Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Textiles and Fibrous Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Industrial Textiles
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.377
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1528-0837 - ISSN (Online) 1530-8057
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Poly(vinylidene fluoride) electrospun nonwovens morphology: Prediction and
           optimization of the size and number of beads on fibers through response
           surface methodology and machine learning regressions

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      Authors: Federico Javier Trupp, Roberto Cibils, Silvia Goyanes
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospinning is one of the leading techniques for fiber development. Still, one of the biggest challenges of the technique is to control the nanofiber morphology without many trial-and-error tests. In this study, it is demonstrated that via design of experiments (DoE), response surface methodology (RSM) and machine learning regressions (MLR) it is possible to predict the beads-on-string size, size distribution and bead density in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mats with a small number of tests. PVDF concentration, dimethylacetamide/acetone ratio, tip-to-collector voltage and distance were the parameters considered for the design. The results show good agreement between the experimental and modeled data. It was found that concentration and solvent ratio play the main roles in minimizing bead size and number, distance tends to reduce them, and voltage does not play a significant role. As an evaluation of the potential of the method, bead-free fibers were obtained through the predicted parameter values. Comparison of the performance of the two methods is presented for the first time in electrospinning research. Response surface methodology resulted much faster, but MLR achieved a lower error and better generalization abilities. This approach and the availability of the MLR script used in this work may help other groups implement it in their research and find information hidden in the data while improving model prediction performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T06:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221106235
       
  • Design and characterization of a cotton fabric antenna for on-body
           thermotherapy

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      Authors: Yusuke Mukai, Minyoung Suh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      As a non-invasive therapeutic modality, microwave hyperthermia has gained increasing prominence in recent breast cancer research. In microwave hyperthermia, the temperature of a cancerous lesion is raised to 39–45°C by microwave irradiation to shrink tumors. Currently available applicators in clinics are aperture antennas (or waveguides) that are bulky and stationary; as such, patients are required to stay in an uncomfortable position for an extended period of time. On this account, this paper introduces the design and characterization of a novel cotton fabric antenna for a truly wearable and patient-friendly breast hyperthermia therapy. The developed antenna, consisting of cotton and copper-plated polyester fabrics, offers flexibility, tenacity, moisture-absorbing properties and breathability desirable for potential integration into intimate apparel. On the other hand, the use of cotton fabric brings about a major concern: moisture is documented to alter the dielectric properties of cotton fabrics and hence could impact the antenna performance. Therefore, for the purpose of concept and design validation, this research investigated the impedance matching and heating performance at three levels (20%, 65% and 80%) of relative humidity (RH). From both simulations and measurements, the RH was found to shift the resonant frequency slightly, but did not critically affect the impedance matching and the heating performance – the measured temperature rises were 4.7–4.9°C and 2.3–2.5°C at the depths of 5 mm and 15 mm, respectively. These theoretical and experimental insights cast light on the feasibility and benefits of moisture-absorbing, cotton-based medical textiles for administration of highly patient-friendly breast hyperthermia.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T11:12:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221107160
       
  • The structure and property of polyacrylonitrile-based microfiltration
           membranes for oil-water emulsion separation

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      Authors: Shuhua Wang, Mingke Pang, Zelin Wen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based microfiltration membranes material was prepared used waste polyacrylonitrile fibers as the raw material. The PAN membranes have two different structure, the surface layer is finger pore structure, below layer is cavernous pore structure with the porosity is 85.92%. The PAN membrane shows super strong hydrophilicity (high water permeability) and ultra low adhesion of underwater oil (good oilresistance) under different pH values and different surfactants. The flux of PAN membranes is 1952.63 L•m−2• H−1 • bar−1, the oil retention ability is 99.14% when the film thickness was 100 μm, the PAN concentration was 7%, and the alkali treatment time was 1 h. The PAN membrane is an environmentally friendly material, have good application potential for oil-water emulsion separation and recycling of waste oil. Preparation of separation and filtration materials provides a good way to recycle waste PAN fibers and has potential practical value in oil-water separation field.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T04:34:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221107164
       
  • Modified stress field model for critical tearing strength of architectural
           coated fabrics

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      Authors: Xubo Zhang, Minger Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This report presents a new critical tearing strength prediction model, the modified stress field model. Firstly, the critical tearing strength of six coated fabrics is obtained using the single-edge notched tests. The results show that the warp and weft strength utilization of different coated fabrics is similar. Based on the test data, the prediction effects, parameter meanings, and basic properties of three models, namely Thiele’s empirical formula, the stress field model, and the modified stress field model, are discussed and compared. Then, the predicted results and properties of the three models in different crack ranges, specifically the small crack range, are compared, and their application scopes are verified. The two commonly used models lack the improved prediction effects in the small crack range that is provided by the modified stress field model. Finally, to reduce the workload while maintaining a certain accuracy, a crack combination of 3 mm + 15 mm is recommended, which is further confirmed using the root-mean-square error index. The prediction results of Thiele’s empirical formula and the modified stress field model under this crack combination are compared. The new model can still maintain good prediction effects even when extrapolating for small cracks using limited test data. Because of its precision and convenience, the proposed model may relatively facilitate the application of single-edge notched or uniaxial central tearing tests.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T08:07:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221106232
       
  • Experimental study of energy absorption in 3D-textile reinforced polymer
           composites under high-velocity impact loading

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      Authors: Fatemeh Madani, Saeed Ajeli, Hamid Reza Mirdamadi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the energy absorption capacity of polymer composites reinforced with Kevlar fibers and various textile structures under high-velocity impact loading was investigated. Noobing textile, woven laminate, and stitched laminate were used as composite reinforcements. Fiber density and structural thickness were also examined in impact performance. The impact test was performed using a gas gun at a speed of 235 m/s. The impact performance of composite samples was evaluated by comparing residual velocity, ballistic limit, and impact energy absorption. To analyze the damage caused by the impact, all specimens were inspected using CT scan images. It was found that the presence of reinforcing fibers in the thickness direction can significantly improve energy absorption. In thicker composites, impact indentation was observed and the projectile could not penetrate the structure. The indentation depth of the Noobing composite was less than the stitched laminate. Increased fiber density in all three composite configurations showed an increase in energy absorption capacity and a decrease in residual impact velocity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T08:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101019
       
  • Comparison of antibacterial property of herbal plant–based bio-active
           extract loaded polymer electrospun nanofibrous mat wound dressings

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      Authors: Biruk Fentahun Adamu, Jing Gao, Shaojie Tan, Esubalew K Gebeyehu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Treating wound is challenging if there is microbial colonization. In this paper, we tried to review comparison of bacterial inhibition zone of different herbal plant bioactive loaded polymer electrospun nanofibrous wound dressings. A systematic literature search called preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) was used to review bacterial inhibition zone of the different herbal plant bioactive loaded polymer electrospun nanofibrous mats used for wound dressing applications. The literatures were searched from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases published in English from 2010 to 2021. Two hundred articles were searched out; from these, 93 articles are selected and studied their bacterial inhibition zone, among them eight have the highest bacterial inhibition zone greater than or equal to 20 mm. From the studied plant bioactive extract loaded polymer electrospun nanofibrous mat wound dressings, PVA/Tridax procumbensviz have the highest antibacterial property (42 mm and 35 mm bacterial inhibition zone to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively). The second highest antibacterial property is PVA/honey/Curcuma longa with bacterial inhibition zone of 38 mm to S. aureus and the third one is PCL/carboxyethyl chitosan/PVA/Matricaria chamomile L. with an inhibition zone of 37.5 mm to E. coli bacteria.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T12:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221086899
       
  • Investigation of moisture transfer properties of double-face weft knitted
           fabrics for sports clothing

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      Authors: Suganthi Thangamuthu, Senthilkumar Pandurangan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Thermo-physiological comfort of the fabric is achieved through the ability to manage heat and transmit sensible and insensible perspiration through the fabric. Ergonomic comfort aspects of sports clothing can be improved by enhancing the moisture management properties of knitted fabrics. Double-face knitted structures were developed by selecting the right type of material for the top and bottom layer. In this paper, the moisture management properties of four double-face knitted fabrics with hydrophobic fibre in the top layer (Polypropylene and micro-fibre polyester) and hydrophilic fibre in the bottom layer (Bamboo) were studied to find out the suitability for sportswear. The subjective perception was carried out using thermal state parameters and was correlated with Overall Moisture Management Capacity (OMMC). Double-face fabric knitted with micro-fibre polyester in the top layer and bamboo in the bottom layer has excellent moisture management properties which seem suitable for next-to-skin application. However, micro-fibre polyester (20%)/polypropylene (20%) yarns in the top layer on account of polypropylene due to its dry feel shows good OMMC followed by micro-fibre polyester in the top layer. Univariate analysis of variance with a confidence level of 95% showed that all the moisture management indices are statistically significant.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T06:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221103873
       
  • Assessing the tensile properties of interlayer hybrid
           thermoset-thermoplastic composites

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      Authors: Mostafa Goodarz, Amir Behzadnia, Tohid Dastan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Though fiber reinforced thermoset composites exhibit excellent rigidity and strength while being lightweight, they suffer from low toughness and brittle failure, which is unfavorable. On the other hand, fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites are good energy absorbers, damage resistant and recyclable; however, these materials exhibits insufficient rigidity. As a solution, the interlayer hybridization of glass fiber reinforced thermoset (GTS) and glass fiber reinforced thermoplastic (GTP) composites is proposed. This study aims at investigating the tensile properties of interlayer hybrid thermoset-thermoplastic composites. In this regard, two non-hybrid and two hybrid composite samples (GTS2-GTP and GTS4-GTP) were fabricated using common fabrication techniques: hand lay-up and hot compression molding. Both hybrid composite samples were fabricated in such a manner that GTP was sandwiched between two GTS plates. Based on the tensile test results, the failure strain of GTS sample was improved due to the interlayer hybridization with GTP. Non-hybrid composite samples exhibited one load drop in their tensile stress-strain behavior, while interlayer hybrid composites showed two load drops, which resulted in toughness increment. Moreover, hybrid thermoset-thermoplastic composites outperformed non-hybrid composites in terms of post-impact tensile properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T03:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221104260
       
  • Influence of yarn-hybridisation on the mechanical performance and thermal
           conductivity of composite laminates

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      Authors: Hussein K Dalfi, Anwer Al-Obaidi, Erdem Selver, Zeshan Yousaf, Prasad Potluri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, advanced composite materials have been widely used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. However, their sensitivities to damages during impact loading event limits their usage. In this regards, the influence of yarn hybridisation on the mechanical and thermal performance of composite laminates have been studied using low velocity impact, compression after impact (CAI), flexural and thermal conductivity tests. Two types of composite laminates were manufactured using hybrid yarns (S-glass and polypropylene [PP]) and S-glass yarns through the combination of commingling and core-wrapping methods and converted to non-crimp cross-ply preforms for both laminates. C-scan tests and cross-section microscopy examinations were adopted to identify the damaged areas of impacted laminates and explain the damage failures, which occurred during impact loadings. Results revealed that the hybrid laminates displayed higher damage area reduction compared to glass composites. Although the hybrid composite laminates illustrated considerably lower compressive strength, their residual compressive strength (damage tolerance) was significantly higher than glass composites. Fractography analysis has illustrated that the new damage failure modes such as intra-yarn cracks have been observed in the hybrid yarns laminates. These damage modes have contributed for higher energy absorpsion leading to an enhancement of the damage tolerance of the hybrid laminates. Furthermore, the incorporation of PP fibres resulted in a reduction of thermal conductivity of hybrid laminates compared to pure glass laminates.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221104261
       
  • Carbon nanotube yarns derived from gamma irradiated carbon nanotube
           forests

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      Authors: Jackie Y Cai, Jie Min, Jill McDonnell, Lijing Wang, Robert Knott
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Gamma irradiation has been recognised as an effective microengineering tool for improving interfacial adhesion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in their macroscopic structures. In this study, we applied γ-irradiation directly to vertically aligned CNT forests (grown on iron coated silicon wafers) in the presence of air, and the irradiated CNT forests were then spun into CNT yarns under various applied tensions. The effect of γ-irradiation on the CNT forest morphology, spinning performance and mechanical and electrical properties of the resultant CNT yarns were evaluated and compared with the unirradiated controls. The results revealed that CNT yarns spun from the gamma irradiated CNT forests had higher tensile strength and lower breaking elongation than the yarns spun from the unirradiated CNT control forests under the same spinning conditions. Increasing spinning tension improved the strength of CNT yarns spun from both the irradiated and unirradiated forests, but the tension-induced improvements from the irradiated forests were much more profound. The relative improvements in the yarn tenacity due to the γ-irradiation were in the range from 14% to 26% under various spinning tension applied. This study also showed that the gamma irradiated CNT forests retained good spinnability under relatively low spinning tension, but exhibited significantly inferior spinnability at high spinning tension, compared to the unirradiated controls. Possible mechanisms for the spinnability of CNT forests and the mechanical properties of CNT yarns were discussed. Further improvement in the CNT forest spinnability may be needed through the optimisation of γ-irradiation doses applied to the CNT forests.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101013
       
  • Effect of different hole shape of thermal barrier on the performance for
           thermal protective clothing

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      Authors: Jiaxin Dai, Xiaohui Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The insulating layer of the hollow structure of thermal protective clothing plays a positive role in weight and thermal protection. The relationship between the hole shape and the performance of the hollow structure is of great importance to optimization. This paper focuses on the performance optimization of the honeycomb structure insulation layer. Laser cutting technology was used to cut the hole in the non-woven fabric. The thermal insulation layers of five common three-dimensional sections were prepared by the multi-layer composite method. Compared with the conventional solid fabric system, the honeycomb fabric system has better thermal protection. At the same time, the section structure also affects the thermal protection performance. The developed A-type structure possesses a superior Thermal Protective Performance value in comparison to I-type straight structure. It has lower moisture resistance and higher total heat loss. The thermal protection of A-type section structure, together with excellent thermal and moisture comfort, make it put forward the improvement direction for the structural optimization of commercial nonwovens where the balance between thermal protection and thermal and moisture comfort is the key requirement.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T08:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221102965
       
  • Effect of industrial waste fly ash on the drilling characteristics of
           banana fiber residue reinforced polymer composites

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      Authors: Gokul Kannan, Rajasekaran Thangaraju
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Natural fiber reinforced composites are becoming popular in various industrial and commercial applications as structural components. Unlike conventional materials, machining of fiber composites is critical due to its heterogeneous structure. Hence, it is necessary to understand the machining behaviour of fiber reinforced composites. Hybrid composites reinforced with banana fiber and fly ash filler in polyester matrix were fabricated and then evaluated for drilling performance. Drilling experiments were performed using the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array. The influence of feed rate (A), cutting speed (B) and filler content (C) on thrust force, surface roughness, and delamination factor entry and exit were using Taguchi and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. The results revealed that (i) Minimum thrust for attained at filler content (A) 1 vol %, speed (B) 3000 r/min, and feed (C) 100 mm/min, (ii) Minimum surface roughness at filler content A (3 vol %), speed B (2000 r/min), and feed rate C (100 mm/min) and (iii) Minimum peel up and push out delamination at filler content (A) as, 5vol %, speed (B) 2000 r/min, and feed (C) 100 mm/min. This study provides machining insights on agro-industrial waste based polymer composites for structural applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T08:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221102641
       
  • Assessment of the influence of stitching on the tensile stress relaxation
           of laminated fabrics

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      Authors: Shayan Abrishami, Nazanin Ezazshahabi, Fatemeh Mousazadegan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Different parts of the garment may be laminated with an interlining in order to obtain specific appearance and form. Mechanical properties of the laminated fabric is affected by the properties of interlining and differs from the face fabric. Moreover, the existence of seam for joining the laminated fabrics in various parts of the garment is another issue, which has to be considered during the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of garment. Garments’ time dependent mechanical behavior such as the tensile stress relaxation is of great importance while wearing them. In this study, the tensile properties and the stress relaxation of a group of woven fabric, which was laminated by a nylon interlining, were investigated at two strain levels, before and after stitching. In this regard, the effects of strain level, lamination process, seam type and the stitch length were evaluated. According to the results, it can be declared that increasing the strain level reduces the stress relaxation percentage. The laminated fabric presented higher values of tensile stress and strain, while lower stress relaxation was occurred in this structure compared to the un-laminated fabric. Analysis of results showed that higher stress relaxation was obtained for the “stitched laminated fabric” compared to the “laminated fabric without seam.” Overall, in the presence of seam, the stress relaxation is affected by the seam type and the stitch length. Finally, the best correlation between the experimental stress relaxation results and the viscoelastic models were obtained for the two-component Maxwell model. The result of this study should be considered in designing and manufacturing of protective textiles and clothing that include both lamination and stitching processes and during use may be encountered with constant strains for a period of time.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T08:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101177
       
  • A novel method for evaluating the tensile behavior isotropy of surgical
           meshes based on the analysis of the polar graph of tensile properties
           using image processing method

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      Authors: Melika Badin Dahesh, Azita Asayesh, Ali Asghar Asgharian Jeddi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The most common hernia treatment method is using a surgical mesh. The functional properties of surgical meshes, including structural and mechanical properties affect mesh performance. Anisotropy of the tensile behavior of the surgical mesh influences the hernia treatment process. In this research, a novel index named ‘isotropy index’ is introduced based on the analysis of the polar graph of the tensile properties of surgical meshes. The isotropy index, which is expressed in percent, was defined as the ratio of the polar diagram area of the tensile elastic modulus to the area of the circle surrounding the polar graph and calculated using the meshes' tensile elastic modulus in five directions(0°(course), 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°(wale)) using the image processing method. For this purpose, common net warp-knitted fabrics in surgical mesh production were produced with five various knit patterns(quasi-Sandfly, Tricot, Pin-hole-net, Sandfly, and quasi-Marqussite) using polypropylene monofilament yarns, and their tensile properties were analyzed in various directions(0°(course), 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°(wale)). Results revealed that the quasi-Sandfly mesh is the most isotropic(57.74%), and the quasi-Marqussite mesh is the most anisotropic(17.12%) among evaluated surgical meshes. Tricot mesh(54.98%), Sandfly mesh(49.17%), and Pin-hole-net mesh(46.41%) in terms of the tensile behavior isotropy are between quasi-Sandfly mesh and quasi-Marqussite mesh. The Sandfly mesh has the closest isotropy index to the abdominal wall tissue. Considering the importance of the lightness, adequate porosity, larger pore size, and closeness of the mesh’ isotropy index to abdominal wall tissue for enhancing mesh functional properties, the Sandfly mesh was selected as the best-knit pattern for surgical mesh.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T01:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221100389
       
  • Smart coating in protective clothing for firefighters: An overview and
           recent improvements

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      Authors: Farshad Shakeriaski, Maryam Ghodrat, Maria Rashidi, Bijan Samali
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, new developments in the design and performance optimization of smart mechanisms associated with natural and man-made hazards have progressed considerably. This is mainly owing to advances in smart sensing mechanisms including communication and data technologies. This work provides a detailed overview of existing improvements on smart hazard monitoring equipment and materials applied in textile sensing systems. Given that fire is one of the most common disasters in many countries such as Australia, and every year many firefighters are affected by these unfortunate incidents, the focus of this study is on firefighters' protective clothing Fire Fighter Protective clothing. This review provides a unique opportunity to study smart sensing systems in coating technologies, potentially provides more effective techniques for training and better safety protocols of fire fighters. It aims to revisit the existing advances and address recent challenges and opportunities for improvement in the domain of smart coating and fire protective wearables. The goal of this review is to provide information about smart coating in protective clothing for firefighters. The capability of some of these clothing in managing thermal stresses, responding to humid environment, monitoring some critical parameters and adapting to the size of the wearers (clothes fabricated with phase change and shape memory substances) made them attractive choice in adjusting specific design features of industrial textiles. Various types of phase change and shape memory substances are defined and a combination of these substances within the structure of fabrics are presented. This paper also provides a detailed review on the heat exposure and capability of the shape memory substances (SMM) and phase change materials (PCM) to delay the heat transfer through fire fighter protective clothing. Referring to the former research, several issues have been detected using such substances. For instance, combination of phase change and shape memory materials needs fundamental improvements with regards to assessment techniques and testing criteria. Additionally, recent improvements in the domain of PCM and SMM including modifying mechanical features, functionality, and durability under different conditions have been informed. It has been suggested that the major problem in developing fabric-Phase Change Materials (PCMs) and Shape memory material (SMM) systems is their usage methods. At last recent developments on wearable monitoring systems applied in the firefighters’ protective gear. Wearable sensors are usually used directly on the body or located on wearable items to monitor information related to firefighters’ safety.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T01:10:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101213
       
  • Chitosan fabrics with synergy of silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires
           for enhanced conductivity and antibacterial activity

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      Authors: Liying Qian, Duoduo He, Haiming Qin, Xiuhua Cao, Jun Huang, Junrong Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable electronic textiles with high conductivity and excellent antibacterial activity are very desirable to minimize health risks and deteriorated performance of the electronic textiles in application. In this work, conductive fabrics were prepared with chitosan nonwovens with inherent antibacterial activity as the substrate. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on the surface of chitosan fabric without any additional reducing agent, and silver nanowires (AgNWs) were adhered to the surface of AgNPs-coated chitosan fabrics by simple dip-coating cycles. The synergy of AgNPs and AgNWs enhances the conductivity of the fabric and the stability of AgNPs on the surface of the fabric. According to the analysis of scanning electron microscope and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, AgNPs were reduced in situ on the fabric. With synergy of AgNPs and AgNWs, the electrical resistance of the fabric is as low as low as 0.93 Ω/sq and 0.20 Ω/sq after one and four dip-coating cycles of AgNWs respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis and inhibition zone assay showed that combination of AgNPs and AgNWs enhanced the thermal stability and antibacterial activity of chitosan fabrics. The chitosan fabrics with conductivity, thermal stability and antibacterial activity can be used in electronic textiles for different applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T08:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101650
       
  • Mesoporous silica/epoxy coated cotton fabric for durable oil-water
           separation

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      Authors: Selvakuma Gopalsamy, Thilagavathi Govindharajan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A simple, durable, superior UV-shielded, self-cleanable, hydrophobic/superoleophile cotton fabric was developed using SBA-15 mesoporous silica and epoxy coating (SE). The cotton fabric surfaces after coating with SE showed the highest water contact angle value of 146° and lowest surface free energy of 13.9 mN/m. As a filtration membrane, the developed SE/cotton delivered 95.8% oil–water separation efficiency with a notable flux value of 6800 L/m2h against diesel–water mixture. The presence of an epoxy and silica hybrid layer on the surfaces of cotton fabric induced self-cleaning behavior and notable durability against UV light (UPF-29), pH resistance, washing fastness, and mechanical abrasion. Hence, the present coating developed using mesoporous silica and epoxy can be applied to different types of textile substrates to construct durable low-cost membranes.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T08:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221101176
       
  • A comprehensive review on branched nanofibers: Preparations, strategies,
           and applications

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      Authors: Bilal Zaarour, Mohammed Firas Alhinnawi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Engineering surface morphologies of nanofibers has been attracting significant consideration in numerous fields and applications. Among different methods of generating nanofibers, electrospinning is the most widely adopted technique owing to the ease of forming nanofibers with an extensive range of properties and its exceptional advantages, such as the variety of shapes and sizes, as well as the adaptable porosity of nanofiber webs. The branched structure is considered one of the most attractive structures for scientific researchers due to its outstanding properties (e.g., high-specific surface area and extremely tiny diameters of branched nanofibers). Therefore, this work is the first one that summarizes the strategies and methods, reported so far, of producing branched nanofibers of different materials. The material types, formation mechanisms, characterizations, and applications of the branched nanofibers generated through different techniques will be discussed in detail in this study. We believe this work can be served as an important reference for the preparations, strategies, and applications of the branched nanofibers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T05:22:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221083031
       
  • Measuring and modeling the effect of density and pile height on sound
           absorption of double base Persian rug

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      Authors: Touba Ardekani, Aliasghar Alamdar Yazdi, Morteza Vadood, Massimo Garai
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of density and pile height on sound absorption coefficient in Double Base Persian (DBP) rug and possibility of prediction the acoustic behavior of DBP rug using the mathematical model. For this aim, in the first step, three double base rug samples were produced at different base densities (2, 4, and 6 warp yarn/cm) and the sound absorption coefficient of samples was measured with Impedance tube in two thicknesses (15 & 13 mm) to study the pile height effect. Moreover, the sound absorption of the double base zone was also measured by shaving off the pile from the double base rug samples. Three rug samples at different base densities were produced with very thin warp and weft yarns to avoid the base effect in this sample. Besides, the macroscopic empirical model (Johnson–Champoux–Allard (JCA)) was implemented on obtained data. The results showed that the sound absorption of the double base rug samples increases with increasing the pile height and base density. The role of the base zone in the sound absorption of the rug is bolder than the pile zone. What leads to improve the rug sound absorption by increasing density is increasing the sound absorption of base zone and the pile density changes do not play a major role in increasing the rug sound absorption. In addition, by assuming DBP rugs as a two-layer porous (pile + base zone) absorber, JCA model shows a good consistency with experimental data.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T05:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221089311
       
  • Effect of hybridization on physio-mechanical behavior of Vetiver and Jute
           fibers reinforced epoxy composites for structural applications: Studies on
           fabrication, physicomechanical, water-absorption, and morphological
           properties

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      Authors: Kanishka Jha, Paresh Tamrakar, Rajeev Kumar, Shubham Sharma, Jujhar Singh, Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Plant and animal fibers are getting recognition from researchers and academicians as a potential reinforcement for polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. In the present study, the fabrication has been carried out on Jute and Vetiver fiber reinforced Epoxy composites using hand lay-up technique with a varying mass of the fibers in epoxy and matrix modifier graphite which has been fixed by weight. The mechanical (tensile, flexural and hardness test), and physical properties (water absorption [WA] and moisture content behavior) of developed composites are determined. The results obtained from performed test show that tensile strength of around 212.96 MPa was achieved for 6 wt% of Vetiver, the flexural strength of around 266.267 MPa, and the Rockwell hardness is 70.08. The WA is found maximum for Vetiver, and Jute fiber reinforced epoxy composite in the sample with 8% Vetiver and 22% of Jute fiber of composite. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs clearly show the incompatibility of Vetiver fiber with Epoxy matrix, easily understood with pull out of Vetiver fibers from the matrix. The continuous fiber was used which is equal to the length of the casting, therefore, even due to debonding, fracture of Vetiver fibers occurred more than pull-out.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T11:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221098573
       
  • Numerical investigation on central tearing behaviors and propagation
           mechanisms of coated warp-knitted fabrics

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      Authors: Jianwen Chen, Ruonan Zhang, Bing Zhao, Wujun Chen, Mingyang Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      To reveal the central tearing behaviors and propagation mechanisms of the architectural non-crimp fabric (NCF) composites with an initial crack, a microscopic finite element (FE) model was proposed and developed to simulate the tearing propagation process of materials in this paper. Firstly, the experimental program including the central crack tearing test of NCF composites and uniaxial tensile test of yarns was performed for gaining the material parameters. Secondly, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated from the good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, tearing damage mechanisms and failure performances of the NCF composites with an initial central crack were simulated and analyzed. Finally, the effects of initial crack length, yarn orientation, and arch curvature of weft yarn on mechanical properties were investigated in depth. The analysis and comparison results indicate that the NCF composite shows the unneglectable orthotropic characteristics, in which the initial crack length, yarn orientation, and arch curvature of weft yarn have the significant effects on the mechanical properties. This paper thus provides an adequately feasible and accurate FE model for the numerical simulation on the central tearing propagation behaviors of the NCF composites with an initial crack.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T10:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221093660
       
  • Chitosan and nano-TiO2 coating improves the flame retardancy of dyed and
           undyed denim fabrics by increasing the charring

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      Authors: Nilgün Becenen, Sevil Erdoğan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, chitosan is obtained from the waste shells of crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) and characterized. The crayfish chitosan was coated on cotton fabrics using the padding-drying method. The surface properties, flammability and water and air permeability properties of these coatings based on chitosan and a combination of chitosan and nano-TiO2 were determined. The weight of green calico fabric increased to 24.76% after coating with chitosan, while the weight of the blue dyed denim fabric increased to 5.19%. The chitosan coating increased the tear strength of the calico fabric by 20% in the weft direction. Thermogravimetric analysis and vertical burning tests show that chitosan improves the thermal resistance and flame retardancy performance of denim fabrics. While the amount of residue due to thermal degradation of the blue dyed denim fabric was 16.78%, it increased to 34% after coating with chitosan+nano-TiO2. The chitosan coating reduced the mass loss caused by thermal degradation in green calico fabric from 86.3% to 66.0%. Chitosan also improved the post-flame combustion performance of fabrics. While the ember burning time is decreased to 6s in the chitosan-coated dyed calico fabric, this did not occur in the chitosan+nano-TiO2-coated dyed denim fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T11:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221099632
       
  • Antibacterial easy adjustable woven compression bandage for venous leg
           ulcers

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      Authors: Abdelhamid R Aboalasaad, Muhammad Z Khan, Brigita K Sirková, Jakub Wiener, Irena Šlamborová, Amany S Khalil, Ahmed Hassanin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The proposed study aims in first part to discuss the structure and behavior of short-stretch cotton woven compression bandage (WCB), and in second part the production and properties of multifunctional WCB. The bandage includes an integrated tension sensor, which causes a change in the spacing of colored threads during its deformation. The motivation of this research was to investigate the optimum techniques for compression therapy using a modified construction of cotton WCB as a tensiometer. The aim of second part is focused on an industrial product which has the easy adjustable compression and antibacterial properties. Multifunctional WCB can be produced by two methods, the first was using highly twisted warp yarns (ply twist 1800 to 2200 twist/m) and the weft yarns will be treated with silver Nano-particles (NPs). The second method was post-treatment of the WCB with three concentrations of zinc oxide NPs 1–3 % in powder form with 15 g/L acrylic binder. Silver NPs coated yarns showed a comparable antibacterial activity on both tested bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) using quantitative and qualitative test methods. The WCB tested samples achieved 95–99% bacteria reduction, the nanoparticles size and its distribution were confirmed by the Zetasizer Nano, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The practical bandage pressure by PicoPress showed significant deviations compared with theoretical pressure calculated by Laplace’s equation ranges ±0.68 to ±15.64% especially at the highest extension levels.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T10:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221095204
       
  • Enhancing the interfacial adhesion between continuous basalt fibers and
           epoxy resin by depositing silicon dioxide nanonparticles

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      Authors: Jianbo Zhou, Chaofeng Chen, Shengchang Zhang, Tianhaoyue Zhong, Qibin Xu, Zexi Su, Mengjin Jiang, Pengqing Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, inorganic silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of continuous basalt fibers (CBFs) to enhance the interfacial interactions between CBFs and epoxy matrix (EP) and the tensile strength of composites. According to results from scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the surface morphology of CBFs changes from smooth to rough with the increase of SiO2 deposition content. The rough surface plays a role of chock to make CBFs implant into the EP better, offering strong mechanical engagement effect to the interface between CBFs and EP. Therefore, the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between CBFs and EP and the tensile strength of composites both increase. However, depositing excessive SiO2 nanoparticles also brings some porous structures on CBFs surface, becoming defects and stress concentration points to weaken the IFSS and the tensile strength of composites. Finally, a comparison between grafting organic aliphatic chains and depositing inorganic rigid nanoparticles about their effects on the surface roughness of modified CBFs and the interfacial interactions between modified fibers and matrix is carried out to clarify the reinforcing mechanisms of interfacial adhesion and the tensile strength of composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T10:39:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221099661
       
  • Development of high-performance filter from Agave americana
           fibre/polyacrylonitrile nanofibre membrane for Cd, Pb (II) and organic
           contaminants removal from aqueous solution

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      Authors: Bhargavi R Thimmiah, Gobi Nallathambi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Constructing an easily recyclable and reusable filter is highly efficient for removing Cd, Pb2+ and organic contaminants from aqueous solution. This study investigates the optimization of Cd, Pb2+ adsorption process by thiol functionalized Agave americana fibre. Additionally, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre membrane is used as a substrate to filter the organic contaminants. The properties of adsorbents are characterized by various techniques such as Attenuated Total Reflection- Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), tensile tester and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The filter’s performance has been investigated with three variables of thiol functionalized fibre packing density, length of the functionalized fibre and nanofibre spinning time. The fibre packing density and nanofibre spinning time are the most significant parameters that affect all responses. The impact of independent variables on responses has been critically analysed. The optimized filter is identified by regression analysis. The developed filter satisfies heavy metal ion adsorption (Cd, Pb2+) and organic contaminants.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221095203
       
  • Synthesize and characterization of sustainable natural fibers/ conductive
           polymer composites

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      Authors: Pelin Yazıcı, Baidaa Alkhateab, Esma Sezer, Dilara Koçak, Belkıs Ustamehmetoğlu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work aims to obtain reinforced composites of natural fibers that obtained from their agricultural wastes of and conductive polymers to develop an innovation and alternative materials. By the use of natural fibers contributes to the recycle of agricultural wastes, sustainability and further the resulting composite becomes alternative to the metals. Here, flexible conductive composites were obtained from artichoke(A), banana(B) and luffa(L) stem waste fibers(F) by the in-situ polymerization of 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT), pyrrole, and carbazole in the presence of cerium ammonium nitrate, iron nitrate, and iron chloride. Fibers were coated with the conductive polymers mentioned above by the in-situ chemical(C) polymerization and optimum coating conditions were investigated. Effect of EDOT concentration, oxidant concentration was performed to determine the optimum conditions for AF/PEDOT(C). FT-IR, SEM, thermal analysis supported the formation of composite and from the mechanical measurements, modulus of AF/PEDOT(C) was obtained. The highest conductivity of 12.8 S/cm was obtained from AF/PEDOT(C) composite using FeCl3 as an oxidant. Further polymerization of EDOT by electrochemical(E) method was continued on the AF/PEDOT(C) and the electroactivity of resulting electrochemical composite, AF/PEDOT(C)/PEDOT(E) was characterized accordingly. Detailed characterization showed that to use of this composite as a capacitor, one should use 0.03 M EDOT and 0.9 M FeCl3 for chemical polymerization and then continued by electropolymerization by applying 10 cycles in 0.03 M EDOT. All results showed that AF waste could be converted to the valuable AF/PEDOT(C)/PEDOT(E) conductive composites which is potentially suitable material for several electronic applications as charge storage, biosensor, electronic devices.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T12:52:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221098198
       
  • Development of knitted reinforced structures with self-diagnostic function
           for composite applications

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      Authors: Adeel Abbas, Ahmad Asim, Asim Zahid, Sohaib Anas, Sikander A Basra, Zeeshan Azam
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The research aims the development of knitted reinforcement structures for inducing self-diagnostic properties into knitted reinforced composites for structural health monitoring. Conductive carbon fiber was used in knitted inlaid structures as inlay yarns, and l × 1 Rib knitted base fabric of polyester filament yarn was used for knitting. The reinforcement’s conductive nature induced self-diagnostic properties into composites using correlation of mechanical damages and changes in electrical resistance values. Single and double stimuli layers and inlay patterns of 3 × 1, 6 × 1 and 9 × 1 was used to check their impact on self-diagnostic properties. Mechanical testing and real-time electrical resistance monitoring proved knitted structures as a solution to induce self-diagnostic properties into composite materials. Composites having double stimuli (conductive) layers exhibited better self-diagnostic properties than single stimuli layer composites, and the self-diagnostic properties also improved as the inlay pattern of reinforcement moved from 9 × 1 to 6 × 1 and 3 × 1 inlay. Such knitted reinforced self-diagnostic composites could be practically used in structural health monitoring applications, e.g., complicated structures of large buildings infrastructures and machinery which require record of each minor happening with structures to keep smooth and successful running of the system.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T05:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221098438
       
  • Flexible carbon nanofiber yarn electrodes for self-standing fiber
           supercapacitors

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      Authors: Yasin Altin, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber yarns were obtained by twisting the nanofiber mat strips produced in the electrospinning device. On the drum collector, the nanofibers are produced in such a way that the diameter change can be controlled. Through stabilization and carbonization processes, PAN nanofiber yarns were converted to carbon nanofiber (CNF) yarns. The stabilization process stabilized the yarn structure, which was previously unstable, due to thermal treatments. The obtained CNF yarn had a diameter of approximately 360 μm and an average nanofiber diameter of 123 ± 20 nm. On a three-electrode system, the electrochemical performance of CNF yarn in 1 m H2SO4 electrolyte was determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge test methods. The specific capacitance of the CNF yarn electrode was determined to be 145 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g. Up to 500 charge/discharge cycles, the specific capacitance increased by approximately 20% and remained constant thereafter. Due to their superior properties such as high surface area, lightweight, and flexibility, CNF yarn electrodes can be used in a wide variety of electronic applications, including energy harvesting, energy storage (supercapacitors, batteries, etc.), and sensors.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T09:50:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094062
       
  • Impact characteristics of needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced composite

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      Authors: Xiaoming Chen, Yuying Wei, Tianlei Yao, Chenyang Li, Jiao Li, Zhipeng Ren, Hongwei Zheng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      As a widely used thermal protection material for the aerospace vehicle, needled composites cannot avoid the impact load of the external environment during flight or reentry process, but the lack of continuous reinforcing fibers in the thickness direction results in weak impact resistance. In order to improve impact resistance property, this paper proposed a new type of needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced composite structure and carried out impact characteristics research. First, the needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced preforms and composites with different I-fiber stitching parameters were prepared; further, the impact tests of needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced composites were carried out, and the damage area and bulge height after impact were measured. Finally, the compressive strengths after impact were tested and analyzed. The research results showed that I-fiber absorbed the impact energy and effectively inhibited the delamination propagation of the needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced composite during the impact process. The damage area and bulge height of the needled/I-fiber coupling reinforced composite were reduced by up to 46.5 and 46.02% respectively. Moreover, the compression strength after impact increased by up to 17.6%. Our work may provide a simple and effective method for improving the impact resistance of needled composites structure for aerospace vehicle.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T02:20:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221098196
       
  • Triaxial braided sandwich composite guide bar potentially used in
           high-speed warp knitting machine

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      Authors: Mingling Wang, Zhongxiang Pan, Jiajia Yu, Ran Xu, Xiaoqiang Du, Zhenyu Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Integrated manufacturing technology was applied to fabricate a 3-D triaxial braided sandwich composite (TBSC) guide bar based on a real geometric shape. The axial compression, three-point bending, and vibration performance of bar specimens were investigated. Frequencies and vibration modes of the TBSC bar at free and constraint conditions were obtained by the numerical model, and the parametric analysis of different braiding angles was carried out. Effectiveness of the full-scale model was verified by vibration experiments. It is found that the frequency of TBSC and steel guide bar were close at the order 1 and 2; but when the order was higher than 2, the TBSC frequency was significantly improved. For the steel bar, axial periodic torsion and cross-section distortion were found at the orders 4, 5, 6, and 8; While for the TBSC structure, transverse bending was the main vibration deformation. Under a constrained state, the bending deformation was either localized at one end or in the middle of the bar, less than 1/3 length of the whole bar. The effect of braiding angle was significant on the deformation morphology. The increase of braiding angle had a negative effect on the frequency at the order 1 to 6. But such tendency changed at higher orders from 7 to 14. The frequency of [+15/0/-15]3 and [+75/0/-75]3 TBSC bars were much lower than that of [+30/0/-30]3 and [+45/0/-45]3 counterparts. If the maximum deformed displacement is considered, the [+45/0/-45]3 configuration will be the best choice, especially for vibration resistance at high frequency.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T09:00:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221091932
       
  • Bending and wrinkling behaviours of polyester fabric membrane structures
           under inflation

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      Authors: Yunling Ye, Jin Gan, Xiaolin Ran, Huabing Liu, Weiguo Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Membrane structures made of high-strength polyester fabrics are deployable and lightweight, which can be utilized in architecture, aerospace and marine structures. The design and optimization of an inflated structure depends on a thorough understanding of polyester fabric mechanics. In this work, firstly, the material properties of the polyester fabric membrane were analyzed by a tensile test. The bending and wrinkling behaviours of the inflated polyester fabric membrane were investigated by experimental, analytical and numerical methods. Specimens of varying internal pressures and diameters were subjected to bending tests with highly controlled loading and boundary conditions. It was found that the flexural capacity of the inflated membrane structure was positively correlated with the diameter and the internal pressure but decreased obviously with the occurrence and propagation of wrinkles. Based on the energy principle, the prediction formula of mid-span deflection was developed with the consideration of shear stiffness. Furthermore, the surface-based fluid cavity method was employed to set up a finite element model (FE model). The flexural behaviour of inflated membrane structure can be predicted by both the analytical and the numerical method, and the reliability was verified by comparing with the experiment
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T03:42:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221095578
       
  • Revealing the intrinsic dielectric properties of mediterranean green fiber
           composites for sustainable functional products

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      Authors: Osama Fares, Faris AL-Oqla, Mohammed Hayajneh
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The ability of biodegradable materials to be miniaturized and degrade at specific rates when subjected to certain bacterium types and/or a given range of temperatures has led to a newly emerging technology: organic transient bioelectronics. In this work, the electrical characteristics of new natural composite materials are presented. Four types of natural lignocellulosic fibers were used with polypropylene: black pepper, sumac, pomegranate, and lemon. The composites were prepared as flat smooth sheets with thicknesses ∼1 mm. The dielectric constant and the ac conductivity of the prepared samples were determined for the frequency range of 1 KHz to 4 MH. All measurements were performed at room temperature and humidity utilizing parallel plate capacitor technique associated with high precision Hioki IM3536 LCR meter. The frequency response of the composites under study shows similar behavior to that of the pure sample but with various percentage increments. The dielectric constant shows that the consistent dispersion was highly affected by filler content specially at the low frequency side of the spectrum. The maximum recorded increment was around 55% for 30wt.% sumac samples at 1 KHz. The effect of larger filler loading concentration on the incremental change of the ac conductivity was more obvious at higher frequencies.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T01:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094648
       
  • Fabrication of cost-effective double layers composite for efficient
           sound-absorbing based on sustainable and flame-retardant jute fabrics

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      Authors: Tarek M El-Basheer, Amal A El Ebissy, Nour F Attia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Noise pollution is rapidly increasing, posing a health risk, particularly in the low frequency range. Therefore, the development of cost-effective, environmentally friendly and efficient audible sound absorbing materials is a necessary and crucial process. To this end, smart multilayer sound absorber has been developed based on micro-perforated panels and Jute fabrics as renewable and eco-friendly sound-absorbing material. Different perforation shapes have been fabricated and used for micro-perforated panels and optimized. The sound absorption properties for the new developed sound-absorbing system were evaluated inside a two-microphone impedance tube achieving outstanding results. The developed sound-absorbing system achieved higher sound absorption properties recording more 70% at low frequencies range (
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T03:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221098197
       
  • Effect of layering sequence and ambient temperature on thermal insulation
           of multilayer high bulk nonwoven under extreme cold temperatures

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      Authors: Vikrant Dupade, Ranjna Kumari, Balachandran Premachandran, Raju Seenivasan Rengasamy, Prabal Talukdar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In extreme cold weather clothing ensemble, multiple layers of high bulk nonwovens are used to provide thermal insulation to the wearer. In this work, the effect of layering sequence in multi-layered high bulk thermal bonded nonwoven assembly on its thermal resistance is evaluated experimentally under sub-zero temperatures. Two multi-layered nonwovens, one made up of 1.4 denier solid (1.4 D S), 6 denier hollow (6 D H) and 15 denier hollow (15 D H) and the second made up of 3 denier hollow (3 D H), 6 denier hollow (6 D H) and 15 denier hollow (15 D H) polyester fibres were studied. The experiments were performed in a climatic chamber in the temperature range of 310 K to 210 K. Numerical simulations were carried out assuming heat transfer through the nonwovens as one-dimensional coupled conduction-radiation. The numerical methodology was developed using theoretical relations available in the literature to estimate the steady-state temperature profiles through the nonwoven layers and were validated using experimental data. The concurrence of experimental and numerical temperature profiles justifies the numerical methodology adopted in this work. Thermal resistance provided by the high bulk nonwoven increases with a decrease in ambient temperature. It is found that the thermal conductivity of nonwoven layers decreases from inner-to outer layers at a given ambient temperature. The heat flux through nonwoven layers, overall thermal conductivity and the thermal resistance of multi-layer nonwoven are independent of layering sequence if the convective heat transfer is extremely low.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T12:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221097284
       
  • Study on thermal protective performance of thermal liner in a multi-layer
           clothing under radiant heat exposure

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      Authors: Tathagata Das, Apurba Das, R Alagirusamy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Different factors should be considered for designing fire protective clothing. Constructional parameters, air gap, and proper fibers selection are critical, which need to be investigated thoroughly. In this work, the effect of the number of layers of the thermal liner on the thermal protection properties of thermal protective clothing has been studied. An experiment has been conducted using the three-level three-factor Box-Behnken designing method; factors used are the number of layers of the thermal liner, the areal density of the thermal liner, and intensity of radiant heat flux. Analysis of Variance study has been performed to analyze the significance of the structural and test parameters and their interaction. Second-degree burn time or protection time has been observed to increase with the increase in the areal density of thermal liner and decrease with increased heat flux. As the number of layers increases, protection time also increases. The effect of the number of layers is more prominent at a lower level of heat flux than a higher level of heat flux.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T11:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094057
       
  • Potent environmental-friendly virucidal medical textiles against
           coronavirus to combat infections during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Chayanisa Chitichotpanya, Phasinee Khwanmuang, Wariya Yamprayoonswat, Supanit Porntheeraphat, Anan Jongkaewwattana, Pisutsaran Chitichotpanya
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The sudden outburst of Coronavirus disease 19 or COVID-19 has raised serious awareness about viral contamination on the environment, which is one of the major causes of the disease. Transmission via contaminated surfaces has been recognized as a significant route for spreading the virus. To suppress and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, potent virucidal finishing agents for decontamination of medical textiles are urgently required. In this study, an environmental-friendly, economical, non-toxic, and practical finishing on medical textiles with potent virucidal activity was proposed with the combined concepts of a new green synthesis of TiO2@Ag core-shell nanostructures using ascorbic acid reduction and UV-curing process. In order to evaluate efficiency of virucidal activity, effects of the amount of TiO2@Ag NPs and contact time were determined against the coronavirus following ISO 18184:2019 standard. The finishing agent exhibited an excellent 99.9% virucidal efficacy. The stability of virucidal activity and mechanical properties were determined under repeated washing. The finished fabrics had the ability to retain their virucidal activity and tensile strength through 20 washes. The results suggested that the finishing agent had great potential as a potent and non-toxic virucide against the coronavirus for medical textile applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T06:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094649
       
  • Experimental study and simulation of non-crimp 3D orthogonal composite
           shafts during torsional load

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      Authors: Raouf Moaveni, Saeed Ajeli, Shohreh Minapoor
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Non-crimp 3D orthogonal fabrics are high-tech textiles with three sets of orthogonal yarns. 3D composites reinforced by this fabric have a high performance and wide usages due to their structure. This study attempted to investigate the torsional behavior of Glass/epoxy composite rods reinforced by 3D fabrics experimentally and numerically. Accordingly, three different 3D weaves, including low-density and high-density non-crimp 3D orthogonal, and braid-pultruded fabrics were tested by a torsion tester machine. The results showed that non-crimp 3D orthogonal composites, especially those with a higher density, had better torsional properties than the others, due to the square cross-section and perpendicular fiber involvement in all directions. Optimal torsional properties were obtained for the high-density non-crimp 3D orthogonal composite with the lower void content. Also, a python code was developed to simulate the torsional behavior of the rod composite in macro-scale based on the geometry of the unit cell and the mechanical constants obtained from the meso-scale.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T01:59:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221089317
       
  • Failure mechanisms of kenaf/glass sandwich laminates subjected to low
           velocity impact loading

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      Authors: Seri Nur Zumaimi Ahmad Nadzri, Ain Umaira Md Shah, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Syafiqah Nur Azrie Safri, Farah Syazwani Shahar, Adi Azriff Basri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Stacking sequences of composite laminates have significant effects not only on the properties of composites but also on the types of damage occurred on the composites structure. The current study investigated the low velocity impact properties and the damage progression of kenaf core sandwich laminates in different layering sequence of fibre laminates. There were three different sequences of kenaf (K) and glass (G) fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites, that is, G/K/G hybrid, G/K/K hybrid and K/K/K composites, which were fabricated using hand lay-up method. The layer of gelcoat provided a protective layer and finishing to the composite. The composites experienced the low velocity impact at three different energy levels which were 5 J, 10 J and 15 J. Through the research, a diamond shape matrix cracking was exhibited on the gelcoat surface. The main failure mode that occurred on the specimen during the low velocity impact was matrix cracking, fibre breakage, delamination and fibre pulled-out. From the results, G/K/G hybrid resisted the highest impact energy which is up to 10 J and G/K/K hybrid resisted up to 5 J. Meanwhile K/K/K composite failed to resist any of designated energy. Therefore, it can be suggested that G/K/G hybrid composites had shown good performance in low velocity impact properties to be used as the bus bumper material.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T01:12:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094643
       
  • Effects of the addition of carbon nanofibers on mechanical properties of
           woven glass/epoxy composites with different weave patterns

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      Authors: Mohammad Aghaei, Mahmood M Shokrieh, Reza Mosalmani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The harness and the weave style are among the most important properties of woven fabrics. Most of the previous studies utilized woven fabrics with specific harnesses to explore the effects of nanoparticles on woven composites. Therefore, an experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of three weave patterns, namely plain, 5-harness satin, and 8-harness satin, on the mechanical properties of woven composites under tensile and shear loads. Subsequently, the effect of applying carbon nanofibers (CNFs) to epoxy resin reinforced with woven glass fibers with various harnesses was studied. The experimental results were evaluated statistically, indicating that using CNFs differently affects composite properties with various fabric harnesses. The addition of 0.5 wt.% CNFs to woven composites with varied harnesses enhanced the tensile strength by 19.2%–22.9% and the tensile fracture strain by 12.9%–13.8%, respectively. However, the elastic tensile modulus of woven composites was not increased. A further increase in the CNFs weight fraction from 0.5 wt.% did not improve the tensile properties. The addition of 0.5 wt.%, 1.0 wt.% and 1.5 wt.% CNFs increased the shear strength up to 30.6% and the shear modulus up to 18.7%, respectively. The results showed that the addition of CNFs more significantly affected the shear than the tensile properties. It was also revealed that employing a proper weight fraction of CNFs and a proper fabric harness significantly improves the mechanical properties of woven composites. Finally, an empirical model was developed to predict the strength and elastic modulus of woven composites with different harnesses and CNF weight fractions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T10:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094225
       
  • Mechanical, viscoelastic, and flammability properties of polymer
           composites reinforced with novel Sirisha bark filler

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      Authors: Tanmayee Khuntia, Sandhyarani Biswas
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Today is the era of advanced materials to resolve the issue due to ecological hazards. Research is being carried out to find the alternative of the existing materials with a low cost and eco-friendly nature. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the major commodity thermoplastics having wide applications worldwide. The neat PP is extremely sensitive to flame and therefore it is a challenging task for the researchers to reduce the flame sensitivity of PP composites for safe applications. Though the artificial flame retardant filler reduces the flame propagation, these are hazardous, costly, not environment friendly and, they reduce the mechanical strength of the polymer composites upon higher percentage loading. To overcome this difficulty, in this work, the novel natural Sirisha bark filler was reinforced to the coir fiber/PP hybrid composites to enhance the flame retardant and mechanical properties. The time to ignite (TTI) of the hybrid composites increased due to bark filler reinforcement in the composites and the flame spread reduced to zero. The impact strength of hybrid composites was found to be increased due to the strong interfacial adhesion of the bark filler with the PP matrix. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs revealed the well-defined grain boundaries of hybrid composites. The carbonaceous char coating over the surface of the hybrid composite was observed from the char morphology that acts as a hindrance to flame. The viscoelastic properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent of the hybrid composites were studied by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T09:11:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094220
       
  • Mechanical behaviour of 3D monofilament knitted fabrics: Modeling,
           simulation and validation

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      Authors: Youssef Cherradi, Hocine Kebir, Aicha Boukhriss, Habiba Ennamiri, Mustafa Benyoucef
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Three-dimensionally (3D) knitted technology textiles are expanding into industrial and technical applications of textile composites given their geometric, structural, and functional performance. However, there are many challenges in developing computational tools that allow for physics-based predictions while keeping the related computing cost low. The strong interactions between geometrical and physical elements permit determining the behavior of this type of engineering material. In the aim of understanding the specific mechanical behaviors of knitted textiles, a yarn-level simulation model framework was created to predict the nonlinear orthotropic mechanical behavior of monofilament jersey-knitted textiles. The relative contributions of many computational parameters on the global mechanical behavior of knitted fabrics are investigated, specifically, inter-yarn interactions and the boundary conditions effect. The models are saved in a format that can be read directly by Finite Element Analysis FEA software. Yarns are numerically discretized as nonlinear 3D beam components, while input parameters, such as mechanical characteristics of yarns and geometric dimensions of loops in fabrics are established experimentally. Good agreement was relieved by comparing experimental data to simulation results in a wale-wise direction tensile load.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T04:01:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221091578
       
  • Sage seed gum as a novel source for polysaccharide-based antibacterial
           nanofibers: Physical, chemical, and rheological characterization

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      Authors: Javad Yekrang, Reza Saghafi, Alireza Yousefi, Fatemeh Ghaffari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the sage seed gum (SSG) was electrospun as a polysaccharide polymer blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to construct nanofibrous mats for antibacterial applications. The rheological properties of the PVA/SSG solutions were investigated before electrospinning. Oscillatory, shear, and steady shear tests demonstrated that the PVA/SSG solutions had a viscous behavior, exhibiting a higher consistency coefficient (k) and a lower flow behavior index (n) at the higher PVA incorporation levels. The morphological studies by SEM images revealed that the PVA/SSG nanofibers were produced without bead defects within the diameter range of 130–300 nm. The in vitro degradation tests showed that the PVA/SSG nanofibers (at different SSG contents) were degraded by approx. 60–70% of their initial weight after one day of the degradation test. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial species and biodegradation tests also verified that the produced nanofibers could be implemented for antibacterial applications. The SSG polymer in the form of nanofibers can be, therefore, used as a natural and low-cost polymer for special antibacterial applications such as wound healing.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221093661
       
  • Intelligent research on wearing comfort of tight sportswear during
           exercise

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      Authors: Pengpeng Cheng, Jianping Wang, Xianyi ZENG, Pascal BRUNIAUX, Xuyuan Tao
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the distribution characteristics and changing law of sports comfort perception were analyzed by collecting the comfort evaluation data of running in winter tight sportswear, and proposes a network model based on particle swarm optimization-cuckoo search-long short-term memory to track the changing law of motion comfort. First, considering the existence of redundant features, analytic hierarchy process analysis is used to screen out key features; and then, particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search algorithms are used to optimize the key parameters of the long short-term memory prediction model, so as to avoid the model prediction performance caused by the selection of parameters based on experience. The experiments compared the prediction accuracy of other models, and selected mean absolute error, root mean square error, and mean absolute percentage error evaluation indicators to verify the effectiveness of these models. The results show that the perception of wearing comfort changes over time, but when it reaches the extreme point at a certain moment, and then it gradually falls back. The humidity sense and thermal sense of bust, crotch, and back in human body are the main comfort perceptions that affect movement; LSTM and the optimized LSTM models are suitable for the prediction of comfort perception at different times during exercise. Among them, the PSO-CS-LSTM model can more accurately track the changing trend of motion comfort, the prediction has high prediction accuracy and validity; we selected three different running speeds as the experimental data, which also verifies the universal applicability of the model.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T02:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221094055
       
  • Prediction of sound absorption performance of fibers coming from cigarette
           butts using a phenomenological model

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      Authors: Francisco J García-Cobos, Rubén Maderuelo-Sanz
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This work deals with experimental and theoretical research about cellulose acetate fibers coming from cigarette butts. This waste, considered one of the most hazardous, numerous, and polluting waste all over the world, represents a high environmental risk. The possibility of using these fibers in sound-absorbing panels is evaluated. The acoustical properties are measured according to ISO 10534-2, and predicted using a phenomenological model over the frequency range from 100 Hz to 6400 Hz. This work includes the study of important non-acoustical properties for a better understanding of the porous structure. The Johnson-Champoux-Allard model provides good accuracy. The experimental results of the sound absorption spectrums show mean errors ranging from 1.1% to 9.0%. Moreover, it is possible to obtain non-acoustic properties of cellulose acetate fibers, which are difficult to obtain experimentally, using the Johnson-Champoux-Allard model and an inverse technique. The input parameters of this model are successfully obtained with low errors concerning the measurements (0.6–5.2% for porosity or 2.6–10.5% for flow resistivity). The results of the sound absorption spectrum at normal incidence of the cellulose acetate show very accurate predictions. The experimental results show values of sound-absorption coefficients close to 1.0 and sound absorption average ranging from 0.42 to 0.8. Therefore, these waste fibers are an alternative to the traditional porous absorbers, mainly composed of synthetic fibers or foams and petroleum-based resins.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T01:08:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221097275
       
  • Impact resistance of pre-deformed stab of multi-ply three-dimensional
           interlock polymeric fabrics

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      Authors: Mengru Li, François Boussu, Damien Soulat, Jie Luo, Peng Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The high-performance fibres are employed largely as reinforced polymer fabrics and composites in the flexible and stiff stab-resistant personal protection equipment. To simulate the knife attack on the human body, a new methodology named pre-deformed stabbing is developed to characterise the stab performance taking into account the fabric’s deformations. Three-dimensional warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) were manufactured using high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE) yarns. The forming was performed on the tested 3DWIFs before the stabbing. The stabbing results are influenced by the different mode deformations created during the forming. Based on the in-plane shearing map, three different stabbing locations were chosen. The effect of locations on the stab resistance of 3DWIFs was explored with the same impact energy level. The effect of stabbing localization on the deformed fabric is significant. The shear-locking angle in the location area is critical for the stab resistance of both [0°/90°]8 and [0°/90°, −45°/45°]4 deformed fabrics in the studied cases.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T08:25:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221084363
       
  • A detailed investigation of N95 respirator sterilization with dry heat,
           hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation

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      Authors: Amit Kumar, Shailesh Joshi, Subramanian Venkatesan, Venkatraman Balasubramanian
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present ongoing pandemic, the N95 respirator is an essential protective barrier to suppress the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus and protect the frontline worker from exposure. The N95 respirators are meant for single usage; however, they can be used after sterilization, considering the economy and shortfall in availability. At this juncture, the performance of the respirator after various types of sterilization and usage condition is required to be analyzed in detail. With this motto, this work has proceeded. The respirator’s filtration efficiency (FE), breathing resistance, and quality factor are evaluated for two face velocities (5.8 ± 0.2 and 26.4 ± 0.9 cm/s). Sterilization techniques used here are dry air oven heating at 70–80 ± 3°C for 30 and 60 min, gamma irradiation for cumulative dose 15 and 25 kGy, and soaking in liquid hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. The filtration performance and electrostatic surface charge density are used to determine the facemask’s efficacy after sterilization. The respirator’s physical, chemical, and morphological degradation were investigated using materials area density, microscopic analyses, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, EPR, and TGA analyses. The highest reduction in filtration efficiency is 29.36 ± 0.49–36.08 ± 1.78% after irradiation due to a reduction in the charge density (71–133%) of the respirator layers. However, the FE does not reduce significantly (0.39 ± 0.52 to −2.46 ± 0.60) for dry air heat and H2O2 sterilization despite a change in charge density (0.4–53%), but there is no direct correlation with FE. Electrostatic charge measurement of the filtration layer is a crucial indicator of FE degradation. Hence, dry air heat and H2O2 soaking are found to be the most suitable sterilization methods. No significant degradation was observed on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of respirators layers after sterilization.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:39:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221090663
       
  • Structural and functional integrity of decontaminated N95 respirators:
           Experimental results

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      Authors: Sumit Sharma, Fang Wang, Shubham Kumar, Ruchika R Nawal, Priya Kumar, Sudha Yadav, Imre Szenti, Akos Kukovecz, Ulf D Schiller, Amit Rawal
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      With the recent emergence of highly transmissible variants of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the demand for N95 respirators is expected to remain high. The extensive use of N95 respirators by the public is susceptible to demand‐supply gaps and raises concern about their disposal, threatening the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. Herein, we investigated the filtration performance of the N95 respirator by specifically analyzing the structure in the key filtration layers of meltblown nonwoven after decontamination with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution treatments. With the aid of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis, the local structural heterogeneity of the meltblown nonwoven has been unfolded and subsequently correlated with their filtration performance at a face velocity that matched with speaking conditions (∼3.89 m/s). The filtration efficiency results of the N95 respirator remain unaltered after performing one cycle of treatment modalities (except autoclave).
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082322
       
  • Development of zinc, silver, and hyaluronic acid mediated wet spun
           alginate fibers for potential wound care applications

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      Authors: Urwa Mahmood, Rashid Masood, Muhammad Ali Afzal, Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Sharjeel Abid, Abdul Zahir, Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Nazir
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Sodium alginate and hyaluronic acid are being used extensively in wound care applications for their exceptional properties, including gelation, biocompatibility, exudate absorption, and the ability to provide a moist environment to the wound bed that accelerates healing. This research work presents the potential of developing silver and zinc ions loaded bioactive fibers for wound care applications with improved absorption, swelling (gelling), and antibacterial properties. The effect of loading silver and zinc on alginate/hyaluronic acid biofiber absorption, swelling (gelation), tensile and antibacterial activity were analyzed. It was found that the addition of silver and zinc salts improved the absorption, tensile, and gelation properties of alginate/hyaluronic acid fibers. Zinc-containing fibers exhibited superior properties to silver-containing fibers. The presence of hyaluronic acid influenced the release of silver and zinc ions in various liquid media with a maximum of 26 g/g absorption was observed which suggested the good wound exudate absorption capacity of the developed fibers. The developed fibers showed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T08:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221090666
       
  • High-linearity, ultralow-detection-limit, and rapid-response strain
           sensing yarn for data gloves

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      Authors: Fei Huang, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan, Fenye Meng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Highly integrated, low-cost and multi-functional electronic data gloves have attracted extensive attention in the Age of the Internet of Things. While significant progress has been made in the design of strain sensors with wide strain ranges, it is challenging to integrate high linearity, broad strain sensing range, and fast response into a single type of strain sensor, and these sensing properties play a critical role in the development of high-performance data gloves. Herein, this study presents a highly flexible, stretchable, and sensitive silver nanoparticles/double covered yarn (AgNPs/DCY) composite yarn, and this yarn as strain sensor achieves broad strain sensing range (50%), ultralow detection limit (0.05%), high linear sensitivity (GF = 10), instant response time (24 ms) and high repeatability, simultaneously. Interestingly, the AgNPs of the AgNPs/DCY composite yarns fabricated by in situ reduction are observed to not only evenly distributed on the fiber surface of DCY, but also within core fiber, and this distribution and the DCY structure; that is, the cooperative sensing effect of microcrack propagation of conductive layer on fibers and the electrical contact resistance contributes to the good sensing performance. Additionally, this composite yarn as strain sensor is invisibly integrated into textile data gloves and the capability of real-time monitoring various finger motions and effectively recognizing sign languages demonstrates the good sensing performance and practicability of the developed composite yarn. Therefore, the composite yarn as strain sensor has great prospects in wearable electronics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T01:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221084369
       
  • Preparation of spunlaced viscose/PANI-ZnO/GO fiber membrane and its
           performance of photocatalytic decolorization

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      Authors: Suo Liu, Jinyan Hu, Dingsheng Wu, Haiao Zeng, Tang Zhou, Maohuan Yang, Quan Feng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to solve the increasingly serious problem of printing and dyeing wastewater pollution, a kind of novel, efficient, and reusable spunlaced viscose/polyaniline-ZnO/GO fibrous membrane was fabricated in this work. Specifically, spunlaced viscose/polyaniline conductive fibrous membrane was firstly prepared by in-situ growth method, followed with the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO) via the hydrothermal route to obtain spunlaced viscose/PANI-ZnO/GO fibrous membrane (SV@PANI-ZnO/GO membrane). The results show that the decolorization rate of SV@PANI-ZnO/GO membrane for methylene blue (5.0 mg/L) was 97.4% within 120 min, and the decolorization rate remained above 76.7% after five cycles. Moreover, the reaction process conformed to a quasi-first order kinetic model with the apparent rate constant of 0.0209 min–1. Meanwhile, the free radical capture experiment revealed that the main reactive species in the decolorization process was .OH. This work may provide a new method for designing photocatalytic materials for environmental applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T03:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211070615
       
  • Effects of D-lactide content and molecular weight on the morphological,
           thermal, and mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber polylactide
           mats

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      Authors: Handan Palak, Ece Güler, Mohammadreza Nofar, Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the effects of both D-lactide content, that is, the change in PLA crystallizability, and molecular weight of polylactide (PLA) on its electrospinning behavior, along with thermal and mechanical properties of the electrospun mats were investigated. Although the effect of D-lactide content on processability of PLA has been studied in extrusion, thermoforming, foaming, and melt spinning, it has not been explored in electrospinning. The current study aimed to analyze electrospinnability of three different PLA grades; two amorphous with high and low molecular weights (i.e., aPLA-H and aPLA-L) and a semicrystalline with a high molecular weight (cPLA-H). PLAs were dissolved at different concentrations in chloroform (CHL)/dimethylformamide (DMF) at various volume ratios. Due to its high crystallizability and molecular weight, coarser nanofibers of cPLA-H were produced from solvents with high CHL content (≥75%), resulting in highest water vapor transmission rate (50,000 g/m2.day) of mats. aPLA-H revealed coarser nanofibers than that of aPLA-L due to its higher molecular entanglement. Although the increase in DMF content in the solvent hindered dissolving and electrospinning of cPLA-H, it caused the refinement of nanofibers in amorphous PLAs. Despite similar tensile strength, cPLA-H showed higher elongation at break (∼69%) than that of aPLA-H (∼59%) possibly due to the existence of some beads within the fibers in aPLA-H. Storage modulus of electrospun cPLA-H was also higher (∼15MPa) than that of other samples (∼10–12 MPa) due to high content of crystallinity (∼37%) while aPLA-L revealed the lowest storage modulus (∼10MPa) due to its amorphous structure and low molecular entanglement.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T01:48:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221090260
       
  • Novel energy absorbent composites for crashworthiness applications

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      Authors: Marwa A Abd El-baky, Dalia A Hegazy, Mohamad A Hassan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Glass reinforced epoxy composite tubes filled with 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt. % of HNC, MC, Al2O3, SiO2, and SiC nanofillers were fabricated using wet-wrapping process by hand lay-up and tested under quasi-static axial loadings. Crashworthiness parameters and failure modes were recorded. Results indicated that EAC and the specimens’ failure modes are dominated by the type and wt. % of the embedded nanofillers. As compared to pristine glass/epoxy tubes, an enhancement of 230.42, 243.30, 286.43, and 336.12% in the absorbed energy (U) was attained by the addition of 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt. % of HNC, respectively. An improvement of 21.93, 87.35, 225.99, and 318.07% in U was achieved by the inclusion of 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt. % of MC, respectively. An enhancement of 17.66, 51.63, and 71.94% in U was reported by the integration of 1, 2, and 3% of nano-Al2O3. Whilst a reduction of 31.16% was noticed for 4 wt. % of nano-Al2O3. The incorporation of nano-SiO2 and nano-SiC exhibits a reduction in U of the fabricated tubes. Composites filled with 4 wt. % of HNC has the highest load carrying capacity and EAC of 32.75 kN and 1110.84 J, respectively. So, they seem to be the best appropriate choice for energy absorbing elements. Glass/epoxy composite tubes filled with HNC, MC, and Al2O3 show outstanding energy absorption characteristics. However, specimens filled with SiO2 and SiC nanofillers are ineffective in the crashworthiness applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T06:58:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221086040
       
  • Preparation of a novel bio-flame-retardant liquid for flame retardancy of
           natural fibers and their composites

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      Authors: Li Maksym, M N Prabhakar, Song Jung-il
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The resistance of natural fibers toward flames is essential for their use in engineering applications. Hence, the present research focused on the preparation of a bio-flame-retardant liquid (BFL) to enrich the sustainability of natural fibers (kenaf fibers (KF), animal (WF), and cocoon (SF)) towards flame by employing a low cost, bio-waste chitosan and phosphoric acid (PA) through a chemical approach. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, UL-94 testing, and microcalorimetry were conducted to evaluate the essential characteristics of the treated BFL on various natural fibers. The BFL altered the surface chemistry and exhibited remarkable fire-extinguishing properties (V-0 flammability rating in the UL-94 test and suppression of peak heat release rate of approximately 78%), as well as enhanced thermal stability (49 wt.% residue at 700°C) for the natural fibers without significant differences among them. Furthermore, the treated fibers were reinforced individually into vinyl ester (VE) matrix and manufactured respective composites, namely, VE_TKF, VE_TWF, and VE_TSF. The experimental results concluded that the BFL-treated fiber effectively improved the flame resistance (30% reduction in peak heat release rate) of VE composites. The findings of this study can be used to introduce flame retardancy in natural fibers to enable their use in the present and next-generation engineering applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T06:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221079273
       
  • Synergistic effect of screen-printed Al(OH)3 nanoparticles and
           phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils on the thermophysiological comfort
           and high-intensive heat protection properties of flame-retardant fabric

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      Authors: Tjaša Kolar, Jelka Geršak, Nataša Knez, Vanja Kokol
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Al(OH)3 nanoparticles (ATH NPs) and phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils (PCNFs) were used as user-friendly and comfortable coating components on flame-retardant fabric to improve its thermophysiological comfort and high-intensive heat protection properties. The effect of the PCNF imprinting and its attachment after the post-printing of a hydrophobic polyacrylate (AP) on the same (back side) or the other (front) side of the fabric, with and without the addition of ATH NPs, was considered, to maintain the front side (facing the wearer) as hydrophilic while keeping the back side (facing the outside) hydrophobic. The amount of coatings applied and their patterning were studied, varied with the ATH NPs’ concentration (1.7, 3.3 and 6.7 wt%) and screen mesh size used (60 and 135), based on the coating’ mass, fabric’s air permeability, thickness and microstructure. The reduced moisture build-up (55%), increased the water vapour (13%) and heat (12%) transfer from the skin, were assessed by applying PCNF under the AP, being more pronounced in the case of using a 135 mesh-sized screen, given the smaller, more densely distributed, thinner and imprinted pattern coatings. These effects were further improved by the addition of nanoporous ATH NPs, which allowed more homogeneous spreading of the moisture and its faster transport. Such a treatment also shifted the fabric’s degradation temperature towards higher values (up to 15°C), retained up to 30% of high-heat flux (21 kW/m2), prolonged the time to ignition by 11 s and reduced the total heat released by up to 60%, thereby providing better protection when exposed to the heat, due to the presence of the phosphorous (PCNF) promoted generation of an Al2O3 char acting as a barrier layer, while also reducing the production of heat and generation of smoke by 75%.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T06:19:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082323
       
  • Extraction of cellulose nanofirbils from Ficus natalensis barkcloth and
           utilization in preparation of antimicrobial bio-nanocomposite films for
           possible food packaging applications

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      Authors: Amjad Farooq, Mohammed K Patoary, Azmat Hussain, Syed Rashedul Islam, Lifang Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, nanosized cellulose materials preparation has been extensively increased from the sources of sustainable materials and utilization in various functional applications as nanofillers. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) extraction through green bio-based materials featured as promising interest in the field of science. In this research, cellulose nanofibrils were extracted from a cellulose rich biomass Ficus natalensis barkcloth. Furthermore, extracted cellulose nanofibrils and Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were mixed and casted to posterior analysis of formed sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) film at various concentrations of CNF (1 wt%, 5 wt%, 8 wt%, and 12 wt%) and fixed amount of ZnONPs (0.5wt%) based on CMC weight. Results revealed that CNF was smoothly distributed in the polymer matrix to form even and flexible films indicating the cellulose nanofibrils and zinc oxide are highly compatible with the CMC. Similarly, the water solubility percentage (WVP) of CMC film was low at lower content of CNF, and increased with the increase of CNF percentage. Addition of CNF and ZnONPs in nanocomposite films improved the thermal stability values and antibacterial activities of CMC films. Thus on the basis of various tremendous performance, this study showed that F.natalensis barkcloth could be considered as an alternative source of cellulose nanofibrils. Similarly, the prepared nanocomposite films can have potential application in packaging films for the extension of shelf life of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T12:33:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082036
       
  • Enhancement of mechanical and dynamic mechanical thermal characteristics
           of woven glass fabric–reinforced multi-nanoparticle–filled toughened
           epoxy composites

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      Authors: Balu Maloth, N V Srinivasulu, R Rajendra
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, high-performance nanocomposite materials emerge as an alternative to traditional materials owing to their impressive mechanical properties and lightweight characteristics. However, enhancements on various characteristics of this type of material were still under investigation for numerous novel structural applications. The current research study has highlighted the effect of various nanofillers incorporation in glass fabric–reinforced toughened epoxy composite on the enhancement of mechanical and dynamic mechanical characteristics. Two different nanosized filler particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) were selected for applications of higher strength. The composite laminates were fabricated by using the vacuum bagging method, and curing processes were performed at room temperature. The test outcomes revealed that better tensile strength and maximum flexural strength were perceived with the S4 composite sample (Al2O3 + TiO2 nanofillers). It has been observed that the existence of both Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofillers enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The overall result of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis indicated that the inclusion of multi-nanoparticle fillers in the toughened epoxy composite showed better results than the traditional composite. The maximum tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, and micro-hardness of Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofiller-infused epoxy composites (S4) were 101 MPa, 5.68 MPa, 19.7 Mpa, and 46 Hv.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T11:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221086039
       
  • Omniphobic polyurethane – superabsorbent polymer – fluoropolymer
           surface coating on cotton fabric for chemical protection and thermal
           comfort

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      Authors: M A Rahman Bhuiyan, Lijing Wang, Zinia Anjuman Ara, Tanushree Saha, Xin Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This research aims to develop chemical protective clothing via a functionalised surface coating on cotton fabric for simultaneous barrier performance and thermal comfort. An omniphobic protective layer on the cotton fabric was developed through a polyurethane – superabsorbent polymer – fluoropolymer coating to protect the penetration of water, oils and liquid chemicals. It was found that the padding of coated specimens with fluoropolymer provided a substantial improvement of hydrophobicity, and therefore, exhibited a high-water contact angle (114.06°) and a maximum water repellency rating of 100. The highest aqueous liquid repellency (8.0) and satisfactory oil repellency (7.5) with resistance against liquid chemical penetration were also achieved after the treatment with fluoropolymer. Moreover, the coated fabrics integrated with superabsorbent polymer showed an improved dry heat resistance and moisture vapour transmittance, consequently a high evaporative cooling index to create a favourable thermal comfort between the skin and the apparel in hot and humid conditions. Other comfort parameters, including air permeability and moisture management performance were compromised to a certain level due to a continuous and hydrophobic barrier layer on the fabric surface that hindered the transferring of air and liquid sweat through the coating.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T08:46:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221078535
       
  • Nanofibers from hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin/pantothenic acid
           supramolecular complexes: Physicochemical characterization and potential
           biomedical applications

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      Authors: Sonaimuthu Mohandoss, Subramanian Palanisamy, SangGuan You, Manoharan Vinosha, Periyannan Rajasekar, Kuppu Sakthi Velu, Yong Rok Lee, Narayanasamy Marimuthu Prabhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The electrospinning of nanofibers (NFs) from 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin supramolecular inclusion complexes (150% HPβ-CD, w/v) with vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid [PA]) was achieved without using any carrier polymeric matrix. The presence of PA and the formation of the HPβ-CD/PA inclusion complex within the NFs structure were confirmed by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and TGA analysis. SEM images depicted the bead-free uniform NFs and confirmed the incorporation of HPβ-CD/PA NFs did not alter the fiber morphology having an average fiber diameter of 512 ± 24 nm, 328 ± 18 nm, and 150 ± 19 nm, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum indicated inclusion complex from the shifting of the peaks of each component in HPβ-CD/PA NFs, whereas XRD pattern revealed that HPβ-CD/PA NFs was achieved due to the formation of a new amorphous structure. TGA studies showed that the stability of PA after HPβ-CD encapsulation was improved. Molecular docking was used to simulate the positions and interactions of the binding sites of the HPβ-CD/PA inclusion complex. The phase solubility test showed enhanced solubility of PA due to the inclusion complexation; in addition, the stoichiometry of HPβ-CD/PA was determined to be 1:1. The release of PA from HPβ-CD/PA NFs prevented the colonization of Escherichia coli (5.0 ± 0.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.0 ± 0.5%) bacteria to a great extent, as observed in the antibacterial activity results. The cell viability of HCT-116 cells treated with 100 μg/mL of HPβ-CD/PA NFs was registered at 97.5 ± 2.1%. It was observed that HPβ-CD/PA NFs had higher anticancer activity compared to pure PA and HPβ-CD due to the solubility increase. In brief, our results suggested that polymer-free HPβ-CD/PA inclusion complex NFs could have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare thanks to its efficient antibacterial and anticancer activities.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T05:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082032
       
  • An experimental and theoretical investigation into the effect of braiding
           angle and combination on a tensile modulus of the tubular biaxial hybrid
           braids

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      Authors: Ghazal Ghamkhar, Majid Safar Johari, Hossein Hosseini Toudeshky
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the numerous and growing programs and applications of braid structures, understanding and predicting the mechanical behaviors of these structures is essential for engineers. In this paper, 12 tubular biaxial hybrid braids with different combinations and braiding angles were produced. They are made of two different yarns that one of them is a high-performance yarn and the other is an ordinary yarn. The tensile modulus as a mechanical property of a braided structure was compared in the different braiding angles and hybridization under the uniaxial tensile test. In addition to the experimental and statistical study presented in this research, a theoretical equation was also proposed to predict the tensile modulus of biaxial hybrid braided structures. The theoretical and experimental values are close. Also, statistical analysis of the proposed model showed the same results as statistical analysis of experimental results. So, it seems that the modified equation can be valuable and helpful. Also, several peaks in the second part of the load-extension diagram of hybrid braid observed that by increasing the amount of yarn with higher tensile properties in the hybrid braid structure, the number of peaks decreases. This is due to the fundamental difference in the type of yarn used in the production of hybrid braids. It could be said that this research may be a good start for future research on braid structures as advanced engineering materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221088185
       
  • Delamination and surface roughness analysis of jute/polyester composites
           using response surface methodology: Consequence of sodium bicarbonate
           treatment

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      Authors: P Ravikumar, G Rajeshkumar, P Manimegalai, K R Sumesh, M R Sanjay, Suchart Siengchin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research work explores the consequence of eco-friendly sodium bicarbonate treatment on drilling behavior of jute fiber reinforced polyester composites. The fiber surface treatment was done by immersing the jute fibers in sodium bicarbonate solution (10 wt.%) for five days at room temperature. The raw and treated jute fiber composites were produced through compression molding process. The drilling behavior was expressed in terms of delamination factor (at entry and exit) and surface finish. The response surface methodology coupled with three factors—three levels Box–Behnken Design was used to study the interactive effects of process variables (drill diameter, feed, and cutting speed) on delamination factor and surface finish. Furthermore, the significance of the developed model was examined through analysis of variance. The chip morphology of the fabricated composites was examined to assess the quality of the drilled hole. The fractography analysis of the machined surface has also been carried using scanning electron microscopy. The outcomes revealed that the sodium bicarbonate treatment of jute fiber improved the machinability of the composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T06:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077040
       
  • Performance analysis of socks produced by auxetic yarns for protective
           applications

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      Authors: Rida Khalid, Hafsa Jamshaid, Rajesh Mishra, Pibo Ma, Guocheng Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present work reports application of auxetic yarns in development of abrasion resistant socks which can be used for better serviceability without shoes even on rough surfaces. Socks used in the current research were produced by using helical auxetic yarns which consist of different combinations of high performance and conventional materials e.g. Kevlar P-AR (para-aramid), cotton, elastomeric yarn, polyamide (PA6) and polyester with same linear density of 74 Tex. Three different types of fabrics were produced e.g. flat knit, sandwich half terry short and sandwich half terry long. For investigating the auxeticity, all samples were subjected to tensile loading and the resulting change in their thickness was measured. Abrasion resistance and other comfort related properties e.g. air permeability, vertical wicking and absorbency were also evaluated. The influence of different yarn combinations, twist levels and fabric types on abrasion resistance and breathability of socks were investigated by using fractional (half) factorial design. Statistical analysis was performed for the obtained results by using analysis of variance. Conventional socks samples were also produced in all fabric types for comparison with the auxetic materials. From the results it was concluded that the overall abrasion resistance of auxetic yarn-based sock is higher than conventional cotton sock. Results also revealed that abrasion resistance was increased by 46% in flat knit socks sample, 50% in sandwich half terry short sample and 58% in sandwich half terry long sample as compared to conventional cotton sock. In addition to this all the socks samples exhibited good comfort/breathability properties.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T10:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082544
       
  • Effect of shear stiffening gel rheology on its Kevlar fabric reinforced
           composite under low-velocity impact

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      Authors: Feng Zhao, Heng Chen, Han Gu, Qian Jiang, Zhenqian Lu, Liwei Wu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Shear stiffening gel (SSG) with significant shear stiffening effect overcomes the problems of fluid volatilization and particle deposition, and exhibits a wide range of application prospects in intelligent protection. In this work, SSG with different rheological properties were manufactured by mechanical blending and crosslinking and coated on Kevlar fabric. The dynamic rheological properties of SSG and the low-velocity impact resistance of Kevlar/SSG composites were investigated, and the coupling mechanism between SSG and Kevlar fabric was analyzed. The results reveal that the storage modulus of SSG increases by 3–6 orders of magnitude when shear frequency ranges from 0.1 to 100 Hz, and the highest storage modulus reached 2.53 MPa. The impact deformation of the composite is reduced after SSG stiffening, and the infiltration of SSG inside the fabric also prevents fibers pull-out during the impact process. By synergizing the performance of SSG and Kevlar fabric, the optimal single-layer T280 composite can absorb up to 70.21% of the impact energy, reaching the energy absorption efficiency of 0.5 J/g. The process optimization and rheological design provide a theoretical foundation to further enhance the impact resistance performance.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T10:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221088184
       
  • Properties of Bi2O3/epoxy resin–coated composites for protection
           against gamma rays

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      Authors: Weibin Li, Min Peng, Xiaoming Zhao, Shuai Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as the main functional powder, lead (Pb) and tantalum (Ta) as the metal additives, epoxy resin as the matrix and polyester–cotton blended woven fabric as the substrate, Bi2O3 coating nuclear radiation protection composite, Bi2O3/Pb coating nuclear radiation protection composite, and Bi2O3/Ta coating nuclear radiation protection composite with different process parameters were prepared. The cross-section scanning analysis and the influence factor analysis of γ-ray protection performance were carried out, and the mechanical properties of the composites were discussed. The results show that an increase in Bi2O3 content (mass fraction) and an increase in coating thickness can improve the shielding rate of the composite materials to γ-rays. When the thickness of the coating is 1.6 mm and the content of Bi2O3 is 50%, the shielding rate of the composite to γ-rays (at 59.5 keV) reaches 46.1%. The shielding rate of the composite can be increased by adding appropriate metal additives, and the effect of adding Ta is better than that of Pb. The shielding rate of the composite to γ-rays (59.5 keV) can be increased from 28.4% to 31.5% by adding 5% Ta. An increase in Bi2O3 content (mass fraction) and an increase in the coating thickness can aggravate the agglomeration of functional particles in the material. The addition of metal additives can reduce agglomeration to a certain extent. Bi2O3 content, coating thickness, and metal additives all have an effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. If the coating is too thick or the functional particle content is too high, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite will be reduced.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T06:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211051102
       
  • Fuzzy logic model expansion and optimization for predicting polyester
           cut-pile carpet thickness-loss

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      Authors: Masoud Javidpanah, Saeed S Najar, Mansour Dayiary, Reza Tavana, Mehdi Varsei
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Thickness-loss is the most common problem in carpet after static and dynamic loading. Pile yarn properties as well as carpet structural parameters are mainly responsible for carpet thickness-loss. In the present research, an advanced version of recently developed fuzzy logic model is introduced. The model is able to predict thickness-loss of polyester carpets based on carpet pile density, pile height, and pile yarn count. Experimental work was performed to provide data for model knowledge base. Genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the fuzzy logic model parameters. Finally, lowest possible thickness-loss value together with corresponding values of carpet and pile yarn parameters bring this result was defined, using developed model. Modeling results showed that the model attained correlation coefficients as 0.9932, 0.9911, 0.9950, and 0.9957 between predicted and experimental values of carpet thickness-loss after low and high dynamic loading and static loading with short and long relaxation times, respectively. On the other hand, model predictions in four new unsighted conditions have brought correlation coefficients as 0.82, 0.89, 0.88, and 0.90 for low and high dynamic loading and static loading after short and long relaxation times, respectively. These results denote acceptable reliability of new developed model. Eventually, it is defined that levels of 850, 7.5, and 957.5 for carpet pile density, pile height, and pile yarn linear density, respectively, bring minimum carpet thickness-loss.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T01:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211070612
       
  • The effect of the electrospinning setup on the surface energy of
           polycaprolactone nanofibre layers

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      Authors: Radek Jirkovec, Jakub Erben, Alzbeta Samkova, Jiri Chaloupek, Jiri Chvojka
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The study addresses changes in the surface energy of polycaprolactone nanofibre layers due to the different spinning electrodes. The value of surface energy and the associated wettability is an important aspect of polymeric biomaterials that influence the quality of interaction with biological material. The study involved the production of nanofibre layers by means of both needle and needleless electrospinning. The surface energy of the produced layers was determined via the contact angle measurement method. The experiment revealed that the spinning electrode exerts a significant effect on the resulting surface energy and, thus, on the wetting of the nanofibre layers. It was discovered during the measurement process, that the fibre layers produced via the needle electrospinning method evinced a low surface energy and are non-wettable/hydrophobic. In contrast, needleless electrospinning fibre layers evince a high surface energy and are wettable/hydrophilic.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T10:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221086894
       
  • Damage and failure mechanisms of biaxial weft-knitted reinforced
           composites via meso-scale finite element modeling

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      Authors: Li Yan, Xin Wang, Haonian Wu, Ping Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A meso-scale finite element model based on progressive damage was proposed to capture the failure and damage mechanisms of biaxial weft-knitted (BWK) composites. For this purpose, a suitable representative volume element of a BWK composite material was modeled. Then, appropriate boundary conditions were applied to simulate the uniaxial tensile test in the course and wale directions. Damage and failure mechanisms were predicted by developing a VUMAT user material subroutine based on the 3D Hashin criterion. To verify the numerical results, a comparison was made with the experimental data of Hessami et al. It was found that the failure mechanisms of BWK composite are determined by the geometrical parameters of the BWK fabric. Based on the numerical assessments, some recommendations were made to fully exploit the potential of BWK composites as load-bearing structures. The numerical results provided new insights into the effect of the geometric parameters of BWK preforms on the composite failure mechanisms.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T10:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211044167
       
  • Mechanical and in-vitro studies of biodegradable chitosan/cissus
           

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      Authors: Senthilkumar B, Sonia K, Mahesh G
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this investigation, the mechanical and In Vitro studies of chitosan/cissus quadrangularis (CHCQ) coated braided flax sutures are carried out to explore their application towards repairing the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). The 5% (w/w of suture) mixture of Chitosan (CH) and quadrangularis extract (CQ) was applied on the braided suture. Chitosan (CH) and quadrangularis (CQ) mixtures were prepared in different weight ratios such as 4:1 (CHCQ41), 3:2 (CHCQ32), 1:1 (CHCQ11), and 2:3 (CHCQ23) for experimental work. These mixtures were coated on the suture using the pad-batch technique. GC-MS analysis found that cissus quadrangularis extract containing Caffeine and Phytol with the ratio of 3.20% and 15.98%. These petrochemicals are essential for muscle relaxation, pain reliever, and strengthening the immune system. Through Scanning electron microscopy analysis, It was found that with the incorporation of chitosan polymer, the surface fibrils in the suture are wrapped into the core and shown as an effective biocomposite suture. Most of the samples have displayed ultimate tensile stress between 2846 N to 2865 N, which is higher than the human ACL. The Stiffness of the suture samples varied from 437 to 471 N/mm, and the elongation of the suture samples was between the range of 34%–36%. Similarly, the knot pull strength of the suture samples varied from 241 to 243 Mpa. CHCQ11&CHCQ23 has shown maximum functional performance among the different suture samples due to higher Cissus quadrangularis proportion. MTT on cell viability assay sample CHCQ11&CHCQ23 have shown higher cell growth and proliferation by identifying its optical density value after the fifth day was 0.63 and 0.65. Similarly, the hemolytic percent is also higher for CHCQ11&CHCQ23 with 0.7 and 0.8 Hg%.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T01:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221082031
       
  • Development of scheme to evaluate the performance of parachute canopy
           fabrics under tensile impact

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      Authors: Gyana R Behera, Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay, Monica Sikka
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present research is an extension of the earlier work wherein a wider scheme of small-scale tensile impact testing is proposed, to characterise the whole parachute canopy instead of full-scale wind tunnel testing. The drop height for equivalent tensile impact on the rectangular stitched specimens is chosen as 300 mm, and accordingly, the dimension (Length × Width) has been decided (300 mm × 100 mm). To evaluate the performance of stitched specimen (at 45° bias angle), ungripped width of 20 mm on both sides of the specimen has been worked out. In the work, the actual payload responsible for parachute inflation has been addressed for the calculation of the exact opening shock force. Subsequently, to apply impact load on the specimen, dead weights are predicted based on the different levels of opening shock forces of the C-9 parachute canopy under different aerodynamic conditions. Considering a specific case, the behaviour of the ripstop and plain-woven fabric sample in terms of load versus extension curve and work done at the time of impact have been analysed under different loads using a high-speed digital camera. This study revealed that the plain-woven fabric is to be preferred for human dropping because it has a higher extension and higher impact duration than ripstop fabric. As a result, the plain-woven fabric will produce a lower impact or shock force in the parachute canopy which is to be transferred to the skydiver. On the other hand, ripstop fabric possesses higher strength, therefore can be preferred for materials dropping.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T02:30:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221080103
       
  • A fully textile-based skin pH sensor

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      Authors: Min-Young Choi, Minji Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Sooyoung Kim, Jonghoon Choi, Ju-Hee So, Hyung-Jun Koo
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a textile-based pH sensor with high flexibility fabricated by printing a polymer composite as a working electrode and Ag/AgCl/solid electrolyte as a reference electrode on a textile substrate. The textile working electrode is composed of polyaniline, carbon nanotubes, and agarose printed on the textile. A thermoplastic polyurethane overlayer hot-pressed on the textile substrates provides a smooth hydrophobic surface, enabling a more stable formation of the composite films with a reliable output signal. The textile reference electrode is fabricated by printing Ag/AgCl paste and solid electrolyte. The fully textile-based pH sensor, by integrating the textile working and reference electrodes, exhibits a good sensitivity of 45.9 mV/pH with high linearity. The textile pH sensor maintains excellent performance and repeatability with 93% retention even in a bent state and after 1000 bending cycles. Finally, it is demonstrated that the textile pH sensor can detect the pH change on a piece of porcine skin.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T11:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073361
       
  • Effect of the cover factor on the tensile properties of multi-core
           flax/polypropylene micro-braided hybrid yarns for thermoplastic
           biocomposites

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      Authors: Wenqian Zhai, Peng Wang, Damien Soulat, Xavier Legrand
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      With the growing popularity of hybrid yarn techniques, the micro-braided yarn is becoming a good choice as one kind of intermediate materials for thermoplastic biocomposites, by presenting favorable morphology during the preform process and lowering the resin flow distance during the thermo-compression process. In this article, different flax/polypropylene (PP) based multi-core micro-braided hybrid yarns with the similar total number of flax core fibers were manufactured, by varying the parameters: multi-core configuration and braiding angle; both dry-and thermo- states tensile tests on yarns were carried out, since it is necessary to simulate the deforming behavior of a single hybrid yarn during the thermoforming process. The objective is to determine the cover factor especially for multi-core micro-braided yarn as a comprehensive textile indicator; and to study the influence of the cover factor parameters on mechanical tensile properties at the yarn scale. It has been observed that the cover factor parameters contributed the braider effect (friction and compression) on flax cores in the dry-state and lubricant effect (distribution and viscosity) in the thermo-state; further influenced the characterizations. Increasing multi-core configuration and braiding angle can both increase the tensile strength; larger cover factor results in greater tensile stiffness both in dry-and thermo-states.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T06:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073756
       
  • Fabrication and evaluation of aramid fiber/polytetrafluoroethylene
           emulsion/tourmaline particle composite filter media: Filtration
           performance, thermal behavior, and mechanical property

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      Authors: Chao Lv, Jiao Cheng, Ruiqing Shen, Shu Zhang, Rui Shu, Guodong Li, Jingxian Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      An electrostatically enhanced aramid fiber/polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion/tourmaline particle (AF/PTFE/TM) composite filter media was successfully designed and fabricated by impregnation technology, especially for harsh industrial environment with high temperature. The AF/PTFE/TM composite filter media exhibited the optimum quality factor when the concentration of PTFE emulsion was 10% and the content of TM particles was 12.5 g/cm2. The collection efficiency, pressure drop characteristic, thermal decomposition behavior and kinetics, and tensile strength in machine and cross directions of the composite filter media have been systematically evaluated. Benefiting from the pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity of TM particles, the composite filter media has better collection efficiency with the increase of incoming air temperature. With the increase of flow velocity, the decrease of collection efficiency is smaller than the filter media without TM particles. Meanwhile, the pressure drop across the composite filter media is a little higher than that across the raw filter media. Additionally, it was found PTFE emulsion coating can improve the thermal stability and tensile strength of the composite filter media. TM particles have no negative impact on the thermal behavior of the composite filter media, but slightly attenuates the enhancement in tensile strength. This study provides new insight into the application of TM particles as well as other pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials in industrial filtration.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T02:35:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221074066
       
  • Study on high velocity impact response of aramid fibers-epoxy/aluminum
           laminate composites toughened by ZrO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles

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      Authors: Mohammad Hossein Abedi, Reza Eslami-Farsani
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigates the improvement in high-velocity impact response of fiber metal laminates through modification of epoxy using different percentages (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt.%) of SiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles. To ensure a good distribution of nanoparticles into epoxy resin, the nanoparticles were dispersed by a high-speed shear mixer followed by an ultrasonic device. By using the hand lay-up technique followed by a mold pressing process, FML samples were made of 2024-T3 aluminum sheets (0.5 mm thick) and woven Kevlar fabric impregnated with modified epoxy. The high-velocity impact test on FML samples was conducted to determine the influence of epoxy modification on their specific energy absorption. The study revealed that the modification of epoxy increased the specific energy absorption up to 130% and 91% at samples with 3 wt.% of SiO2 and 5 wt.% of ZrO2, respectively. It was also observed from scanning electron microscopy analysis that incorporation of ceramic nanoparticles changed the delamination failure mechanism of matrix cracking to fiber breakage. Furthermore, finite element simulation (FES) was additionally conducted with Abaqus to predict the residual velocity and model impact response. The simulation results agree well with experimental data.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T10:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211060888
       
  • Preparation, structure and application of styrene-acrylic
           emulsion/modified ammonium polyphosphate in flame retardant air filter
           paper

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      Authors: Yan Jun, Yang Jin, Sun Lele, Xu Guilong, Li Zhaohui
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The filter paper of automobile engine air filter is easy to temper and causes combustion. Flame retardant is usually added to the reinforced resin styrene-acrylic emulsion (SAE) to improve the flame-retardant performance of the air filter paper. Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was used as material in this research, and multi-layer coated APP was prepared by microcapsule coating. A layer of nano-scale SiO2 was coated and then introduced organosiloxane structure of the allyl polyoxypropylene ether side chain and boron. The chemical groups and structural composition were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TGA characterized the modified particles' high-temperature stability. By scanning electron microscopy and TEM, the morphologies of modified particles were analyzed to reveal the evolution of modified APP in SAE. Finally, nanoparticles with core-shell structures were formed. Applying the blended resin to the air filter paper, the flame-retardant performance was greatly improved. Total heat release (THR), heat release rate (HRR), peak heat release rate (pkHRR), mass loss rate (MLR), and effective heat of combustion (EHC) were reduced, respectively, by 30.8%, 30.7%, 42.0%, 16.7%, and 14.4%. The time to ignition (TTI) was doubled, so the fire spread could be effectively suppressed. Meanwhile, nano latex particles were attached to the interwoven fibers points and formed a “sea-island structure,” which significantly improved the paper’s mechanical properties, with bursting strength, tensile strength, stiffness, fracture work, and elongation increased by 18.60%, 5.72%, 10.64%, 17.00%, and 81.80%, respectively. It solved the problem that the inorganic flame-retardant particles often lead to the deterioration of the mechanical properties of paper.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T09:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211066629
       
  • Memory behaviour of polyester knitted fabric integrated with
           temperature-responsive shape memory polymer filament

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      Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Jayashree Mohanty, Hema Garg, Bipin Kumar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The present article highlights a novel approach towards investigating the memory behaviour of shape memory filaments integrated into a knitted textile structure. This study is the first step to investigate the interaction behaviour of such smart materials within textile structures. This integration can further open vast possibilities in designing smart textiles with unique functionalities such as sensing and actuating. A shape memory fabric (SMF) was successfully knitted using shape memory filament and polyester yarn. A systematic investigation is carried out to quantify the memory behaviour of SMF by thermo-mechanical tensile test. The experimental results reveal excellent shape recovery (Rr) (>90%) and good shape fixity (Rf) (∼80%) at strains of 20% and 60%, and temperatures of 30°C and 50°C. Memory filament behaves differently in a fabric structure compared to its pristine state at different temperatures and strains, as confirmed by experimental results. Under various thermo-mechanical conditions, the cyclic test of SMF revealed almost complete Rr with an improvement in Rf.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T06:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073752
       
  • Flutter performance of shape memory alloy-embedded 3D woven flexible
           composite plate under subsonic flow

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      Authors: Danish M Baitab, Dayang L Majid, Ermira J Abdullah, Mohd Faisal A Hamid, Leong S Jang, Ishan Mitra Halder
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, 3D composites have gained prominence over 2D composites due to their remarkable through-the-thickness reinforcement that enhanced performances of structures subject to multi-directional stress conditions. However, it is at the expense of reduced in-plane properties. 3D composites also increased damage tolerance due to their high impact and delamination resistance properties, which are susceptible in 2D composites. In aeronautics, both are major concerns in primary structures such as lifting and control surfaces due to high vibrational loads from the airflow. Advancements in the aeroelasticity of aircraft structures show an increasing trend in using smart materials with composite structures for improved aeroelastic performance. An example is combining shape memory alloys (SMAs) with composites for improving damping, stiffness, and vibrational characteristics by utilizing stress generation and strain accommodation properties of SMAs in response to temperature and load, respectively. Published works are mostly numerical in nature, and experimental research is noticeably lacking as aeroelasticity is multidisciplinary and involves both structural and aerodynamic methodology. In this work, 3D composites with embedded SMA wires (for improved in-plane properties) are evaluated in terms of flutter performance in wind tunnel flutter testing under low airspeed conditions. Three 3D orthogonal interlock configurations with a different interlocking pattern of yarns with SMA wire were considered. These 3D configurations are layer-to-layer (L2L), through-the-thickness (TT), and a modified interlock (MF) structure that provides the strongest grip to SMA wire than L2L and TT. The effect of SMA positioning, at mid and near to trailing and leading edges of the cantilevered composite plate, on the aeroelastic flutter properties is also investigated. Results showed that activating SMA wires embedded in 3D structures have significantly improved post-flutter properties while there is a decrement in flutter speed and flutter frequency due to increased flexibility of deflected plate in the airflow by SMA-induced stresses. Among 3D structures, L2L with SMA near to trailing edge showed significant improvement in post-flutter properties by decreasing 22.2% in twist limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude while L2L with SMA at mid showed a decrement of 9.5% for bending LCO amplitude. Hence, this work showed that embedding SMA is beneficial for mitigating the post-flutter vibrations but at the consequence of reduced flutter speed and frequency of flexible composite plate.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T11:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077043
       
  • Evaluation of the geometrical parameters of collector mesh on the fog
           collection efficiency

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      Authors: Atieh Almasi Zefrehei, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh, Ahmad Reza Pishevar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Fog collectors have gained increasing attention as an efficient solution to overcome the water scarcity concerns in arid and semiarid environments. Besides the rapid advances made in various collector designs, the role of geometrical characteristics of the fog collector meshes is not fully understood. Therefore, the main objective of the present research is to address this issue and investigate the effects of textile features on the efficiency of conventional meshes which has not been discussed in previous works. The collection efficiencies of various conventional structures (plain-woven, plain-knitted, and 3-D spacer) with different characteristics (fiber diameter, fiber spacing, fiber arrangement, shading coefficient, and test direction) were investigated using a custom-made fog collecting device. The weight of collected water over time and the onset time were measured to assess the performance of different samples. Moreover, a simple simulation of a plain-woven structure was developed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform further analysis. The results revealed that in the woven structure, the collection efficiency was improved by changing the shading coefficient to an optimum value and simultaneous decreasing fiber diameter. In the spacer fabrics, the position and arrangement of the spacer fibers posed considerable effects on the collection efficiency. 3-D spacer meshes showed highest value of collection efficiencies and onset time in comparison to the other examined meshes. The results of simulation of woven structures were also validated by comparing computed and measured collection efficiencies.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T11:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221074067
       
  • Pathological examination of blended and co-electrospinning hybrid
           polycaprolactone/polyurethane nanofibers for soft tissue engineering
           applications

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      Authors: Gholamhosein Kazemzadeh, Nafiseh Jirofti, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Farkhonde Sarhaddi, Reza Taheri
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of soft tissue engineering (STE) is to improve the quality of life by replacing damaged tissues with synthetic scaffolds. Collagen is the key structural protein of the native extracellular matrix with nano-scale diameter. Accordingly, this study focused on the fabrication of the blended and co-electrospinning hybrid synthetic polycaprolactone/polyurethane (PCL/PU) nanofibers scaffolds and investigates their in-vivo biocompatibility for the development of their clinical applications in STE. The body reactions were evaluated by examination of the edema, foreign body granulomatous reaction, granulation tissue formation, inflammation, calcification, fibroblastic change, and necrosis as the most important healing effects in pathology examination. The blended and co-electrospinning PCL/PU structures were successfully carried out in the nano-scale range without any beads. According to the histopathological examination of PCL, the scant, mild and mild to moderate, and acute and chronic have been reported for edema, foreign body granulomatous reaction, and inflammation, respectively. Also, severe (for edema), moderate (for foreign body granulomatous reaction), and mild to moderate chronic (for inflammation) were observed for PU. In blended PCL/PU nanofibers, decreasing of the edema and foreign body granulomatous reaction and increasing of the granulation tissue formation and inflammation were observed with the increasing composite ratio of PCL from 25 to 75%. Also in the co-electrospinning hybrid PCL/PU nanofibers, increasing edema, granulation tissue formation, and inflammation were observed by increasing the composite ratio of PU from 25 to 75%. Present study suggested that blended hybrid PCL75/PU25 nanofibers are a promising candidate as synthetic nanofibers scaffolds for STE applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T09:34:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221074070
       
  • Mechanical performance of flame retardant and antibacterial
           glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composites for furniture applications

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      Authors: Sohaib Arif, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Umair
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Generally, carbon and glass fibers based composites are used in high-tech end products, but these are not preferred in indoor, outdoor and hygienic furniture applications due to microorganisms attack and prone to fire. In the first section of the research, different percentages (5%, 10%, and 15%) of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) particles were added in epoxy resin and corresponding glass/epoxy composites were fabricated to enhance their flame retardancy (FR) and mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, Charpy impact, and short beam shear). In the second section, different percentages (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were mixed in the epoxy resin and corresponding glass/epoxy composites were fabricated to optimize their antibacterial activity and mechanical performance. 15% concentration of ZrP particles exhibited the maximum flame retardancy and mechanical performance in composites, and 1.5% concentration of ZnO particles exhibited the highest antibacterial activity along with improved mechanical performance. In the third section, two (02) pure glass and carbon, and two (02) glass-carbon/carbon-glass hybrid composites were made with optimized concentrations of both ZrP and ZnO particles. Carbon/epoxy (H2) composite showed the highest mechanical properties in comparison with glass and hybrid composites due to the presence of four layers of carbon reinforcement. These functional hybrid composite-based furniture products can be used in indoor, hygienic (hospitals, schools, and offices), and outdoor furniture applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T02:57:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221080185
       
  • Thermophysiological properties of bovine leather in dependence on the
           sampling point, tanning and finishing agents

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      Authors: Dragana Kopitar, Franka Zuvela Bosnjak, Jadranka Akalovic, Zenun Skenderi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The influence of differently tanned and finished bovine leather on thermophysiological properties was investigated. In addition, it was investigated whether sampling has a significant influence on the thermophysiological properties. The back of the tested leathers is thicker than the neck because of better microstructure regularity and uniformity as well as thicker and denser distributed fibrils than in the neck parts. The neck parts have a greater proportion of air-filled spaces between the fibrils, resulting in a higher thermal resistance of the leather neck parts. Considering the thickness of synthetic and chrome-tanned leathers (dyed and hydrophobized), the thinner chrome-tanned leathers (0.063 W m−1 °C−1 for the neck part, 0.090 W m−1 °C−1 for the back part part) have almost the same thermal conductivity as synthetic ones (0.065 W m−1 °C−1 for the neck part, 0.089 W m−1 °C−1 for the back part). Their thermal and water vapour resistance show considerable differences. There is no significant difference in water vapour resistance of the neck and back part of chrome tanned, dyed and hydrophobized leather (25.27 m2 Pa W−1 for the neck part; 25.15 m2 Pa W−1 for the back part) in contrast to equally treated synthetically tanned leather (30.38 m2 Pa W−1 for the neck part; 26.96 m2 Pa W−1 for the back part).The presented study could help in choosing the appropriate point of sampling, tanning as well as finishing agents for obtaining satisfying thermophysiological comfort in the wide range of leather application.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T02:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077048
       
  • Efficient reinforcement of jute fiber/epoxy composite with
           Nanosilica@Graphene hybrid filler

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      Authors: Mahnaz Amirabadi-Zadeh, Hamed Khosravi, Esmaeil Tohidlou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This study is primarily focused on the fabrication of nanosilica-decorated graphene oxide (SiO2@GNs) and its role in improving the mechanical behavior of Jute fiber/epoxy laminates. To decorate the GNs surfaces with the silica nanoparticles, tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) was used, and the successful synthesis of the SiO2@GNs nanohybrid was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Further, the influence of adding 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% GNs or SiO2@GNs on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and dry-sliding wear behavior of the jute fiber/epoxy composites were explored. The specimens were fabricated using the hand lay-up route. Resultantly, the 3 wt.% SiO2@GNs/jute fiber/epoxy sample showed the highest ILSS and wear resistance. The addition of 3 wt.% SiO2@GNs improved the ILSS of the jute fiber/epoxy by 62%. Besides, reductions of 50% and 78% in the wear rate and coefficient of friction, respectively, were obtained for the sample enhanced with 3 wt.% SiO2@GNs. Interestingly, the mechanical properties of the composites were found to improve significantly through the SiO2-decoration of the GNs. Finally, to find the dominant mechanisms, the fractured and worn surfaces of the composites were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T07:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073357
       
  • Fabrication and thermal assessment of three-layer woven heating fabrics

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      Authors: Arash Nazem Boushehri, Nazanin Ezazshahabi, Mohammad Amani Tehran
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the particular physiological conditions of the human body, activity in cold weather condition is of great importance and needs unique thermal clothing. In this research, three-layered heating fabrics were designed and woven to analyze their performance in cold climates. The samples consist of three types of heating elements (nickel-chrome, tungsten, and aluminum-chrome) and two different states for embedding the heating elements in the fabric structure. In order to investigate the effect of voltage on the heat flux and maximum temperature, all specimens were subjected to two voltage levels of 9 and 12 V for 10 min, the process of heat production, the influence of structural factors on the flux and temperature and also the thermal efficiency was analyzed. In addition, in order to select the optimum sample, the amount of required energy for maintaining body comfort was calculated based on the theoretical equations at the ambient temperatures of −5 and −10°C. The results showed that the woven sample using tungsten elements and the weft-to-element ratio of 12 had the desirable heating performance and could maintain the skin surface temperature around the thermal comfort zone.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T07:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221079272
       
  • Novel spatially distributed heating carbon fabric and decoupling of
           interfacial electricity

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      Authors: Xinghua Hong, Lulu Zhong, Yubing Dong, Chengyan Zhu, Zimin Jin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Hybrid carbon fabrics consisted of three regions of full carbon, half carbon (vertical/horizontal), and non-carbon region were provided, which could realize spatially distributed heating and did not been previously reported. As a heating element, the carbon fabric exhibited high efficiency electro-thermal response, the equilibrium temperature of the full carbon region can reach 42°C within only 3 s at a low applied current of 0.2 A. In addition, the carbon fabric gives a significant resistance-temperature sensitivities of −0.303%/°C∼ −0.596%/°C. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model was established to decouple the interface electricity, including the specimen-electrode interfacial resistance (2Ri) of 7.4 Ω, and the contact resistance between orthogonal carbon fiber (Rii) of 6.4 Ω. This paper provides a simple method to prepare spatially distributed heating fabric and the decoupling method can provide a more suitable selection for the development and analysis of interfacial electricity for carbon fiber and fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T04:38:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221076028
       
  • Objective and subjective evaluation of various aspects of hand performance
           considering protective glove’s constructional parameters

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      Authors: Farzaneh Zare Bidoki, Nazanin Ezazshahabi, Fatemeh Mousazadegan, Masoud Latifi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Hands are one of the most vital parts of the body, and many tasks are carried out by hands. Particularly in industrial environments, hands may be exposed to various dangers and consequently injuries; thus protection of them is of great prominence. In this study, the effects of wearing a group of industrial protective gloves on hand performance, were investigated. The mentioned gloves varied in terms of material, thickness, and also the amount of layers. This research evaluates the effect of gloves’ constituent materials, including tarpaulin, leather, and protective layers such as neoprene and spacer, and a cotton nonwoven layer for added hand comfort, on hand performance. Objective and subjective experiments were performed for the assessment of pain threshold force, hand strength (dynamometers and gripping/lifting pipe test), tactile sensitivity (“two-point” discrimination method), and manual dexterity (bolt closure, valve opening, and wrist motion range tests) and an acceptable linear correlation was obtained between the objective and subjective (Thurston’s pair-comparison judgments) outcomes. The results showed that wearing gloves and increasing the number of gloves’ layers, improved the protective performance concerning the increased pain threshold tolerance. On the other hand, wearing multi-layer protective gloves decreased the gloved hand tactile sensitivity, strength capability, and also the range of finger and wrist motion as a measure of manual dexterity.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T02:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221080182
       
  • Correlation between glass fiber suspension characteristics and physical of
           glass fiber felt: Role of beating time and speed

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      Authors: Jian Hu, Junxiong Zhang, Ruonan Han, Yong Yang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      As the most significant process in papermaking technology, beating process changes parameters of fibers as aspect ratio, flocculation characteristics, and physical properties. In this paper, the correlation between glass fiber suspension characteristics and physical properties of glass fiber felts is explored. The influence of beating time and speed on the physical properties of glass fiber suspension and felts is studied. The results show that beating degree and viscosity of glass fiber suspension reduce by the increased beating time and speed, which finally stabilizes at around 11.0°SR and 200 mPas, respectively. The homogenization of suspension and the decrease of aspect ratio increase the drainage resistance and settlement index. It also finds that uniformity of glass fiber felt is improved by beating progress and tensile strength of glass fiber felt reduces with the increase of beating speed. However, dispersing process can improve tensile strength and increase by 81.5% at the dispersing speed of 500 r/min for 2 min.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-27T11:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221076575
       
  • Entropy-based Taguchi–Grey relational analysis for multi-output
           optimization of coating parameters in MoS2-coated sugar palm fiber and its
           characterization

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      Authors: Unnikrishnan Thekkeparambil Gopalaswamy, Panneerselvam Kavan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polymer composites using high-performance natural fibers have several practical uses in industry. The effect of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) coating on sugar palm fiber (SPF) is investigated in this study. The fiber surface is modified using the osmosis technique with different process parameters such as concentrations of MoS2, temperature, and time. The multi-output optimization (MOO) method is used to study the influence of the coating parameter on tensile strength and coating density. The chemical, morphological and thermal stability of the sample synthesized by optimum parameters are analyzed and compared with raw-sugar palm fiber (R-SPF). The processing time is the parameter that strongly influences the tensile strength and coating concentration. The Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) observations indicate the successfulness of MoS2 coating over the raw palm fiber surface. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the crystallinity index (CI) of the coated fiber has increased significantly compared to R-SPF. The MoS2 physisorption on the R-SPF surface is verified by Fourier’s transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results reveal that the thermal stability of modified-sugar palm fiber (M-SPF) increased significantly relative to the R-SPF. The hydrophobicity of the R-SPF was also significantly improved as a result of the coating. This method shows an excellent methodology for developing high-potential natural fiber to manufacture high-performance natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T12:50:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073754
       
  • Structure deformation characterizations of the warp-knitted metal mesh
           fabric with thermomechanical treatment

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      Authors: Ping Yang, Lingbin Zeng, Shiyao Zhang, Tong Yang, Haitao Lin, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, thermomechanical treatment is employed to eliminate the internal stress of the metal wire and the residual torque of the loop generated by knitting. Combined with materials science and textile science, it is found that the color of the warp-knitted metal mesh fabric becomes darker gradually with increase in the treatment temperature. During the annealing process, martensite grains grow before austenite due to poor thermal stability. The hardness and strength of the warp-knitted metal mesh fabric decrease slightly due to the unstable internal structure. Moreover, the loop deformation is small. Subsequently, the reverse transformation occurs at a certain annealing temperature and martensite gains transform into austenite grains. The original austenite grains have good thermal stability while remaining relatively stable. After exceeding a certain annealing temperature, it grows gradually with the increase of annealing temperature, forms a single austenite phase structure with a larger crystal grain size finally. As the number of applied springs increases, the force of the loop is uniform, the recrystallization of the metal wire proceeds fully. At this time, when the processing temperature is 800°C and the springs are fully utilized, the strength, hardness and loop deformation are maximized.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T08:51:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221075048
       
  • The responses of stitched ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene woven
           fabrics upon ballistic impact

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      Authors: Yi Zhou, Song Ding, Zhongwei Zhang, Ziming Xiong, Jiuxiao Sun, Xin Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the influence of thread stitching on the ballistic performance of plain weaves made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene multi-filament yarns. The inter-yarn friction is increased due to the constraint imparted by the sewing thread. The yarn pull-out test shows that the peak-load force of the sample with one stitching line is almost 10 times greater than that of the unstitched plain weave, and the maximum pull-out force increases with the loading rate. Ball-bearing impact tests are performed to characterize the ballistic performance of the stitched and the unstitched samples, and finite element simulation is used to study the underlying mechanisms of energy absorption. The ballistic penetration tests show that the stitched fabrics outperform the plain weave in terms of energy absorption. The most significant improvement in ballistic performance is observed in stitched panels where sample SL2T (a triple-ply plain fabric system stitched on every two yarns) exhibits a specific energy absorption over two times greater than that of multi-ply systems consisting of plain weaves. It is also found from the high-speed photography that thread stitching constrains the yarn displacement and therefore eliminates the possibility of yarn pull-out, enabling the primary yarns to be well-engaged with the projectile at low impact velocities and to be stretched to fail at high impact velocities. Numerical predictions show that thread stitching enlarges the area of stress distribution and widens the transverse deflection, making the stitched systems absorb more energy than the unstitched system shortly after impact.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T03:49:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221076031
       
  • Processing of waste carbon and polyamide fibers for high performance
           thermoplastic composites: A novel manufacturing technology for
           unidirectional tapes structure

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      Authors: Muhammad Furqan Khurshid, Mir Mohammad B Hasan, Anwar Abdkader, Chokri Cherif
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an innovative, eco-friendly and sustainable tape manufacturing technology that transforms waste carbon and polyamide fibers into a new class of fibrous structure with unidirectional fiber orientation, termed “unidirectional tapes structure” for the fabrication of high performance composites. This novel technology imparts homogeneity, uniformity, orientation and thermal stability in unidirectional tapes structure that resemble conventional prepreg material. Unidirectional configuration of the tapes structure brings a revolution towards development of cost efficient carbon fiber composites for load bearing structural applications. This paper introduces the concept of tape manufacturing technology and highlights the modifications, optimization, and technological developments carried out to develop unidirectional tapes. The structural parameters that play a significant role in the properties of the high performance composite, such as fiber length, fiber orientation, fiber damage, and uniformity, were assessed during tape manufacturing. The results reveal composites fabricated from unidirectional tape structures with optimum parameters deliver tensile strength and modulus of 1370 ± 22 MPa and 85 ± 4 GPa, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T11:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077705
       
  • On the possibility of using Ramie – A natural material in cost-effective
           low threat body armours

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      Authors: Subhajit Sen, Amit Shaw, Basudam Adhikari
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Low intensity clashes have become the emerging crisis in society. In such situations, the protective vests worn by the law enforcing personnel are generally exposed to stabbing and low velocity impact from splinters. The present study is an attempt to explore the potential of Ramie, a natural fibre, to be used in body armours designed for relatively lesser threat (compared to military operations) encountered in low intensity conflict areas. Cultivation of Ramie plant to the preparation of Ramie fabric – the entire process is performed in a laboratory setup. Experiments (uniaxial tension test, direct shear test, yarn pull-out test, etc.) are conducted to characterize the stress–strain behaviour and inter-yarn friction of Ramie. The ballistic responses of single and multi-layered Ramie fabric targets are numerically investigated via FEM. In order to understand where Ramie stands with respect to Kevlar (a commonly used para-aramid synthetic fabric), the response of a single layer Kevlar target under similar circumstances (i.e. target size, boundary conditions, projectile types and impact velocities) is taken as the benchmark. Through the series of numerical simulations, the advantage and limitations of Ramie vis-a´-vis Kevlar are brought to an extent.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T03:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221076576
       
  • Effecting factors on electrical resistance of conductive paths

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      Authors: Duygu Erdem Akgün
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable electronics, wearable devices, and wearable technology concepts are gaining more importance day by day. With the developments in conductive and electronic industry which can be used in the clothing manufacturing, smart garments category look set to expand in terms of wearable offerings. There are different pathways to make a garment smart and, in all circumstances, there is a need for a path for connection between conductive components. This could be provided by cables conventionally or conductive paths can be utilized. Usually conductive fabrics, conductive printing and conductive yarns are used to create conductive paths. When using conductive yarns sewing is the most preferred technique for both electronic component and conductive path production. In this study, conductive paths are generated using different conductive yarns, stitch types, stitch densities, and thread positions and the effect of these parameters on electrical resistance values were investigated. Results showed that conductive thread type, stitch density, and conductive thread position are significant factors on electrical resistance values.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T05:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077704
       
  • Face masks to fight against COVID-19 pandemics: A comprehensive review of
           materials, design, technology and product development

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      Authors: Sanchi Arora, Abhijit Majumdar
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The outbreak of COVID-19 has created renewed attention on research and large scale manufacturing of face masks. In the last two decades, usage of face masks for respiratory protection has gained increased importance as a measure to control the maladies and fatalities due to exposure to particulate pollutants and toxic pathogens. Numerous variants of surgical and high-performance respirator masks are available in the market, and yet the fibrous materials science researchers, manufacturers and public health agencies are making concerted efforts towards improvising them with respect to self-sterilisability, facial fit, thermo-physiological comfort, reusability and biodegradability, while maintaining or rather enhancing the filtration efficiency. This review article presents a compendium of materials, design and performance standards of existing face masks, as well as elaborates on developments made for their performance enhancement. The criticality of inculcation of good hygiene habits and earnest compliance to correct mask donning and doffing practices has also been highlighted. This review is expected to make valuable contributions in the present COVID-19 scenario when donning a face mask has become mandatory.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211069869
       
  • Multifunctional silver nanowire coated fabric capable of electrothermal,
           resistance temperature-sensitivity, electromagnetic interference
           shielding, and strain sensing

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      Authors: Xinghua Hong, Weili Zhao, Rufang Yu, Qicai Wang, Fangmeng Zeng, Yuan Tao, Ziming Jin, Chengyan Zhu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The integration of high conductive networks and textiles has become a favorable technical route to fulfill the objectives of wearable electronics. Herein, high stretchable and recoverable PET fabric coated with a layer of silver nanowire network by a simple and scalable polyol-method is provided. The electrothermal performance, resistance temperature-sensitivity, electromagnetic shielding performance, strain sensing, and washability of silver nanowire (AgNWs)/PET fabrics with different coating times were performed. The conductivity of the fabric coated AgNWs of 2.8 mg/cm2 is as high as 175 S/m, the EMI shielding effectiveness is 37 dB, and it gives a highly sensitive strain response to human movement (gauge factor of −6.16 under 10% strain) and an underwater oil repellent angle of 125°. The heating temperature can reach above 100°C within 27 s under an applied current of 0.10 A. In addition, an excellent linearity of the resistance temperature-sensitive behavior for AgNWs/PET fabrics is obtained, and fabric Ag-5 gives a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of −0.05%/°C. Knitted fabric with multi-function is obtained by use of silver nanowire coating. This method provides a simple, low-cost and easy-to-scalable process for the production of electronic textiles, such as fabric heater, microwave blocker, sensor, and other technologies.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T06:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221076029
       
  • Pure hybrid nanofibers made of 4,4′-bis(triethoxysilyl)-1,1′-biphenyl
           and the way of their production

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      Authors: Veronika Máková, Johana Kulhánková, Barbora Nikendey Holubová, Tomáš Plecháček
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nanofibers bring everyday challenges to modern material science. Different types of fibrous materials made of organic and/or inorganic components are well known worldwide and find applications in various fields of industry and everyday life, covering optoelectronics, energetics, sensors, catalysis, filtration and/or medicine. However, their combination in the form of hybrid nanofibers is a part of science that has not been fully discovered yet. Hybrid organic-inorganic organosilane nanofibers bring completely new, unique and extraordinary properties given by the interconnection of organic and inorganic components via strong covalent bonds between silicon and carbon. Herein, we briefly present the patented process leading to the preparation of the first purely hybrid organic-inorganic organosilane nanofibers composed of organo-bis-silylated precursor based on 4.4′-bis(triethoxysilyl)-1.1′-biphenyl, which were successfully prepared by a sol–gel process combined with electrospinning techniques. These hybrid nanofibers were prepared without using various types of additives such as organic polymers and/or surfactants, which are commonly used as support during the preparation of other types of nanofibers.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T05:58:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837221077129
       
  • Torsional behavior of non-crimp orthogonal woven composite using
           experimental and numerical methods

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      Authors: Hamid Reza Aghaei, Mehdi Varsei, Saeed Ajeli, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Mohammad Esmail Yazdanshenas
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, using three dimensional fabric as a reinforcement part in the composite has been increased. Non-crimp three dimensional orthogonal woven fabric is a subgroup of 3D woven fabrics that in this study was used to fabricate composite preforms. The fabrics were produced by glass yarn in two different fiber volume fractions. All fabric preforms were utilized to produce composites with polyester and epoxy resins. To compare the torsional behavior of the composites, a torsion test was applied to all samples and torque-revolution curves from the experimental results were compared together. Results showed that composites that were fabricated by epoxy resin have more torsional strength in comparison with composites in that their matrix is polyester resin. Moreover, preforms with high fiber volume fractions showed high torsional strength in each type of matrix. The torsion strength of high volume fraction for polyester matrix was 47.34 KPa, however for the sample with epoxy matrix the torsion strength was determined 81.26 KPa. Furthermore, a multiscale finite element model was applied to calculate elastic constants and predict the torsional behavior of the composites. The numerical results were compared with experimental results that a good agreement between numerical and experimental results was observed. Therefore, the proposed model can predict the torsional behavior of the composite with different fiber volume fractions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T01:46:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211063906
       
  • Investigating the electromagnetic wave-absorbing, water repellency, and
           flame-retardant effectiveness of nickel–iron/PPTA-blended knitted
           fabrics

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      Authors: Rui Li, Sainan Wei, Jia Xu, Ruosi Yan, Jianlin Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, electromagnetic wave pollution has become more and more serious. In order to reduce the adverse effects of these waves, the nickel–iron/polymers of p-phenylene terephthamide (PPTA)–blended single yarn and plied yarn were manufactured, and the nickel–iron fibers with various contents (10%, 15%, and 20%) as raw materials were used. Nickel–iron/PPTA-blended yarns were knitted with three knit structures and three looped deep (11.25, 11.50, and 12.00 mm). The electromagnetic absorption effect was examined using the reflectance arch method at a frequency range between 2 and 18 GHz. The results show that the fabric with plied yarn, nickel–iron fiber content of 10%, looped deep of 12.00 mm, and loop notation of structure C has the best electromagnetic wave absorption performance, which can reach −30 dB reflectivity at 5.1 GHz, and the bandwidth with reflectivity lower than −5 dB reaches 2.5 GHz. In order to make the fabric obtain more functions, water-repellent treatment of the fabric is carried out. The results show that the best finishing effect can be obtained by using 40% water repellent and drying at 170°C for 5 min so that the sample can resist the hydrostatic pressure of 49.1 kPa. Finally, through the vertical burning test, the flame retardancy of the fabric can reach level B1.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:51:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211065478
       
  • Study on characterization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) novel
           natural fiber as reinforcement with epoxy polymer matrix material for
           lightweight applications

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      Authors: Ajithram Arivendan, Winowlin Jappes Jebas Thangiah, Siva Irulappasamy, Brintha N Chrish
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the primary goal is to utilize the biological waste of water hyacinth (Eihhornia crassipes) plant fiber–reinforced polymer composite materials for commercial applications, especially for lightweight materials aspects. In this work, the physical, mechanical (tensile, flexural, and impact), thermal, and morphological properties of water hyacinth natural fiber composite samples are investigated. We strongly believe that only a minimum amount of work has to be done to this water hyacinth fiber composite oriented. Especially all the previous literature reported the hyacinth fibers are extracted from the retting process and manual method. But, in this work, hyacinth fibers are extracted from the new novel mechanical way of the extraction process. From the results of chemical analysis, water hyacinth fiber contains a very high 62.15% cellulose content and a minimum amount (14.82%) of hemicellulose content. The crystallinity index of water hyacinth fiber composite is 54.82%. The surface of the hyacinth composite is examined with the help of a scanning electron microscope. The thermal degradation of hyacinth fiber composite is measured with the help of the thermogravimetric analysis method. Based on the final experimental results, the water hyacinth natural fiber composite is the better alternative for other traditional fiber composites and it is strongly recommended for lightweight material applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T02:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211067281
       
  • Novel weft-knitted spacer structure with silicone tube and foam inlays for
           cushioning insoles

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      Authors: Nga-wun Li, Kit-lun Yick, Annie Yu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      A novel spacer fabric with a weft-knitted structure of silicone tube and foam inlays is proposed for use in insoles to alleviate in-shoe pressure, reduce moisture and enhance thermal comfort. The material variables, including the diameter of the spacer yarn, type of inlaid material and net wrap and spacer pattern have been systematically investigated. Their force reduction and thermal characteristics in terms of air and water vapour permeabilities, thermal conductivity and impact force reduction are determined and compared to those of traditional insole materials. The results show that the inlays can effectively enhance the impact force reduction of the 3D spacer fabrics. In comparison to traditional insole materials, the proposed spacer fabric with an inlaid structure can enhance air and moisture permeabilities and heat dissipation to provide greater wear comfort for prolonged use. The air permeability, thermal conductivity and impact force reduction of the inlaid spacer structure can be modified with changes to the diameter of the spacer yarn, type of inlay and net material used and spacer pattern, whilst its water vapour permeability can also be varied by using different types of inlays. Spacer fabric with a higher number of spacer yarn courses and spacer yarn with a large diameter not only exhibits good impact force reduction with uniform thickness, but also offers good thermal conductivity. The findings of this study will contribute toward an insole design with the use of alternative insole materials for optimal foot protection.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T02:09:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073359
       
  • Polypyrrole-coated recycled polyphenylene sulfite nonwoven fabric with
           high electrical conductivity for heat generation

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      Authors: Zhenqian Lu, Jingchun Lv, Jiawen Qiu, Linsheng Zhang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to introduce multifunctional properties into the recycled polyphenylene sulfite (PPS) nonwoven fabrics, highly conductive and hydrophobic fabrics with excellent Joule heating performance were fabricated by depositing in-situ polymerized polypyrrole (PPy) onto PPS nonwoven fabric and followed by a silicone coating process. The resultant PPy-coated nonwoven fabric exhibited high electrical conductivity. The surface resistivity of PPy-coated nonwoven fabric was less than 8.8 Ω/sq. The high conductivity of PPy coating provided the fabric with excellent electrical heating properties in conjunction with a photothermal heating properties. The saturation temperature of the samples can get to 125.6°C with 4V DC power. The thin silicone coating can help to resist the oxidation of PPy and endow the nonwoven fabrics with excellent water-resistant features. This study provided a simple and effective method to transform the recycled PPS nonwoven fabric into a multifunction material.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T04:38:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073362
       
  • Graphite flame retardant applied on polyester textiles: flammable, thermal
           and in vitro toxicological analysis

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      Authors: Cristina Alonso, Albert Manich, Adolfo del Campo, Paula Felix-De Castro, Nora Boisseree, Luisa Coderch, Meritxell Martí
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Expandable graphite was applied to an upholstery polyester textile material as an eco-friendly flame-retardant alternative to halogenated compounds. Fabrics treated with the flame retardant were evaluated by flammability tests. Besides, thermal analysis was carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Moreover, a percutaneous absorption study was conducted to verify the safety in terms of dermal penetration of the flame-retardant treated upholstery fabric for human use.The upholstery fabric treated with expandable graphite successfully passed the flammability tests. Thermogravimetric analyses with TGA and DSC showed that the flame-retardant application slightly decreased the initial decomposition temperatures regardless of the atmosphere but increased the final residue at 600°C (35.7% in O2 and 44.5% in N2) compared to non-treated upholstered fabrics. Dermal permeation of expandable graphite applied on the polyester fabric showed no penetration after 24 h of fabric exposure time. This result demonstrated that graphite-treated polyester fabric is dermatologically and toxicologically safe for use in upholstery.Applied expandable graphite proved an efficient and safe flame-retardant alternative to conventional flame retardants for eco-friendly flame resistance applications in upholstery fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T04:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211062056
       
  • Poloxamer188 composite electrospun poly L-lactic acid fibrous nonwoven:
           Sustained in vitro and in vivo release letrozole as a subcutaneous implant
           

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      Authors: Hao Wang, Jiana Huang, Yang Liu, Xin Dong, Meng Wen, Jianhua Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Poloxamer188 composite poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) electrospun fibrous nonwovens (EFNW) were prepared by simple letrozole-poloxamer188-PLLA co-solution electrospinning and used as subcutaneous implants to sustained release letrozole. Contents of poloxamer188 and letrozole were varied to investigate the effect of the two compounds’ amounts on drug release behavior. Materials’ combination and drug incorporation in fibers were investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal calorimetry. Letrozole contents in vitro and in vivo were all determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrometry. Meanwhile, in order to analyze the mechanism of drug release behavior and show modulated drug release by electrospun fibers, letrozole-poloxamer188 solid dispersions (SDs) and letrozole-poloxamer188poly L-lactic acid-dichloromethane solution cast films (CFs) were also studied. Plasma letrozole concentration curves of subcutaneous implanting EFNW and daily oral administration of poloxamer188-letrozole SD on female rabbits were investigated and compared. Fibers of desirable morphology were obtained. During the whole release process of all EFNWs, water-insoluble letrozole could be released in the form of being dissolved. Letrozole release rates increased with increasing poloxamer188 content and decreased with increasing letrozole content. When letrozole and poloxamer188 content in fibers was 30% and 150% (EFNW-30-150%), respectively (with respect to PLLA in mass ratio), the release curve presented a desirable profile. After subcutaneous implant of EFNW-30-150%, the plasma concentration curve presented a later peak time and lower maximum value, and a comparable bioavailability with daily oral administration of poloxamer188-letrozole SD solution within 15 days. The research provided primary and encouraging information to use EFNW as a novel subcutaneous implant for sustained delivery of water-insoluble drugs.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T07:04:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211062055
       
  • Antibacterial effect of electrospun polyurethane-gelatin loaded with honey
           and ZnO nanoparticles as potential wound dressing

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      Authors: Sareh Abolhassani, Hamed Alipour, Aliakbar Alizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Nemati, Hanieh Najafi, Omid Alavi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Damage to the skin makes the body vulnerable to microorganisms; wound dressings with desirable properties such as antibacterial activity is used in order to accelerate the healing of the injury. An available natural substance investigated for its antibacterial property is honey; also, zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have shown great antibacterial activities. This study investigated some properties of PU-Gel nanofibrous membranes, loaded with honey and ZnO-NPs, including antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, mechanical properties and cell proliferation. The results indicate that PU/Gel/ZnO and PU/Gel/ZnO/H are suitable in inhibiting bacterial growth compared with PU/Gel/H and control membranes. Moreover, PU/Gel/H membranes had considerable antibacterial effect on E-coli. The addition of ZnO-NPs improved the mechanical properties. Cell culture studies (MTT test) proved the biocompatibility of the developed nanofibrous membranes. The obtained nanofibrous membrane PU/Gel/ZnO/H is a promising candidate for the development of improved bandage materials.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T02:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211069871
       
  • Manufacturing and utilization of novel sustainable composites using pulled
           wool fibers waste from leather tanneries: Mechanical, physical, and
           dynamic characterization

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      Authors: Mohamed Nassef, Ahmed M Elbasyoni, Alaa A Badr, Ashraf Alnahrawy, Ahmed H Hassanin
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      This paper introduces a novel composite from discarded pulled wool fibers as a sustainable alternative to commercial particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF). The investigation aims at designing composites with prominent properties in terms of thermal insulation, water absorption, flexural strength, and dynamic properties. Composites specimens are synthesized from recycled pulled wool fibers at three different densities namely 500, 800, and 1000 kg/m3, with and without fabric skin (core-only and sandwich specimens). Thermal conductivity test shows that core-only specimens with the lowest density (500 kg/m3) has lower thermal conductivity than particleboard and MDF by 30% and 50%, respectively. The sandwich specimens demonstrate 30%, 40%, and 70% less water absorption than MDF and particleboard. The results reveal high potential of pulled wool fibers to produce economic composites with appropriate thermal and physical properties that can be utilized for green buildings envelops. Dynamic tests show that the proposed composites exhibit higher damping values (70% higher in case of core-only specimens) as compared to particleboard and MDF. A main contribution of this work is presenting novel sustainable composites with high damping capacities, which promote their use as light weight structure components in critical applications such as aerospace panels subjected to high dynamic loading conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T11:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073358
       
  • Moisture barrier layer with supplemental chemical and biological
           protective functionality for firefighting clothing applications

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      Authors: Mahipal Meena, Anjlina Kerketta, Manorama Tripathi, Prasun Roy, Josemon Jacob
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      One of the primary constituent layers of fire protective clothing is a flame-retardant, waterproof and breathable moisture barrier, which permits the outward transfer of perspiration from the firefighter’s body, while barring the inward entry of water. The introduction of a chemical and biological resistant functionality can greatly enhance the overall applicability of fire protective clothing. In the present work, a chemical & biological resistant waterproof breathable flame retardant moisture barrier fabric was prepared by laminating a biaxially stretched microporous expanded polytetraflouroethylene (ePTFE) membrane with Activated Carbon Fabric using a hot melt reactive breathable polyurethane adhesive. The developed laminate was found to exhibit an excellent balance of waterproofness (23 kPa) and breathability, which was quantified in terms of water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and water vapour resistance (Ret). High values of WVTR, 1.1025 × 104 ± 9.8×101 g/m2/day complimented with exceptionally low values of Ret, 2.9 m2Pa/W are indicative of its high degree of breathability. Vertical flammability tests clearly revealed the exceptional flame resistance offered by the laminate, where after-flame, after-glow or melt-dripping was not observed and the char length was ∼4.2 cm. Further, the laminate exhibited requisite degree of protection against biological and chemical warfare (CW) agent with no breakthrough of the CW agent being perceived within the time frame of 24 h. The excellent combination of flame retardancy, breathability, waterproofness, chemical and biological protection, bestows the laminate excellent potential for usage as moisture barrier in fire protective clothing applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T03:58:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073360
       
  • Investigation on off-axial tensile properties of 3D braided composites
           considering void defects

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      Authors: Chao Zhang, Ang Li, Yuefeng Gu, Chunjian Mao, Xiwu Xu
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      3D braided composites have been increasingly applied in the aerospace, automotive, and other high-tech industries as primary load-bearing structures due to their excellent integrated performance. Evaluation on the failure behavior of 3D braided composites subjected to off-axial loading still remains a challenging topic. We present in this paper a meso-scale finite element (FE) model containing void defects for investigating the off-axial tensile behavior of 3D braided composites. The FE model is verified and the effects of porosity are discussed in on-axial tensile conditions, and then it is executed to predict the mechanical response in general off-axial tensile cases. The strength properties of 3D braided composites, and more importantly the progressive damage behavior under typical off-axial loadings, are analyzed in detail. It is found that the off-axial tensile strength and corresponding failure mode of 3D braided composites are mainly affected by the braiding angle of specimen. The proposed FE modeling provides an appropriate reference for the numerical study of void defects and off-axis load problems in other textile composites.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T12:08:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211068204
       
  • Comparison of microstructure and tensile behavior of hydroxyapatite-coated
           PEEK meshes and cellulose-based fabrics and mats

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      Authors: Armaghan Naderi, Genevieve Palardy
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Polymeric biomaterials, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and cellulose, have been explored as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in the past decade. In this study, microstructure and mechanical behavior of uncoated and hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated polymeric meshes, fabrics, and mats were investigated. Commercially available monofilament PEEK meshes, and cellulose fabrics and mats were selected, then coated with a customized low temperature sol–gel method (≤ 150°C). Adhesive HA coating consisting of HA, β-TCP, and CaO with nanorod structure was derived. After HA coating, porosity of substrates (except filter-paper cellulose mats) decreased by up to 43%, indicating effective coating. Both uncoated and HA-coated substrates’ degradation rate in phosphate-buffered saline decreased after day 3. This is a result of ion precipitation or calcium compounds formation, indicating potential stability in biofluids for an extended period of time. Regarding tensile test results, highest tensile strength and elongation at break were obtained for PEEK meshes (approximately 80 MPa and 35%, respectively), as a result of the bulk material properties. HA coating did not significantly affect the tensile properties of the specimens, except for cellulose mats with an initial porosity of 77% (tensile modulus increased by 270% and strength by 210%). The increase in tensile properties could be attributed to increased rigidity, resulting from the adhesion between HA coating and cellulose fibers. Overall, HA-coated cellulose mats and PEEK meshes show promise as customizable, flexible scaffolds for implant applications and bone regeneration for future work.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T12:04:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211070021
       
  • Particle type composite phase change materials via microemulsion
           impregnation for photothermal conversion and temperature regulation of
           surface coatings

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      Authors: Shang Hao, Wei Zhang, Jiali Weng, Jiming Yao, Jiahui Li, Xianghong Li
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In order to facilitate the combination of composite phase change materials (CPCMs) and fabrics, granular CPCMs were prepared, a simple vacuum impregnation method was used to adsorb n-octadecane with disc-shaped diatomite as a carrier. To improve the adsorption capacity of n-octadecane on diatomite, the average pore size of its single point was increased from 13.35 nm to 25.54 nm through acidification. The microemulsion of n-octadecane liquid with particle size of less than 200 nm was immersed into the diatomite under vacuum conditions, and after demulsification, the particle type CPCMs with a particle size of about 30 μm was prepared. The stability, thermal properties of particle type CPCM, and its thermoregulation on textile were systematically studied. The particle type CPCM with the latent heat energy of 34.69 J/g revealed no phase leakage when heated for 30 min at 50°C. The impregnation rate of acidified diatomite was increased by 51.7% compared with original diatomite. The CPCMs mixed with polyurethane was coated on the surface of cotton fabric and evaluated the thermal properties of the fabric. The fabric was allowed to absorb heat at 40°C to reach saturation. Analysis showed that the heat storage performance of the fabric was increased by 7.9%, and the temperature difference was adjusted to 2.9–3.1°C, which effectively slowed down thermoregulatory in a relatively low temperature environment. Moreover, the coated particle type CPCM did not alter the coldness of the cotton fabric.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T11:43:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211069887
       
  • Fabrication, characterization and in vitro accelerated degradation of
           polypropylene/poly (glycolide-ε-caprolactone) warp-knitted hernia repair
           mesh

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      Authors: Lele Liu, Haitao Lin, Guangqi Cheng, Chaoyu Chen, Gaoming Jiang, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanical properties and biocompatibility of hernia repair mesh have been difficult to achieve an optimal balance. In this paper, polypropylene (PP)/Poly(glycolide-ε-caprolactone) (PGCL) partially degradable hernia repair meshes were prepared through the warp-knitting process and its advantages were demonstrated. Basic properties of the materials and the mechanical properties of the meshes were tested and compared. Furthermore, in vitro accelerated degradation tests were performed on meshes (E14) by using five kinds of alkali solution. The degradation effect was reflected by the apparent morphologic change, weight, and strength loss rate of the mesh. The results show that the mesh has excellent mechanical properties, and accelerated degradation in vitro provides degradation results quickly. Among them, the degradation situation of meshes in Na2CO3 solution was more similar to that of phosphate buffered solution solution. The PP skeleton of mesh remains relatively stable after the degradation of PGCL, and the residual strength can still meet the clinical requirements. This study presents a promising step for the preparation and subsequent degradation of partially degradable hernia repair mesh.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T07:56:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211073363
       
  • Optimization study on wet electrostatic powder coating process to
           manufacture UHMWPE/LDPE towpregs

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      Authors: Ashraf Nawaz Khan, Vijay Goud, Ramasamy Alagirusamy, Puneet Mahajan, Apurba Das
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, an attempt has been made to coat the non-conductive Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers with Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) powder. In order to enable the deposition of electrostatically charged LDPE powder onto the fiber surface, UHMWPE fibers are dipped into a surface modification bath to impart momentary conductivity. Further, Box Behnken’s experimental design is used to optimize the processing parameters for Fiber Volume Fraction (Vf) for this wet electrostatic spray coating process. An experimental multi-parametric equation is acquired through response surface methodology to ascertain the association amid the process parameters such as processing temperature (A), conveying air pressure (B), and gun nozzle angle (C) on the output response of Vf. The process parametric values for A, B, and C are varied from 225°C to 245°C, 0.2 bar to 0.4 bar, and 0° to 120° respectively. The Vf obtained is in the range of 37.02%–56.28% depending on the combination of process parametric values. Powder pick-up increases with an increase in the gun nozzle angle. An increase in conveying air pressure and temperature of the hot air oven leads to an increase in powder deposition. The values predicted from the model are observed to be in close proximity (94.59%) to the experimental results. Gun nozzle angle is the principal parameter affecting the matrix deposition on the fiber surface in comparison to other process parameters.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T10:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211070995
       
  • Research on the influence of length-width ratio on cruciform parachute
           airdropping performance

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      Authors: Han Cheng, Yihao Ouyang, Ying Zhang, Jie Pan
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Different from the other design parameters in general drogues, there are few studies about the parameter of Length-Width Ratio (LWR). Therefore, the fluid structure coupling model based on the Finite Element Method was used to study the deceleration characteristics and terminal trajectory stability of parachute system in this work. And the graphic transformation technology commonly used in Computer Graphics was used to realize the following of flow field with the trajectory movement. In this work, the cruciform parachutes with different LWR were taken as the research objects, and the above method was used to obtain the trajectory curves, deceleration characteristic curves, and stability curves of the cruciform parachutes under different external conditions. It was found that the deceleration performance was negatively correlated with the LWR when the other design parameters and working conditions remained unchanged, and the trajectory stability and the stability of the parachute were positively correlated with the LWR. Subsequently, the cruciform parachute with the LWR of 4.5 was used for airdropping test, and the accuracy of numerical method used in this work was verified. Then the deceleration processes of cruciform parachute (LWR: 4.5) under different dropping conditions were calculated. It could be found that the external launching conditions had a limited impact on the deceleration performance. The LWR was another design parameter that had a greater impact on the deceleration performance after the parameter of canopy area. Finally, the drag coefficient correction equation representing the deceleration performance was proposed for the first time.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T04:36:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211070023
       
  • Electroless plating process for the manufacture of radiation protection
           suits for pregnant woman: Effect of bending on its electromagnetic
           shielding performance

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      Authors: Chengmei Gui, Di Sun, Wenya Liu, Haodong Ma, Zhenming Chen, Peng Li, Junjun Huang
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Multi-ion fabrics (especially silver ion fabrics) have special advantages as electromagnetic radiation, but the use of noble metals enhances its cost. Electroless nickel plating (EP-Ni) has great potential application in fabricating low-cost metallized material. Here, EP-Ni on pure cotton surface to fabricate radiation protection suits for pregnant woman was established to replace traditional protection suits with silver film. The active groups on the cotton/polyester blend fiber surface could absorb tin and palladium ions, acting as catalytic centers, which can catalyze the reduction of Ni2+ in the plating solution. Ni particle with (111) crystal plane preferential oriented crystal structure deposited on cotton surface with a coarse microstructure. The Ni deposited amount is about 19%. The fabricated material exhibited a shielding effectiveness of 29.5 dB. Studies also shown that bending has no negative effect on crystallinity and electrical property. But more bending times could lead to crack, which would decline electromagnetic shielding performance by 24%.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211068205
       
  • Hybrid fibrous (PVDF-BaTiO3)/ PA-11 piezoelectric patch as an energy
           harvester for pacemakers

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      Authors: Hannaneh Kabir, Hadiseh Kamali Dehghan, Shohreh Mashayekhan, Roohollah Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Sajad Sorayani Bafqi
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Lithium batteries have been widely used to power up implantable medical devices such as pacemakers that are often designed to treat, diagnose, and prevent different diseases. However, due to their limited capacity and lifetime, patients have to undergo a surgical procedure to replace the discharged battery. Recently, nanogenerators have been emerged and are broadly accepted since they can convert tiny biomechanical forces, such as heartbeats, into electrical energy. This study aims to manufacture a biocompatible and high-performance piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) that is capable to be charged by the energy received from the heartbeat and store the generated voltage. In this research, a hybrid structure of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) coupling with polyamide-11 (PA-11) was fabricated using dual electrospinning to enhance the piezoelectric properties of the intended PEH. The piezoelectric test results show an acceptable increase in nanofibers’ piezoelectric sensitivity from 62.87 mV/N to 75.75 mV/N by adding 25% (v/v) of PA-11 to PVDF, indicating the synergistic effect of PVDF and PA-11. The specimen PVDF (75% v/v)-PA-11 (25% v/v) also showed the highest mechanical strength and consequently is suggested as the optimum sample. To further enhance the efficacy and sensitivity of PEH to convert the small mechanical forces into an acceptable voltage, 15% (w/w) of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles were added to the hybrid structure. The crystallinity and mechanical strength were noticeably increased by incorporating BaTiO3 nanoparticles into the fibrous structure, leading to a piezoelectric sensitivity of 107.52 mV/N. This result lays the groundwork for producing an effective piezoelectric patch that could be used as pacemaker batteries.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T04:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211057575
       
  • Multilayer nonwoven lining materials made of wool and cotton for clothing
           and footwear

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      Authors: Adham Rafikov, Nodir Mirzayev, Sevara Alimkhanova
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Five types of multilayer nonwovens for clothing and footwear parts were obtained by the adhesive bonding method. The thickest middle layer of the material consists of evenly laid coarse camel or sheep fibers or of reconstituted cotton fibers from flaps, the upper and lower layers consist of knitwear, and polymer adhesive is located between the layers. The layers are bonded by thermal pressing at a temperature of 150 ± 5°C for 2.0 ± 0.2 min. The microstructure and morphology of fibers, polymer adhesive, and multilayer nonwoven fabric were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and X-ray phase analysis. The chemical interaction between wool fibers and polymer adhesive, the geometric dimensions and shape of the fibers, the structure and morphology of the cross section of the layers of the material, and the change in the degree of crystallinity of the material have been established. The investigated coarse and thick fibers of camel and sheep wool are more suitable for the production of nonwoven textile material. In the process of thermal exposure, the molten polymer diffuses into the structure of the nonwoven layer and knitted fabric. The diffusion and excellent adhesion of the molten polymer to the fibers ensures the solidity and strength of the composite. The developed design provides high strength of the material as a whole and adhesive strength between layers, high heat-retaining properties, and the use of a mesh adhesive film provides sufficient air and vapor permeability.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T04:19:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211060881
       
  • Development and mechanical properties of three-dimensional flat-knitted
           fabrics with reinforcement yarns

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      Authors: Jiangtao Tan, Gaoming Jiang, Zhe Gao, Pibo Ma, Peixiao Zheng
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Three-dimensional (3D) flat-knitted fabrics have become a topic of interest in the field of composites in recent years because of the growing need for rapid preparation of complicated shape preforms. In order to improve the mechanical properties of 3D flat-knitted fabrics, two types of 3D flat-knitted fabrics with reinforcement yarn (FKFR) were developed using ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) yarn. Their basic structures were composed of plain structure and interlock structure with tuck stitch, respectively, and the reinforcement yarn was integrated into the fabric as the weft inlay. The tensile, bending, drape, and bursting properties of the two fabrics were characterized. Results showed that the basic structure of the fabric has impacted on the mechanical properties of the fabric significantly. The tensile and bending properties of the fabric with interlock structure were better than that of the fabric with plain structure. During the transverse stretching process, the surface structure of the fabric with interlock structure was more stable. Moreover, transverse yarn strength utilization of the fabric with interlock structure was 1.05, which reached the level of ordinary woven fabric. In addition, the bursting force of the fabric with excellent tensile properties was lower than that of the fabric with a plain structure because the latter has better extensibility.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T04:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211046061
       
  • Oxidative removal of As(III) by polyacrylonitrile@Ag-Ag2O/schwertmannite
           nanofiber under visible light

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      Authors: Jing Han, Hai-Tao Ren, Ting-Ting Li, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Yong-Gui Li, Jia-Horng Lin, Ching-Wen Lou
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Visible light response PAN@Ag-Ag2O/Sch (PAN@AS, schwertmannite and polyacrylonitrile abbreviated as Sch and PAN) nanofibers with different mass ratios were synthesized by electrospinning technology and pH-induced precipitation reaction. X-Ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the formation of Ag-Ag2O/Sch heterojunction and Ag-Ag2O nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of Sch. The prepared nanofibers have high oxidative removal performance for As(III) under visible light. In the PAN@AS0.10 system, the total As removal percent can reach 90.96% after 120 min irradiation at pH 4.0. The scavenger experiments confirmed that the main active substances of the PAN@AS0.10 system were h+ and •OH. The high oxidation and removal performance of the PAN@AS0.10 composite for As(III) was attributed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and high adsorption capacity of Sch for As under acidic conditions. This research provides a new material for the oxidation and removal of pollutants in water [such as As(III)] and also provides a research basis for the preparation of recyclable photocatalysts.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T04:14:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056985
       
  • Coaxial electrospinning preparation and antibacterial property of
           polylactic acid/tea polyphenol nanofiber membrane

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      Authors: Jie Wu, Shuqiang Liu, Man Zhang, Gaihong Wu, Haidan Yu, Huimin Li, Fu Li, Lu Jia
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The polylactic acid (PLA)/tea polyphenol (TP) nanofiber membranes were prepared by coaxial electrospinning. The physical properties, antibacterial agent release, degradation, and antibacterial properties were investigated. Results demonstrated that stepwise and controlled antibacterial agent release profiles were achieved based on the core-shell configuration and disparate degradation rate of PLA and TP. The mechanical performance decreased with the increase of the TP content in the shell layer. The cumulative antibacterial agent release rate of nanofiber membranes with different TP content was different, while the antibacterial agent release trend was the same. The antibacterial agent release rate of the sample was the fastest at the initial stage from 2 h to 8 h, and then gradually slowed down after 24 h. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the PLA/TP nanofiber membranes was confirmed by the inhibition zone method against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli). Results showed that the antibacterial performance of PLA/TP nanofiber was intensified with the increasing content of TP, especially had better antibacterial performance against S. aureus.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T04:12:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211054219
       
  • Optimization of electromagnetic shielding of three-dimensional orthogonal
           woven hybrid fabrics in ku band frequency region by response surface
           methodology

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      Authors: Mukesh Kumar Singh, Gaurav Saraswat, Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Himangshu B Baskey
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Electromagnetic shielding (EMS) has become the necessity of the present era due to enormous expansion in electronic devices accountable to emit electromagnetic radiation. The principal target of this paper is to originate three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal fabrics with conductive hybrid weft yarn and to determine their electromagnetic shielding. DREF-III core-spun yarn using copper filament in the core and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) fiber on the sheath and fabric constructed of such yarn has a promising electromagnetic shielding characteristic. Box–Behnken experimental design has been employed to prepare various samples to investigate the electromagnetic shielding efficiency of 3D orthogonal woven structures. The orthogonal fabric samples were tested in an electromagnetic Ku frequency band using free space measurement system (FSMS) to estimate absorbance, reflectance, transmittance, and electromagnetic shielding. The increase in copper core filament diameter and hybrid yarn linear density enhances the EMS of orthogonal fabric. Statistical analysis has been done to bring out the effect and interaction of various yarn and fabric variables on EMS. Metal filament diameter, orientation, sheath fibers percentage, and fabric constructional parameters significantly affected electromagnetic shielding efficiency. The inferences of this study can be applied in other 3D structures like angle interlock, spacer fabrics for curtains, and coverings for civilians and military applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T01:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211062054
       
  • Thermoelectrical properties of graphene knife-coated cellulosic fabrics
           for defect monitoring in Joule-heated textiles

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      Authors: Tamara Ruiz-Calleja, Rocío Calderón-Villajos, Marilés Bonet-Aracil, Eva Bou-Belda, Jaime Gisbert-Payá, Alberto Jiménez-Suárez, Silvia G Prolongo
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Knife-coating can confer new properties on different textile substrates efficiently by integrating various compounds into the coating paste. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) is one of the most used elements for the functionalization of fabrics in recent years, providing electrical and thermal conductivity to fabrics, later used to develop products such as sensors or heated garments. This paper reports thermoelectrically conductive textiles fabrication through knife-coating of cellulosic fabrics with a GNP load from 0.4 to 2 wt% within an acrylic coating paste. The fabric doped with the highest GNP content reaches a temperature increase of 100°C in few seconds. Besides, it is found out that the thermographic images obtained during the electrical voltage application provide maps of irregularities in the dispersion of conductive particles of the coating and defects produced throughout their useful life. Therefore, the application of a low voltage on the coated fabrics allows fast and effective heating by Joule’s effect, whose thermographic images, in turn, can be used as structural maps to check the quality of the GNP doped coating. The temperature values and the heating rate obtained make these fabrics suitable for heating devices, anti-ice and de-ice systems, and protective equipment, which would be of great interest for industrial applications.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T12:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056986
       
  • Stab resistance of flexible composite reinforced with warp-knitted fabric
           like scale structure at quasi-static loading

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      Authors: Qing Liu, LanlanWang, Min Luo, Qian Wu, Yong Kang, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      The stab-resistant fabric like scale structure has a promising application prospect for areas of stab prevention owing to its great flexibility and excellent stab-resistance performance. In this paper, a kind of novel stab-resistant fabric has been designed by coating with epoxy resin (ER) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles, which was based on the warp-knitted fabric like scale structure (WKFS). The uniformity of dispersion has been investigated with different diameter and mass fraction of SiC, and polymerization degree of polyglycols (PEG); the flexibility and quasi-static properties of different kinds of WKFS treated with different coating solution has been studied, and the coating solution was prepared by mixing SiC particles and ER at different ratios. The results showed that the dispersion uniformity of the dispersion was the best when the diameter of SiC is 1 μm, the content is 50%, and the polymerization degree of PEG is 600. The longitudinal flexibility of the stab-resistant fabric is greater than that of transverse due to the gap between the longitudinal scales, and the addition of SiC particles can increase the transverse and longitudinal flexibility of stab-resistant fabric, and the flexible properties were the greatest when SiC:ER = 50:30. In addition, the WKFS treated with SiC of 16.7% has fatigue resistance; the damage mechanism of the fabric treated with pure ER is thankful to the brittleness of the resin; the added SiC particles hinder the further crack propagation of the resin, and the failure mode is mainly in stretch.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T10:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056987
       
  • Development and assessment of a knitted shape memory alloy-based
           multifunctional elbow brace

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      Authors: Woo-Kyun Jung, Soo-Min Lee, Sung-Hoon Ahn, Juyeon Park
      Abstract: Journal of Industrial Textiles, Ahead of Print.
      Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that affects joint cartilage and can cause severe pain and disability. Minor neglected injuries may also result in other diseases that affect daily life. Various attempts have been made to develop wearable auxiliary devices using functional fabrics, but few have simultaneously provided both heat and pressure. Using knitted shape memory alloy (SMA) fabric, a module was manufactured that achieved bending and contraction during operation. An elbow brace that simultaneously provided heat and pressure was developed using this module. Subjective evaluation and measurements of the range of motion (ROM), changes in skin temperature (Tsk ), clothing pressure (Pc), and blood flow (Fb) were conducted on the elbow brace while being worn by 10 participants. The multifunctional elbow brace (MFEB) developed in this study generated pressure and heat that increased Tsk and Pc, ultimately increasing Fb. In addition, the ROM of the elbow joint was increased after actuating the elbow brace. Subjective evaluation of the heat and pressure sensation demonstrated its applicability to the human body. We confirmed that the elbow brace had a positive effect on Fb and increased the ROM of the joint. These results show the applicability of smart textiles to the development of various wearable devices.
      Citation: Journal of Industrial Textiles
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T02:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15280837211056983
       
 
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