Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)     - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals) TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)
 Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda Asian Journal of Textile       (Followers: 5) Autex Research Journal       (Followers: 1) Composites Science and Technology       (Followers: 150) Fashion and Textiles       (Followers: 10) Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion       (Followers: 11) Fibers       (Followers: 4) Fibre Chemistry       (Followers: 2) Focus on Pigments       (Followers: 3) Geosynthetics International       (Followers: 4) Geotextiles and Geomembranes       (Followers: 5) Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education       (Followers: 13) International Journal of Textile Science       (Followers: 4) Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering       (Followers: 3) Journal of Industrial Textiles       (Followers: 4) Journal of Leather Science and Engineering Journal of Natural Fibers       (Followers: 5) Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice       (Followers: 5) Journal of Textile Science & Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Textiles and Fibrous Materials Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E       (Followers: 2) Journal of the Textile Institute       (Followers: 6) Research Journal of Textile and Apparel       (Followers: 1) Text and Performance Quarterly       (Followers: 5) Textile History       (Followers: 13) Textile Progress       (Followers: 3) Textile Research Journal       (Followers: 8) Third Text       (Followers: 11) Wearables       (Followers: 1)
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 Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series EJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.197 Number of Followers: 2      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2250-2483 - ISSN (Online) 2250-2491 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• A New Perspective on the Green Strategy of Close Cycle Dissociation of H2S

Abstract: Abstract Extremely toxic H2S gas is produced in huge quantities across the world as a byproduct of the desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels. This H2S gas is further converted into sulfur in sulfur recovery units. However, the valuable hydrogen content is lost as water vapour. It emphasizes the importance of proper exploitation of this resource. A continuous two-steps cyclic process for producing H2 and sulfur simultaneously has been derived in this study. The first well-studied photocatalytic step generates hydrogen by water splitting in the presence of sulfide (S2–) and sulfite ( $${\mathrm{SO}}_{3}^{2-})$$ , the sacrificial agents. Here, these sacrificial agents are converted into thiosulfate ( $${\mathrm{S}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}$$ ). In the second step, this $${\mathrm{S}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}$$ reacts with hydrogen sulfide (HS–) to form elemental sulfur, along with generation of S2– and $${\mathrm{SO}}_{3}^{2-}$$ , which are again reused in the first step. The kinetics of the reaction involved in the second step ( $${\mathrm{HS}}^{-}+ {\mathrm{S}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}+\mathrm{ O}{\mathrm{H}}^{-} \to \mathrm{S}+{\mathrm{S}}^{2-}+\mathrm{ S}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}+ {\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$$ ) were studied in the present work. The reaction was found to be non-elementary with a rate law of $$k{[{\mathrm{HS}}^{-}]}^{1/2}{[{\mathrm{S}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}^{2-}]}^{3/2}$$ . The observed rate law is of the order of 1.5 with respect to thiosulfate and 0.5 with respect to HS– ions. A reaction mechanism for the second step consistent with the kinetics was also proposed. The rate constant was observed to be $$1.075\times {10}^{10}{\mathrm{e}}^{- 62280/RT}/\mathrm{ M}/\mathrm{s}$$ . This new proposed close cycle may simultaneously achieve green and renewable H2 production along with H2S removal.
PubDate: 2022-04-30

• Control of a Waste Water Treatment Plant Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Abstract: Abstract Waste water is a contaminated water consisting of water and impurities. Many factors affect the treatment plants; these includes physical, chemical properties and biological properties. The conventional controllers are being used for the waste water treatment processes. In the present paper, benchmark simulation model (BSM) provided by Alex et al. [Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1). Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation. Lund University, Prepared by the IWA Task group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for WWTPs, (2008)] has been considered for the fuzzy logic control. BSM model consists of five reactors in series and one clarifier. It is described as multivariable and nonlinear process with 13 variables in each reactor. The first two reactors are of anaerobic, and next three reactors are of aerobic. The objective is to control the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the fifth reactor using KLa5, mass transfer coefficient, i.e., air flow rate as the manipulated variable. The present fuzzy logic controller (FLC) design is based on Mamdani, IF..THEN.. rules. The performance of Fuzzy logic controller has been evaluated using MATLAB and Simulink Tool box. The FLC has been found to be superior than conventional PID controller i) for various set point changes for dissolved oxygen (DO) control, ii) for disturbance in the fresh feed concentrations and iii) for disturbances in KLa3 of reactor 3 and KLa4 of reactor 4.
PubDate: 2022-04-29

• Downstream Microbial and Physiochemical Assessment of Aami River and
Analysis of Sewage and Industrial Discharge

Abstract: Abstract Aami River is a tributary of Rapti River (Ganga Basin) with a total length of 211 km flowing through Sant Kabir Nagar, Basti, and Gorakhpur districts of Uttar Pradesh State of India. The river is becoming highly polluted due to continuous industrial and municipal sewage discharge in the river. The quality of downstream river water is rapidly degraded. The present study did the physiochemical and bacterial analysis (Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and total coliform) of river water by selecting 16 locations in 211 km of the entire stretch of the Aami River. Low dissolved oxygen concentration was observed along all the stretches of the river. It was continuously decreasing downstream and fall below a critical level of 4.0 mg/L. The pH of the water was found alkaline across the river's stretch and varied between 7.3 and 8.5. High COD (257 mg/L) was measured downstream of the Aami River. An increase in COD occurs due to discharge of industrial and sewage discharge. The bacterial population was found to be minimum near the origin of the river and increasing downstream. The high bacterial population was enumerated in river water and found maximum near Rudhouli, Bangawan, Denshi, and after Sugar Mill discharge. E. coli concentration was not observed near the origin of the river and increased downstream of the river. It was found maximum near the Maghar location with a concentration of 750 CFU/mL. Constant assessment of river ecology and bacterial and physiochemical parameters needs to be monitored.
PubDate: 2022-04-29

• Study of Yarn Quality Prediction Model based on Fuzzy Comprehensive
Evaluation

Abstract: Abstract Yarn quality prediction is a complex nonlinear MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is established to solve the MIMO problem in yarn quality prediction. The input parameters and output parameters are treated as a whole respectively, and the mapping relationship between input data and output data is modeled by using fuzzy inference method to establish the yarn quality prediction model. On the basis of the model, the error of the yarn quality prediction model is given a correction by using K-neighborhood combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The model established in this paper has been used to predict yarn quality, and the experiments show that the accuracy of yarn quality prediction has been improved when the model is used within the range of values of each input parameter.
PubDate: 2022-03-02
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-022-00238-4

• Mechanical and Tribo-performance Analysis of Linz Donawitz Sludge-Filled
Glass–Epoxy Composites using Taguchi Experimental Design

Abstract: Abstract In the ongoing researches, many attempts have been made to produce such a lightweight composite, possesses high hardness, high strength and is more reliable. In this work, the hybrid polymer composite has been fabricated using the industrial particulate waste i.e. Linz Donawitz (LD) sludge (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%), woven glass fiber as reinforcements and epoxy as a binder matrix. ASTM Standard has been followed to evaluate properties like micro-hardness, flexural strength, tensile strength and compressive strength. The sliding wear response of the newly manufactured polymer matrix composites is estimated using a pin-on-disk sliding wear tester. Sliding wear assessments are prepared in accordance with the experimental design, which is based on Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array, in order to identify prominent elements influencing wear rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is carried out to analyze the sliding wear characteristics of the fabricated composites. This investigation shows that with increase in LD sludge content, the micro-hardness, tensile, compressive and flexural strengths of the composites increased significantly in comparison to the glass–epoxy composite. The LD sludge content is observed to be the most weighted control factor that affects the sliding wear rate of the composites followed by sliding velocity. From SEM micrographs it is understandable that with increased sliding velocity and applied load, the polymeric resin softens and results in deeper wear tracks under the presence of low filler content. Whereas in composites with higher filler content swallow wear tracks are observed.
PubDate: 2022-02-23
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00236-y

• In-Situ Polymerization of Maleic Acid in Presence of Aloe vera Gel for
Development of Eco-Friendly Eri Silk-based Handlooms

Abstract: Abstract In this study, eri silk-based handloom fabrics were finished with Aloe vera gel employing maleic acid as a cross-linking agent using a pad-dry-cure method. Water-soluble Aloe vera gel of varying concentrations of 5 to 15% (w/v) was also used in the finishing bath for imparting antibacterial property to the finished fabric along with the anti-crease properties. Assessment of changes in the properties of finished fabric shows substantial improvement in wrinkle recovery of the finished silk fabric achieved at the expense of strength and flexibility at moderate levels. Changes in the chemical nature of silk fabric on such modifications have been studied by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and reported also in this research article. The study proposes a thermal curing system that is conducive to in-situ polymerization of maleic acid in presence of Aloe vera for the development of eco-friendly eri silk-based handlooms with antibacterial and anti-crease properties, without a significant loss in strength. The antimicrobial property appears to remain significant even when the fabric is subjected to wash up to 10 wash cycles.
PubDate: 2022-02-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-022-00237-5

• The use of Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower extracts in Cotton Fabric and Wool
Yarn Dyeing

Abstract: Abstract In this study, certain properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extracts for the dyeing of cotton fabrics and wool yarns were investigated. For this purpose, the cotton fabrics and wool yarns were processed with pre–, meta– and post–mordanting methods in the presence of FeSO4, CuSO4 and AlK(SO4)2 mordants. After dyeing, color analyses of the dyed samples were done and the results were evaluated in terms of wash, rubbing and light fastness values. The color codes were determined with Pantone Color Quide, and K/S and L* a* b* values were detected with color measurement spectrophotometer. The highest K/S value was measured as 9.55 for AlK(SO4)2 with post–mordanting method for dyed cotton fabrics. While generally blue, burgundy, green and lilac color tones were obtained in cotton fabrics, burgundy, red brown and green color tones were obtained in wool yarns. As a result, it was determined that cotton fabrics exhibited better dyeing potential compared to wool yarns, and the highest color strength values were obtained using the post–mordanting method. When the fastness tests for both cotton fabrics and wool yarns were compared, the order of AlK(SO4)2 > CuSO4 > FeSO4 in terms of fastness was obtained in all three mordanting methods.
PubDate: 2022-01-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00235-z

• Photocatalytic and Photoluminescence Studies of La, Ce, and Dy Co-doped
ZnO Nanoflowers

Abstract: Abstract In the present work, ZnO nanoparticles were doped with varying concentration of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), and dysprosium (Dy) using a simple and cost-effective co-precipitation approach at low temperatures. The resulting powders were calcined at 500 °C for 1 h using a muffle furnace, to produce La, Ce, and Dy-co-doped ZnO nanoparticles with varying stoichiometry, viz. (Zn0.97La0.01Ce0.01Dy0.01O, Zn0.94La0.02Ce0.02Dy0.02O, Zn0.91La0.03Ce0.03Dy0.03O, Zn0.88La0.04Ce0.04 Dy0.04O, and Zn0.85La0.05Ce0.05Dy0.05O). This is a simple approach for doping and does not require a complex equipment, harmful chemical, or sophisticated machinery. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for studying the structure, purity, and grain morphology. Compositional study was done using EDS (SEM/EDS Hitachi 3600 N). The average crystallite size was calculated using XRD and was found to be 35 nm, and it also indicated a hexagonal wurtizite structure with no secondary peaks. A change in morphology from nanorods to nanoflowers was observed as the concentration of dopants increased. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated a redshift in the absorption edge toward the visible region of solar spectrum and this was further confirmed by diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic properties of undoped and La, Ce, and Dy-co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were observed by examining the photodegradation of Rhodamine B dye under UV irradiation. The elimination of dye color indicated the total degradation of organic molecule. The results revealed that ZnO photocatalyst with La, Ce, and Dy co-dopant concentration Zn0.85La0.05Ce0.05Dy0.05O exhibited the best photocatalytic performance (95%) as compared to undoped ZnO. The improved photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the increased surface oxygen vacancies and adsorption capacity. The delay in recombination of charge carriers due to creation trap states in the bandgap of ZnO further improves the photocatalytic performance of doped samples.
PubDate: 2022-01-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00233-1

• Multifunctional Epoxy Nanocomposites for Improved Mechanical Properties
for Surface Coating Applications

Abstract: Abstract The nanocomposite surface coating film samples were prepared by high-speed mechanical mixing of novolac epoxy resin (EEW 180 eq/gm) and a varying amount of nano-CaCO3 (0–5 wt%) for 30 min. Further, these mixtures were used to cast 100 microns films on the metal/glass panels and subjected to cure at 110º C for 1 h and post-cure at 80 ºC for 5 h. The nanocomposite surface coating film samples were tested for mechanical properties (viz. impact resistance, scratch hardness, adhesion, and flexibility) and resistance to artificial seawater (ASW). It was observed that 4 wt% nano-CaCO3 containing film sample showed maximum impact strength, scratch hardness, adhesion, and flexibility, and resistance to ASW compared to neat epoxy and other nanocomposite film samples. The curing behavior of nanocomposite film samples was analyzed by DSC.  The reactivity effect of nano-CaCO3 blending on epoxy resin by FTIR spectroscopy, morphological studies by SEM, and surface gloss by Triglossometer were also investigated.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00224-2

• A Study of Sound Absorption Properties of Jute Felt Mattress

Abstract: Abstract In recent years, natural fibres find their place as sound absorbers as the traditional synthetic absorbers have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. While considering jute, it is mostly used in packaging industries, though jute felts and composite are used in automobiles, the sound absorption aspect can be explored in many ways. In this paper, the acoustic absorption behaviour of jute sample is studied under normal incidence of sound, using the impedance tube method. The sound absorption coefficient was observed at, varying sample thickness, alkali treatment to jute (woolenization of jute), and binder concentrations in the samples. It was observed that an increase in the sample thickness improves the sound absorption. On the other hand, the binder concentration has shown a negative effect on the samples' sound absorption behaviour. Samples with 20–30–mm-thickness and 10% binder concentration have shown sound absorption coefficient 0.8 beyond 1.5 kHz frequency. It was also seen that the alkali treatment to the sample does not influence the sound-absorbing behaviour.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00229-x

• Effects of Temperature and Duration of Anorthite Synthesis from Mixtures
of Kaolin and Calcite

Abstract: Abstract In this research, the effects of temperature and duration of anorthite synthesis were examined by DTA, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. Anorthite was synthesized with mixtures of kaolin and calcite powders with a weight ratio of 7 to 3, at three different temperatures of 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C, and three different synthesis times of 30, 180 and 300 min. Different phases in the raw materials mixture were formed during synthesis. These phases were investigated thoroughly to determine the role of time and temperature in their formation. Results proved that synthesis at 3 h and 1200 °C was suitable for the reactions of anorthite formation.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00212-6

• Non-isothermal Degradation Analysis of Plywood and Determination of
Kinetic Parameters Using Coats–Redfern Method

Abstract: Abstract Thermogravimetry analyzer was used for the study of thermal degradation of plywood under air and nitrogen environment. The investigation was carried out at a heating rate in the range of 5–100 K min−1 from a temperature atmosphere to 1050 K. Thermal decomposition steps dehydration, oxidative reaction (air environment), pyrolysis degradation (nitrogen environment) and char degradation with temperature evolution were reported. Kinetic parameters of thermal degradation step were investigated with model fitting Coats–Redfern method. Arrhenius kinetic reaction model was used for oxidative and pyrolysis reaction degradation stages kinetic parameter estimation. Model kinetic triplets were estimated for different heating rates of the thermal degradation step. The experimental data deviation percentage with the proposed model was found to be below 5% with reasonable accuracy for different heating rates.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00215-3

• Removal of Scaling Ions from Catalytic Oxidation and Flocculation-Treated
Fracking Flowback Fluids

Abstract: Abstract Fracking flowback fluids treated via catalytic oxidization, flocculation, and sedimentation can be reinjected into low-permeability strata. Owing to their large-scale production during fracking operations, recycling such fluids would considerably mitigate freshwater wastage. However, having undergone catalytic oxidation and flocculation treatments, they are highly mineralized and must be desalinated before being reused as fracking fluids. In this study, we investigated the oxidation + flocculation + nanofiltration (NF) treatment process employed for flowback fluids and measured the ion removal and water recovery rates of an NF apparatus using simulated waters containing different ion types and concentrations. More than 94% of the calcium, magnesium, and sulfate ions contained in the simulated waters were removed via NF. With an influent sulfate ion concentration of less than 500 mg/L, the overall sulfate removal rate was greater than 90%. Although NF does not remove borate ions as efficiently as it removes other ions, the borate concentration was nevertheless significantly reduced. Moreover, high recovery rates were obtained for all simulated waters. The NF of a flowback fluid previously treated via oxidation and flocculation resulted in a permeate whose water quality indices satisfied all the requirements of recycled fracking fluids.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00222-4

• Comparative Study on the Properties of Normal and Cluster Wrap Cotton Ring
Spun Yarn

Abstract: Abstract Composite yarns are structures which consist of at least two strands, one forming the central axis or core and other forms wrap. Composite yarn is classified into covered yarn, core spun yarn and wrapping spun yarn. Composite yarns are used for special applications like military apparels, sportswear, sewing thread, protective textiles, etc. Wrap yarn is a composite structure and consists of twisted or twist less core of fibres bound by a continuous filament. Wrap yarn is produced by various methods; most commonly used method is hollow spindle method and ring spinning method. To improve the wrap yarn properties, the yarn is made in ring spinning machinery by making some modifications. It is widely recognized that new technology innovations in ring spinning in the production of wrap yarn will increase the yarn covering ability, yarn tenacity, uniformity, great potential to product versatility, etc. The concentration of this work is to produce cluster wrap yarn using different types of spreading roller retrofitted in the ring frame on the basis of solo spinning technology. The VGWS yarn shows 7 wraps per cm along the length of the yarn, and the wrapping ability of the VGWS yarn is better compared to that of other wrap spun yarns. The results demonstrate that the tenacity and elongation of VGWS are higher than other three yarns. The hairiness, evenness and imperfections per km of VGWS yarn are also better than CWS, LGWS and RGWS wrap spun yarns.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00227-z

• Effect of Dyeing Process Variables on Colour Yield and Colour Fastness
Properties for Cotton Khadi Fabric Dyed with De-Oiled Red Sandal Wood
Waste

Abstract: Abstract Effects of dyeing process variables on colour yield and colour fastness properties for dyeing cotton khadi fabric with Red Sandal wood (Pterocarpus Santalinius) waste (RSWW) as natural dye was studied in this work. Bleached cotton khadi fabric was subjected to pre-mordanting by initial treatment with harda(myrobolan) as mordanting assistant cum fixer followed by pre-mordanting with alum or other metallic mordants. Such dual pre-mordanted fabric was subsequently dyed with aqueous extract of de-oiled red sandal wood waste (RSWW). Effects of pre-mordanting with two different agents like harda and alum applied in sequence render better anchoring to make it more suitable for higher colour yield and better colour fastness properties. After finalizing the said dual pre-mordanting, all the dyeing process variables i.e. mordant conc., dye conc., dyeing time, temperature, MLR, pH, salt conc., for dyeing with RSWW extract were optimized. Colour fastness to washing, rubbing, light, perspiration against use of different combination of harda and other metallic mordants along with different dyeing process variables were also evaluated. It is observed that overall application of 15% of [Harda + KAl2 (SO4)3 in 50:50 ratio] in sequence (one after another) is found to be most suitable. MLR—1:40, pH-10, temperature 80°C and time 30 min were found as optimum for extraction of RSWW for maximum colour yield. Considering dyeing uniformity, colour fastness and economy, the optimized dyeing concentration is selected as 20% dye concentration (on the basis of dry weight of solid RSWW source). Other dyeing parameters are optimized as 80 °C dyeing temperature, 30 min dyeing time, 11.0 dyeing pH, 1:20 material-to-liquor ratio and 15 gpl common salt concentration. Interpretation from colour difference index (CDI) values clearly reveals that mordant concentration, dye concentration and pH of dye bath are the three most critical dyeing process variables, amongst all other parameters of dyeing process variables in this study.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00218-0

• Engineering the Structure of Multi-thread Fancy Bouclé Yarn: Individual
Effects of the Number of Wraps and the Overfeed Ratio

Abstract: Abstract This study is about the influence of the number of wraps and the overfeed ratio on the fancy bouclé yarn structure. The bouclé yarns of this study were made on a hollow-spindle spinning system. The number of wraps and the overfeed ratio were increased incrementally and individually in two different experiments. It was found that there were significant linear relationships between increasing the overfeed ratio and increasing the number and size of fancy bouclé profiles, but at the expense of decreasing their circularity ratio and changing the bouclé yarn morphology. However, increasing the number of wraps made a significant linear reduction to the size of fancy bouclé profile but without affecting their number. This study aids bouclé yarn manufacturers to increase their understanding of the structure and aesthetics of bouclé yarns. It also shows them how the morphology of bouclé profiles may change when the overfeed ratio or the number of wraps is changed. In particular, variants of bouclé profiles may appear, which can increase the potential for those variants to attract the attention of designers and consumers. It also can strengthen the manufacturers’ capabilities to satisfy the needs of a wide range of consumers, by creating a wider range of novelty clothing.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00225-1

• Renovation of Waste Chrysanthemum morifolium (Marigold) into Valuable
Biochar: A Study on the Utilization of Solid Waste by Pyrolysis

Abstract: Abstract Flowers have become a part of our daily life, and wind up joining the waste stream, after little use and almost practically no reuse. Disposal of the flowers despite playing an eloquent role in religious faith, rituals, wedding ceremony, etc., finishes up mostly at open dumping or in water bodies. An endeavor has been made to valorize the flower waste generated from the flower market in Puducherry. White Marigold Chrysanthemum morifolium was retrieved in bulk from the market waste stream and was thermally treated into valuable low-cost biochar. The products were synthesized by pyrolysis in slow thermal carbonization conditions at 350 °C and 500 °C. Before treating thermally, the collected waste marigold flowers were analyzed for decomposition behavior via TGA. The biochar products were further characterized, analyzed, and compared, for various physiochemical parameters, namely pH, conductivity, moisture content, ash content, and bulk density. Specific physical and chemical properties and the effect of slow pyrolysis at two different temperatures were further investigated by performing FTIR, SEM, XRD, and BET. Biochar pyrolyzed at 500 °C possessed better characteristics for environmental applications than biochar derived at 350 °C.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00213-5

• Bio-prospecting of Waste Vegetable Resources for Isolation of Milk
Clotting Proteases

Abstract: Abstract Protease enzymes are extensively utilized in several industries ranging from pharmaceutical, food, biotechnology, cosmetics, leather, textile, dairy, and allied sectors. However, Plant rennet is in high demand in food and dairy industry due to several ethical, religious, and environmental causes. Jackfruit, pumpkin, and lotus seed extracts were tested for their milk clotting activities and found to have maximum milk clotting activity 2400MCU at their respective optimum conditions. Due to higher MCA milk curd were also tested for their potential use and found suitable for cheese preparation. Cottage cheese was prepared from all the plant extracts and for sensory analysis a panel of thirty volunteers were offered the sample and given the overall higher acceptability scores. In this view, more work is required, however an overall sensory acceptance suggested that these plant extracts can be used as an alternative to the animal rennet in dairy industry.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00220-6

• Yarn Strength CV Prediction Using Principal Component Analysis and
Automatic Relevance Determination on Bayesian Platform

Abstract: Abstract Faced with the problems of few factory data samples, numerous parameters, and strong collinearity between parameters, this paper proposes a Bayesian algorithm P-ARD based on principal component analysis (PCA) and automatic correlation determination (ARD). The algorithm uses the PCA algorithm to process the data with multiple collinearities and changes the parameters with collinearity into linearly independent parameters, which overcomes the problem of collinearity among factory data samples. At the same time, the algorithm uses the Bayesian method based on ARD to predict the strength CV of the processed data. The sparsity of ARD and the superior performance of linear regression in the case of few samples overcome the problems of the few samples and many parameters of factory data. The experimental results show that P-ARD has better prediction ability than the traditional Bayesian method based on ARD.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00216-2

• Development of UV Protective Finished Fabric using Herbal Synthesized
Colloidal Solution of Silver Nanoparticles

Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research is to produce fabric treated with UV protective finish using herbal synthesized colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles (H-AgNPs). In this purpose, the solution was synthesized with Tulsi (Holy Basil) extract. One cotton knit sample was prepared with ten layers of colloidal solution of H-AgNPs through pad-dry-cure method. Second sample was produced with one layer using ten times concentrated colloidal solution of H-AgNPs following the same procedure. Treated samples were subjected to colour strength (K/S value) measurement, SEM analysis, FTIR analysis and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) test. The K/S value of the second sample was very close to the tenth layer of the first sample. From SEM image of second sample, it was revealed that a large amount of H-AgNPs were deposited on the fibre surface. In terms of UPF test, second sample possessed excellent UPF rating. The FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of phytochemicals of Tulsi (Holy Basil) extract on treated sample. Due to the availability of Tulsi in nature and the low cost of raw materials, this process can be considered to apply commercially and also for further research purpose.
PubDate: 2021-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40034-021-00228-y

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