nanowires could form network structure on the cotton fabrics. As the ratio of nano-sliver length to diameter increases, the effective adsorption mass of nano-sliver on the cotton increases, improving the conductivity of the textile electrode. No matter how many times of rubbing, it had no effect on the square resistance of the AgNWs/cotton. The cotton fabrics treated with silver nanowires had the best performances and wear resistance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:10:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720982005
       
  • Orientated and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds fabricated using the
           centrifugal electrospinning technique for stimulating the behaviours of
           fibroblast cells

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      Authors: Norul Ashikin Norzain, Wei Chih Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Centrifugal electrospinning (CES) was developed by integrating the electrospinning (ES) and centrifugal spinning (CS) concepts to produce oriented and diameter-controlled fibrous scaffolds which were then applied to stimulate the behaviour of fibroblast cells. During the fabrication process, polymer concentrations, rotational speeds, operating voltages, and needle sizes were key parameters to affect the diameters of produced fibres. The mathematical model indicated that the centrifugal force with the power of 2 was the main influence in fabricating thinner fibres, followed by electrostatic force with the power of 1. The developed CES technique could fabricate fibres scaffold ranging from 210 ± 50 nm to 2814 ± 96 nm by only applying low operating voltages and rotation speed which were 10 kV and up to 2000 rpm, respectively. Through optimum parameter, random and aligned nanofibrous were fabricated with the diameter being distributed mainly at 200–400 nm. Aligned nanofibrous demonstrated a high degree of orientation when 88% of the nanofibrous varied at 0°–10°. Compared to random structure, aligned nanofibrous presented high tensile strength, which was approximately 4.35 MPa and appropriate flexibility with 73% of elongation break. Aligned nanofibrous exhibited high cell viabilities with a 2.34 absorbance rate at day 14. The fibroblast cells elongated and accelerated in the orientation of the aligned nanofibrous. Results suggest that fibre aligned scaffolds are possible candidates for wound dressing application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T06:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988127
       
  • Electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of conductive cotton
           fabrics

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      Authors: RM Attia, NM Yousif, MH Zohdy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Functional electrically conductive fabric with acceptable mechanical properties, which could be applied in electromagnetic shielding, was developed. Conductive cotton fabrics (cotton/PANI, cotton/Mn, cotton/Cu, and cotton/Co) were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization for (cotton/PANI) and pad dry curing method was used for nanometals application. The Nano size of the metals and polyaniline inclusion were proven through both Dynamic Liquid Scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) which showed an increase in crystallite density in unit space and the nanoparticles ranged from 100–200 nm. The effect of gamma irradiation on different treated cotton fabrics was investigated. The mechanical properties against irradiation dose showed an improvement up to 40 kGy, for all treated fabrics. On the other hand, Young’s modulus for untreated cotton recorded the lowest value, while cotton/Co recorded the highest one. Moreover, both AC (Alternating Current) and DC (Direct current) conductivities values can be calculated. In DC conductivity cotton/PANI was found to be more conducive than the remainder of the treated fabric by surface metallization with transition metals; while in AC conductivity cotton/Mn was found to be more conducive than the rest of the treated samples. The conductivity value increases by increasing the gamma irradiation dose for cotton/PANI fabric. Also, g-factor values can be estimated from ESR signals and vary from 0.009 up to 0.059 for conductive cotton fabrics; whilst cotton/Mn fabric has six hyperfine splittings, indicating that it is a paramagnetic element.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T07:12:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984099
       
  • Poly(butylene succinate) fibrous dressings containing natural
           antimicrobial agents

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      Authors: Kinana Aliko, Mohamad Basel Aldakhlalla, Laura J Leslie, Tony Worthington, Paul D Topham, Eirini Theodosiou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) is a biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic aliphatic polyester, which has been used extensively in packaging, catering and agriculture, and more recently in drug delivery and bone and cartilage repair. PBSU-based mats created by electrospinning show promise as wound dressing materials because of their good mechanical properties, high surface area-to-volume ratio and increased levels of porosity. In this work, we present the creation of antimicrobial PBSU fibrous mats through the incorporation of natural food grade agents via blend electrospinning. Three types of edible gums (namely arabic, karaya and tragacanth), two essential oils (coriander and lavender), and one free fatty acid (linoleic acid) were added to PBSU containing a chain extender and their effect on six clinically relevant pathogens was evaluated. Mats containing essential oils at the highest concentration studied (7% w/v) showed some antimicrobial behaviour against S. aureus, E. hirae and P. aeruginosa, whereas the incorporation of linoleic acid at both concentrations tested (3% and 5% w/v) gave a strong reaction against S. pyogenes. Gum arabic was the only gum that had a considerable impact on S. aureus. Furthermore, the three gums enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer mats and brought them closer to those of the human skin, whilst all agents maintained the high biocompatibility of the PBSU mats when contacted with mouse fibroblasts. This work, for the first time, shows the great promise of PBSU blended fibres as a skin substitute and paves the way towards bioactive and cost effective wound dressings from renewable materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987209
       
  • Experimental evaluation of the compression garment produced from elastic
           spacer fabrics through real human limb

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      Authors: Golnaz Mousavi, Mehdi Varsei, Abosaeed Rashidi, Reza Ghazisaeidi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Spacer fabrics found vast applications as medical textile due to their intrinsic and unique properties such as good air permeability, breathability, compressibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to utilize weft knitted spacer fabric as pressure garment to apply more uniform interface pressure on limb than common commercial fabrics. Initially, different weft knitted spacer fabrics by varying the spacer fabric thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 mm) and elastane yarn content (25, 30, 35 and 40%) were produced. Then, mean interface pressure was obtained through conducting the Mannequin test. Based on the Mannequin test results, spacer fabrics with similar applied interface pressure to commercial one were selected to perform human limb test. According to the results, the spacer fabric with the thickness of 1.8[math] and elastane yarn content of 25% not only applied interface pressure comparable to commercial fabric, but also exhibited the most uniform interface pressure mapping on human limb among those studied. Also experimental results showed the superior performance of spacer knitted fabrics with elastane yarn than the single jersey knitted fabrics as pressure garments.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T05:20:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720988089
       
  • Electrospun microfibers with embedded leuco dye-based thermochromic
           material for textile applications

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      Authors: Keon Sahebkar, Sharan Indrakar, Sesha Srinivasan, Sylvia Thomas, Elias Stefanakos
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospinning is an inexpensive and versatile technique for fabricating micro- and nano- scaled fibers. There have been limited attempts to employ it for the fabrication of thermochromic (TC) fibers, and the fabrication of a three-component (dye, developer, and solvent) TC material has required the use of a more complicated coaxial electrospinning technique. Herein, a simple and novel method for creating thermochromic fibers by electrospinning single strands of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with embedded thermochromic powder of a polymer encapsulated three-component system was employed. Unlike past leuco dye-based thermochromic fibers, an unmodified syringe tip can be used for the spinning process and only one flow rate needs to be determined. A solution of solvent (either N-dimethylformamide or chloroform), PMMA, and a commercially available black thermochromic powder was prepared and spun using a custom-made electrospinning apparatus. The spun fibers exhibited a clear color transition from grey to white and had average diameters of 2.53 µm and 1.96 µm for chloroform and N-dimethylformamide based fibers, respectively. The fibers were characterized by scanning electron and optical microscopy to determine their morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine their chemical composition, and differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis to characterize their thermal properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987216
       
  • Effect of twist level on the mechanical performance of S-glass yarns and
           non-crimp cross-ply composites

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      Authors: Hussein Kommur Dalfi, Muhammad Tausif, Zeshan yousaf
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      High modulus/high strength continuous fibres are used extensively for manufacturing textile preforms, as a reinforcement, for composites due to their excellent specific properties. However, their brittle behaviour and tendency to separate easily into individual filaments or bundles can lead to damages during manufacturing processes such as weaving and braiding. Thus, the critical step in the development of an optimal yarn for textile-reinforced composites is to find an optimum twist, which results in a minimum loss of properties of the composite laminates, while maintaining good processability and sufficient strength for textile and/or composite manufacturing. In this study, twist level has been varied to improve the handling and tensile properties of S-glass yarns (i.e. tensile strength). Varying levels of yarn twist (15–40 twists metre−1) were employed to study its impact on the tensile properties (i.e. tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break etc.). Furthermore, the effect of twist on the tensile properties of non-crimp cross-ply composites produced via vacuum infusion process was studied. It was observed that mechanical performance (i.e. tensile strength properties) of twisted yarns is improved up to 30 twists metre−1 while it is deteriorated at 40 twists metre−1. At yarn level, the experimental results were compared with theoretical estimations utilizing existing models for twisted yarns properties. Discrepancies were observed between experimental and theoretical results especially for high level of twist. The tensile strength and elongation of S-glass cross-ply composites at all levels of twist were higher compared to the composite laminates manufactured by using non-twisted yarns. At composite level, the experimental results were also computed employing rule of mixture and good agreement was observed between experimental and predicted results.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:15:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987206
       
  • Investigation of the mechanical and forming behaviour of 3D warp interlock
           carbon woven fabrics for complex shape of composite material

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      Authors: Mehmet Korkmaz, Ayşe Okur, Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, François Boussu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Composite materials which are reinforced with 3D warp interlock fabrics have outstanding mechanical properties such as higher delamination resistance, ballistic damage resistance and impact damage tolerance by means of their improved structural properties. Textile reinforcements are exposed to large deformations in the production stage of composite materials which have complex shape. Although good formability properties of 3D warp interlock fabrics in forming process were already proven by recent studies, further information is needed to elucidate forming behaviours of multi-layer fabrics which is produced with high stiffness yarns like carbon. In this study, 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics were produced on a prototype weaving loom and the same carbon yarn was used in two fabric directions with equal number of yarn densities. Fabrics were differentiated with regard to the presence of stuffer warp yarn, weave pattern and parameters of binding warp yarn which are angle and depth. Therefore, the effect of fabric architecture on the mechanical and formability properties of 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics could be clarified. Three different breaking behaviours of fabrics were detected and they were correlated with crimp percentages of yarn groups. In addition, the bending and shear deformations were analysed in view of parameters of fabric architectures. Two distinct forming behaviours of fabrics were determined according to the distribution of deformation areas on fabrics. Moreover, the optimal structure was identified for forming process considering the fabric architecture.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984100
       
  • Surface modification of PE/PET by two-step method with graphene and silver
           nanoparticles for enhanced electrical conductivity

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      Authors: Tingting Zhuo, Zhuoming Chen, Binjie Xin, Yingqi Xu, Yingjie Song, Shan He, Shuai Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polyethylene/polyethylene terephthalate (PE/PET) nonwoven fabrics were first modified with a continuous graphene layer by using a dipping process, and then deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using magnetron sputtering, and that is a novel method called two-step method. Graphene/PE/PET (GPP) and AgNPs sputtered GPP (AGPP) were prepared to investigate the modification processes on the electrical conductivity of the nonwoven fabrics. The influence of the surface modification by silane coupling agent (KH-560) on the durability of conductive PE/PET composited fabrics is also studied. Surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal stability, electrical conductive and ultraviolet protection properties of the composite fabrics were investigated. The results indicated KH-560 treatment can obviously improve the interfacial adhesion between the graphene and PE/PET then contributes to the enhanced conductive durability of the composite fabrics. The combination of graphene and AgNPs provided more opportunities for the charge transfer paths of AGPP, leading to an improved conductive network and an increased electrical conductivity. In addition, graphene and AgNPs gave GPP and AGPP excellent thermal stability. The research exhibited the advantages of the two-step method, and also indicated AGPP has a promising application for the preparation of wearable electronics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T10:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720985893
       
  • Comparative studies on the effect of fabric structure on mechanical
           properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites

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      Authors: Zhenyu Ma, Pingze Zhang, Jianxun Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites places more requirements on the selection of fabrics to meet the needs of structural components. Due to the large design space for reinforced fabric patterns, the relationship between the reinforcements and properties is essential to further understand. Four typical fabrics were manufactured in this research, named non-interlaced bidirectional fabrics, plain weave laminated fabrics, angle-interlock fabrics and bidirectional angle-interlock fabrics. The structural features of fabrics were analyzed by using representative geometric unit, and the symmetry properties were discussed based on group theory. Vacuum assistant resin transfer molding was adopted to obtain the corresponding resin matrix composite specimens. Quasi-static tensile and bending tests were conducted on these specimens. The stress-strain curves of specimens were illustrated, and the failure characterizations were also analyzed in mesoscopic scale. The results showed that the high crimp of yarns reduced the stability of composites. Both the tensile and flexural properties were affected by the curvature of yarns. The research results provided a theoretical basis for the selection of fabric structure and the application of carbon fiber/epoxy composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T05:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720987517
       
  • Tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black in polymer nanocomposite
           to trigger the conductivity for developing coated fabric

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      Authors: Kajal Sarkar, Sudipta Panja, Sanjoy Kumar Ghorai, Debasish Das, Santanu Chattopadhyay
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      We present the critical and systematic investigations on the normal/regular types of carbon black to trigger the conductivity of polymer nanocomposite in developing commercially viable coated flexible fabric. Regular grade carbon blacks are utilized to develop conductive fabric via nanocomposite preparation and application by knife-over-roll coating (average 90 microns thick). The study suggests, tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black particles having a diameter of 30 nanometers (with ∼0.6 packing fraction, 5.815E + 19 per cc charge carrier density, 0.774 ratios of Hall coefficient) has a profound effect on conductivity. The microstructure of carbon black is altered by the shearing force of a mechanical stirrer in a viscous solution of natural rubber latex and polyvinyl alcohol then self-restructured when an excess amount of water is evaporated by high-temperature drying. Thus, the tailored secondary microstructure of carbon black with a diameter of 30 nanometers provides the highest charge carrier density as compared to other types of carbon black used. We found that the attained conductivity (>113 S/m) in this process is 98% of the predicted value as per the classical model. This technique can be exploited to use normal grade carbon black in replacement of conductive grade carbon black and other carbonaceous material like graphene and carbon nanotube. We envision that this easily scalable, commercially viable technique can be utilized for large scale production of conductive fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984096
       
  • A review: Surface treatments, production techniques, mechanical properties
           and characteristics of Luffa cylindrica bio composites

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      Authors: M Jahanzail Kamran, Elammaran Jayamani, Soon K Heng, Yat C Wong
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The need for alternative eco-friendly and sustainable materials has forced many researchers to focus on composites made using natural fibers and biodegradable polymer matrices. In addition to that, these natural fibers are low in cost, have good mechanical properties, biodegradability, and require less production energy. Therefore, this review paper will focus on one of the natural fibers known as Luffa cylindrica (LC) by understanding all the natural fibers' benefits. A detailed overview is provided for commonly used fiber surface treatments, surface treatment techniques, and processing techniques for various LC composites from numerous other researches. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the characteristics, mechanical properties, and water absorption properties of LC composites before and after surface treatments, where a comprehensive understanding of LC reinforced polymer composites' behavior has been reviewed.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984094
       
  • Characterization and modeling of thermal protective fabrics under Molotov
           cocktail exposure

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      Authors: Sumit Mandal, Guowen Song, Rene M Rossi, Indu B Grover
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to characterize and model the thermal protective fabrics usually used in workwear under Molotov cocktail exposure. Physical properties of the fabrics were measured; and, thermal protective performances of the fabrics were evaluated under a fire exposure generated from the laboratory-simulated Molotov cocktail. The performance was calculated in terms of the amount of thermal energy transmitted through the fabrics; additionally, the time required to generate a second-degree burn on wearers’ bodies was predicted from the calculated transmitted thermal energy. For the characterization, the parameters that affected the protective performance were identified and discussed with regards to the theory of heat and mass transfer. The relationships between the properties of the fabric systems and the protective performances were statistically analyzed. The significant fabric properties affecting the performance were further employed in the empirical modeling techniques − Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the protective performance. The Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the developed MLR and ANN models were also compared to identify the best-fit model for predicting the protective performance. This study found that thermal resistance and evaporative resistance are two significant properties (P-Values 
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T05:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1528083720984973
       
 
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