Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AATCC Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.197
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2250-2483 - ISSN (Online) 2250-2491
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Research on Post-Press Technology on Fabric Packaging's Interaction Design

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      Abstract: Fabric product packaging not only protects the fabric, but also forms an interactive barrier between people and objects. This article analyzes the interactive design of fabric packaging comprehensively and systematically through post-press processing technology. With the help of printing technology, the interactive design method of fabric packaging is constructed from multiple perspectives such as materials, packaging structure, and visual communication, which provides a new design thinking mode and perspective for the practice of fabric packaging from the perspective of post-press processing.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
       
  • Comparative Study on the Properties of Normal and Cluster Wrap Cotton Ring
           Spun Yarn

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      Abstract: Composite yarns are structures which consist of at least two strands, one forming the central axis or core and other forms wrap. Composite yarn is classified into covered yarn, core spun yarn and wrapping spun yarn. Composite yarns are used for special applications like military apparels, sportswear, sewing thread, protective textiles, etc. Wrap yarn is a composite structure and consists of twisted or twist less core of fibres bound by a continuous filament. Wrap yarn is produced by various methods; most commonly used method is hollow spindle method and ring spinning method. To improve the wrap yarn properties, the yarn is made in ring spinning machinery by making some modifications. It is widely recognized that new technology innovations in ring spinning in the production of wrap yarn will increase the yarn covering ability, yarn tenacity, uniformity, great potential to product versatility, etc. The concentration of this work is to produce cluster wrap yarn using different types of spreading roller retrofitted in the ring frame on the basis of solo spinning technology. The VGWS yarn shows 7 wraps per cm along the length of the yarn, and the wrapping ability of the VGWS yarn is better compared to that of other wrap spun yarns. The results demonstrate that the tenacity and elongation of VGWS are higher than other three yarns. The hairiness, evenness and imperfections per km of VGWS yarn are also better than CWS, LGWS and RGWS wrap spun yarns.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
       
  • Development of UV Protective Finished Fabric using Herbal Synthesized
           Colloidal Solution of Silver Nanoparticles

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      Abstract: The aim of this research is to produce fabric treated with UV protective finish using herbal synthesized colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles (H-AgNPs). In this purpose, the solution was synthesized with Tulsi (Holy Basil) extract. One cotton knit sample was prepared with ten layers of colloidal solution of H-AgNPs through pad-dry-cure method. Second sample was produced with one layer using ten times concentrated colloidal solution of H-AgNPs following the same procedure. Treated samples were subjected to colour strength (K/S value) measurement, SEM analysis, FTIR analysis and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) test. The K/S value of the second sample was very close to the tenth layer of the first sample. From SEM image of second sample, it was revealed that a large amount of H-AgNPs were deposited on the fibre surface. In terms of UPF test, second sample possessed excellent UPF rating. The FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of phytochemicals of Tulsi (Holy Basil) extract on treated sample. Due to the availability of Tulsi in nature and the low cost of raw materials, this process can be considered to apply commercially and also for further research purpose.
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
       
  • A Study of Sound Absorption Properties of Jute Felt Mattress

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      Abstract: In recent years, natural fibres find their place as sound absorbers as the traditional synthetic absorbers have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. While considering jute, it is mostly used in packaging industries, though jute felts and composite are used in automobiles, the sound absorption aspect can be explored in many ways. In this paper, the acoustic absorption behaviour of jute sample is studied under normal incidence of sound, using the impedance tube method. The sound absorption coefficient was observed at, varying sample thickness, alkali treatment to jute (woolenization of jute), and binder concentrations in the samples. It was observed that an increase in the sample thickness improves the sound absorption. On the other hand, the binder concentration has shown a negative effect on the samples' sound absorption behaviour. Samples with 20–30–mm-thickness and 10% binder concentration have shown sound absorption coefficient 0.8 beyond 1.5 kHz frequency. It was also seen that the alkali treatment to the sample does not influence the sound-absorbing behaviour.
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00229-x
       
  • Engineering the Structure of Multi-thread Fancy Bouclé Yarn: Individual
           Effects of the Number of Wraps and the Overfeed Ratio

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      Abstract: This study is about the influence of the number of wraps and the overfeed ratio on the fancy bouclé yarn structure. The bouclé yarns of this study were made on a hollow-spindle spinning system. The number of wraps and the overfeed ratio were increased incrementally and individually in two different experiments. It was found that there were significant linear relationships between increasing the overfeed ratio and increasing the number and size of fancy bouclé profiles, but at the expense of decreasing their circularity ratio and changing the bouclé yarn morphology. However, increasing the number of wraps made a significant linear reduction to the size of fancy bouclé profile but without affecting their number. This study aids bouclé yarn manufacturers to increase their understanding of the structure and aesthetics of bouclé yarns. It also shows them how the morphology of bouclé profiles may change when the overfeed ratio or the number of wraps is changed. In particular, variants of bouclé profiles may appear, which can increase the potential for those variants to attract the attention of designers and consumers. It also can strengthen the manufacturers’ capabilities to satisfy the needs of a wide range of consumers, by creating a wider range of novelty clothing.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00225-1
       
  • Multifunctional Epoxy Nanocomposites for Improved Mechanical Properties
           for Surface Coating Applications

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      Abstract: The nanocomposite surface coating film samples were prepared by high-speed mechanical mixing of novolac epoxy resin (EEW 180 eq/gm) and a varying amount of nano-CaCO3 (0–5 wt%) for 30 min. Further, these mixtures were used to cast 100 microns films on the metal/glass panels and subjected to cure at 110º C for 1 h and post-cure at 80 ºC for 5 h. The nanocomposite surface coating film samples were tested for mechanical properties (viz. impact resistance, scratch hardness, adhesion, and flexibility) and resistance to artificial seawater (ASW). It was observed that 4 wt% nano-CaCO3 containing film sample showed maximum impact strength, scratch hardness, adhesion, and flexibility, and resistance to ASW compared to neat epoxy and other nanocomposite film samples. The curing behavior of nanocomposite film samples was analyzed by DSC.  The reactivity effect of nano-CaCO3 blending on epoxy resin by FTIR spectroscopy, morphological studies by SEM, and surface gloss by Triglossometer were also investigated.
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00224-2
       
  • Removal of Scaling Ions from Catalytic Oxidation and Flocculation-Treated
           Fracking Flowback Fluids

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      Abstract: Fracking flowback fluids treated via catalytic oxidization, flocculation, and sedimentation can be reinjected into low-permeability strata. Owing to their large-scale production during fracking operations, recycling such fluids would considerably mitigate freshwater wastage. However, having undergone catalytic oxidation and flocculation treatments, they are highly mineralized and must be desalinated before being reused as fracking fluids. In this study, we investigated the oxidation + flocculation + nanofiltration (NF) treatment process employed for flowback fluids and measured the ion removal and water recovery rates of an NF apparatus using simulated waters containing different ion types and concentrations. More than 94% of the calcium, magnesium, and sulfate ions contained in the simulated waters were removed via NF. With an influent sulfate ion concentration of less than 500 mg/L, the overall sulfate removal rate was greater than 90%. Although NF does not remove borate ions as efficiently as it removes other ions, the borate concentration was nevertheless significantly reduced. Moreover, high recovery rates were obtained for all simulated waters. The NF of a flowback fluid previously treated via oxidation and flocculation resulted in a permeate whose water quality indices satisfied all the requirements of recycled fracking fluids.
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00222-4
       
  • Yarn Strength CV Prediction Using Principal Component Analysis and
           Automatic Relevance Determination on Bayesian Platform

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      Abstract: Faced with the problems of few factory data samples, numerous parameters, and strong collinearity between parameters, this paper proposes a Bayesian algorithm P-ARD based on principal component analysis (PCA) and automatic correlation determination (ARD). The algorithm uses the PCA algorithm to process the data with multiple collinearities and changes the parameters with collinearity into linearly independent parameters, which overcomes the problem of collinearity among factory data samples. At the same time, the algorithm uses the Bayesian method based on ARD to predict the strength CV of the processed data. The sparsity of ARD and the superior performance of linear regression in the case of few samples overcome the problems of the few samples and many parameters of factory data. The experimental results show that P-ARD has better prediction ability than the traditional Bayesian method based on ARD.
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00216-2
       
  • Experimental Studies on Applications of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma
           for Eco-friendly Processing of Textiles and Allied Material

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      Abstract: The present work highlights the potential of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma in the field of textile treatment. Experimental studies have been conducted using indigenously developed plasma sources, which are suitable for inline treatment of textiles. The effect of air plasma on physical and chemical properties of textiles and its correlation with industrial applications has been discussed. The first application described is the improvement in spinnability of Angora wool, due to increase in its coefficient of friction. Further, air plasma exposure of wool fibers helps in reduction of the directional friction and improvement in its antifelting characteristics. In case of the cotton fabric, air plasma can be used as a pretreatment process for removal of the long-chain fatty acids, wax and pectin. For leather, the plasma surface modification has sterilization effect and improves dye-uptake properties. Similarly, wetting properties of the silk and manmade polymers like polyethylene, polypropylene and polyester are significantly improved by the air plasma surface modification. Additionally, in case of jute fibers, the air plasma treatment has shown brightening effect which significantly increases its aesthetic value.
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00219-z
       
  • Performance of Hand Tufted Woollen Carpets

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      Abstract: The effect of pile height, construction of primary backing fabric and pile density on compression behaviour (initial thickness, compression and compression recovery) and tuft withdrawal force of hand tufted carpets has been studied. The significance of the regression model and each parameter was checked with F-test and its related p-value. Pile height is found statistically significant for initial thickness and compression properties of hand tufted carpets. Interaction terms of pile height × primary backing fabric and pile height × pile density are found statistically significant for tuft withdrawal force characteristic of hand tufted carpet. Quadratic term of knot density is found statistically significant for all properties of hand tufted carpets whereas primary backing fabric is found statistically significant only for initial thickness property.
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00221-5
       
  • Bio-prospecting of Waste Vegetable Resources for Isolation of Milk
           Clotting Proteases

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      Abstract: Protease enzymes are extensively utilized in several industries ranging from pharmaceutical, food, biotechnology, cosmetics, leather, textile, dairy, and allied sectors. However, Plant rennet is in high demand in food and dairy industry due to several ethical, religious, and environmental causes. Jackfruit, pumpkin, and lotus seed extracts were tested for their milk clotting activities and found to have maximum milk clotting activity 2400MCU at their respective optimum conditions. Due to higher MCA milk curd were also tested for their potential use and found suitable for cheese preparation. Cottage cheese was prepared from all the plant extracts and for sensory analysis a panel of thirty volunteers were offered the sample and given the overall higher acceptability scores. In this view, more work is required, however an overall sensory acceptance suggested that these plant extracts can be used as an alternative to the animal rennet in dairy industry.
      PubDate: 2021-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00220-6
       
  • Effect of Dyeing Process Variables on Colour Yield and Colour Fastness
           Properties for Cotton Khadi Fabric Dyed with De-Oiled Red Sandal Wood
           Waste

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      Abstract: Effects of dyeing process variables on colour yield and colour fastness properties for dyeing cotton khadi fabric with Red Sandal wood (Pterocarpus Santalinius) waste (RSWW) as natural dye was studied in this work. Bleached cotton khadi fabric was subjected to pre-mordanting by initial treatment with harda(myrobolan) as mordanting assistant cum fixer followed by pre-mordanting with alum or other metallic mordants. Such dual pre-mordanted fabric was subsequently dyed with aqueous extract of de-oiled red sandal wood waste (RSWW). Effects of pre-mordanting with two different agents like harda and alum applied in sequence render better anchoring to make it more suitable for higher colour yield and better colour fastness properties. After finalizing the said dual pre-mordanting, all the dyeing process variables i.e. mordant conc., dye conc., dyeing time, temperature, MLR, pH, salt conc., for dyeing with RSWW extract were optimized. Colour fastness to washing, rubbing, light, perspiration against use of different combination of harda and other metallic mordants along with different dyeing process variables were also evaluated. It is observed that overall application of 15% of [Harda + KAl2 (SO4)3 in 50:50 ratio] in sequence (one after another) is found to be most suitable. MLR—1:40, pH-10, temperature 80°C and time 30 min were found as optimum for extraction of RSWW for maximum colour yield. Considering dyeing uniformity, colour fastness and economy, the optimized dyeing concentration is selected as 20% dye concentration (on the basis of dry weight of solid RSWW source). Other dyeing parameters are optimized as 80 °C dyeing temperature, 30 min dyeing time, 11.0 dyeing pH, 1:20 material-to-liquor ratio and 15 gpl common salt concentration. Interpretation from colour difference index (CDI) values clearly reveals that mordant concentration, dye concentration and pH of dye bath are the three most critical dyeing process variables, amongst all other parameters of dyeing process variables in this study.
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00218-0
       
  • Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System-based Modelling of Cotton Yarn
           Properties

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      Abstract: In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is developed for effective prediction of yarn tenacity and unevenness based on a set of six input cotton fibre properties, i.e. fibre strength, fibre elongation, upper half mean length, uniformity index, fineness and short fibre content. The ANFIS model integrates the advantageous features of both the systems of fuzzy control and neural network. A neural network is applied with learning and computational capability in fuzzy control. On the other hand, fuzzy control provides high level of knowledge and fuzzy rules for use in the neural network. Using a past experimental dataset, the developed ANFIS model is trained and subsequently tested to envisage yarn tenacity and unevenness values. Its prediction performance is validated with respect to five statistical metrics, i.e. correlation coefficient, mean absolute percentage error, root-mean-square error, coefficient of efficiency and variance performance index, and is also contrasted against other prediction tools, like multivariate regression analysis, artificial neural network, fuzzy logic and support vector machine. Based on their acceptable values, it can be concluded that the ANFIS models can be effectively employed for prediction of diverse yarn quality characteristics while treating fibre properties as the input variables.
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00217-1
       
  • Non-isothermal Degradation Analysis of Plywood and Determination of
           Kinetic Parameters Using Coats–Redfern Method

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      Abstract: Thermogravimetry analyzer was used for the study of thermal degradation of plywood under air and nitrogen environment. The investigation was carried out at a heating rate in the range of 5–100 K min−1 from a temperature atmosphere to 1050 K. Thermal decomposition steps dehydration, oxidative reaction (air environment), pyrolysis degradation (nitrogen environment) and char degradation with temperature evolution were reported. Kinetic parameters of thermal degradation step were investigated with model fitting Coats–Redfern method. Arrhenius kinetic reaction model was used for oxidative and pyrolysis reaction degradation stages kinetic parameter estimation. Model kinetic triplets were estimated for different heating rates of the thermal degradation step. The experimental data deviation percentage with the proposed model was found to be below 5% with reasonable accuracy for different heating rates.
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00215-3
       
  • Development of Bio-degradable Cotton Waste based Super Oleophilic and
           Super Hydrophobic Sorbent for Oil Spill Clean-up

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      Abstract: Cotton waste, which is generated from various processes like carding, blow room etc. was collected, cleaned, pre-treated and processed in a carding machine to make web. The cotton web was converted to a non-woven batt through needle punching process. The non-woven fabric chemically modified by treating with silica nanoparticles synthesized via Stober process followed by hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) treatment. The chemically functionalized fabric was showing water contact angle of more than 150° with an oil absorption capacity of 25–30 g/g. The chemical characterization of the sorbent was studied by using FTIR spectra and TGA. The morphology of the sorbent was characterized by SEM. The sorbent was found to be re-usable for at least 5–6 times with an oil recovery of more than 60%. Bio-degradability of the chemically modified cotton was also studied by soil burial test and was found be fully biodegradable. The oil absorption capacity of the developed sorbent was evaluated for oil on land surface, oil on surface water and under water also and was found to be superior to the synthetic polypropylene/polyurethane sorbent.
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00211-7
       
  • Effects of Temperature and Duration of Anorthite Synthesis from Mixtures
           of Kaolin and Calcite

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      Abstract: In this research, the effects of temperature and duration of anorthite synthesis were examined by DTA, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. Anorthite was synthesized with mixtures of kaolin and calcite powders with a weight ratio of 7 to 3, at three different temperatures of 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C, and three different synthesis times of 30, 180 and 300 min. Different phases in the raw materials mixture were formed during synthesis. These phases were investigated thoroughly to determine the role of time and temperature in their formation. Results proved that synthesis at 3 h and 1200 °C was suitable for the reactions of anorthite formation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00212-6
       
  • Study on Performance and Structure of Electrospun Polybutylenes Succinate
           (PBS)/Meltblown Composite Materials

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      Abstract: The optimum process of PBS electrospun is obtained through orthogonal experiments. Under this process, the PBS electrospun fibers are spun onto the meltblown to produce PBS electrospun/meltblown composite filtration materials. Then, the properties of the composites are characterized. The results indicate that PBS electrospun fiber has smaller diameter and more uniform distribution than meltblown nonwovens. After the composite of electrospun mat and melt-blown nonwovens, the average pore-size is reduced from 10 μm to 3 μm and pore-size distribution is uniform, the porosity remains unchanged, and wettability is slightly improved.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-020-00186-x
       
  • Chemical Modification and Tribological Evaluation of Pure Rice Bran Oil as
           Base Stocks for Biodegradable Lubricants

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      Abstract: Vegetable oils act as a potential base stock for biodegradable lubricants. They possess better biodegradability, high flash point, high viscosity index and excellent lubrication properties. They also have some limitations like low thermal and oxidation stability, poor low-temperature properties and narrow range of viscosities. These limitations can be easily altered by chemically modifying vegetable oils or by using additives into these oils. This research work focused on the chemical modification of pure rice bran oil by epoxidation process. The epoxidized product of rice bran oil was then subjected to ring-opening process using different acids such as butanoic acid, benzoic acid and lauric acid. The tribological properties, flash temperature parameter and energy consumption in a four-ball tester for pure rice bran oil (RBO), epoxidized and ring-opened products of RBO were studied. It was noted that the evaluated properties of chemically modified products of RBO were better compared to pure RBO.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-020-00174-1
       
  • Power Consumption Analysis of Pulse Jet Filtration System Assisted with
           Pre-charger using Polyester Conductive Media

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      Abstract: Energy consumption is a vital aspect for any industry considering the cost-effective aspect. The current study embodies the power consumption during filtration of conductive filters at different dust pre-charging levels on laboratory-based pulse jet tubular set up assisted with pre-charger. Three types of polyester conductive non-woven filter materials, viz. PTFE-coated media, stainless steel fibre blended with PET media and stainless steel scrim media, have been characterized at three different charge levels, viz. 4 kV, 8 kV, 12 kV, and without charge. The outcome revealed that there has been a significant drop in power consumption with the rise in pre-charge level. Energy utilization results have further been compared with full-scale bag house condition by calculating the energy consumed for 50 bags. The results showed that among all the materials taken for investigation the performance of PTFE-coated media is the best and role of material is most significant towards the energy consumption by the filtration system. Overall energy consumption decreases with rise in pre-charging level. It is observed that percentage contribution of energy utilized for fan has been much higher for full-scale bag house as compared to tubular-based set-up. However, in case of energy consumed by the compressor, the difference in percentage contribution is relatively less and for energy utilized due to charge, not much variation in contribution can be noted.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-020-00179-w
       
  • Desirability Analysis of Multiple Responses for Electrocoagulation
           Remediation of Paper Mill Wastewater by Using a Central Composite Design

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      Abstract: The present study illustrates the electrocoagulation remediation of paper mill wastewater for multiple response optimization. Multiple response optimization can be combined into one desirability function. All variables and responses varied for a unique global solution. The effect of basic electrocoagulation process variables pH (3–10), conductivity (3.15–10 mS/cm), electrode distance (1–2.5 cm) and current density (5–20 mA/cm2) on four response parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, color, total dissolved solids and total organic carbon has been analyzed experimentally and statistically. The global solution for these variables and responses obtained by software over a hundred design points. For unit desirability function variables conditions were pH 7.49, Conductivity 8.34 mS/cm, electrode distance 2.06 cm and current density 9.32 mA/cm2. In these global variable conditions, responses were observed to be COD 70.19%, Color 75.03%, TDS 70.69% and TOC 71.93%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00205-5
       
 
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