Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Textiles and Fibrous Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1560-6074 - ISSN (Online) 2515-8090
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Assessing the digitalisation level of the Tanzanian apparel industry:
           Industry 4.0 perspectives

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      Authors: Lucas B. Nhelekwa , Joshua Z. Mollel , Ismail W.R. Taifa
      Abstract: Industry 4.0 has an inimitable potential to create competitive advantages for the apparel industry by enhancing productivity, production, profitability, efficiency and effectiveness. This study, thus, aims to assess the digitalisation level of the Tanzanian apparel industry through the Industry 4.0 perspectives. A mixed-methods-based approach was deployed. This study deployed semi-structured interviews, document review and observation methods for the qualitative approach. For the quantitative approach, closed-ended questionnaires were used to ascertain the digitalisation levels and maturity level of the textiles and apparel (T&A) factories and small and medium-sized textile enterprises in Tanzania. The sample size was 110, with participants engaged through the purposive sampling technique. Industry 4.0 frameworks evolved into practices mainly since 2011 in several service and manufacturing industries globally. For Tanzania, the findings indicate that the overall maturity level of the T&A industries is 2.5 out of 5.0, demonstrating a medium level of adoption. Thus, the apparel industries are not operating under the industry 4.0 framework; they are operating within the third industrial revolution – Industry 3.0 – framework. For such industries to operate within the fourth industrial revolution – Industry 4.0 – that is only possible if there is significantly well-developed industrial infrastructure, availability of engineering talent, stable commercial partnerships, demand from the marketplace and transactional relationship with customers. This study’s limitations include: firstly, Industry 4.0 is an emerging area; this resulted in limited theoretical underpinnings in the Tanzanian perspectives. Secondly, the studied industries may not suffice the need to generalise the findings for the entire country, thus needing another study. Although Industry 4.0 conceptual frameworks have been on trial in several industries since 2011, this is amongst the first empirical research on Industry 4.0 in the Tanzanian apparel industry that assesses the digitalisation levels.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-11-2021-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Investigations on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan/PVA nanoparticle
           loaded nanofibers

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      Authors: Senthil Kumar Selvaraj , Srimathy B. , Sakthivel S. , Senthil Kumar B.
      Abstract: In the past decade, the biopolymeric properties of chitosan (CH) have been largely exploited for various applications. This paper aims to study the use of CH in its nanoform, i.e. as nanofibers blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for various antimicrobial applications in detail. In particular, their ability toward bacterial growth inhibition, in vitro drug release and their biocompatibility toward tissue growth have been investigated in detail. Electrospinning technique was adapted for depositing CH/PVA blended nanofilms on the silver foil under optimized conditions of high voltage. Three different concentrations of blended nanofiber samples were prepared and their antimicrobial properties were studied. The bead diameter and average diameter of blended nanofibers increase with CH concentration. Antibacterial activity increases as CH concentration increases. Increased hydrophilicity in CH-enriched samples contributes to a higher drug release profile. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, chick chorioallantoic membrane assay analysis has been carried out for the first time for CH/PVA films which shows that CH/PVA blends are biocompatible. CH after being converted as nanoparticles exhibits higher drug release rate by in vitro method.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-11-2021-0134
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of an oil-absorbent web by the dry-laid method from
           polypropylene and chemically treated kapok

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      Authors: Dat Van Truong , Song Thanh Quynh Le , Huong Mai Bui
      Abstract: Kapok was well-known for its oleophilic properties, but its mechanical properties and morphology impeded it from forming suitable absorbent materials. This study aims to demonstrate the process of creating an oil-absorbent web from a blend of treated kapok and polypropylene fibers. Kapok fibers were separated from dried fruits, then the wax was removed with an HCl solution at different concentrations. The morphological and structural changes of these fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy images. The blending ratios of kapok and polypropylene fibers were 60/40, 70/30 and 80/20, respectively. The fiber blends were fed to a laboratory carding machine to form a web and then consolidated using the heat press technique. The absorption behavior of the formed web was evaluated regarding oil absorption capacity and oil retention capacity according to ASTM 726. The results showed that the HCl concentration of 1.0% (wt%) gave the highest wax removal efficiency without damaging the kapok fibers. This study found that oil absorbency is influenced by the fiber blending ratio, web tensile strength and elongation, porosity, oil type and environmental conditions. The oil-absorbency of the web can be re-used for at least 20 cycles. This study only looked at three types of oils: diesel, kerosene and vegetable oils. When the problem of oil spills in rivers and seas is growing and causing serious environmental and economic consequences, using physical methods to recover oil spills is the most effective solution. This research adds to the possibility of using kapok fiber in the form of a web of non-woven fabric for practical purposes.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-12-2021-0145
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Washable textile embedded solar cells for self-powered wearables
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Elina Ilén , Farid Elsehrawy , Elina Palovuori , Janne Halme
      Abstract: Solar cells could make textile-based wearable systems energy independent without the need for battery replacement or recharging; however, their laundry resistance, which is prerequisite for the product acceptance of e-textiles, has been rarely examined. This paper aims to report a systematic study of the laundry durability of solar cells embedded in textiles. This research included small commercial monocrystalline silicon solar cells which were encapsulated with functional synthetic textile materials using an industrially relevant textile lamination process and found them to reliably endure laundry washing (ISO 6330:2012). The energy harvesting capability of eight textile laminated solar cells was measured after 10–50 cycles of laundry at 40 °C and compared with light transmittance spectroscopy and visual inspection. Five of the eight textile solar cell samples fully maintained their efficiency over the 50 laundry cycles, whereas the other three showed a 20%–27% decrease. The cells did not cause any visual damage to the fabric. The result indicates that the textile encapsulated solar cell module provides sufficient protection for the solar cells against water, washing agents and mechanical stress to endure repetitive domestic laundry. This study used rigid monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Flexible amorphous silicon cells were excluded because of low durability in preliminary tests. Other types of solar cells were not tested. A review of literature reveals the tendency of researchers to avoid standardized textile washing resistance testing. This study removes the most critical obstacle of textile integrated solar energy harvesting, the washing resistance.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-01-2022-0004
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Technological innovation management through root cause prioritization

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      Authors: Udeni Kumarapeli , Vijitha Ratnayake , Thantirige Sanath Siroshana Jayawardana
      Abstract: Technological innovation has become a significant part of textile and apparel industries. To become distinguished from competitors, it is essential to harness the potentials of the organizations in achieving higher speeds, faster delivery times, more precise research and development processes followed by modern manufacturing techniques, lower inventory and lower costs. This paper aims to present the risk factors, root causes and their impact related to technological innovation. This uncovers deeper problems inherent to the technological innovation process while providing insight to develop a more robust risk management strategy in marking the survival and growth of the organizations in the textile and apparel trade. Literature review and structured interviews with industry experts were conducted to identify the risk factors and root causes associated with technological innovations related to textile and apparel industries. The impact of root causes to the risk factors was determined through priorities, derived according to analytic network process using Super Decision software. Impact of the root causes on risk factors take different priorities, highlighting the most alarming root causes, which contribute more to the outcome. This provides insight for a more precise decision-making on the order of prioritization of root causes in managing risks involved. Findings of this research provide insight on the most influential competencies of any textile and apparel organization for a thriving innovation. Profound knowledge on risk factors, root causes and their contribution to the outcome enhances complex decision-making. This ultimately leads to “credible performances’’ of the technological innovation and optimizing the resources available, which bridges the gap that exists in the current literature.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-05-2021-0068
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) in textile industry operational modernization

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      Authors: Monica Puri Sikka , Alok Sarkar , Samridhi Garg
      Abstract: With the help of basic physics, the application of computer algorithms in the form of recent advances such as machine learning and neural networking in textile Industry has been discussed in this review. Scientists have linked the underlying structural or chemical science of textile materials and discovered several strategies for completing some of the most time-consuming tasks with ease and precision. Since the 1980s, computer algorithms and machine learning have been used to aid the majority of the textile testing process. With the rise in demand for automation, deep learning, and neural networks, these two now handle the majority of testing and quality control operations in the form of image processing. The state-of-the-art of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the textile sector is reviewed in this paper. Based on several research problems and AI-based methods, the current literature is evaluated. The research issues are categorized into three categories based on the operation processes of the textile industry, including yarn manufacturing, fabric manufacture and coloration. AI-assisted automation has improved not only machine efficiency but also overall industry operations. AI's fundamental concepts have been examined for real-world challenges. Several scientists conducted the majority of the case studies, and they confirmed that image analysis, backpropagation and neural networking may be specifically used as testing techniques in textile material testing. AI can be used to automate processes in various circumstances. This research conducts a thorough analysis of artificial neural network applications in the textile sector.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2021-0046
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Comparative study of moisture adaptable breast support using engineered
           fabric design in seamless knitted sports bras

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      Authors: Adriana Gorea , Amy Dorie , Martha L. Hall
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate if engineered compression variations using moisture-responsive knitted fabric design can improve breast support in seamless knitted sports bras. An experimental approach was used to integrate a novel moisture-responsive fabric panel into a seamless knitted bra, and the resulting compression variability in dry versus wet conditions were compared with those of a control bra. Air permeability and elongation testing of between breasts fabric panels was conducted in dry and wet conditions, followed by three-dimensional body scanning of eight human participants wearing the two bras in similar conditions. Questionnaires were used to evaluate perceived comfort and breast support of both bras in both conditions. Air permeability test results showed that the novel panel had the highest variance between dry and wet conditions, confirming its moisture-responsive design, and increased its elongation coefficient in both wale and course directions in wet condition. There were significant main effects of bra type and body location on breast compression measurements. Breast circumferences in the novel bra were significantly larger than in the control bra condition. The significant two-way interaction between bra type and moisture condition showed that the control bra lost compressive power in wet condition, whereas the novel bra became more compressive when wet. Changes in compression were confirmed by participants’ perception of tighter straps and drier breast comfort. These findings add to the limited scientific knowledge of moisture adaptive bra design using engineered knitted fabrics via advanced manufacturing technologies, with possible applications beyond sports bras, such as bras for breast surgery recovering patients.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of ring and rotor spun yarns on denim fabric properties

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      Authors: Abenezer Fikre Hailemariam , Nuredin Muhammed
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of denim fabrics constructed from ring-spun and open-end rotor spun yarns. Yarns of 10s Ne count using cotton fibers were spun using the ring and open-end rotor spinning technologies. The yarns were used to produce a denim fabric on an air-jet loom with a 3/1 twill weave structure. Mechanical tests – tensile strength, tear strength, abrasion resistance and pilling resistance – of denim fabrics were evaluated. The test results were analyzed using analysis of variance with the help of Software Package for Social Sciences. Denim fabrics made by using ring-spun yarns exhibited better tensile and tear strength properties than denim fabrics made by using open-end rotor spun yarns. On the contrary, denim produced using open-end rotor yarns have better abrasion resistance, pilling resistance and air permeability than those produced using ring-spun yarns. Both spinning techniques have a significant influence on the properties of denim fabrics. Whenever better tensile and tear strength is required, it is better to use ring-spun yarns, while if the requirement is better abrasion resistance and pilling resistance with high air permeability, then open-end rotor spun yarns shall be used.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-11-2021-0137
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Comparison between cotton fiber and cellulose powder for wastewater
           treatment efficiency with nano-crystalline TiO by sono-synthesis

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      Authors: Md Mehedi Hasan Rubel , Syed Rashedul Islam , Abeer Alassod , Amjad Farooq , Xiaolin Shen , Taosif Ahmed , Mohammad Mamunur Rashid , Afshan Zareen
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to prepare the cotton fibers and cellulose powder by a layer of nano-crystalline-titanium dioxide (TiO2) using the sol-gel sono-synthesis method to clean the wastewater containing reactive dye. Moreover, TiO2 nano-materials are remarkable due to their photoactive properties and valuable applications in wastewater treatment. In this research, TiO2 was synthesized and deposited effectively on cotton fibers and cellulose powder using ultrasound-assisted coating. Further, tetra butyl titanate was used as a precursor to the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. Reactive dye (red 195) was used in this study. X-ray Diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to prove the aptitude for the formation of crystal TiO2 on the cotton fibers and cellulose powder along with TiO2 nanoparticles as well as to analyze the chemical structure. Decoloration of the wastewater was investigated through ultraviolet (UV-Visible) light at 30 min. The experimental results revealed that the decolorization was completed at 2.0 min with the cellulose nano TiO2 treatment whereas cotton nano TiO2 treated solution contained reactive dyestuffs even after the treatment of 2 min. This was the fastest method up to now than all reported methods for sustainable decolorization of wastewater by absorption. Furthermore, this study explored that the cellulose TiO2 nano-composite was more effective than the cotton TiO2 nano-composite of decoloration wastewater for the eco-friendly remedy. Cotton fibers and cellulose powder with nano-TiO2, and only reactive dye (red 195) were tested. With reactive dye-containing wastewater, it seems to be easier to get rid of the dye than to retain it, especially from dyeing of yarn, fabric, apparel, and as well as other sectors where dyestuffs are used. This research would help to reduce pollution in the environment as well as save energy and cost. Decoloration of wastewater treatment is an essential new track with nano-crystalline TiO2 to fast and efficient cleaning of reactive dyes containing wastewater used as a raw material.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-10-2021-0124
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dimensional, moisture, and thermal properties of bi-layered knitted fabric
           for sportswear application

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      Authors: Geetha Margret Soundri , Kavitha S. , Senthil Kumar B.
      Abstract: The essential properties of active sports fabrics are moisture management, quick-drying, body heat management and thermal regulations. Fibre type, blending nature, yarn and fabric structure and the finishing treatment are the key parameters that influenced the performance of the clothing meant for sportswear. This study aims to investigate the effect of fibre blending and structural tightness factors on bi-layer sport fabric's dimensional, moisture management and thermal properties. In this study, 12 different bi-layer inter-lock fabrics were produced. Polyester filament (120 Denier) yarn was fed to form the backside of the fabric, and the face side was varied with cotton, modal, wool and soya spun yarns of 30sNe. Three different types of structural tightness factors were considered, such as low, medium and high were taken for sample development. The assessment towards dimensional, moisture management and thermal properties was carried out on all the samples. The polyester-modal blend with a high tightness factor has shown maximum overall moisture management capability (OMMC) values of 0.73 and air permeability of 205.3 cm3/cm2/s. The same sample has shown comparatively higher thermal conductivity of 61.72 × 10–3 W m-1 °C-1(Under compression state) and 58.45 × 10–3 W m-1 °C-1 (under recovery state). In the case of surface roughness is concerned, polyester-modal blends have shown the lowest surface roughness, surface roughness amplitude and surface friction co-efficient. Among the selected fibre combinations, the overall comfort level of polyester-modal bi-layer knitted structure with a higher tightness factor is appreciable. Polyester-modal is more suitable for active sportswear among the four fiber blend combinations. The outcome of this study will help to gain a better understanding of fibre blends, structural tightness factor and other process specifications for the development of bi-layer fabric for active sportswear applications. The dynamic functional testing methods (Moisture management and Thermal properties) were carried out to simulate the actual wearing environment of the sports clothing. This study will create a new scope of research opportunities in the field of bi-layer sports textiles. This study was conducted to explore the influence of fibre blend and structural tightness factor on the comfort level of sportswear and to find the suitable fibre blend for active sportswear clothing.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-05-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of face masks quality features using Kano model and
           unsupervised machine learning technique

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      Authors: Md. Sobuj , Mohammad Asharaful Alam , Akhiri Zannat
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find the key face mask features using Kano model in combination with a hierarchical cluster analysis based on customer satisfaction (CS) and preference. This study used 171 responses collected from a self-administrated online survey with convenience sampling where respondents were asked about 16 different features of face masks. The study revealed that, among 6 Kano categories, 15 features were categorized as “one dimensional” and only the high price fell under the “reverse” category but all features were not equally weighted by customers. The result also showed viral protection and comfortability were the most desired features by customers regardless of its price and the “color matching” feature can act both as “one dimension” and as “attractive” feature. This study will help face mask producers to drive their resources towards those features which customers value more by showing how to prioritize features even if they fall under the same category. This study used customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction index along with an unsupervised machine learning tool to improve features classification based on Kano model. The findings of this study can be used to formulate future research studies.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-11-2021-0141
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Conceptualization of body measurements for 6-8 years kids ready-to-wear
           apparel based on anthropometric study in Bangalore, India

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      Authors: Deepasri Prabhakar , Sudhakar Rajagopal
      Abstract: The concept of developing clothing sizes has taken importance in recent years due to increasing expectations of consumers for branded clothing and its value in terms of fit and durability. The kids’ ready-to-wear brands are expected to pose the least fit issues, thereby covering a wider population of a particular size. This necessitates the standardization of measurements. The lack of standardized approaches has caused fit issues like mismatching of sizes and alterations, in a heterogenous consumer market, like India. The performance of branded apparel depends on the quality of the measurements considered in developing sizes and the approach for standardization. There is a lacuna in the measurements used by the kids’ apparel domestic brands. This study aims to propose an anthropometric approach for deriving quality measurements that can be used effectively in developing kids’ sizes to fit a wider population of kids, thereby reducing the need for alterations. The measurement data was gathered through the quantitative method. An anthropometric survey was conducted by measuring school kids. A total of 544 kids (girls and boys) of age group 6–8 years were measured to obtain prime anthropometric measurements required for ready-to-wear apparel production. WHO manual and ISO 8559, 1998 meant for anthropometry survey for garment industry was referred for accurate measuring following the landmarks for measuring. The findings revealed differences in the anthropometric measurements based on gender and age. The anthropometric measurements showed variations within the same body mass index (BMI) range. S, M and L sizes were identified within an age group. The apparel manufacturers and designers need to focus on the discrepancies occurring in the body measurements of an age group to address and control fit issues in kids ready to wear apparel. The anthropometric approach can be significantly used to control undesired fit and comfort issues in kids’ ready-to-wear apparel. This study helped to understand the importance of scientific measuring practices to arrive at standardized measurements to develop sizes in ready-to-wear apparel manufacturing.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-07-2021-0094
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Comparative study of linear and quadratic model equations for prediction
           and evaluation of surface roughness of a plain-woven fabric

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      Authors: Kura Alemayehu Beyene
      Abstract: Modeling helps to determine how structural parameters of fabric affect the surface of a fabric and also identify the way they influence fabric properties. Moreover, it helps to estimate and evaluate without the complexity and time-consuming experimental procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop and select the best regression model equations for the prediction and evaluation of surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics. In this study, a linear and quadratic regression model was developed for the prediction and evaluation of surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics, and the capability in accuracy and reliability of the two-model equation was determined by the root mean square error (RMSE). The Design-Expert AE11 software was used for developing the two model equations and analysis of variance “ANOVA.” The count and density were used for developing linear model equation one “SMD1” as well as for quadratic model equation two “SMD2.” From results and findings, the effects of count and density and their interactions on the roughness of plain-woven fabric were found statistically significant for both linear and quadratic models at a confidence interval of 95%. The count has a positive correlation with surface roughness, while density has a negative correlation. The correlations revealed that models were strongly correlated at a confidence interval of 95% with adjusted R² of 0.8483 and R² of 0.9079, respectively. The RMSE values of the quadratic model equation and linear model equation were 0.1596 and 0.0747, respectively. Thus, the quadratic model equation has better capability accuracy and reliability in predictions and evaluations of surface roughness than a linear model. These models can be used to select a suitable fabric for various end applications, and it was also used for tests and predicts surface roughness of plain-woven fabrics. The regression model helps to reduce the gap between the subjective and objective surface roughness measurement methods.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0107
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of picking sequence on thermo-physiological comfort of bilayer
           woven fabrics

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      Authors: Muhammad Umar Nazir , Muhammad Usman Javaid , Khubab Shaker , Yasir Nawab , Tanveer Hussain , Muhammad Umair
      Abstract: This paper aims to develop bilayer woven fabrics with different picking sequences with enhanced comfort without any change in the constituent materials. Six bilayer woven fabrics were produced on Dobby loom with 3/1 twill weave using micro-polyester yarn. Three different picking sequences, i.e. single pick insertion (SPI), double pick insertion (DPI) and three pick insertion (3PI), were used in both face and back layers. The effect of picking sequence on air permeability (AP), volume porosity, thermal resistance and overall moisture management capability (OMMC) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that 3PI–3PI picking sequence gives the highest OMMC, AP and thermal resistance in bilayer woven fabrics and the least results exhibited by SPI–SPI picking sequence. This research uses a bilayer woven system that develops channels and trapes the air causing higher thermal resistance; therefore, applicable for winter sports clothing rather than for summer wear. Developed bilayer woven fabrics can be used in winter sportswear to improve the comfort of the wearer and reduce fatigue during activity.
      Authors have developed bilayer fabrics by changing the picking sequences, i.e. SPI, DPI and 3PI of weft yarns in both layers and compared their thermo-physiological comfort properties.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-10-2021-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Thermal properties of woven fabric as a function of its structural
           parameters: experimentation and modeling

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      Authors: Muhammad Umair , Muhammad Usman Javaid , Yasir Nawab , Madeha Jabbar , Shagufta Riaz , Hafiz Affan Abid , Khubab Shaker
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the influence of picking sequence, weave design and weft yarn material on the thermal conductivity of the woven fabrics. This work includes the development of 36 woven samples with two weave designs (1/1 plain and 3/1 twill), three picking sequences (single, double and three pick insertion) and six different weft yarn materials (cotton, polyester having 48 filaments, polyester with 144 filaments, spun coolmax having Lycra in core and coolmax in sheath, filament coolmax and polypropylene). The thermal conductivity was measured using ALAMBETA tester. The results showed that weft yarn material, weave design and picking sequence have a meaningful impact on the thermal conductivity of woven fabric. The value of thermal conductivity was lowest for the fabrics with three pick insertion and 3/1 twill weave in all weft yarn materials. Plain woven fabric with single pick insertion is feasible for summer wear to enhance the comfort of wearer. By changing the warp yarn grouping and material, improved thermal conductivity/resistance can also be achieved. The authors have studied the combined effect of different weft yarn materials with different picking sequences and different weave designs on thermal conductivity of the woven fabrics.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-10-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Multifunctional finishing of cotton using zinc oxide and silicon dioxide
           nanoparticles along with DMDHEU

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      Authors: Aakanksha Singh , J.N. Chakraborty
      Abstract: This study aims at evaluating the properties of cotton fabric after nanofinishing using zinc oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles along with dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU). DMDHEU recipes was optimized by Box-Behnken Design before using it with nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were synthesized by sol gel technique and applied to the fabric by pad-dry-cure method. The treated samples were evaluated for functional properties such as self-cleaning, antibacterial and ultraviolet (UV) protection properties. Due to the use of DMDHEU, crease recovery property was obtained. The results showed good antibacterial property against S-aureus (gram positive) bacteria and E-coli (gram negative). UV protection property of combined nano-finished samples showed good results, as they showed very low transmission of UV-irradiation when exposed to UV-rays compared to single nanoparticle finished samples. Self-cleaning property of finished cotton was found to be good even after five washing cycles. In this study, nanofinishing of cotton fabric with zinc oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles along with DMDHEU was studied to achieve promising functional properties with long durability of nanofinishing not studied earlier.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-11-2021-0130
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Fashion localism: evaluation and extensions of utility in Sri Lankan
           fashion brands

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      Authors: Gayani Anushka Perera , Achini Ranaweera
      Abstract: Localism refers to a concept that encourages local production, consumption and promotion of goods. It is a movement to encourage consumers and businesses to purchase from locally owned, independent businesses that has grown rapidly in the past decade. However, localism remains understudied by researchers. This study aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the localism movement by capturing the dynamism of fashion localism in the context of the Sri Lankan fashion retail sector. Adopting a qualitative exploratory approach, the authors conducted a series of in-depth interviews with 12 fashion practitioners. Based on the findings, the authors propose a conceptual model of fashion localism consisting of eight themes: fashion localism design approach, locally sourced staples, land ethic, employee development, community development, consumer, regulations and limitations and future opportunities. This research sheds some light on localism literature by capturing the dynamism of fashion localism. In particular, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first study in marketing to propose a conceptual model of fashion localism. This research further points out certain managerial implications by illustrating a few practical approaches to the concept of localism within the Sri Lankan fashion retail sector.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0099
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Analysis of garment fit satisfaction and fit preferences of Ethiopian male
           consumers

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      Authors: Berihun Bizuneh , Abrham Destaw , Bizuayehu Mamo
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore fit problems, satisfaction and preferences of Ethiopian male consumers of ready-made garments (shirt, polo shirt, sweater and khaki and jeans trousers) and highlight the need for a domestic standard garment size chart. Using a structured questionnaire, 405 usable responses were collected from consumers in four cities (Bahir Dar, Kombolcha, Dessie and Addis Ababa) based on convenience sampling. Moreover, the pattern-making methods of 12 domestic garment manufacturing companies were investigated. One-way analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance were used to examine differences in fit satisfaction with age, body size and shape. Multiple regression was used to test hypotheses. The participants were mostly neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the fit of the garments irrespective of their age, body size and shape. While age was found to be insignificant, apparel sizes worn and body shape were found to be significant predictors of fit type in most garments. It was also found that most of the domestic garment manufacturing companies use the knock-off method for pattern making, which results in a bad fit as the basic garment for the knock-off is constructed based on other countries’ standards. This study investigates the fit problems and preferences of ready-made garments in the context of consumers in a developing country. Moreover, it has a contribution in considering men’s body shape in the analysis of fit preferences. The results have implications for developing domestic standard garment size charts to improve fit satisfaction.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Establishing standard allowed minutes and sewing efficiency for the
           garment industry in Tanzania

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      Authors: Alphonce Nchalala , Tausi Alexander , Ismail W.R. Taifa
      Abstract: The garment factories focus on improving their production systems by involving innovative and advanced production methods and/or techniques to cope with fast-changing trends. Accordingly, this study aims to establish the standard allowed minutes (SAMs) and sewing efficiencies for Tanzania’s sewing industry, thus improving the production processes. The research deployed a quantitative method. A stopwatch measured each operation for shirts and trousers to compute SAMs and efficiency. The shirt manufacturing processes involved 40 operations. Ten measurements were taken from different SL and LL industries operators for each operation. The trouser comprised 42 operations with 10 measurements taken from a different operator at the same garment factories for each operation. SAMs for shirts at SL and LL factories were 29 and 31 min, respectively, while trousers were 30 and 34 min. The sewing efficiencies for shirts at both SL and LL factories were 83.98% and 81.93%, respectively. Similarly, the sewing efficiencies for trousers at both SL and LL factories were 81.25% and 80.95%, respectively. Since SAMs results are not established through literature rather a quantitative approach, the findings thus place crucial information for similar factories to benchmark from. Such information are crucial as factories could increase productivity and operational efficiency, reduce costs and non-value adding activities and estimate lead times. Notwithstanding the findings gathered, the study only established SAMs for two garments. Although the garment industry has been developing over the years, this study was probably among the first studies in Tanzania that established SAMs. Theoretical underpinnings indicate that the factories use the experience to assemble garments, thus the need for this study.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-09-2021-0112
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Application of fungi resistance on cotton fabric using aloe vera active
           component

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      Authors: Chirato Godana Korra
      Abstract: This paper aims to prevent cotton textiles from fungi damage using eco-friendly aloe vera leaf extract, which was applied at a minimum amount, and cost-effective material. Batch extraction method using methanol solvent; phytochemical analysis was investigated and three-level factorial design of experiment and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the optimization of 27 test runs. The finish was applied by pad-dry-cue at distinct concentrations, and the chemical property after treatment was studied. Colorfastness and coordinates are analyzed. Cotton fabrics were cultured with Fusarium oxysporum fungi and the anti-fungal property was examined and reported according to AATCC 30–2004 standard. The maximum yield of extract was at an optimum volume of 200 ml, 65 °C for 120 min. The effective antifungal fabric was achieved with minimum concentrations. There was significant strength loss in warp and weft direction. The treatment results in yellow-colored cotton fabric with fastness grade 3. The antifungal effect is durable until fifteen washes as the tensile strength losses were less than 1%. The findings of this work were based on samples considered in the laboratory. However, it can be reproducible at the factory production scale the treatment has the potential of yielding yellow dyed cotton fabric with multifunctional finishing. The treated fabric is against Fusarium oxysporum Fungi which is one of the vital antimicrobial properties of textile apparel products for various areas of application. The natural extract material applied to a textile material is eco-friendly effective against microbes of cotton seeds during cultivation and apparel end-uses. The work application of fungi resistance on cotton fabric using aloe vera active component was original; this work provides extraction of the active agent from aloe vera leaf, which is optimized statically and successfully applied for anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-07-2021-0095
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of flame retardant cotton and acrylic blend textile fabric
           finish with Enset pseudostem sap

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      Authors: Bekinew Kitaw Dejene , Terefe Belachew Fenta , Chirato Godana Korra
      Abstract: The potential for burn injuries arises from contact with a hot surface, flame, hot liquid and steam hazards. The purpose of this study is to develop the flame retardant acrylic and cotton blend textile finished with Enset Ventricosum pseudostem sap (EPS). The two fabric was produced from (30% acrylic with 70% cotton) and (35% acrylic with 65% cotton) blend. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied on two mordanted blend fabrics. The effect of blend ratio, the concentration of EPS and treatment time on flammability, Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analyzed in terms of vertical flammability based on the design of the experiment software using central composite design. The air permeability and tensile strength of treated and controlled fabric were measured. The blended fabrics at different blended ratios were flame retardant with an optimized result of burning time 2.902 min and 2.775 min and char length 6.442 cm and 7.332 cm in the warp and weft direction, respectively, at a concentration of 520 ml and time 33.588 min. There was a slight significant change in mechanical strengths and air permeability. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and the chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy abbreviated as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The wash durability of the treated fabric at different blend ratios was carried out for the optimized sample and the test result shows that the flame retardancy property is durable up to 15 washes. Development of flame retardant cotton and acrylic blend textile fabric finish with ESP was studied; this work provides application of EPS for flame resistance which is optimized statically and successfully applied for a flame retardant property on cotton-acrylic blend fabric.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-06-2021-0082
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring online consumer reviews of wearable technology: The Owlet Smart
           Sock

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      Authors: Md Nakib-Ul Hasan , Casey R. Stannard
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to analyze consumers’ post-purchase reviews of the Owlet Smart Sock (OSS) and investigate the factors influencing continued use and product recommendation. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 and the privacy calculus model were used to focus both on technology and privacy aspects of OSS – a wearable technology product for baby monitoring. A sample of 450 online consumer review data was collected from Owletcare.com and Amazon.com. The data analysis was done by using NVivo 11. Findings show that effort expectancy, price value and performance expectancy played the most striking role during adoption, continued future use and recommendation to others, whereas perceived privacy risk had the least importance. Consumer empowerment through online reviews plays a crucial role in conveying their specific needs and desires to both manufacturers and other prospective consumers. The research is also expected to contribute research and development of technology-integrated products. The research findings will provide valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers to understand consumers’ actual preferences and acceptance during the use of wearable technology. This study extends research work on consumer use behavior by evaluating online reviews that provide them the opportunity to express their satisfaction and concerns. Insights from experience consumers’ reviews facilitate designers, developers and manufacturers to have a strategic focus during wearable technology development.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Selection of Khadi fabrics for optimal comfort properties using
           multi-criteria decision-making technique

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      Authors: Ashis Mitra
      Abstract: Khadi fabrics are known for their unique comfort properties which are attributed to their unique structural and functional properties. For getting optimal comfort from a collection of available Khadi fabrics, further exploration is needed. Ranking the Khadi fabrics from a competitive lot for optimal comfort is a challenging job, which has not been addressed so far by any researcher. The purpose of this study is to present one such selection problem using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique, a popular branch of operations research, which can handle almost any decision problem involving a finite number of alternatives and multiple decision criteria. Two widely popular methods/exponents of MCDM, namely, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (MAHP) have been deployed in this study for ranking a competitive lot of 15 Khadi fabrics and selecting the best alternative for optimal summer comfort based on three comfort attributes, namely, drape coefficient, thermal insulation value and air permeability. Both the approaches yield a similar ranking pattern with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient of 0.9857, Khadi fabric K1 achieving Rank 1 (best in terms of optimal comfort) and sample K6 acquiring Rank 15 (worst choice). Two-phase sensitivity analyses were performed subsequently to demonstrate the stability of the two approaches: sensitivity analysis by changing weightage levels of the criteria and sensitivity analysis in dynamic decision conditions by changing the elements of the initial decision matrix. During sensitivity analyses, no occurrence of rank reversal is observed for the best and worst alternatives in either of the two approaches. This corroborates the robustness of the two models. Khadi fabrics are widely acclaimed for their intrinsic comfort properties for both summer and winter. Although the popularity of Khadi fabrics is increasing day by day, this domain is under-researched, and hence, needs to be explored further. The present approach demonstrates how the MCDM technique can serve as a useful tool for ranking the available Khadi fabrics in terms of optimal comfort in summer. The same approach can be extended to other domains of the textile industry, in general, as well. This study is the first-ever theoretical approach/research on the selection of Khadi fabrics for optimal summer comfort using the MCDM tool. Another novelty of the present study is that the efficacy of AHP and MAHP approaches, in this study, has been validated through a two-phase sensitivity analysis. This validation part has been ignored in most of the hitherto published applications of AHP and MAHP in other domains.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effects of weft count and weft density on the surface roughness of 3/1 (Z)
           twill woven fabric

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      Authors: Kura Alemayehu Beyene , Wassie Mengie , Chirato Godana Korra
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of weft yarn diameter and pick density on the properties of surface roughness (SMD) of 3/1 (Z) twill-woven fabrics in three measurement directions weft (0°), the warp (90°) and the diagonal (45°). Nine 3/1 (Z) twill samples were prepared with two factors and three levels and their roughness values were measured in the weft (0°), warp (90°) and diagonal (45°) directions of 3/1 (Z) twill fabrics using the Kawabata-FB4 instrument. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the effect of weft yarn diameter and pick density on SMD properties and comparisons were done in the weft (0°), the warp (90°) and the diagonal (45°) directions. From experimental analysis, weft yarn diameter and pick density affect SMD of 3/1 (Z) twill-woven fabrics in both diagonal (45°) and weft (0°) directions but slightly affect warp (90°) direction. Maximum SMD values were observed in diagonal (45°) directions and the minimum was in warp (90°) directions of fabrics. Weft yarn diameter and pick density are statistically significant on SMD values of 3/1 (Z) twill-woven fabrics for three directions at a 95% confidence interval. Parameter variation in weft directions of 3/1 (Z) twill-woven fabrics also varies SMD values in three directions measurements The findings of this study can be usually used for textile technology, industries and laboratories to create a basic understanding for measuring roughness properties of 3/1 (Z) twill fabric. It is also possible to identify the surface characterizations in different directions of measurement for their usage in some specific areas of end application like consumer goods, home textiles, technical textiles, etc.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Forecasting the efficiency of weft knitting production: a decision tree
           method

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      Authors: Song Thanh Quynh Le , June Ho , Huong Mai Bui
      Abstract: This paper aims to develop a decision support system for predicting the knitting production’s efficiency based on the input parameters of an order. This tool supports the operations managers to make reliable decisions of estimated delivery time, which will result in reducing waste arising from late delivery, overtime and increased labor. The decision tree method with a set of logical IF-THEN rules is used to determine the knitting production’s efficiency. Each path of the decision tree represents a rule of the following form: “IF THEN .” Starting with identifying and categorizing input specifications, the model is then applied to the observed data to regenerate the results of efficiency into classification instances. The production’s efficiency is the result of the interaction between input specifications such as yarn’s component, knitting fabric specifications and machine speed. The rule base is generated through a decision tree built to classify the efficiency into five levels, including very low, low, medium, high and very high. Based on this, production managers can determine the delivery time and schedule the manufacturing planning more accurately. In this research, the correct classification instances, which is simply a ratio of the correctly predicted observations to the total ones, reach 80.17%. This research proposes a new methodology for estimating the efficiency of weft knitting production based on a decision tree method with an application of real data. This model supports the decision-making process of the estimated delivery time.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-10-2021-0125
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Industry 4.0 in textile and apparel sector: a systematic literature review

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      Authors: Ana Julia Dal Forno , Walakis Vieira Bataglini , Fernanda Steffens , Antonio Augusto Ulson de Souza
      Abstract: This paper aims to present a systematic review of the development process of Industry 4.0 in the textile and apparel sector, as well as to show some concepts, examples found in the literature on the application of the principles and technologies involved like the internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, Big Data, autonomous robots, three-dimensional (3D) printing, augmented reality, virtual prototyping, horizontal and vertical system integration and cybersecurity. The methodology adopted in this study was a systematic literature review aided by the use of SciMAT, a scientific mapping software. Documents were collected from the Web of Science and Scopus database from 2011 to 2020 using the words “Textile” and “Industry 4.0” that result in 865 documents and 115 were analyzed. The literature review showed that the textile industry in the international context is at an incipient stage of the implementation of Industry 4.0. The main aspects of Industry 4.0 that were identified in the textile industry initially focus on the implementation of technologies aimed at computerization and automation of processes, whose main focuses are increasing productivity and reducing costs. Projects for the implementation of augmented reality and 3D printing and simulation technologies in the textile industry, clothing and apparel area are still embryonic, normally implemented through tools and software oriented toward the creation and development of new models of processes, products and commerce. The search in the databases was carried out on October 17, 2020. Therefore, for future study, other combinations of search terms and time update are suggested, in addition to including more databases besides Scopus and Web of Science. This literature review served as the basis for the development of a questionnaire that was applied to 72 people in an industry in the clothing sector, located in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The benefits of industry 4.0 are perceived in people with its implementation, such as a reduction in energy consumption of around 15%, an increase of up to 25% in work efficiency, in addition to more assertive decision-making, improvement of processes and balance between life and work. Machine learning, artificial intelligence, smart fabrics, IoT, supply chain management, environmental protection, Big Data, autonomation and cyber physics were the strongest terms found, consolidating as a prominent field for current and future studies. From emerging and/or still unexplored areas of Industry 4.0 in the textile sector, there is real-time communication, computer applications, carbon, fibers, health care and sustainable development. Some strategic actions that are taking place in some countries are summarized and in Brazil the adoption rate is 29% for this sector, revealing itself as a needy area and suitable for the development of studies that address the subject.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2021-0106
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Reconfigure the apparel retail stores with interactive technologies

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      Authors: Vidushi , Radha Kashyap
      Abstract: The omni-channel strategy provides a holistic experience during shopping by integrating online and offline channel services. In this digitalized realm, customers are more dependent on online elements for shopping. However, physical stores are still their first choice for apparel shopping. The introduction of interactive technology is one of the key elements to provide an online experience in the physical store. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of interactive technologies on purchase intention and its role. This study has been conducted in Delhi using 573 customers who are using interactive technologies for shopping. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was analysed using structural equation modelling through smart partial least square 3. The results show that 46% change in purchase intention was due to mobile point of sale/digital wallet, tablet/i-pad/digital signage, smartphone and click and collect/ship from store technology. However, there was no impact of the smart mirror and in-store Wi-Fi technology on purchase intention. This study focuses on various technologies which provide online experience at physical stores. This study offers new insights for the theoretical and business framework of omni-channel brands. These technologies could be used as key performance indicators of omni-channel retailing in future.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-07-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Assessment of the mechanical properties of different textile materials
           used for outer shell of bulletproof vest: woven fabrics for military
           applications

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      Authors: A.I.H. Fayed , Y.A. Abo El Amaim , Ossama Ramy , Doaa H. Elgohary
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the performance of four different textile materials used as an outer shell of the bulletproof vest. In this paper, four different textile materials were used, polyurethane treatment was applied as a surface coating for the woven samples. Mechanical properties were conducted for all samples; scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy were executed to show the surface morphology of samples and the chemical composition of the coating material. One-way ANOVA was used to statistically analyse the results, which proved that all variables were highly significantly affected by using different textile materials, despite the stiffness variable being not significantly affected by textile materials. An overall evaluation was done using radar chart, demonstrated that Cordura material accomplished the best functional performance, using two types of calibres 7.62 × 54 mild steel core and 7.62 × 54 armour piercing incendiary; the common mechanism was localized burn because of the incendiary effect of the projectile in addition to tearing mechanism starting from inside because of penetration effect of the steel core. This work was addressed to analyse the impact of using four different materials on its performance as the outer shell of bulletproof vest to achieve the desired degree of protection.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Role of mall attractiveness in shaping fashion shopping orientation of
           apparel shoppers: a segmentation approach

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      Authors: Ajay Kumar , Anil Kumar Kashyap
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify distinct segments of apparel shoppers based on their fashion shopping orientation. The difference among the segments based on mall attractive dimension is also examined. The data were collected through mall intercept survey from the mall shoppers. Samples of 375 respondents are used for data analysis purpose. Exploratory factor analysis is used to extract the factors of fashion shopping orientation and mall attractive dimensions while K-means cluster analysis is applied to identify the segments. This study resulted in three factors of fashion orientation of apparel shoppers, i.e. fashion involvement, variety seeking and economic value, and four factors of mall attractive dimensions: convenience, entertainment, atmosphere and architecture design. Based on these factors, this study came out with three distinct segments of fashion shoppers: pragmatic shoppers, variety seeking shoppers and highly fashioned shoppers. These three segments are attracted towards the mall dimension differently. This paper presents the three distinct profiles of fashion shoppers based on their fashion shopping orientation and mall attractive dimensions. The findings of this study may help retailers and mall developers to target mall visitors appropriately.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-05-2021-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Financial performance of the textile industry in India: the case of
           Haryana

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      Authors: Ishwar Singh Darji , Suman Dahiya
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the textile industry in Haryana located in the northern part of India. Input-oriented Cooper, Charnes and Rhodes (CCR) and Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC) techniques of data envelopment analysis, as well as the return to scale (RTS) technique, were used to conduct the analysis. The findings show that textile units in Haryana have hugely underperformed financially with a consolidated technical efficiency score of only 0.35. Both private and public limited textile companies with respective scores of 0.46 and 0.24 are technically efficient. Public limited textile companies are more efficient than private limited companies. Private limited textile companies need to increase their input scale because they are operating at an increasing return to scale while public limited textile companies have to lower their input scale because most companies are operating at a decreasing return to scale to enhance their efficiency. The study can assist in decision-making to all key stakeholders (Shareholders, management, government, tax authorities, debtors and creditors, among others) by identifying efficient and inefficient companies. Appropriate policies can be framed based on that knowledge.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-06-2021-0083
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Linkages among automation, job displacement and reshoring: evidence from
           the Bangladeshi apparel industry

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      Authors: Md Aynul Hoque , Rajah Rasiah , Fumitaka Furuoka , Sameer Kumar
      Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the impact of automation on job displacement and reshoring in the apparel industry. It also compares with predictions on the same subject matter by the existing literature and, thus, provides future research agenda for further studies. Primary data were collected through 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews. The grounded theory was used for thematic and network analyzes, which traced the drivers and barriers, as well as the impact of automation and reshoring. Initially, automation decreases human interactions in any specific production section. However, it increases productivity, quality and cost advantages, which invoke growth and further employment in clothing firms. The employment of unskilled workers decreases in the long run when automation is well adopted in the system. Automation does not stimulate reshoring but may support relocation initiatives of production sites around the centers of global value chains (GVCs). This GVC-based relocation may create job displacement in apparel manufacturing nations in Asia while bringing employment opportunities to Sub-Saharan African countries, Europe and North America. Little empirical research has been conducted on the impact of automation on the apparel industry. This study predicts that human interventions will dominate the sewing of fashionable and sophisticated apparel products while automation may replace many human workers for basic garment items in the foreseeable future.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-10-23
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2021-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Kinetic studies of photocatalytic degradation of an Azo dye by titania
           nanoparticles

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      Authors: Nidhi Goyal , Deepali Rastogi , Manjeet Jassal , Ashwini K. Agrawal
      Abstract: Dyeing and printing are important steps in textile manufacturing. After the process completion, these dyes are released in the effluent. These dyes impart an unacceptable appearance but are also toxic to the soil and water bodies. The present research has been carried out to study the rate of photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye, namely, CI Direct Green 26, using titania nanoparticles under ultra violet (UV) irradiation as a function of temperature and time. Azo dyes account for the majority of all dyestuffs are produced and extensively used in the textile, paper, food, leather, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Titania nanoparticles have been found to successfully degrade these dyes in the presence of UV light. The purpose of the present paper was to study the photodegradation of azo dyes using titania nanoparticles at different temperatures and time periods. Titania nanoparticle concentration of 0.1% (w/v) was dispersed in distilled water by sonication for 1 h in sonication bath. The of rate of degradation of Direct Green 26 dye in the titania nanoparticle dispersion, under UV-A exposure was studied at different temperatures ranging from 25°C to 65 °C for time periods ranging from 1 h to 6 h. Photocatalytic degradation tests were performed in a specially designed UV reactor chamber. Raman spectroscopy of Titania nanoparticles, dye and titania/dye mixture before and after UV exposure was carried out using Confocal Laser Dispersion Raman Microscope (Renishaw, UK) with 785 nm excitation laser. Titanium dioxide is an efficient photocatalyst for decolourisation of direct dye. The photodegradation of the direct Green dye was found to follow the pseudo first-order reaction. The Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 24.8 kJ/mol with A value of 0.0013 for the photocatalytic degradation of the dye. Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the adsorption of dye on titania nanoparticle and its complete degradation on exposure to UV light. This research highlights the application of titania nanoparticles for the effective degradation of dye in the effluent from textiles, clothing, paper and any kind of dyeing process. Azo dyes account for the majority of all dyestuffs are produced and extensively used in the textile, paper, food, leather, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Titania nanoparticles have been found to successfully degrade these dyes in the presence of UV light which can be very beneficial for the effluent treatment plants in textile and other industries. Azo dyes are one of the harmful pollutants released in textile waste water. The degradation and removal of the coloured waste in the textile effluent is an important environmental concern and needs to be investigated. The research is one of the first to investigate and understand the mechanism of the degradation of an azo dye in the presence of titania nanoparticles by Raman spectroscopy.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Knitted cardiac mesh to support left ventricular hypertrophy: an in vivo
           experimental study

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      Authors: Doaa H. Elgohary , Tamer F. Khalifa , Mona M. Salem , Nermin M. Aly , Elham Hassan , Ashraf A. Shamaa
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to perform an application study on experimental animals (dogs) to investigate the efficiency of using weft knitted mesh fabric as cardiac support mesh to support left ventricular hypertrophy. In this work, weft-knitted mesh sample “Knitted Cardiac Support Mesh” manufactured using Nylon (6, 6) yarns, with count 20 Denier and medium mesh size, was placed around the two ventricles to prevent further dilatation, support and reduce left ventricular wall stress. Medical textile is a rapidly expanding field in technical textiles that are widely used in a variety of medical applications. One of these medical textile applications is “Knitted Cardiac Support Mesh”, which is used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy. After the implantation of the manufactured Knitted Cardiac Support Mesh around the myocardium, all dogs survived for three months before being euthanized, and some clinical examinations were performed to investigate and evaluate the sample performance. It was demonstrated from the experimental application, that the nylon mesh sample performed the best during the surgical operation due to its good ability to stretch and recover at a moderate rate, as well as the textile mesh lightweight.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Bacterial cellulose: characterization of a biomaterial for apparel
           products application

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      Authors: Andréa Fernanda De Santana Costa , Maria Alice Vasconcelos Rocha , Laura Maria Abdon Fenrnandes , Julia Atroch Queiroz , Ana Carolina Monteiro Gonçalves Agra , Julia Didier Pedrosa Amorim , Leonie Asfora Sarubbo , Leonie Asfora Sarubbo
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate two bacterial cellulose (BC) films as an alternative textile surface suitable for use in the manufacture of clothing prototypes. A combination of experiments for the production and characterization of BC films with traditional techniques for sewing fabrics was carried out. BC films were produced from the bacterum Gluconacetobacter hansenii UCP1619 and from Kombucha, a consortium of microorganisms grown on sugared tea. The BC films were then purified, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and evaluated for mechanical strength. Two clothing prototypes were developed by combining BC films with a flat fabric composed of 70% linen and 30% polyester to assess the viability of the garment for future clothing making using biomaterials. The results showed that the combination of flat fabric with BC-based biomaterials is a viable alternative for the innovative use of BC films in the manufacture of apparel products, especially after optimizing the mechanical properties of the artefact. BC application studies in the textile industry are still in their early stages, although they are attracting more and more the attention of researchers around the world. The experiments carried out in this research provide new information on the handling and application of this material in innovative products for the textile industry.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2021-0048
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A study on consumer buying behaviour for fashion and luxury brands under
           emotional influence

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      Authors: Sushil Kumar Bishnoi , Sukhvir Singh
      Abstract: Fashion and luxury brands struggle to make themselves distinguished by ever more apathetic consumers in this highly competitive market. Fashion and luxury retailers can use emotional branding as a way to get their customers involved to address the increasing trend of emotional relationships with a brand to become more competitive. Although brand technology, such as product attributes, characteristics and facts, is unforgettable, personal sensations and experiences better shape brand assessments of consumers. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the dominance of consumers’ emotions over objective analysis in selection among the brands in the field of fashion and luxury products for similar products. A comprehensive literature study has been done to explore the various emotional associations that are identified by the advertising, marketing, psychology scholars and researchers. This study also analyses the relevance of consumers’ emotional associations with the fashion and luxury brands. Various online scholarly journal platforms have been used to find the relevant research papers, books and other publications on the basis of keywords of this study. Only recent studies and literature covering the basic concepts of branding, emotional buying and fashion consumer behaviour have been included after scrutinising carefully. This study illustrates how emotional branding is crucial in a volatile market, particularly for fashion and luxury brands. This study will also be focussed on the possibility in which consumers buy the fashion and luxury products under the influence of emotional needs. The objective of this paper is to inform both consumers and brands about the emotional influence on the buying decision so that both can take better conscious decision. Understanding the influence of emotional needs will help fashion brands in creating better customer value and satisfaction. A business or product will be successful only if it is chosen by the consumer to satisfy his needs. Understanding of emotional needs would result in enhancement of consumer’s loyalty for the brand with better satisfaction of needs. As huge part of marketing resources is involved into advertisement and celebrity endorsement, identifying the effective way of advertising and endorsement can help in efficient utilisation of resources.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan: a tool to revive Uttar Pradesh handloom
           sector

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      Authors: Sabiha Khatoon , Ayesha Iffat
      Abstract: The study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Indian Handloom Sector with a special focus on the state of Uttar Pradesh before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study further explores the benefits of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan for the betterment of the livelihood of the COVID-19–hit handloom weavers and allied workers. A total of 400 handloom weavers and allied workers from ten cities of Uttar Pradesh were contacted through telephone. Descriptive statistics were applied to measure the awareness about the government welfare schemes and the benefits of these schemes. Furthermore, satisfaction and opinion of the handloom weavers and allied workers regarding the benefits and sufficiency of the funds received under these schemes have also been measured. Based on the results, the least awareness has been noted about government welfare schemes. However, a small number of weavers and allied workers were found beneficiaries of the schemes. Additionally, the majority of the respondents were found dissatisfied with the benefits. The COVID-19 pandemic is an addendum to the plight of handloom weavers and allied workers. The measures of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan could be used to aid weavers and allied workers to restore their lost revenue. This study has limitations. Firstly, the research is limited to the handloom industry of Uttar Pradesh. Future researchers could consider the handloom sector of other states like Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, known for hand-woven clothes. Secondly, this study aims to analyse the role of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan in improving the living conditions of handloom weavers and allied workers and not to measure the impact of the Abhiyan on handloom weavers or the handloom sector. Researchers could measure the impact in future studies. Thirdly, the authors have not applied any behavioural theory or marketing models such as the Theory of Reasoned Action or the Blackwell model, which may be applied to study the attitude of handloom weavers towards welfare schemes. This may prove to be a potential direction for future research. Additionally, master weavers and handloom cooperatives societies were excluded while collecting the data. Future researchers could consider them to examine the role of the government’s welfare schemes for uplifting the socio-economic condition of the handloom weavers, allied workers, master weavers and the business of cooperative societies. Finally, due to lockdown and travel ban, the authors were forced to limit their survey to telephone only because of which they could not get the qualitative information in full. Researchers for future studies could visit the handloom concentrated areas personally or take the help of an enumerator for data collection. The research holds significance for the young and competent designers, handloom weavers and allied workers. Designers could work with and hire handloom weavers of Uttar Pradesh. If designers and weavers work together, it will help them restore their business and generate revenue that they have lost due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, policymakers can collaborate with designers, which will help enhance the socio-economic condition of handloom weavers and allied workers, which has deteriorated due to the COVID-19 crisis. The research holds significance from the point of view of exploring the challenges faced by handloom weavers and allied workers of the state of UP before and during the COVID-19 period while examining the role of AatmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan in setting off these challenges.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-05-2021-0061
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Performance analysis of PCM curtain for thermal comfort

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      Authors: Shubham Srivastava , Abhishek Srivastava , Sanya Jain , Nandan Kumar , Chandra Shekhar Malvi
      Abstract: This study aims to analyse the variations of thermal comfort inside a building space by using different curtains. Phase change materials (PCMs) such as wax, sand and mixture of sand and wax were used with cotton curtain to compare the results of PCM curtains with the performance of normal cotton curtain against constant heat exposure. Heat exposure was provided with halogen to simulate the solar radiation. Further simulation was performed on ANSYS and experimental results were compared with the simulation results. In addition to this, the results were analysed for optimized performance by calculation root mean square error. It was found that PCM used curtains that have better performance than normal curtain. Furthermore, sand curtain was proved as the best curtain and mixture of sand and wax curtain could replace the sand curtain where there is limitation of weight; also, there was less error between experimental and simulation was reported for sand curtain as compare to other curtains. Layers of different PCMs were used before cotton curtain and in modelling assumptions such as one-dimensional heat transfer, uniform thermal conductivity. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no such study that was performed earlier.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-05-2021-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Application of zinc oxide nano particles using polymeric binders on cotton
           fabric

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      Authors: Neha Mulchandani , Vishaka Karnad
      Abstract: The durability of antimicrobial agents and its effectiveness is the most important factor for consumer usage. One important class of antimicrobial agents are inorganic metals and their metal oxides which can be prepared into nanoparticles and can be imparted to enhance the antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of three different polymeric binders during the application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the antimicrobial and performance properties of the finished fabric. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a wet chemical method. The nano-particles size distributions was determined using Nanoplus Dynamic Light Scattering particle size distribution analyzer and concentration of nano ZnO 0.1% (w/v) was applied with 2% (w/v) polymeric binders, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyurethane (PU) and butyl acrylic (BA) on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The treated samples were tested for physical properties such as tearing strength, tensile strength, crease recovery and air permeability and antimicrobial properties using test method American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) 100. Further, the content of zinc in the treated samples was determined by the atomic absorption method. The treated fabric was analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic and also tested for cytotoxicity as per International Organization for Standardization 10993. The results indicated that the type of polymeric binders did not show any influence on the uptake of the zinc content. All treated samples showed positive results>99% with regard to antibacterial property. However, the polymeric treated samples showed a difference in physical properties. The ZnO nano-finish reduced the tensile strength and tearing strength of the fabrics. The difference in crease recovery for samples ZnO/PVA and ZnO/PU was not much except for ZnO/BA where it increased by 38%. The air permeability decreased after application for all treated samples, the lowest among treated samples was in ZnO/PU fabric. Further, ZnO/PVA finished fabric was found to retain antibacterial property up to 50 washes and was effective against MS2 Bacteriophage as a surrogate virus when analyzed as per AATCC 100–2012 test method, and therefore can be potentially used as health-care apparel such as doctors coat and scrub suits. The outcome of this research is in its contribution to the field of reusable textiles. It highlights the use of nanotechnology to design and develop cotton fabrics for antimicrobial properties which has the potential of preventing the growth of harmful bacteria. The study brings forth the use of ZnO nanoparticles mixed with PVA binder on 100% cotton fabrics which exhibits antibacterial and antiviral properties with adequate wash durability. Currently, there is a high demand of effective durable textiles with barrier properties and the present study provides a promising solution to provide reusable textiles with a greater level of protection.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-02-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A critical review on cleanroom filtration

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      Authors: Monica Puri Sikka , Mandira Mondal
      Abstract: Cleanrooms are highly controlled enclosed rooms where air quality is monitored and ensured to have less contamination according to standard cleanliness level. Air filters are used to optimize indoor air quality and remove air pollutants. Filter media and filtering system are decided as per requirement. Depth filter media are mostly used in cleanroom filtrations. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of the evolution of cleanroom filter media. It evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of air filter media. It is also studied which air filters have additional properties such as anti-microbial properties, anti-odour properties and chemical absorbent. Development and innovation of air filters and filtration techniques are necessary to improve the performance via the synergistic effect and it can be a possible avenue of future research. This paper aims to drive the future of air filter research and development in achieving high-performance filtration with high filtration efficiency, low operational cost and high durability. Air pollutants are classified into three types: suspended particles, volatile organic pollutants and microorganisms. Technologies involved in purification are filtration, water washing purification, electrostatic precipitation and anion technology. They purify the air by running it through a filter medium that traps dust, hair, pet fur and debris. As air passes through the filter media, they function as a sieve, capturing particles. The fibres in the filter medium provide a winding path for airflow. There are different types of air filters such as the high-efficiency particulate air filter, fibreglass air filter and ultra-low particulate air filter. Emerging filtration technologies and filters such as nanofibres, filters with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane are likely to become prevalent over the coming years globally. The introduction of indoor air filtration with thermal comfort can be a possible avenue of future research along with expanding indoor environment monitoring and improving air quality predictions. New air filters and filtration technologies having better performance with low cost and high durability must be developed which can restrict multiple types of pollutants at the same time. The systematic literature review approach used in this paper highlights the emerging trends and issues in cleanroom filtration in a structured and thematic manner, enabling future work to progress as it will continue to develop and evolve.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-02-2021-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Prediction of bond strength in the fused shirt composites

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      Authors: Renjini Girija , Sudhakar Rajagopal
      Abstract: Bond strength is an indicator of the quality of the fusing process. The study's primary purpose is to predict the bond strength using easily measurable variables. This study focuses on shirting fabrics fused with woven interlinings and changes in bond strength before and after washing. This study attempts to model and predict bond strength of fused shirt composites using an initial screening design followed by full factorial design of experiments. After screening out, those found significantly affecting the bond strength are fabric fiber content, interlining areal weight and fusing temperature. This study proposes the regression models explaining the effect of the three variables on bond strength before and after washing the fused composites. This study found that heavy interlinings (250 g/sq.m) require higher fusing temperatures than the lighter interlining (225 g/sq.m). After washing, the bond strength of samples fused at high temperatures reduced in some instances. Maintaining a high temperature without considering interlining weight can lower the bond strength after washing the fused composites. A combination of screening and full factorial DOE is used to analyze and predict bond strength of composites comprising medium-weight shirting fabrics and heavier weight interlinings used in shirts.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-09-08
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-01-2021-0009
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Oil spill cleanup by natural fibers: a review

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      Authors: Viju Subramoniapillai , Govindharajan Thilagavathi
      Abstract: In recent years, oil spill pollution has become one of the main problems of environmental pollution. Recovering oil by means of sorbent materials is a very promising approach and has acquired more attention due to its high cleanup efficiency. Compared to synthetic fibrous sorbents, the use of natural fibers in oil spill cleanups offers several advantages including environmental friendliness, degradable features and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, studies on developing sorbents using natural fibers for oil spill cleanup applications have become a research hotspot. This paper reviews the work conducted by several researchers in developing oil sorbents from fibers such as cattail, nettle, cotton, milkweed, kapok, populous seed fiber and Metaplexis japonica fiber. Some featured critical parameters influencing the oil sorption capacity of fibrous substrates are discussed. Oil sorption capacity and reusability performance of various fibers are also discussed. Recent developments in oil spill cleanups and test methods for oil sorbents are briefly covered. The main parameters influencing the oil sorption capacity of sorbents are fiber morphological structure, fiber density (g/cc), wax (%), hollowness (%) and water contact angle. An extensive literature review showed that oil sorption capacity is highest for Metaplexis japonica fiber followed by populous seed fiber, kapok, milkweed, cotton, nettle and cattail fiber. After use, the sorbents can be buried under soil or they can also be burned so that they can be vanished from the surface without causing environmental-related issues. This review paper aims to summarize research studies conducted related to various natural fibers for oil spill cleanups, fiber structural characteristics influencing oil sorption and recent developments in oil spill cleanups. This work will inspire future researchers with various knowledge backgrounds, particularly, from a sustainability perspective.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An exploratory study of participants’ fit perceptions of customized
           garments

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      Authors: Siming Guo , Cynthia L. Istook
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore participants’ fit perceptions of customized garments and investigate the factors that affected the customized fit. Because different patternmaking methods generate varied fit results, eight customized dresses were developed for four fit models aged 18–25 using two different made-to-measure (MTM) systems (Gerber AccuMark and Telestia Creator). The authors designed a questionnaire to assess the fit of the final garments on each of the four models. A total of 12 participants (four fit models and eight experts) attended a live evaluation meeting and completed the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data of the participants’ fit perceptions were collected and analyzed. The authors compared the fit outputs of the two MTM systems and determined the fit issues from the participants’ perceptions. The results showed that the participants evaluated the customized fit mainly according to the ease, seam placement and wrinkle occurrence. The majority of fit models and experts preferred Dress B created using Telestia Creator to Dress A developed using Gerber AccuMark. The participants’ fit perceptions also revealed that many factors, such as the MTM systems, participants’ fit preferences, models’ body characteristics, fabric and ease, impacted the fit results. In addition, the experts perceived more fit issues than the models. The fit output comparison of the two MTM systems could be valuable for pattern makers to use the systems. The research results would also be useful for apparel companies to conduct a fit evaluation and improve their customization processes.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effects of yarn and fabric structural parameters on surface friction
           of plain-woven fabrics

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      Authors: Kura Alemayehu Beyene , Soliyana Gebeyaw
      Abstract: Friction is considered to be one property of cloth that has considerable importance in the fields of both technological and subjective assessment for surface properties of textile fabrics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affective aspects of yarn and fabric structural parameters on the behavior of surface friction of plain woven fabrics. In this study, nine varieties of half-bleached cotton plain-woven fabrics with three weft yarn count (tex) and three weft thread density (ppc) are produced and will be examined for their frictional characteristics. The surface frictional properties of plain-woven fabrics were measured by using Kawabata (KES-Fb4) testing instrument. The ANOVA analysis is used to determine how yarn (count) and fabric (density) structural parameters does influence the surface friction properties of the fabrics. Also, the interaction effects between the factors (count and density) on the response variable (surface friction) of plain-woven fabrics. The findings of this study revealed that the effects of weft yarn count and pick-density have statistically significant on the frictional behavior of the fabric surface properties at a 95% confidence interval. Thus, weft yarn count has a positive correlation with both coefficient of friction (MIU) and mean deviation of coefficient of friction (MMD) on frictional behavior of the fabric surface properties. On the other hand, pick density has a negative correlation with both MIU and MMD on frictional behavior of the fabric surface properties. The weft count, pick density and their interactions (Count X Density) have multicollinearity in the experiment term because the variance inflation factor values were greater than one. The findings of this study can be routinely used across the textile industries and laboratories to provide a fundamental understanding regarding the surface frictional properties of the woven fabric for different end applications concerning the yarn structural parameters and fabric structural parameters. And the relationship of count and density with surface friction of plain woven fabrics.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Consumer expectations and perception of clothing comfort in sports and
           exercise garments

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      Authors: Julia Wilfling , George Havenith , Margherita Raccuglia , Simon Hodder
      Abstract: Sports garments play an important role in the well-being of an athlete by protecting the wearer from changing environmental conditions and providing a comfortable feel. Clothing requirements have changed in recent years and demand for apparel with a higher comfort performance has been rising. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore consumers’ expectations and perception of comfort and to examine how different textiles are perceived by consumers to provide useful knowledge that allows to engineer comfort into fabrics and sports garments. This online survey comprised 292 respondents, classified by sex, age, nationality and physical activity. The respondents were asked a total of 18 questions through the Bristol Online Survey tool to explore expectation, perception and preference of clothing comfort, specifically of sportswear. Fit and comfort are closely linked together, both forming part of the clothing comfort concept. When purchasing garments online, the haptics of fabrics were identified as a crucial missing parameter. However, priorities of attributes within the concept varied according to the person’s sex and nationality. Women put more emphasis on garment fit and showed a higher need for tactile input, whereas men prioritised physiological comfort descriptors, i.e. properties which facilitate thermoregulation. Furthermore, there is an increased importance of physiological comfort parameters for people exercising for 10 or more hours per week. Finally, it was possible to identify common associations and preferences for textile materials (cotton, polyester, cotton/polyester blend and wool). However, consideration should be taken concerning sex and nationality. Sex and nationality are parameters modulating the clothing comfort concept and the conceptualised feel of materials. Therefore, the sex and nationality of the end-consumer should be considered during the development phase of sports garments and particular attention should be given to the targeted market in which these will be sold.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-01-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Artificial neural network and regression models for prediction of sewing
           thread consumption for multilayered fabric assembly at lockstitch 301 seam
           

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      Authors: Md Vaseem Chavhan , M. Ramesh Naidu , Hayavadana Jamakhandi
      Abstract: This paper aims to propose the artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models for the estimation of the thread consumption at multilayered seam assembly stitched with lock stitch 301. In the present study, the generalized regression and neural network models are developed by considering the fabric types: woven, nonwoven and multilayer combination thereof, with basic sewing parameters: sewing thread linear density, stitch density, needle count and fabric assembly thickness. The network with feed-forward backpropagation is considered to build the ANN, and the training function trainlm of MATLAB software is used to adjust weight and basic values according to the optimization of Levenberg Marquardt. The performance of networks measured in terms of the mean squared error and the layer output is set according to the sigmoid transfer function. The proposed ANN and regression model are able to predict the thread consumption with more accuracy for multilayered seam assembly. The predictability of thread consumption from available geometrical models, regression models and industrial empirical techniques are compared with proposed linear regression, quadratic regression and neural network models. The proposed quadratic regression model showed a good correlation with practical thread consumption value and more accuracy in prediction with an overall 4.3% error, as compared to other techniques for given multilayer substrates. Further, the developed ANN network showed good accuracy in the prediction of thread consumption. The estimation of thread consumed while stitching is the prerequisite of the garment industry for inventory management especially with the introduction of the costly high-performance sewing thread. In practice, different types of fabrics are stitched at multilayer combinations at different locations of the stitched product. The ANN and regression models are developed for multilayered seam assembly of woven and nonwoven fabric blend composition for better prediction of thread consumption.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-09-2020-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An investigation of the mass-market fashion design process

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      Authors: Prabod Dharshana Munasinghe , D.G.K. Dissanayake , Angela Druckman
      Abstract: The process of fashion design varies between market segments, yet these variations have not yet been properly explored. This study aims to examine the fashion design process as practised at the mass-market level, as this is the most vibrant and the largest market segment in terms of production volumes and sales. It is observed that 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with mass-market fashion designers. Key activities of the mass-market design process were identified and a comparative analysis was conducted with the general design process. The mass-market design process is found to prioritise profits rather than aesthetic aspects, with the buyer exercising more power than the designer. This hinders creativity, which, in turn, may impede a move towards more environmentally benign designs. The clothing industry is responsible for high environmental impacts and many of these impacts arise through decisions made in the design stage. In particular, the mass-market for clothing because of its high volume of sales and fast throughput, accounts for a great deal of the impact. However, little is understood about the design process that is practised in the mass-fashion market. This paper fills the gap by developing a framework that describes the mass-market design process. Understanding the design process will enable progress to be made towards achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-08-2020-0089
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Brand personality of fabric content: an application of the
           multidimensional implicit association test (md-IAT)

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      Authors: Seung-Eun Lee
      Abstract: This study aims to explore whether fabric contents, specifically cotton and polyester, possess particular personality dimensions, as posited by Aaker (1997). The author examined both explicit (conscious, deliberate) and implicit (unconscious, automatic) perceptions of brand personality traits of cotton and polyester. The convenience sample of this study included 51 students from different merchandising classes in a Midwestern university. Participants were first directed to the multidimensional implicit association test (md-IAT) and their implicit perceptions were measured for the content of the two fabrics (cotton and polyester) on five different personality attribute dimensions (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness). After the IAT, participants completed the post-IAT survey, including explicit measures of brand personality attributes of cotton and polyester. The findings of this study show that fabric contents can be successfully described and differentiated by Aaker’s brand personality dimensions. Compared with polyester, the distinctive brand personality of cotton was the favorable association between cotton and sincerity. This association was significantly higher than all other personality dimensions in both consumers’ implicit and explicit perceptions. Neither cotton nor polyester was significantly associated with the exciting, competent and sophisticated personality dimensions. A unique contribution of this study is that it examines implicit perceptions of the brand personality traits of cotton and polyester. The use of the md-IAT in this study allowed the assessment of consumers’ automatic associations with cotton and polyester of which they may not be aware.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-02-2021-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of Celliant® armbands on grip strength in subjects with chronic
           wrist and elbow pain: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Ian L. Gordon , Seth Casden , Michael R. Hamblin
      Abstract: This study aims to test the effects of Celliant armbands on grip strength in subjects with chronic wrist and elbow pain. Celliant® is a functional textile fabric containing minerals that emit infrared radiation (IR) in response to body heat. IR-emitting fabrics have biological effects including the reduction of pain and inflammation and the stimulation of muscle function. A randomized placebo-controlled trial recruited 80 subjects (40 per group) with a six-month history of chronic wrist or elbow pain (carpal tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis or arthritis) to wear an armband (real Celliant or placebo fabric) on the affected wrist or elbow for two weeks. Grip strength was measured by a dynamometer before and after the two-week study. For the placebo group, the mean grip strength increased from 47.95 ± 25.14 (baseline) to 51.69 ± 27.35 (final), whereas for the Celliant group, it increased from 46.3 ± 22.02 to 54.1 ± 25.97. The mean per cent increase over the two weeks was +7.8% for placebo and +16.8% for Celliant (p = 0.0372). No adverse effects was observed. Limitations include the wide variation in grip strength in the participants at baseline measurement, which meant that only the percentage increase between baseline and final measurements showed a significant difference. Moreover, no subjective measurements of pain or objective neurophysiology testes was done. Celliant armbands are easy to wear and have not been shown to produce any adverse effects. Therefore, there appears to be no barrier to prevent widespread uptake. IR-emitting textiles have been studied for their beneficial effects, both in patients diagnosed with various disorders and also in healthy volunteers for health and wellness purposes. Although there are many types of textile technology that might be used to produce IR-emitting fabrics, including coating of the fabric with a printed layer of ceramic material, incorporating discs of mineral into the garment, the authors feel that incorporating ceramic particles into the polymer fibers from which the fabric is woven is likely to be the most efficient way of achieving the goal. Celliant armbands appear to be effective in painful upper limb inflammatory disorders, and further studies are warranted. The mechanism of action is not completely understood, but the hypothesis that the emitted IR radiation is absorbed by nanostructured intracellular water provides some theoretical justification.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Natural cellulosic fiber from leaves for textile application: extraction
           and characterization

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      Authors: Atin Sumihartati , Wiah Wardiningsih , Naelly Al Kautsar , Muhammad Permana , Samuel Pradana , Ryan Rudy
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of Cordyline Australis fibers as an alternate raw material for textile. The water retting method was used to extract the fiber. Cordyline Australis fibers were characterized in terms of the morphology of fibers (fiber cross-sectional and longitudinal), fiber chemical functional groups, tensile strength and elongation, fineness, fiber length, moisture regain and friction coefficient. Cordyline Australis fiber strands consist of several individual fibers. At the longitudinal section, the fiber cells appeared as long cylindrical tubes with a rough surface. The cross-section of the Cordyline Australis fibers was irregular but some were oval. The key components in the fibers were cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The tensile strength of the fiber per bundle was 2.5 gf/den. The elongation of fibers was 13.15%. The fineness of fiber was 8.35 Tex. The average length of the fibers was 54.72 cm. Moisture Regain for fiber was 8.59%. The friction coefficient of fibers was 0.16. The properties of the fiber showed that the Cordyline Australis fiber has the potential to be produced into yarn. To the best of the author's knowledge, there is no scientific article focused on the Cordyline Australis fibers. Natural fibers from the leaves of the Cordyline Australis plant could be used as an alternate material for textile.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2021-0049
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Assessing university police officers’ uniforms and wearing
           experiences

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      Authors: Brooke Brandewie , Injoo Kim , Myoung-Ok Kim
      Abstract: This study aims to suggest opportunities for enhancing the police uniform design with consideration to the emotional and physical satisfaction of the wearers, by assessing the wearing experience. University police officers at a University in the Midwestern region of the USA were surveyed to examine both psychological and emotional aspects including performance, comfort, professionalism and empowerment, as well as their satisfaction levels with fit, fabrics, aesthetics and functionality. The study found that the wearing experience was poor, and not surprisingly, fabric satisfaction ranked the lowest of all factors. In regard to color, results showed that the uniforms should be in colors that are suitable to the university context, which in this case the wearers preferred the University athletic colors of black and red. It is easier to consider these colors, as they are a part of their organization and also enable the police to stand apart from municipal police, contrary to previous research demonstrating dark colors have negative connotations. Findings suggest that the university police uniform should have an athletic style with a regular fit, using specific performance fabrics that allow for stretch and breathability. This study assesses the police uniform design and wearing experience and suggests design details to enhance how well officers physically perform in their role and also to inspire them to feel proud of their job and organization.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-12-2020-0135
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Fiber length – the persuadable factor in making natural fiber
           composite: a review

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      Authors: Mallika Datta , Debasish Das , Devarun Nath
      Abstract: The study aims to review the literatures on the effect of fiber length on the mechanical response of natural fiber composite will help the researchers to know about the perspective of the various natural fibers in making of composite concerning fiber length. The review summarized the work of the other researchers, thereby unambiguously précised suitability of a specific natural fiber for a matrix in use. Thus, one can identify the use of the same fibers–matrix combination to obtain composites with different properties with the control of fiber/matrix interface. The review work proposes a new kind of diagrammatic representation that expresses the influence of fiber length. This work has not been explored before in this specific format. The chronology of work may help to select natural fibers for use in composites for a specific matrix. The length of the fiber perception in terms of “critical” length decides the need for pre-treatment process of natural fiber to improve shear stress at the interface for various matrices. The current review paper attempts to shed light on the association between the fiber length of natural fiber and the mechanical response of natural fiber composite. Moreover, it probes the concepts of critical fiber length as a persuadable factor.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-12-2020-0146
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Citric acid as environment friendly crease-resistance finishing agent for
           silk fabric combined by ß-cyclodextrin

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      Authors: Abolfazl Zare
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of cross-linking silk fabric using citric acid (CA) as the cross-linking agent and nano-TiO2 (NTO) particles as a catalyst at low temperature and under UV irradiation. This paper also assesses the possibility of treated samples with suitable combinations of CA and NTO to impart multiple functional properties such as self-cleaning and antimicrobial properties. In this research, ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) grafted onto silk fabric using CA as a crosslinking agent and NTO particles as a catalyst through a pad-dry-cure technique and with UVA irradiation. The effects of different concentrations of CA, ß-CD and NTO particles on some properties of the treated samples are evaluated, and the optimum finishing conditions are obtained. The author also investigated the washing durability of the modified product after ten times of washing. The results showed that CA plays the role of a linking agent through an esterification reaction with the hydroxyl groups of both ß-CD and silk fabrics and improves the durability of materials on the textile surface. Also, the silk fabrics treated with CA only were found to have excellent photocatalytic properties and better antibacterial activity than the control sample and the fabrics treated with a mixture of ß-CD/CA. This study was conducted to achieve multiple functions such as antibacterial and photocatalytic activities, good dry crease recovery angle and wet crease recovery angle behavior without a significant adverse effect on the Yellowness index and tensile properties for treated silk fabrics.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-01-2021-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Big data analysis of trends in the second-hand apparel market: a
           comparison between 2014 and 2019

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      Authors: Sanghee Kim , Hongjoo Woo
      Abstract: According to the perspective of evolutionary economic theory, the marketplace continuously evolves over time, following the changing needs of both customers and firms. In accordance with the theory, the second-hand apparel market has been rapidly expanding by meeting consumers’ diverse preferences and promoting sustainability since 2014. To understand what changes in consumers’ consumption behaviors regarding used apparel have driven this growth, the purpose of this study is to examine how the second-hand apparel market product types, distribution channels and consumers’ motives have changed over the past five years. This study collected big data from Google through Textom software by extracting all Web-exposed text in 2014, and again in 2019, that contained the keyword “second-hand apparel,” and used the Node XL program to visualize the network patterns of these words through the semantic network analysis. The results indicate that the second-hand apparel market has evolved with various changes over the past five years in terms of consumer motives, product types and distribution channels. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the changing demands of consumers toward used apparel over the past five years, providing insights for retailers as well as future research in this subject area.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-12-2020-0139
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Application of multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis
           (MOORA) for selection of cotton fabrics for optimal thermal comfort

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      Authors: Ashis Mitra
      Abstract: Selection of fabrics for particular purposy-e has created lots of research interest over the years, and the said problems have been addressed by several researchers using various multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight a maiden approach to handle one such fabric selection problem using multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis (MOORA) as a simple yet potent MCDM tool. Two approaches of MOORA method (namely, ratio system and reference point) have been demonstrated for ranking of 13 candidate fabrics based on four fabric attributes, namely, fabric cover, thickness, areal density and porosity. In both the approaches, candidate fabric F3 secures rank 1 (the best alternative) whereas fabric F6 occupies rank 13 (the worst alternative). Moreover, ranking orders of these two approaches are alike and also show very high level of congruence with those of other approaches reported by earlier researchers, as evidenced from extremely high rank correlation coefficients (Rs > 0.89). During sensitivity analysis, each of the ranking results obtained from the four simulated weight sets do demonstrate very high degree of correlation (Rs > 0.90 for ratio system, and Rs > 0.81 for reference point). Besides, no occurrence of rank reversal is observed even when the initial decision-making matrix is changed. Most the methods adopted so far for fabric selection purpose involve huge mathematical equations, complex computation and/or logic. The uniqueness of the MOORA method is that it involves minimal and thus very simple mathematical operations although possesses higher level of robustness and reliability.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-02-2021-0021
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • An automatic air inflated tubeless safety jacket for motorbike riders

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      Authors: Rameesh Lakshan Bulathsinghala , Sandun Fernando , Thantirige Sanath Siroshana Jayawardana , Nilanthi Heenkenda , Sajeeva Jeyakumar , Prathees Packiyarasa , Gamage Hemamala , Dhananatha Wijesena
      Abstract: Motorcycle is one of the popular modes of transport in developing countries. However, the statistics related to accidents show that motorcycles are the most vulnerable vehicles. Research studies have revealed that half of all the possible types of motorcycle injuries could be reduced or prevented using effective protective clothing. Facts and figures emphasize that this is high time to develop a safety jacket for motorbike riders. This paper aims to develop an innovative, integrated automatic air-inflated tubeless jacket to prevent major injuries in fatal accidents. Two accelerometers integrated near the front axle, an angle sensor and the electronic control unit (ECU) were used to detect the collision or accident. The sensors were fixed on the bike and connected with the ECU via a bluetooth device that was always at the activated stage. The fused sensors were emulated with the ECU under laboratory conditions. The trigger signal generated by the crash discriminant algorithm triggered the chemical reaction to generate N2 gas and inflate the tubeless safety jacket. Under laboratory conditions, it was found that the signal generated by the ECU unit ejected approximately 15 litres of N2 gas in volume to fill the jacket within 100 milliseconds, which was less than the approximate estimated falling time of the rider 120 milliseconds. The existing developments of airbag systems in motorbikes are mounted on the motorbikes' frame, following the airbag systems in automobiles. These developments cannot fully protect the rider due to differentiation in crash dynamics and respective positions of the rider at the point of impact. Though few safety jackets and airbag vests are developed, the airbag deployment is activated when rider and motorbike separated during a collision using a tether-triggering mechanism. The authors designed the jacket so that inflation is activated not only by crash sensors but also on the fusion of multiple sensors based on a crash discriminative algorithm. The airbag deployment mechanism is incorporated with the jacket and acts as a safety jacket during a collision.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-01-2021-0002
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Thermal property analysis of tri layer composite fabric towards the
           utility of sleeping bag

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      Authors: Senthil Kumar B. , Murugan T.
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate on composite fabrics to develop the improved sleeping bag using trilayered textile structures. A thermal comfort analysis of fabrics is essential to design an enhanced type of sleeping bag. In this study, optimizing thermal and permeability properties of different combinations of trilayer composite fabrics was done. The inner layer was 100% wool-knitted single jersey fabric. The middle layer was polyester needle punched non-woven fabric. The outermost layer was nylon-based Core-Tex branded waterproof breathable fabric. Five variations in wool-knitted samples were developed by changing the loop length and yarn count to optimize the best possible combination. Two different polyester non-woven fabrics have been produced with the changes in bulk density. Twelve trilayer composite fabric samples have been produced, and thermal comfort properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal absorptivity, thermal resistance, air permeability and relative water vapour permeability have been analysed. Among the 12 samples, one optimized sample has been found with the specification of 100% wool with 25 Tex yarn linear density having 4.432-mm loop length inner-layered fabric, 96 g/m2 polyester nonwoven fabric as the middle layer, and 220 g/m2 Nylon-Core tex branded outermost layer. All the functional properties of the composite fabric are significantly different with the knitted wool fabrics and polyester nonwoven fabrics, which have been confirmed by analysis of variance study. This research work supports for producing sleeping bag with enhanced comfort level.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2020-0032
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Influence of fibre properties and its proportion on filtration behaviour
           of thermo-bonded multilayer nonwoven

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      Authors: Gobi Nallathambi
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of fibre properties on filtration behavior. Air pollution is a major threat to human beings due to industrialization and urbanization. Among various particles in the atmospheric air, PM 2.5 causes various respiratory problems to human beings and also causes premature engine wear. The primary importance for the filters is higher filtration efficiency with lower pressure drop. In this research, nonwoven filters were developed with different diameters of polyester fibres such as 0.8d, 1.2d and 6d fibres and different proportions of fibres were used. The Kuwabara cell model was used to derive certain parameters and its effects were analysed. The effect of basis length, solid volume fraction and porosity on filtration behavior was discussed in detail. The filtration efficiency is higher for particle size from 1–3 µm, when different layers of polyester fibres are used with coarser fibres as the top layer and finer as the bottom layer. The filtration performance is better for layered nonwoven than unimodal nonwoven. The higher proportion of micro-denier fibres results in higher filtration efficiency with higher pressure drop. The proposed research is more suitable for the particle size of more than 1 µm because of the fibre diameters and its achievable porosity. The filtration efficiency can be increased further by increasing the mass per unit area, which also increases the pressure and is not recommended. The effect of triple-layers with different diameters of fibres on filtration was analysed. Due to the variation in diameters of fibres in different layers, the filtration performance varies.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-06-16
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-04-2020-0035
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Dyeing of cotton fabric with Euclea divinorum extract using response
           surface optimization method

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      Authors: Scolastica Manyim , Ambrose Kipchumba Kiprop , Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi , Cleophas Mecha Achisa , Mark Peter Odero
      Abstract: The majority of the synthetic dyes have been found to be non-biodegradable, toxic and carcinogenic. As a result, there has been a growing trend toward the use of natural dyes as alternates to synthetic dyes. This shift calls for more research to come up with more sources of natural dyes to satisfy their increasing demand. Euclea divinorum plant has been used traditionally as a source of dye, however, its textile dyeing properties have not been studied. This study aims to determine the textile dyeing properties of E. divinorum extract. Optimization of dyeing conditions of Euclea divinorum natural dye extract on the cotton fabric was done using response surface methodology (RSM). The combined effects of examined dyeing conditions on the relative color strength (K/S) were studied using a central composite experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the statistical model generated for the study. Mordanting effects were measured using standard ISO wash, rub and lightfastness tests. The optimum dyeing conditions were found to be 68 min, pH 3.3 and 82°C with color strength 0.609. Temperature and pH showed some interaction effects during the dyeing experiments. The predicted optimum K/S value was validated experimentally using the optimum conditions and was found to be in agreement with the experimental values. All the metallic mordants used enhanced the color strength and provided a variety of brown shades, therefore, a suitable alternative for the toxic synthetic dyes. Optimization of dyeing conditions of Euclea divinorum dye on cotton using RSM and mordanting at optimal conditions has not been done elsewhere.
      Citation: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-10-2020-0115
      Issue No: Vol. 26 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Research Journal of Textile and Apparel

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