Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)


Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AATCC Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4) - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Textile Research Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0040-5175 - ISSN (Online) 1746-7748
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1143 journals]
  • Integration of multivariate control charts and the decision tree
           classifier to determine the faults of the quality characteristic(s) of a
           melt spinning machine used in polypropylene fiber manufacturing. Part II:
           The application of multivariate control charts and the decision tree
           classifier to determine the faults of quality characteristic(s)
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Chang-Chiun Huang, Cheng-Han Yang, Sung-Hua Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a multivariate statistical process control was used to analyze the abnormal samples derived from the deviation of optimum processing parameters. The experimental samples derived from the optimum processing parameters were applied as the optimal historical data to determine the control limit, and then the T2 value was obtained from Hotelling's T2 method. If the T2 value exceeds the control limit, the corresponding sample is considered as abnormal. After that, the Runger, Alt and Montgomery method is used to decompose the abnormal T2 value. Then, each quality characteristic value can be obtained and the corresponding decision tree classifier can be implemented. To improve the classification accuracy, we classify the decision tree classifier into single–double identification, single-factor abnormality and double-factor abnormality. For the individual classification test, the result showed that the accuracy of single–double identification was 98.6%, the single-factor abnormality classification was 100% and the double-factor abnormality classification was 96.0%. For the combination classification test, we can get a 98.6% accuracy rate for the single–double identification, 98.3% accuracy rate for the single-factor abnormality classification and 95.3% accuracy rate for the double-factor abnormality classification. Therefore, it can be confirmed that the proposed methods in this study can effectively identify abnormal samples and establish a fault processing parameter diagnosis system for melt spinning machines.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011775
  • Effect of montmorillonite on the oxidative stability of polyphenylene
           sulfide fibers prepared by melt spinning
    • Authors: Jian Xing, Shunhua Dai, Zhong Chen, Yongkang Wang, Zhenghua Zhang, Guohe Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Masterbatches of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/organic montmorillonite (MMT) composites were produced via melt blending. A self-made spinning equipment was then used to produce the PPS/organic MMT composite fibers by melt spinning directly from the masterbatches. X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope were used to examine the dispersibility of organic MMT. The morphology, tensile property, crystallization behavior, and oxidative stability of PPS fibers were investigated. The results indicated that organic MMT could be uniformly distributed in the PPS matrix to form a mixed dispersion of intercalated and exfoliated structure and influence the longitudinal surface morphology of fibers to become rough. The roughness of composite fibers surface was proportional to the content of organic MMT. The organic MMT nanolayers could act as the heterogeneous nucleating agents to improve the crystallization, and the crystallity of composite fibers increased with the increase of organic MMT content. The breaking strength of composite fibers first increased and then decreased by increasing the amount of organic MMT. After the oxidation treatment, the breaking strength of neat PPS fibers and composite fibers declined, but the degree of breaking strength loss for composite fibers is lower than that of neat PPS fibers. The dynamic oxidation induction temperature of composite fibers also showed a significant increase by adding organic MMT. Moreover, the addition of organic MMT could limit the chemical combination of element sulfur and oxygen, retard the generation of sulfoxide groups, and induce the conversion of sulfur atoms from C-S bond to sulfone for improving oxidative stability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T06:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013423
  • Unsupervised defect detection algorithm for printed fabrics using
           content-based image retrieval techniques
    • Authors: Xudong Hu, Mingyue Fu, Zhijuan Zhu, Zhong Xiang, Miao Qian, Junru Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Automatic detection of printing defect technology is significant for improving printing fabrics’ appearance and quality. In this research, we proposed an unsupervised printing defect detection method by processing the difference map between the test image and the reference image. Aimed at this, we adopted a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method to retrieve the reference image, which includes an image database, a convolutional denoising auto-encoder (CDAE) and a hash encoder (HE): the elements of image database are extracted from only one defect-free sample image of the test fabric; the CDAE prevents the system being affected by the texture of the fabric and provides a reliable feature description of the patterns; the HE indexes the feature vectors to binary code while maintaining their similarity; both CDAE and HE are trained in an unsupervised manner. With the retrieved reference image, the defect is determined by applying the Tsallis entropy thresholding and opening operation on the difference map. The method can be implemented without labeled and defective samples, and without consideration of the periodical primitive of patterns. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method in defect detection for printed fabrics with complex patterns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T06:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008614
  • Thermodynamic properties of cotton dyeing with indigo dyes in non-aqueous
           media of liquid paraffin and D5
    • Authors: Jie Fan, Min Shao, Junhua Miao, Junran Ma, Mingan Hu, Yuan An, Jianzhong Shao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      On the basis of investigation into the dyeing equilibrium of cotton fibers with indigo dyes in decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), liquid paraffin and water, the thermodynamic properties of cotton dyeing with indigo dyes in non-aqueous medium systems were studied in comparison with aqueous dyeing. The main works involved are as follows: firstly, the adsorption isotherms were created; then, the three theoretical adsorption models of Nernst, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to fit the adsorption isotherms created; finally, the thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms were all in line with the Freundlich model. The order of dyeing affinity was in the sequence: liquid paraffin > D5 > water. The dyeing entropy in the three media showed positive values, which is mainly attributed to the adsorption of both indigo-leuco and water onto cotton fibers, thus reducing the ice-like structure formed among the water molecules in the dyeing system and the hydrophobic bonding structure formed among the non-aqueous medium molecules, then leading to an increase in the system disorder. The dyeing heat in the three media also showed positive values, due mainly to the absorption of thermal energy to “melt” the ice-like structure and to “break” the hydrophobic bonding structure. These dyeing thermodynamic properties are conducive to understanding and interpreting the dyeing performance and behavior of indigo dyes in non-aqueous dyeing systems.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T07:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011773
  • Preparation and characterization of electrospun cellulose acetate
           sub-micro fibrous membranes
    • Authors: Zhenzhen Quan, Yihan Wang, Jiajun Wu, Xiaohong Qin, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun sub-microfiber membrane of cellulose acetate (CA), with excellent biodegradability, high specific surface area and high porosity, has attracted wide attention in various research fields. Even so, the stable continuous electrospinning of CA sub-micro fibers is affected by the solution parameters and CA acetylation degree dramatically, which still remains challenging. In the present work, electrospun CA sub-micro fibrous membranes have been prepared from four distinct solvent systems, respectively, to explore the proper solution parameters for membrane fabrication. After hydrolysis and electrospinning, the produced CA sub-micro fibrous membranes were analyzed in terms of fiber size distribution, hydrophilicity and porosity. Current analysis has shown that the degree of substitution of CA sub-micro fibers decreases with the increase in hydrolysis time, resulting in increased diameter irregularity, decreased average porosity and increased hydrophilicity of the sub-micro fibrous membrane.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011772
  • A facile method for the preparation of a high-performance, hybrid
           separator for use in lithium-ion batteries
    • Authors: Pok Yin Wong, Chunhong Zhu, Qianyu Wang, Jian Shi, Kenji Hyodo, Ick Soo Kim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polyethylene (PE) membrane has poor wettability and poor thermal stability, which results in insufficient wetting by liquid electrolytes, thermal shrinkage, and no guarantee of safety. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabric has inhomogeneous pores and no shutdown function. Therefore, it may cause some problems for independent use, either in the assembly or in usage. In this study, a hybrid separator used in lithium-ion batteries was investigated. The separator was fabricated by laminating a PE membrane and PET nonwoven fabric with or without a ceramic coating on the PET nonwoven. The morphology, wettability, thermal stability, and battery performance were evaluated, and the results showed that the homogeneous distribution of pores can be obtained from the hybrid separators. The wettability properties were also improved in terms of contact angle, liquid electrolyte absorption height, and the decrease in the spreading area. Moreover, with laminated PET nonwoven fabric, the hybrid separators kept the dimensional shape at 180°C for 1 hour of heating, but the PE membrane shrank and became a small wad. The difference between the shutdown and meltdown temperatures ensured that the battery was safe to use. In addition, the evaluation of the battery’s performance indicated that the hybrid separators can be used instead of a PE membrane. This study showed a facile method for the preparation of a hybrid composite separator with improved wettability, thermal stability, and safety for lithium-ion batteries, and it has the potential to be used extensively in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006675
  • Surface modification of melt electrospun polypropylene fibrous film by
           silicon dioxide gel for high thermomechanical properties
    • Authors: Jumei Zhao, Hongtao Zhou, Huizhen Ke, Xueliang Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Quan Feng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a polypropylene (PP) porous film was made-up by melt electrospinning. The fibrous film was coated by a superthin layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) gel. The surface morphology of the SiO2 gel was decoded by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The SiO2 gel interface with film, as well as its crystallinity, were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The PP composite film's thermomechanical properties were studied through thermal shrinkage, thermal gravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and an Instron tensile machine with a heating chamber. The results showed that the coated SiO2 gel network could effectively reduce the PP film's thermal shrinkage by 48.5% without change of crystallinity. The coated SiO2 gel is capable of enlarging the decomposition temperature range and the storage modulus of the PP film. Meanwhile, it was discovered that, along with the increase of measured temperature, the loads on both pure PP film and PP/SiO2 gel film decreased under a constant strain, or the tensile strain of both of them was enhanced under the same load. The solid gel network endows the PP electrospun film with relatively higher thermal safety.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010671
  • A novel digital imaging method for measuring cashmere color and its
    • Authors: Chong Heng, Hua Shen, Fumei Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The quality of cashmere, such as color and length, determines its price and application. In the current cashmere inspection system, color and length are tested by visual assessment, which is a subjective, time- and labor-consuming process. Herein, the goal of this research is to develop a new method of testing cashmere color using image analysis, and to study the application of color in length measurement. During the color measurement, cashmere was prepared under two sample placement methods, and color features including RGB, XYZ and Lab obtained by the new method were compared with the standard. The calculation method of optical index used in length testing was determined based on theoretical and experimental analysis. Experiments show that fixed weight and pressure are suited for cashmere color measurement. In RGB space, the correlation coefficients (R2) between the two devices were calculated and were 0.990, 0.995 and 0.996 for parameters R, G and B, respectively. Good agreement also exhibited in XYZ space, with R2 equal to 0.994, 0.996 and 0.999 for X, Y and Z, respectively. This confirmed the accuracy of the proposed color measurement method in RGB and XYZ space. Finally, an accurate fibrogram was obtained by the proposed conversion model for calculating optical index from color values, which is the key curve to testing cashmere length. This study emphasis on methodological aspects and the results acquired are regarded as preliminary, as the experiments studied compose the first stage of research on the exploration of the application of image analysis on cashmere color measurement.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008664
  • Mass production of polyacrylonitrile sub-micron fibrous webs with
           different aligned degrees via free surface electrospinning for air
    • Authors: Mengjuan Zhou, Qi Fan, Zhenzhen Quan, Hongnan Zhang, Liming Wang, Xiaohong Qin, Rongwu Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Atmospheric pollution has emerged as causing irreversible harm to the ecosystem and people. Sub-micron fibrous filters play an incomparable role in effective air purification, owing to their excellent internal connectivity. Herein, three-dimensional sub-micron fibrous webs with various aligned degrees were conveniently fabricated via free surface electrospinning with different rotation speeds of the roller with a large diameter in large quantity, applied in air filtration. The influence of the orientation degrees of fibers on the performances of the fibrous filter was analyzed systematically. Results showed that the filtration performance of fibrous filters was inversely proportional to the orientation degree of the sub-micron fibers. Random fibrous webs with areal densities of ≤2.0 g m−2 exhibited high porosity (∼90%), ensuring qualified air permeability and outstanding filtration efficiency from 92% to 99.5% for ultra-fine aerosol particles (∼0.26 µm) under a higher air velocity of 14.1 cm s−1. The internal aperture channels were twists and turns with irregular polygon shape for random fibrous webs, while they were a narrow strip in the horizontal and straight in the longitudinal for aligned ones, which influenced the filter’s performances. Fibrous webs with better orientation of fibers and larger pore size are beneficial for energy efficiency and exhibited good filtration performance, better air permeability, and an improved mechanical property along the longitudinal direction. A cost-effective uniform sub-micron fibrous filter with different aligned degrees could be produced rapidly via free surface electrospinning with a mass production rate, which is beneficial for industrial production and commercial applications in respiratory protection and indoor air purification for precise purification of air pollution.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T06:36:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010688
  • Hydrophobic performance of electrospun fibers functionalized with TiO2
    • Authors: Vânia Pais, Miguel Navarro, Catarina Guise, Rui Martins, Raul Fangueiro
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The development of materials with hydrophobic properties has been widely explored in areas such as textiles, healthcare, sports, and personal protective equipment. Hydrophobic properties that arise from nanoparticles (nPs) directly promote other valuable properties, including self-cleaning capabilities, decreased bacterial growth, and increased comfort. In this study, biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers were functionalized by the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nPs to develop water-repellent materials. The membranes were produced through electrospinning, and variables such as the polymer concentration, nP concentration, and needle diameter were optimized to achieve PCL/TiO2 composite fibers with water-repellent capabilities. The nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the water contact angle (WCA). In general, it was observed that the nanofibers presented higher roughness values when TiO2 nPs were present and that this result promoted higher WCA values. The highest WCA value (156°) was obtained for the nanofiber mat produced with 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) PCL and 0.6% (w/v) TiO2.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T11:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010669
  • An investigation of the effects of weave types on surface roughness of
           woven fabric
    • Authors: Kura A Beyene, Degu M Kumelachew
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fabrics intended for clothing have more emphasis on their appearance and handling characteristics such as luster, smoothness or roughness, stiffness or limpness, and draping qualities. Nowadays, evaluating fabric touch can be of great interest in the industry to match the quality needs of the consumer and the parameters for the manufacturing process. Throughout this study, the effect of weave types on the surface roughness of cotton woven fabric was investigated and analyzed. Three different weave types namely, plain 1/1, twill 1/3, and sateen 8/3 were investigated. The fabric parameters were 27*20Ne (warp/weft) count of yarn, 38*18 (EPC [Ends per Centimeters]/PPC [Picks per Centimeters]) thread density, and 710 CN/TEX (Cent-newton per Tex) with warp tension was produced by air-jet loom. The findings of this study revealed that the surface roughness values of all the fabrics increased regularly on moving from plain 1/1 weave to sateen 8/3 weave. But, the surface roughness of fabric in the weft direction is higher than in the warp direction. The weave type is statistically significant at a confidence interval of 95% and can effectively be used to describe the surface roughness for both warp and weft direction of woven fabrics. The pairwise comparison reveals that it is statistically significant for weave types in the warp and weft direction of the fabrics. This investigation and analysis of weave types on surface roughness of cotton woven fabrics help textile technologies and manufacturers to consider the weave types during the production of fabrics for different end applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T06:31:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010683
  • Influence of incident energy on the properties of arc rated para-aramid
    • Authors: Xia Li, Qilong Sun, Shuo Wang, Hong Tang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To study the protection mechanism of para-aramid fabrics under an electric arc, the structural composition, surface morphology, and thermal properties of an untreated para-aramid fabric and that treated with different incident energy arcs were compared. The intensity of the N-H peak of the para-aramid cellulose amide decreased with increasing exposed arc energy. Moreover, intensities of the C=O peak of the amide bond type I carbonyl and the C-H deformation vibration absorption peak originating from the benzene ring gradually weakened. In contrast, the carbon content of the fabric increased. In the arc deflagration process, the fiber broke and then carbonized and embrittled. With an arc energy of 30.9 cal/cm2, the carbonization degree of the front surface of the fabric increased and was highest at the float line. The initial combustion temperature remained unchanged, and the mass residual quantity gradually increased with increasing arc energy exposed to the fabric. The above results suggest that para-aramid fabric can protect the end user in an arc by carbonization, offering effective assistance in the research and development of personal protective equipment for arc flashes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T06:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010679
  • Properties of silver chloride and carbon screen printed patterns on
           different textiles
    • Authors: Victor Toral, Andreas Albrecht, Encarnación Castillo, Antonio García, Markus Becherer, Almudena Rivadeneyra
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Smart textiles, known also as e-textiles, are of great interest for the development of healthcare and wellness applications that require the embedding of electronic devices into the fabrics. Although many prototype proposals may be found in the literature, the generalization and commercialization of e-textiles is limited by the lack of cost-effective, standard fabrication processes that can be applied to a large variety of fabrics. In this contribution, we analyze the deposition of silver and carbon pastes by screen printing methods on a wide selection of daily-use textiles, to gain insight into the main features to be considered when developing cost-effective smart textiles. Results show the prospects offered by screen printing to create conductive patterns over textile and flexible materials with sheet resistances lower than 1 Ω/sq and a good repeatability in the dimensions of the patterns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:51:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005039
  • Evaluating farmer's satisfaction of different agrotextile bunch covers
           using desirability function
    • Authors: Wafa Guedri, Mounir Jaoudi, Slah Msahli
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper deals with an evaluation of farmer's satisfaction of agrotextile as a date bunch cover using global quality index. Referring to literature studies, desirability function remains an appropriate method that allows a level of flexibility over graphical tool in defining and evaluating quality. The application of desirability function is discussed and investigated. Using a statistical survey based on Tunisian farmers, it was concluded that ideal bagging product depends on date bunch requirements, weight and goal of each individual agrotextile cover's property. Based on a comparative analysis, the desirability function remains sufficient to objectively classify different bags for protection of date palm. Useful index values have been found and can be used by farmers or industries to accurately predict the quality of date bunch cover and to select the best supplier to launch the needed order. In this work, the fabrics that have been considered are woven, knitted and nonwoven fabrics. Nonwoven products are used for the first time in the palm field and have been evaluated in this paper. The results show that nonwoven products were closer to the desired performance compared to knitted and woven fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T01:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006945
  • Facile thermoplastic polyurethane-based multi-walled carbon nanotube ink
           for fabrication of screen-printed fabric electrodes of wearable e-textiles
           with high adhesion and resistance stability under large deformation
    • Authors: Lihong Jiang, Hong Hong, Jiyong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon nanotubes have been widely used to formulate printed conductive ink in recent years due to their excellent conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties. However, the common problems of this ink, such as poor adhesion and low resistance stability under large deformation, hinder its application in the fabric electrodes (FEs) of wearable and stretchable e-textiles. Herein, conductive inks with a simple preparation process, high adhesion and conductive stability were formulated by mixing the conductive filler, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix with a reversible cross-linked structure. Then it is evaluated whether the MWCNT-based conductive ink is suitable for the screen-printing fabrication of highly durable and washable FEs. The experimental results showed that the screen-printed fabric electrode exhibited remarkable resistance stability under bending and folding deformation. In particular, after 1000 bending cycles and 100 folding–unfolding cycles under additional pressure, the sheet resistance of FEs only increased by 0.8% and 5.0%, respectively. Moreover, the screen-printed conductive pattern has strong adhesion to polyamide fabric substrate by the Scotch tape and washing tests, and there are no significant changes in resistance and surface morphology. High-performance conductive inks with facile and large-scale production potential are developed, and show great prospect in the development of wearable printing e-textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T01:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008613
  • Green biosynthesis and physicochemical characterization of Fe3O4
           nanoparticles using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract for
           optoelectronic applications
    • Authors: Abderrhmane Bouafia, Salah Eddine Laouini, Mohammed Laid Tedjani, Gomaa AM Ali, Ahmed Barhoum
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Green biosynthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) using plant extract is desired, as the plant extract is safe for humans and the environment. In this study, magnetite Fe3O4 NPs were greenly prepared using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract as a reducing and capping agent. The effect of iron precursor contraction (0.01–0.1 M, FeCl3) was studied. The Fe3O4 crystalline with an average crystallite size range from 21 to 23 nm was proven by X-ray powder diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the synthesized Fe3O4 NPs were mostly cubical. Ultraviolet-visible spectra showed that the prepared Fe3O4 NPs exhibit absorption at 270 nm related to the Fe3O4 NPs with a direct bandgap ranging from 1.87 to 2.26 eV and indirect bandgap of 2.16–2.48 eV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed two characteristic absorption bands at 515 and 567 cm−1, which proved the successful formation of Fe3O4. The proposed method using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract offers an economical and environmentally friendly route for synthesizing many other types of metal oxides.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006671
  • Laccase-catalyzed enzymatic dyeing of cotton fabrics
    • Authors: Rıza Atav, Bürhan Buğdaycı, Ömer Bozkurt, Aylin Yıldız, Elçin Güneş, İsmail Yakın
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As some synthetic dyes are regarded to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, the search for eco-friendly alternatives for the synthesis of dyes and coloration has gained importance. For this reason, this study focused on finding new eco-friendly alternatives for coloring cotton. 100% cotton knitted fabrics were subjected to enzymatic coloration using a commercial laccase enzyme and various precursors. After determining the colors, the effect of pH on the enzymatic dyeing process was investigated. Then the optimization of reaction conditions was also realized statistically for the precursors giving the best results in terms of color. With the aim of obtaining further improvements in color-yield values obtained in enzymatic dyeings, the effect of the pretreatment process and the use of ultrasound were also investigated. Furthermore, the reaction pathways in enzymatic coloration were explained and results were confirmed by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared analysis. As a result of experimental studies, red and lilac colors could be successfully obtained on cotton for the first time in the literature. In this way, the theoretical basis of enzymatic dye synthesis and dyeing of cotton was clarified comprehensively. Furthermore, technical (color reproducibility; washing, rubbing, light and perspiration-fastness values; and UV protection factor), economical (chemical, energy and water consumption required for dyeing (including aftertreatments) of 1 kg fabric) and ecological aspects of enzymatic dyeings were compared with reactive dyeing. According to the experimental results it was found that biological treatment alone was enough for wastewater of enzymatic coloring, while chemical treatment will also be needed in reactive dyeing wastewater. Furthermore, color reproducibility, evenness and UV protection properties of dyed samples were comparable with that of reactive dyeings. However, in terms of the fastness levels achieved, the enzymatic coloring was far behind the reactive dyeing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006937
  • Influences of compression cycling skinsuit on energy consumption of
           amateur male cyclists
    • Authors: Gaby QQ Shi, Kristina Shin, Daniel HK Chow, Jiao Jiao, BCL So, Newman Lau, Claire Chung, Kaoru Leung
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Energy consumption differences of two cycling garments during short-term cycling were studied. Eleven amateur male cyclists participated in two cycling sessions over two days while wearing a newly designed compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) with stripes simulating kinesio tape, and a conventional compression garment (CG) (control garment). In each session, the participants performed a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences with either the CCS or the CG. Each combination lasted for 30 s. Garment pressure values at the thigh, oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were collected and analyzed. The CCS provided significantly different pressure values (P 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006940
  • The effect of backside elements on the light emission of a plastic optical
           fiber assembly
    • Authors: Hakyung Cho, Hayoung Song
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the recent increase in leisure time and wellbeing trends, the number of individuals who enjoy nighttime leisure activities has rapidly increased. Thus, the demand for luminous night safety clothing ensuring safety and that is also fashionable is increasing. Although higher visibility is important, studies on the influence of the backside elements of optical fiber materials on light emission are limited. The main components of the plastic optical fiber assembly in this study are the plastic optical fiber and backside elements, consisting of retroreflective material, and the backside sheet. The effects of the four types of retroreflective material, which are low, medium, high, and ultra-high luminance types, and the color of the backside sheet, white or black, on the luminance of the plastic optical fiber assembly are evaluated in bright, dusky, and dark environments. The results are analyzed using the statistical analysis software, SPSS 20.0.In the dusky environment, the plastic optical fiber assembly with prism material (80.78 ± 2.17) exhibits the highest luminance. However, there was no difference between the plastic optical fiber assembly with high- (38.52 ± 1.27) and medium-retroreflective material (36.76 ± 0.68). In the dark environment, the plastic optical fiber assembly with the prism material shows the highest luminance (66.83 ± 0.24), and there is no difference between the plastic optical fiber assembly with the low- (24.43 ± 0.42), medium- (24.63 ± 0.36), and high-retroreflective material (25.12 ± 0.42). Also, the luminance of the plastic optical fiber assembly with the white backside sheet is higher than that with the black backside sheet for all retroreflective material in dusky and dark environments. In summary, the optimal constitution of a plastic optical fiber assembly’s backside element is the retroreflective material of a prism type with the white backside color.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006941
  • Carbon footprint and water footprint assessment of virgin and recycled
           polyester textiles
    • Authors: Weiran Qian, Xiang Ji, Pinghua Xu, Laili Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Recycled polyester textile fibers stemming from waste polyester material have been applied in the textile industry in recent years. However, there are few studies focusing on the evaluation and comparison of the environmental impacts caused by the production of virgin polyester textiles and recycled polyester textiles. In this study, the carbon footprint and water footprint of virgin polyester textiles and recycled polyester textiles were calculated and compared. The results showed that the carbon footprint of the virgin polyester textiles production was 119.59 kgCO2/100 kg. Terephthalic acid production process occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 45.83%, followed by polyester fabric production process, ethylene production process, paraxylene production process, ethylene glycol production process and polyester fiber production process. The total carbon footprint of waste polyester recycling was 1154.15 kgCO2/100 kg, approximately ten times that of virgin polyester textiles production. As for the water footprint, it showed that virgin polyester fabric production and recycled polyester fabric production both had great impact on water eutrophication and water scarcity. Chemical oxygen demand caused the largest water eutrophication footprint, followed by ammonia-nitrogen and five-day biochemical oxygen demand. The water scarcity footprint of virgin polyester fabric production and recycled polyester fabric production was 5.98 m3 H2Oeq/100 kg and 1.90 m3 H2Oeq/100 kg, respectively. The comprehensive evaluation of carbon footprint and water footprint with the life cycle assessment polygon method indicated that the polyester fabric production process exhibited greater environmental impacts both for virgin polyester and recycled polyester.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006213
  • Effective treatments for enhancing carbon fiber/epoxy interfacial
           properties and carbon yarn weavability
    • Authors: Lan Yao, Xinyi Ruan, Shiting Hong, Jiahua Yang, Xiujun Fan, Huoyue Lin, Shiyuan Sun, Xianhong Zheng, Huarong Tang, Yiping Qiu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites have wide applications in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries, etc. However, due to the chemically inert surface of carbon fiber, interfacial problems always exist when the carbon fiber is infiltrated by the resin. In this study, polypyrrole (PPy) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on the carbon fiber surface in order to improve the interfacial properties between the carbon fiber and epoxy resin. After treatment, the interfacial shear strength increased as high as 55.7%, which was verified by microstructure characterization, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, PPy and CNTs were added to the epoxy sizing agent to strengthen the weavability of carbon yarns. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of the sized carbon yarns was significantly improved, and the fuzz weights were reduced.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006939
  • Geometrical analysis of auxetic woven fabrics based on foldable geometry
    • Authors: Hasan Kamrul, Adeel Zulifqar, Yadie Yang, Shuaiquan Zhao, Minglonghai Zhang, Hong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports a geometrical analysis of auxetic woven fabrics based on foldable geometry. Two fabrics having different geometrical parameters were first designed and fabricated and then subjected to tensile tests in two principal directions. Based on the experimental observations of the geometry of one fabric structural unit cell at different tensile strains, a geometrical model was first proposed and a relationship between the Poisson’s ratio and tensile strain was then established for each principal direction. Two semi-empirical equations are subsequently obtained for both principal directions by fitting the established relationships with experimental results. After validation by the experimental results of the other fabric, the obtained semi-empirical equations were finally used to predict the auxetic behavior of the fabric with a given geometrical parameter. The calculated and experimental results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other. Therefore, the semi-empirical equations obtained in this study could be useful in the design and prediction of the auxetic behavior of auxetic woven fabrics made with the same type of materials and foldable geometry but with different values of geometrical parameters.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008663
  • Digital imaging of the oil permeation mechanism in an oleophobic textile
    • Authors: Gannian Zhang, Qinfa Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Resistance of military clothing to oil permeation is important for effective protection against chemical warfare. In this paper, while a military textile is rendered oleophobic (oil contact angle ≈ 120°) through plasma-assisted deposition of perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFAC8), permeation of the textile by silicon oil is observed. Using high-definition digital imaging, we study the oil permeation dynamics, rationalize the permeation with a plausible mechanism and identify the threshold textile pore size for prevention of the permeation. We find that oil permeates defects of PFAC8 textiles. Our data suggests a linear variation for oil permeation volume ΔV with time t and implies a gravity-driving permeation mechanism. The mechanism comprises three stages involving merging and propagation of oil–yarn contact lines. The threshold pore size dm scales with σ/P, where σ is the oil surface tension and P is the hydrostatic head exerted by the oil drop. The paper indicates the importance of an undamaged textile structure to ‘robust’ oil resistance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006944
  • Qualitative identification of waste textiles based on near-infrared
           spectroscopy and the back propagation artificial neural network
    • Authors: Wenxia Li, Zihan Wei, Zhengdong Liu, Yujun Du, Jiahui Zheng, Huaping Wang, Shuo Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Hand sorting for different types of waste textiles is time-consuming, laborious and inaccurate. The non-destructive and efficient identification of fibers in waste fabrics is of great significance to the reuse of textile materials. In this paper, 593 samples were selected as the research objects, including polyester, cotton, wool, viscose, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester/nylon, polyester/cotton, polyester/wool and silk/cotton waste textiles. The near-infrared spectrum of each sample was obtained by a portable near-infrared spectrometer, and the influence of environmental humidity and fabric thickness on the near-infrared spectrum of the sample was discussed to obtain the best test conditions. On this basis, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to the qualitative classification of waste textiles to complete the automatic identification of fabric components in the sorting process. Firstly, a standard sample set was established by waveform clipping and normalization, and a BP-ANN deep web suitable for near-infrared spectroscopy was established. Then the BP network was trained according to the input near-infrared spectrum data of known sample categories and the classification results of the preset 11 types of labels, and the weights and thresholds of each layer were adjusted in the repeated training process. Finally, a 1500 × 100 × 11 network structure was established when the network error was the smallest, and the number of corresponding hidden layer nodes was 100. When the number of training steps was 500, the sum of squared errors reached 0.001, and the model recognition effect was the best. Meanwhile, the validity of the model was verified by inspecting additional 299 samples outside the model, and the recognition accuracy rate of the established model also exceeded 99%, which verified the effectiveness of the model. These results show that this near-infrared qualitative analysis model can more accurately classify and identify waste textiles, especially polyester waste textiles. In addition, it provides a new idea for the recycling and reuse of waste textiles for enterprises.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211007516
  • Thermal and moisture behavior of a multi-layered assembly in a pneumatic
           compression device
    • Authors: Nimesh Kankariya, Cheryl A Wilson, Raechel M Laing
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to determine the effect of multiple layers of materials typical of those used in air pneumatic compression devices (which require air impermeable layers to function) on thermal and water vapor resistance. The experimental set-up included: (a) single layers of two next-to-skin knit fabrics in both relaxed and extended conditions, (b) two layers of silicone, and (c) a multi-layered assembly comprised of a next-to-skin fabric and two layers of silicone. Structural properties (thickness, mass) dominated thermal resistance of the multi-layered assembly, and the silicone layers rendered this assembly impermeable to water vapor as expected. Results confirmed the need for some form of 'ventilation' to facilitate water vapor transfer from a potential user’s skin to the environment. By creating 18 circular vents across the silicone layers (each vent 314 mm2), which formed ventilation of ∼2% of total surface area, the water vapor resistance of the multi-layered assembly dropped significantly from very high (but non-measurable) to below ∼300 m2 Pa/W, although ventilation did not improve the thermal resistance of the multi-layer arrangements. Results of this research will enable manufacturers of pneumatic compression devices to develop devices comprised of a multiple layer arrangements i.e. a knit fabric next-to-skin layer and silicone layers with optimized vents across the silicone layers, so that the user can continue the compression treatment with an acceptable microenvironment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006942
  • Characterization of a natural surfactant from an essential oil from neem
           (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) for textile industry applications
    • Authors: Christiane Siqueira de Azevedo Sá, Rasiah Ladchumananandasivam, Cátia GFT Rossi, Rita K da Silva, Wilka da Silva Camboim, Andrea Zille, Jorge Padrão, Késia K de Oliveira Souto Silva
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Surfactants are multipurpose active compounds and are ubiquitously present in detergents. Detergent demand spiked due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, further alerting to the need to replace petrochemical synthetic surfactants with natural and renewable surfactants to mitigate further environmental damage. The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a fast-growing tree that provides a multitude of commodities, namely neem oil. Neem oil possesses insecticidal and medicinal activity. This work reports the extraction and characterization of a surfactant from neem oil (SNO), displaying a yield of approximately 100%. SNO exhibited suitable detergent characteristics with a high potential to be used as a cleansing agent for textile applications, such as high pH value (10.1), suitable foaming of 1.5 cm and a critical micelle concentration of nearly 0.12 g mL−1. In addition, SNO showed a moderate bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, both common nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, SNO has a good potential to be used in medical textile applications due to its detergent and bactericidal properties. Finally, an economical overview of the SNO production process was assessed, underscoring its viability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211007518
  • Evaluation of physiological and psychophysical strain of security guards
           wearing stab-resistant body armor under a simulated patrol condition
    • Authors: Jie Yang, Qiqi An, Yuchen Wei, Mengqi Yuan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to determine the effects of stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) on the physiological and psychophysical strain of security guards. Ten volunteers performed a 50-min treadmill walk at 7.0 km/h in a climate chamber where the ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled to 40 °C and 40%, respectively. All the participants performed the walk under two experimental conditions: wearing a uniform without (CON) and with armor (SRBA). Several physiological responses (core temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, and oxygen consumption) and psychophysical parameters (thermal sensation vote, thermal comfort vote, ratings of perceived exertion, and clothing and skin wetness) were recorded during the trials. Furthermore, the sweat loss, body heat storage, and physiological strain index (PSI) were calculated based on the measurements. The results indicated no significant difference between the SRBA and CON groups in terms of core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, body heat storage, or PSI over time. However, a significant difference (p 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006674
  • Identification of dynamic contact parameters between contact roller and
           filament package
    • Authors: Xunxun Ma, Shujia Li, Haiyan Yu, Shengze Wang, Yongxing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      During the high-speed winding of polyester filament, a contact roller must be applied to press on the filament package’s surface to ensure the filament is placed stably and precisely on the package surface. Thus, a twin-rotor system with contact coupling characteristics between the contact roller and the filament package is formed. Identifying the contact parameters between the contact roller and the package are prerequisite to precisely analyze the dynamic behavior of the winding system, as well as to determine the technical parameters. In this paper, an approach was proposed to identify the equivalent contact stiffness and contact damping coefficients by means of coordination through experiment and simulation. First, based on the forced non-resonance method of a single-degree-of-freedom system, the testing scheme was drawn up in consideration of the winding process parameters. Then, an experimental device for the twin-rotor system was developed, and the dynamic contact parameters just in the working frequency band corresponding to low linear speed of winding were obtained by the experiment, due to the requirement of the forced non-resonance theory and economic limitations of the experimental device. Third, the basic parameters including equivalent radial Young’s modulus and damping ratio of the package were obtained through experimental test. Furthermore, the contact parameters in the working frequency band corresponding to high linear speed of winding were obtained through simulation. Finally, the curve fitting of contact parameters was finished; in addition, the comparative results between the simulation and the experiment are in good agreement. The dynamic contact parameters present nonlinear frequency variation characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006211
  • Electromagnetic interference shielding with absorption-dominant
           performance of Ti3C2TX MXene/non-woven laminated fabrics
    • Authors: Hengyu Zhang, Jianying Chen, Hui Ji, Ni Wang, Shuo Feng, Hong Xiao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electromagnetic interference (EMI)-shielding materials with remarkable shielding effectiveness (SE) based on dominant absorption are highly desirable, especially if they are also flexible and lightweight. Herein, we prepared MXene (Ti3C2TX, TX-=O,-OH,-F)-based lightweight and absorption-dominant EMI-shielding non-woven fabrics. In view of the porosity and soft properties of textiles, as well as the unique high conductivity and hydrophilicity of Ti3C2TX MXene, Ti3C2TX MXene was coated on the fiber skeleton of three different non-woven fabrics made from polyester, cotton, and calcium alginate. The conductive layer formed by Ti3C2TX MXene on the fiber led to heterogeneous interfaces. They improved the multiple reflection of electromagnetic waves among Ti3C2TX MXene sheets and then contributed to the attenuation of the electromagnetic waves. Among all the samples, calcium alginate/Ti3C2TX MXene reached a maximum SE of 25.26 dB at 12.4 GHz with the fabric thickness of 3.17 mm. Cotton/Ti3C2TX MXene achieved maximum SSEt (ratio of specific shielding effectiveness (SSE) to thickness) of 2301.95 dB cm2g−1 at 1.36 mm with a loading of Ti3C2TX MXene of only 5.77mg/cm3. Further, fabric thickness, layer number, conductivity, and substrate type were selected to analyze the EMI-shielding mechanism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006216
  • Electroactive composites based on chitosan fibers coated with polypyrrole
    • Authors: Elena N Dresvyanina, Elena Y Rosova, Natalia V Smirnova, Elena M Ivan’kova, Olga A Moskalyuk, Irina P Dobrovolskaya, Andrei N Aleshin, Vladimir E Yudin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Chitosan fibers were prepared by coagulation from 4% chitosan solutions in 2% acetic acid solution. The synthesis method for polypyrrole (PPy) involving in situ oxidative polymerization of gaseous pyrrole on the surface of chitosan fibers was developed. Structure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity and mechanical characteristics of the obtained composite systems were determined. It was shown that formation of PPy layers on chitosan fibers leads to appearance of electrical conductivity. Conductivity of these layers, as well as their mechanical characteristics, depends on polymerization conditions. The MTT test (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) showed good biocompatibility of chitosan–PPy composite films; these films contain higher amounts of viable cells than the films cast from solutions of pure chitosan.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T07:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006217
  • Flexible leather substrate dual-band wearable antenna with impact analysis
           on testing under wet condition for human rescue system
    • Authors: S Regina, A Merline
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable flexible antennas have yielded much attention in recent years because of their interesting features and capabilities for enabling flexible, lightweight, portable and low cost wireless communication. The proposed research work offers the design of the flexible wearable patch antenna with four single Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) using a leather substrate for better performance. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated with leather substrate at the operating frequencies of 0.99 GHz and 3.5 GHz. The antenna is fabricated and validated under free space (normal condition), partially wet, fully wet and dried after wet conditions using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Different parameters such as reflection coefficient, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and gain of the fabricated antenna are measured, and they are compared with the simulation results. The validated results show that the performance of the proposed antenna under free space, partially wet, fully wet and dried after wet conditions is virtually equal. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of this proposed antenna is also investigated for 10g tissues and the SARs are 0.0168763 W/kg and 0.69567 W/kg at the operating frequencies of 0.99 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. As a result, its good performance in wet conditions along with low cost and ready availability of leather material means the proposed antenna can be used for human safety environments, especially in military applications, etc.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T04:00:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006214
  • Automated draping analysis of 3D printed flexible isogrid structures for
           textile applications
    • Authors: Jordan Kalman, Kazem Fayazbakhsh, Danielle Martin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing can be used for manufacturing flexible isogrid structures. This work presents a novel draping analysis of flexible 3D printed isogrids from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using image processing. A small-scale multi-camera automated draping apparatus (ADA) is designed and used to characterize draping behavior of 3D printed isogrid structures based on draping coefficient (DC) and mode. Circular specimens are designed and 3D printed that accommodate up to eight additional weights on their perimeters to enhance draping. Five infill patterns, three infill percentages, and three loading cases are explored to evaluate their impact on specimens’ draping coefficient and mode, resulting in 45 tests. The range of DCs in this study is 21.9% to 91.5%, and a large range of draping modes is observed. For the lowest infill percentage, specimen mass is not the sole contributor to the DC values and the infill pattern has a significant impact for the three loading cases. Considering draping modes, the maximum number of convex and concave nodes observed for 25% infill specimens with added weights is three. The draping behavior characterization developed in this study can be followed to design and 3D print new flexible isogrids with textile applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01T06:36:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006210
  • The exploration of artificial intelligence application in fashion trend
    • Authors: Mengyun Shi, Cali Chussid, Pinyi Yang, Menglin Jia, Van Dyk Lewis, Wei Cao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fashion trends today are changing much faster than ever before. Timely and reliable trend forecasting is, therefore, critical in the fashion industry. Traditional fashion forecasting requires professionals to abstract image-based information across design collections and time intervals from around the world, which is extremely time-consuming and labor intensive. Considering the financial cost associated with manual labeling and the accuracy of classifications based upon human subjective judgment, this explorative study proposes a data-driven quantitative abstracting approach using an artificial intelligence (A.I.) algorithm. Firstly, an A.I. model was trained to be familiar with fashion images from a large-scale dataset under different scenarios such as online stores and street snapshots; secondly, the model could detect garments and classify clothing attributes such as fabric textures, garment style, and design details from runway photos and videos; thirdly, the model could summarize fashion trends from the attributes it developed. The adoption of an A.I. algorithm proved to be an objective and systematic computerized method of interpreting fashion dynamics in a more efficient, accurate, sustainable, and cost-effective way.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01T06:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006212
  • Multiscale fibril structure of hollow windmill palm fibers
    • Authors: Changjie Chen, Zhong Wang, Sui Zhou, Guohe Wang, Limin Bao, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Windmill palm fiber is a kind of multicellular lignocellulose fiber material. Multiscale structure is an essential factor in mechanical properties and applications. The multiscale fibrils under sulfuric acid treatment had been prepared to improve the understanding of the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale structure of the windmill palm fiber. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze these samples’ structure. Furthermore, the result showed that the elementary fibril diameter was 4–10 nm, whereas that of the microfibrils was 20–70 nm. The diameters of macrofibril and macrofibril bundles were 0.4–1.0 µm and 1.2–5.5 µm, respectively. The elementary fibril assembled into spiral microfibril with an angle of 46°. The crystallinity of nanofibril extracted from windmill palm fiber was about 62%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005186
  • Oriented PAN/PVDF/PAN laminated nanofiber separator for lithium-ion
    • Authors: Yixiao Zheng, Rongxin Zhou, Huanhuan Zhao, Feng Ye, Xiangwu Zhang, Yeqian Ge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofiber separators have excellent properties in terms of large surface area and high porosity, which benefits the rate capability, electrochemical stability, and safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a 0°PAN/PVDF/90°PAN-oriented composite nanofiber separator is prepared, which is prepared layer by layer by electrospinning technology and drum orientation collector. The results show that when the rotating speed of the drum is 600 r min−1, the 0°PAN/PVDF/90°PAN-oriented composite nanofiber separator has high porosity (about 85%), improved transverse and longitudinal tensile properties (10.33 MPa and 11.03 MPa, respectively), good dimensional stability at 160°C, and good electrochemical performance (specific charge capacity of 165 mAh g−1 at 0.5C and 142.7 mAh g−1 at 1C, capacity retention of 90% after 100 cycles).
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005027
  • Electromagnetic performance of three-dimensional woven spacer microstrip
           antenna with various conductive fibers in extreme temperatures
    • Authors: Li Wuzhou, Zhang Kun, Zheng Liangang, Xu Fujun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Due to its excellent light-weight, mechanical, and electromagnetic performance, the three-dimensional woven spacer microstrip antenna (3DWS-MA) has become a promising communication device to be applied in aerospace or high-speed vehicles. To explore the electromagnetic performance of 3DWS-MA in extreme environments, microstrip antennas based on three-dimensional woven glass fiber/epoxy spacer composites (3DWSC) with different conductive yarn (copper wire, nickel-coated carbon yarn and carbon nanotube yarn) were manufactured and tested at various temperatures (from –196°C to 150°C). The results showed that the 3DWSC exhibited superb dielectric properties ([math]) with a low volume density of 0.5 g[math]cm−3, rendering good electromagnetic performance of the prepared antenna (S11 value of –23 dB and gain of 7 dB). When the temperature increased from –196°C to 150°C, the dielectric constant of 3DWSC increased from 1.57 to 1.67, resulting in the decrease of resonance frequency of 3DWS-MAs (maximum offset is 60 MHz). In addition, the resistance changing ratios of the conductive fibers also reached 105% with the temperature increase, resulting in degradations of S11 values (maximum 17 dB). Furthermore, among the three types of 3DWS-MAs, the 3DWS-MA (carbon nanotube yarn) exhibited the most stable S11 value at low temperatures (from –196°C to 0°C), while the 3DWS-MA (copper) showed low return loss and stable resonance frequency at high temperatures (from 20°C to 150°C).
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005015
  • Prediction and optimization of process parameters of electrospun
           polyacrylonitrile based on numerical simulation and response surface
    • Authors: Peng Chen, Qihong Zhou, Ge Chen, Qian Zhang, Shaozong Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There is a strong coupling relationship between the process parameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and its fiber diameter. By examining the mechanism of influence, the quality of electrospun products can be significantly improved and controlled. In this study, a novel idea for predicting and optimizing electrospun PAN process parameters was proposed. First, the control equation of the electrospun PAN was established based on the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation, and the volume force (generated via electric field force, gravity, and surface tension) and jet velocity during electrospinning were solved and analyzed via simulation software. Then, grey correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlation among the three process parameters (applied voltage, feed rate, and distance between the needle and collector) of the electrospun PAN, volume force, jet velocity, and average fiber diameter. Subsequently, the effect of simultaneous changes in multiple process parameters on the average fiber diameter was examined based on the response surface method, and a prediction model was established. Finally, the experimental results indicated that the model can predict the average fiber diameter when multiple process parameters are simultaneously changed. The model predicted the average fiber diameter with an error of only 0.28%, and the optimized minimum fiber average diameter was 235.3 nm (the applied voltage was 12 kV, the distance between the needle and collector was 15.6 cm, the feed rate was 0.37 mL/h). This study provides a theoretical basis for the on-line monitoring of the electrospun PAN.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T06:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211003986
  • Biological evaluation of microcurrent wound dressing based on printed
           silver and zinc electrodes
    • Authors: Shaojie Tan, Zhenzhen Huang, Jiajun Wang, Jiarui Han, Jing Gao, Lu Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Five types of silver/zinc (Ag/Zn) microcurrent dressings with different metal content were fabricated by screen printing and well-characterized by morphology, electricity and biological analysis in this study. Ag and Zn were printed alternately in a stripe pattern on the dressings’ surface. The metal particles adhered to the dressings sparsely, then densely, as the metal content increased gradually. The electrical test showed that with the increase of the metal content on the dressings, the current and voltage between positive and negative electrodes increased correspondingly. Hemolysis experiments demonstrated that the low to medium concentration of the metal would not cause hemolysis of red blood cells and had excellent blood compatibility. The results of coagulation experiments indicated that the coagulation performance within 10 min of the dressings was comparable with that of alginate dressing; in addition, the hemostatic performance was excellent. The cytotoxicity tests showed that the dressing A-C with low to medium concentration of the metal content, had no cytotoxicity, which followed the dose–effect relationship between the cytotoxicity and the metal content of the dressing. Furthermore, cell migration and mitochondrial membrane potential experiments indicated that microcurrent dressings altered mitochondrial membrane potentials of human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells while regulating cell migration. The stronger the current generated by the microcurrent base cloth, the more pronounced the migration effect of HFF cells becomes, and the higher the membrane potential of the fibroblasts within the acceptable threshold value range.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T06:10:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211003988
  • Establishment of a digital simulated testing platform for radiation
           protection performance and preparation of three-layer coated flexible
    • Authors: Guoyi Liu, Xiaoming Zhao, Yuanjun Liu, Yuhong Shen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fire proximity suits serve as the highest level of thermal protective clothing for firefighters when passing through the scene of a fire and within close range of open fire. A digital simulated testing platform for radiation protection performance was established based on the TPP701D thermal protective performance tester, by comparison of simulated data and measured results for the outer material of the fire proximity suit. Using single-, double- and three-layer flexible composites and the fabric as the base material, the reliability of the established simulation test platform was investigated. Based on this simulated test platform, in this paper the influence of the material structure and performance parameters (thickness, thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, emission rate and thermal reflectivity) of the heat radiation layer possessed by the three types of coating (thermal radiation protective coating, fireproof heat insulated coating and heat insulating coating) of three-layer coated flexible composites are discussed, thus providing the theoretical basis for the optimization and preparation of alternative outer materials for fire proximity suits. Based on the simulation data and measured results, the radiation protection performance of the three-layer structure is enhanced. Improving the average reflectivity of the heat rays for the thermal radiation protective coating, increasing the thickness of the heat insulating coating and reducing the thermal conductivity of the heat insulating coating are effective means of improving the radiation protection performance of the three-layer coated flexible composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T06:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211002862
  • Development of a flexible wearable thermal textile accessory for winter
    • Authors: Chenxiao Yang, Mei Yu Yao, Li LI
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In pursuit of a healthy lifestyle, people are paying more attention to sports activities, even in winter. They are thus seeking high function and maximum comfort to improve their performance. However, cold weather may result in a higher risk of injuries. It is of prime importance to perform warm-up, which can increase body temperature to relieve muscle stiffness and allow improvement of performance. Unfortunately, the traditional approach of wearing multiple thick layers of clothing to keep warm can prevent the easy movement of the body. Therefore, the integration of flexible textile and wearable thermal technology has become a major research initiative in both sports and textile fields. Current attempts by high-tech start-ups and wearable textile enterprises are not able to overcome the hurdle of transforming wearable technology into a fashionable and marketable product. Hence, this paper introduces a design-driven method to develop a flexible wearable thermal textile accessory for winter sports usage. The relationships between thermal textiles, electrical resistance, thermal performance, stretchability, energy consumption, and function stability were evaluated to optimize the thermal textile fabrication. Then, a prototype was produced and its specification was defined. These enable the realization of mass production and provide a blueprint for the future development of wearable textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T09:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211001803
  • Development of an H-shaped antenna with FR4 for 1–10 GHz
           wireless communications
    • Authors: S Kannadhasan, R Nagarajan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wireless networking is now central to modern life, and is anticipated to become ever more pervasive. Therefore, there may be several possible uses for combining lightweight fabric antennas. A flexible fabric is used to increase convenience, and the inclusion of antennas in garments ensures they do not have to be hand-held. Wireless deployment, a single-feed and a dual-frequency H-shaped antenna is presented. The transmitting model is used to build the H-shaped antenna. Varying the dual frequency is achieved with the aid of a capacitive range between 3.85 and 1.88 pF and a Zener diode. The operating frequencies for the cellular implementations of the H-shaped antenna are 2.5–4.5 GHz. The configuration of the antenna is built on an 80 mm × 60 mm dielectric by using FR4 epoxy substrate; the scale of the switch dimension is 0.7 mm × 1.4 mm with relative permittivity of 3.68 and the height of the substratum is 1.6 mm. The patch of the planned structure is supplied by a 50 ohm matching impedance co-axial cable. In this research work the proposed antenna structure gain is 8.2 dBi (86%) for wireless devices. Under the current structure, the high and minimal return losses are from –39.05 to –18.68 dB. The highest and lowest Voltage Standing Wave Ratio values of the proposed structure are 1.78 and 1.02, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T05:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211003167
  • Functionalization of cotton fabric with ZnO nanoparticles and cellulose
           nanofibrils for ultraviolet protection
    • Authors: Mengmeng Li, Amjad Farooq, Shuai Jiang, Meiling Zhang, Hassan Mussana, Lifang Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A simple impregnation method was employed to obtain functional cotton fabric based on a zinc oxide (ZnO) and cellulose nanocomposite. The cellulose nanofibril suspension was utilized to reduce the agglomeration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and bind them to the surface of the fiber. Scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to confirm the presence of ZnO NPs on the surface of the fiber. The treated cotton fabrics exhibited high ultraviolet protection factor values, which were still higher than 50 even after 30 standard washing cycles. Furthermore, the treated samples showed a modest antibacterial effect due to the presence of ZnO NPs. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics showed a decrease (less than 30%) in air permeability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T06:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211001807
  • A study on the applicability of pigment digital printing on cotton fabrics
    • Authors: Yi Ding, Wu Zhendong, Zhang Chuanxiong, Xiao Ruobai, Xue Wenliang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In digital printing, the fabric print quality can only be evaluated through the color and pattern of printed fabric after printing. The influence of the physical properties of fabric on the printing effect remains unclear. In this paper, the digital print suitability of cotton fabric was defined, and 14 samples of plain cotton fabrics were taken as research objects. In addition, 11 evaluation indexes of cotton fabrics were selected. The evaluation and prediction model of cotton fabric printability was established by principal component analysis. Furthermore, the prediction results of the model were verified by analyzing the colorimetric data of cotton fabric after printing. The result demonstrated that the evaluation model of printing suitability was applicable and can be used to quickly evaluate the printability of cotton fabrics. Particularly, fabric thickness had the greatest influence on printing permeability. In the case of moderate wicking, the higher the whiteness of cotton fabric, the better the color reproducibility after printing. Additionally, the wicking effect also had a great influence on color performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:19:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997926
  • Effect of position of the fiber transport channel on fiber motion in the
           high-speed rotor
    • Authors: Rui Hua Yang, Chuang He, Bo Pan, Hongxiu Zhong, Cundong Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The task of the fiber transport channel (FTC) is to transport the fibers from the carding roller to the rotor. Its geometric position in the spinning machine has a strong influence on the characteristics of the airflow field and the trajectory of the fiber motion in both the rotor and the FTC. In this paper, a three-dimensional pumping rotor spinning channel model was established using ANSYS-ICEM-CFD software with three different positions of the FTC (positions a–c). Further, the simulations of air distribution were performed using Fluent software. In addition, the discrete phase model was used to fit the fiber motion trajectory in the rotor. The simulation results showed that among the three types of FTC, position b is the optimal condition. The gradients of airflow velocity in the channel at position b were greater than those of the other two positions, which is conducive to straightening of the fiber.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T07:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211001804
  • Preparation of single-layer coating polyester cotton composites with
           electric loss of their electromagnetic properties
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yi Wang, Guang Yin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, single-layer coated polyester–cotton composites were prepared using PU-2540 waterborne polyurethane resin as the adhesive, graphite and silicon carbide as functional particles, and adopting a coating technology on the plain polyester–cotton fabric. First, the single-layer graphite-coated polyester cotton composite was prepared with graphite as the functional particle, and the influence of graphite content on the reflection loss and shielding effectiveness was studied. When the applied electric field frequency is 1610 MHz and the graphite content is 40 wt%, the minimum reflection loss is −26 dB; when the applied electric field frequency is 39.9 MHz and the graphite content is 50 wt%, the maximum shielding effectiveness is 12 dB. Then the single-layer silicon carbide-coated polyester–cotton composite was prepared with silicon carbide as the functional particle, and the influence of silicon carbide content on the reflection loss and shielding effectiveness was studied. With the applied electric field in the range 500∼3000 MHz, the greater the content of silicon carbide, the smaller the reflection loss, the better the wave-absorbing ability, the larger the shielding effectiveness, and the better the shielding performance. Finally, the single-layer graphite/silicon carbide-coated polyester–cotton composites were prepared by doping graphite and silicon carbide in different proportions, and the influence of doping ratio on dielectric properties, reflection loss, and shielding effectiveness was investigated. The real part of the dielectric constant of the material was highest – that is, the polarization ability of the material was best when there were only graphite particles in the doping medium and the silicon carbide content was 0. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant and the tangent of loss angle of the material were the highest – that is, the loss and attenuation ability of the material were best – when the doping ratio of graphite to silicon carbide is 4:1. With the applied electric field in the range 500∼3000 MHz, and with increasing graphite content, the reflection loss of the material became smaller, showing an enhanced wave-absorbing property, and the shielding effectiveness of the material increased, showing an enhanced shielding performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T05:13:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521999810
  • Evaluation of yarn appearance on a blackboard based on image processing
    • Authors: Lei Wang, Yichen Lu, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Yarn evenness and hairiness are the appearance characteristics of yarn, which affect textile processing and product quality. To evaluate yarn appearance economically and effectively, an image-processing method is proposed in this paper to analyze yarn appearance on a blackboard. Firstly, an image of a yarn blackboard is captured by the scanner. Then, the yarn core and hairy fibers are segmented from the captured image with image-processing algorithms. The coefficients of variation of the yarn diameter (CVbd) and the hairiness index (M) are respectively calculated based on the information about the yarn core and hairy fibers in the image. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with those from the Uster Tester. The experimental results demonstrate that yarn appearance can be objectively evaluated using yarn blackboard images. The test results of different yarn blackboards made from the same yarn are stable and consistent. The correlation coefficient between the proposed method and the Uster Tester is 0.98, which proves that the H value can be accurately predicted by the hairiness prediction model. A hairiness prediction model built by the M value is also proven to be accurate when used to predict the corresponding value of the Uster Tester. Compared with the existing yarn evenness and hairiness test methods, the proposed method is more economical and practical.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T05:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211002863
  • Studying the impact of multilayer fabric on the characteristic of
           temperature distribution under the influence of fire
    • Authors: Edward Wilk, Paweł Swaczyna, Ewa Witczak, Marek Lao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The paper reports the results of research on different structures for multilayer clothing fabrics characterized by the occurrence of air spaces between individual layers. The main goal of this structure was improving the thermal protective properties of the fabric to be more effective than single-layer fabrics. Three types of fabric were investigated: a single-layer fabric; a self-bonded two-layer fabric, where the outer layers are joined by means of a tie-up in the process of weaving; and a self-bonded three-layer fabric, where the middle layer with fewer warp and weft threads join both outer layers. All the fabrics were produced under the same technical and technological conditions using flame-retardant yarn. Moreover, the value of the final mass per unit area for all the fabrics is similar; for the thermal protective test the single-layer fabric is double-folded. The thermal protective properties of the fabrics characterized by means of temperature distribution on the textile surface were tested using a thermal imaging camera. The three-layer fabric has the most favorable thermal protection in comparison with the double-folded single-layer and self-bonded two-layer fabrics, despite all fabrics having the same mass per unit area.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T06:23:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521999869
  • Modeling and realization for visual simulation of circular knitting
           transfer-jacquard fabric
    • Authors: Peixiao Zheng, Gaoming Jiang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this research was to achieve visual simulation of circular weft-knitted transfer-jacquard fabric based on a computer-aided design platform. The corresponding mathematical models were established according to pattern presentations after analyzing the structural characteristics of this kind of stitch. To determine the spatial geometry of the loops, eight-point models were built, especially the introduced multi-course loop model. By comparing the influence of four usual lights on stereoscopic sense, directional light was selected to establish an illumination model. Based on these models and matrix operations, spatial positions of different loop types in the intermesh structure were confirmed by coordinate mapping. The simulation effects of three important parameters of yarn spline rendering were analyzed and discussed, so as to choose the most reasonable data. Integrated with a transfer-jacquard design program, the approach realized three-dimensional structural simulation of circular knitting transfer-jacquard fabric with a naturalistic visual impression which can shorten the proofing process and even inspire the design potential of developers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T06:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994497
  • Investigation of fiber slippage in the chopping process of carbon fiber
           tows under rigid support
    • Authors: Longsheng Lu, Fei Gao, Yang Chen, Yingxi Xie
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As an important application form of carbon fiber (CF), short CFs and their production process have self-evident research value. In this work, the chopping process of CF tows under rigid support and the essential cause of high cutting forces were explored. Large-tow CFs containing 1–3000 single filaments were chopped, and the fracture processes were observed and described. It was found that obvious fiber slippage phenomena and intermediate fracture behaviors occurred during the chopping process. These factors not only increased the cutting force but also caused an uneven distribution of the cutting force along the width. A mechanical model was established to explain the fiber slippage and intermediate fracture. Based on material mechanics and analytical mechanics, the real process of fiber slippage and intermediate fracture was described by Hamilton’s principle. Moreover, a width constraint experiment was designed to indirectly verify fiber slippage phenomena and intermediate fracture behaviors. Through the analysis of the stress curve, it was proven that a reasonable width constraint could effectively limit fiber slippage and improve the uniformity of the distribution of the cutting force along the width of the tool, thus reducing the cutting force. This work can be used as an excellent guide for the chopping process in CF production.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T06:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521996082
  • A clean and efficient processing system to improve the fluffiness of down
           fibers based on multi-enzymes
    • Authors: Taotao Qiang, Yadong Pu, Qi Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Down fiber – a natural and environmentally recyclable insulation material – is applied mainly in the area of natural-filled products. However, owing to its natural deficiencies of low fluffiness and thermal stability, large-scale application is limited. In our work, an enzyme preparation (transglutaminase (TGase)) was used as a fluffy agent to improve the fluffy degree of down. With fluffy as the main index, the single factor condition of only using TGase enzyme was optimized, and fluffiness was increased by 22%. On the basis of this optimum condition, the compound dosage of papain and TGase was further optimized. The fluffy degree of down was improved by hydrolysis of papain and crosslinking of TGase. Amino group content, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), moisture absorption, tensile strength, and elongation at break of down treated with different enzyme reagents were tested. The results showed that the thermal stability of down fiber treated with the multi enzyme increased significantly, the denaturation temperature was increased from 53.7°C to 77.4°C, and the moisture absorption was also improved. The elastic property also exhibited a great enhancement; elongation at break increased from 12.4% to 37.7%, nearly three times higher than the original property, and the tensile strength increased from 180 MPa to 370 MPa, almost 2.1 times as much as before, increased by 105.6%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T10:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997470
  • Novel scouring method of hemp fibers based on electrochemical techniques
    • Authors: Ruoying Zhu, Ye Yu, Wenfang Yang, Jin Zhao, Guigang Shi, Jianyong Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Hemp fiber has excellent performance as a renewable fiber material. It is of great significance to study more efficient, energy-saving and environmentally friendly pre-treatment methods of hemp textiles. A novel hemp fiber scouring method based on electrochemical techniques was presented in the research. A type of water solution with high and stable oxidative potential due to in-situ- generated oxidative components was produced by the proposed electrical method, and was applied to scouring treatment of raw hemp fibers by just soaking the fibers in it. Hemp fibers with different treatments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, and residual gum rate, lignin content and whiteness of the samples were tested. Experiment results show that electrochemical scouring has a similar degumming effect of hemp fibers compared with traditional chemical scouring, with a better lignin removal and whiteness, implying an effective and short process method of hemp textiles pre-treatment with low impact on the environment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T10:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211000313
  • Research on intelligent clustering of male upper body
    • Authors: Pengpeng Cheng, Xianyi Zeng, Pascal Bruniaux, Jianping Wang, Daoling Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To study the upper body characteristics of young men, the body circumference, length, width, thickness, and angle of young men aged 18–25 and 26–35 years were collected to comprehensively characterize the concave and convex features of the front, back, and side of the human body. The Cuckoo Search-Density Peak intelligent algorithm was used to extract the feature factors of the upper body of men, and to cluster them. To verify the effectiveness of the intelligent algorithm, the clustering results of Cuckoo Search-Density Peak, Density Peak, Particle Swarm Optimization-Density Peak algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization-Density Peak algorithm, Genetic Algorithm-Density Peak algorithm, and Artificial Bee Colony-Density Peak algorithm were evaluated by Silouette and F-measures, respectively. The results show that the Cuckoo Search-Density Peak algorithm has the best clustering results and is superior to other algorithms. There are some differences in somatotype characteristics and somatotype indexes between young men aged 18–25 and 26–35 years.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T09:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211000125
  • Highly conductive
           poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/nylon 6 nanofiber
           web treated with repetitive coating cycles and dimethyl sulfoxide
           multi-step treatment for electronic textiles
    • Authors: Sungeun Shin, Eugene Lee, Gilsoo Cho
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Highly conductive nylon 6 nanofiber web was fabricated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for electronic textiles. To improve electrical conductivity, repeated coating with PEDOT:PSS and multi-step treatment of DMSO was performed. The effects of these treatments on electrical conductivity, surface properties, and chemical structures were investigated. For repetitive coating cycles, pristine PEDOT:PSS dispersion was dropped onto a nylon 6 nanofiber web for between one and four times of coating. For DMSO multi-step treatment, in the one-step treatment, the nanofiber web was repeatedly treated using PEDOT:PSS doped with DMSO. In the two-step treatment, the nanofiber web was repeatedly treated with doped PEDOT:PSS at first and, then, it was immersed in a DMSO bath. As a result, the sheet resistance decreased dramatically as the number of coating cycles increased. When the two-step treatment was applied, the sheet resistance was much lower compared to that of the one-step treatment, and thereby sample PD4-D with the lowest resistance showed 6.56 Ω/sq. As a result, the surface of the nanofiber web was covered with more PEDOT:PSS as the coating cycle was repeated. The PEDOT particles became large and long shapes after the two-step treatment of DMSO. This inferred that the contact area among conducting PEDOT particles increased because insulating PSS was removed by DMSO. In addition, the presence of PEDOT:PSS and nylon 6 was confirmed. This study proved that the simultaneous treatments of repeated coating with PEDOT:PSS and multi-step treatment of DMSO can improve electrical conductivity, and it developed the highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/nylon 6 nanofiber web.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T07:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521999811
  • Quaternary ammonium salt–modified polyacrylonitrile/polycaprolactone
           electrospun nanofibers with enhanced antibacterial properties
    • Authors: Hongnan Zhang, Tingting Zhang, Qiaohua Qiu, Xiaohong Qin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this experiment, octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (STAC), a cationic antibacterial agent, was designed to modify hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) through tight electrostatic attraction. Then, the modified PAN was successfully electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to obtain PCL/PAN-STAC nanofibrous membranes with enhanced mechanical properties. The modified PAN was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The morphological, mechanical and antibacterial properties of nanofibrous membranes were investigated. The blended nanofibrous membrane presented a uniform and stable structure with small pore size. Tensile tests indicated that the mechanical property of PCL/PAN-STAC nanofibrous membrane was obviously enhanced by blending. Disk diffusion tests showed that the inhibition zones of PCL/PAN-STAC against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 7.56 ± 0.05 mm and 15.37 ± 0.34 mm, respectively. Shaking method indicated that the antibacterial activity against E. coli was as high as 96.20 ± 0.89% when the use of PCL/PAN-STAC reached 9 mg. Therefore, this antibacterial nanofibrous membrane is very favorable for applications such as protective filtration masks and wound dressing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T05:09:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997187
  • Image-based Bilateral Beard Method for measuring weight-based short fiber
           contents in raw cotton and semi-finished slivers
    • Authors: Chenhong Lang, Mingming Zhang, Tingrong Wang, Jingye Jin, Fumei Wang, Bugao Xu, Yiping Qiu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an economical way for accurately determining weight-based short fiber contents in raw cotton and semi-finished slivers by utilizing special bilateral beard specimens and image processing was introduced. In the specimen preparation, cotton fibers were drawn by a manual device into a sliver, then the sliver was combed to form a bilateral beard specimen, and finally the bilateral beard was scanned to generate a grayscale image from which a relative fiber number curve was extracted. An algorithm for calculating the weight-based short fiber contents based on the curve was proposed. Five types of cottons were repetitively measured to investigate the robustness of the results of [math] and [math], with the weight ratio of fibers shorter than 12.7 and 16 mm, respectively. The results showed that measuring two bilateral beards for each sample could keep the error rate lower than 15%, while four specimens kept the error rate lower than 10%. Compared with AFIS Pro 2, this Image-based Bilateral Beard Method provided results with lower standard deviations and variable coefficients, signifying its analogous or better robustness. In addition, 37 samples from some of the world’s major producing areas were measured by this method and AFIS Pro 2, and a Bland–Altman analysis confirmed a good agreement between the results from the two methods. As only a manual fiber drawing device and an office scanner are needed, this Image-based Bilateral Beard Method is clearly a cheap approach for accurately determining the short fiber contents in raw cotton and semi-finished slivers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T06:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997465
  • Perception modeling based on vision and touch: “authenticity” of
           leather defined through observational experience
    • Authors: Shuhei Watanabe, Takahiko Horiuchi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, numerous products use artificial leather as it is a cost-effective alternative to genuine leather. However, products made from artificial leather may leave impressions on consumers that are dissimilar to those left by products made of genuine leather. In other words, products that use artificial leather but are perceived as genuine leather are more attractive to consumers. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to understand and quantify the factors that affect the mechanism via which consumers perceive a leather product to be made of genuine leather. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the hypothesis regarding human perception. Measurement experiments were performed to obtain the visual and physical properties of such impressions. We estimated the representative impressions formed by people during their interaction with leather samples through subjective experiments and derived models of these impressions in terms of the measured properties. Subjective evaluation experiments were performed under visual, tactile, and visual–tactile conditions. Finally, we quantified leather “authenticity” using these representative impressions. Participants, who are general consumers, were divided into two groups according to their familiarity with leather. The “authenticity” perception model of the group familiar with leather was constructed under visual and visual–tactile conditions, whereas the model of the group unfamiliar with leather was constructed under visual–tactile conditions, suggesting the influence of a cross-modal phenomenon. The results of this study can be applied to develop attractive artificial leather, which is expected to contribute to the protection of animal rights while promoting the sale of artificial leather products.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T06:29:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521998034
  • Preparation and characterization of new red luminescent fibers based on a
           multilayer structure
    • Authors: Liubin Zheng, Yanan Zhu, Zengyuan Pang, Jing Li, Wenying Chen, Mingqiao Ge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Composite red luminescent material SMED/LCA (Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+/light conversion agent) is a phosphor with long afterglow, which was prepared by LCA and SMED at a certain mass ratio. It has excellent characteristics, such as high lightness and emitting red light, but poor stability properties because LCA falls off easily from the surface of SMED. Here, SiO2 (Al2O3 or MgF2) was coated on the surface of SMED/LCA through the heterogeneous deposition method to prepare a stable composite phosphor, adding coated phosphor into a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber-forming polymer and wet spinning to form SMED/LCA-PAN (composite red light-emitting fiber). The surface element distribution, phase structure and luminescence properties of SMED/LCA-PAN were characterized. The results show that SiO2 (Al2O3 or MgF2) is successfully coated on the surface of the material, and the coating has no effect on the phase of SMED in the fibers. The intensity red/blue ratio (Int.600 nm versus Int.470 nm) of coated SMED/LCA fiber in the afterglow emission spectrum increases by about 1.9 times; the increase in energy conversion efficiency indicates the enhancement of the red light effect. In addition, the afterglow initial brightness is up to 0.148 cd/m2 after 15 min of ultraviolet light excitation, and the luminous fiber still has high afterglow brightness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T06:29:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997188
  • Washability of e-textiles: current testing practices and the need for
    • Authors: Sigrid Rotzler, Malte von Krshiwoblozki, Martin Schneider-Ramelow
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Washability is seen as one of the main obstacles that stands in the way of a wider market success of e-textile products. So far, there are no standardized methods for wash testing of e-textiles and no protocols to comparably assess the washability of tested products. Thus, different e-textiles that are deemed equally washable by their developers might present with very different ranges of reliability after repeated washing. This paper presents research into current test practices in the absence of e-textile-specific standards. Different testing methods are compared and evaluated and the need for standardized testing, giving e-textile developers the tools to comparably communicate and evaluate their products’ washability, is emphasized.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-28T06:29:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521996727
  • A New Geometric Model of Laid-in Weft-Knitted Fabrics
    • Authors: Ki Wai Fong, Si Qing Li, Rong Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Inlay yarn and laid-in structures are important technical knitting elements that have been increasingly applied in the structural design of functional textiles in industrial, medical, and wearable electronics fields. However, there is no currently established geometric model to numerically analyze their spatial morphologies and structural properties. This study presents a new geometric model and numerical analysis approach to characterize spatial configurations of inlay yarn and ground yarn in a three-dimensional scenario for laid-in weft-knitted fabrics. Loop lengths of the inlay and ground yarn materials were calculated and analyzed under different contact and deformation conditions to estimate material consumption in this complex interlooping layout. Series of laid-in weft-knitted fabrics made of different combinations of ground and inlay yarns were fabricated with the 1 × 1 laid-in loop pattern and tested for the model validation. The comparisons between the experimental and calculated results indicated that the newly developed geometric model favorably agreed with the experimental measurements regarding the ground loop lengths and inlay loop lengths applied in the laid-in weft-knitted structures. The results indicated the applicability of the developed geometric model of laid-in weft-knitted fabrics with similar structural patterns in practical use. The output of this study provides a theoretical and practical reference for structural and physical properties analysis, material consumption prediction, even cost estimation of laid-in weft-knitted fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T06:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992765
  • Testing the effects of fabrication parameters on the post-fabrication
           shape change of a three-dimensional printed textile platform
    • Authors: Zahangir Khan, Han He, Xiaochen Chen, Lauri Sydänheimo, Leena Ukkonen, Johanna Virkki
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a moisture-stimulated three-dimensional printing filament was printed onto an elastic band. The created textile platform changes its shape permanently after exposure to a high-moisture environment. Three main manufacturing parameters – that is, the printed pattern’s infill percentage, the printed pattern’s thickness, and the textile stretch – were tested to study their effects on the platform curving process. It was observed that an increase of the printed pattern’s infill density from 20% to 80%, or the printed pattern’s thickness from 1.3 to 1.7 mm, resulted in reduced curvature, whereas an increase in the elastic band’s stretch extent from 120% to 130% of its original length increased the curvature. The achieved results can be very useful in the design and development of future four-dimensional printed structures, as well as in optimizing and programming moisture sensor performance, as several sensor manufacturing parameters can be modified according to the application and use environment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T05:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994678
  • Chemically reduced graphene oxide-coated knitted fabric imparted
           conductivity and outstanding hydrophobicity
    • Authors: Min Hou, Xinghua Hong, Yanjun Tang, Zimin Jin, Chengyan Zhu, Chen Tao, Junmin Wan, Yubing Dong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Functionalized knitted fabric, as a kind of flexible, wearable, and waterproof material capable of conductivity, sensitivity and outstanding hydrophobicity, is valuable for multi-field applications. Herein, the reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-coated knitted fabric (polyester/spandex blended) is prepared, which involves the use of graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers method and in-situ chemical reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The treated fabric exhibits a high electrical conductivity (202.09 S/cm) and an outstanding hydrophobicity (140°). The outstanding hydrophobicity is associated with the morphology of the fabric and fiber with reference to pseudo-infiltration. These properties can withstand repeated bending and washing without serious deterioration, maintaining good electrical conductivity (35.70 S/cm) and contact angle (119.39°) after eight standard washing cycles. The material, which has RGO architecture and continuous loop mesh structure, can find wide use in smart garment applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T05:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521995471
  • Design and electromechanical properties of three-layer fabric-based
           pressure sensor
    • Authors: Ruibing Fan, Ge Chen, Zeguang Pei
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we developed a three-layer fabric-based pressure sensor and analyzed the structural factors and design parameters that affect its electromechanical properties. The sensor has a three-layer fabric and angle interlocking structure, which enhance its structural stability, sensing capability, and durability. Based on the factors that affect the sensing properties of the fabric sensor, 12 fabric sensors were designed. The electromechanical properties of these sensors were analyzed by adjusting the warp density and material of the three-layer fabric structure, as well as the weft yarn type of the dielectric layer. The curve showing the efficiency of the fabric sensor was divided into three zones, namely, elastic, yield, and crush, to investigate the frequency-response properties, linear variation range, sensitivity, and stability of the fabric sensor. The results indicated that the warp density and warp and weft yarn types of the dielectric layer of the sensor affected the capacitance change rate and sensitivity. The effects of the weft yarn type of the dielectric layer on the electromechanical properties of the fabric sensor were complex. Additionally, the woven and angle interlocking structures of the three-layer fabric sensor contributed to the electrical stability and durability of the sensor. In the design of a multilayer flexible fabric sensor, the appropriate warp density, as well as the warp and weft materials, should be considered to ensure its linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T04:05:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994343
  • A highly stretchable, easily processed and robust metal wire-containing
    • Authors: Yong Wang, Stuart Gordon, Weidong Yu, Zongqian Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Textiles that contain integrated conducting components are drawing attention for their ability to mitigate electromagnetic radiation pollution. Maintaining effective and robust electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE) under different modes, e.g. stretching, bending and washing, is of importance in protecting humans and information-sensitive electronic devices from exposure to electromagnetic interference. In this work, a weft-stretchable, conductive fabric (W-SCF) was specially manufactured for electromagnetic shielding characterization by integrating stainless steel filament (SSF) in the weft direction. The results demonstrate that our as-prepared W-SCF was effective for shielding purpose with its EMSE dependent on the orientation of the SSF within the fabric structure. Specular reflection caused by the close arrangement of the SSF and the lower electrical resistance of the fabric on per unit area basis were responsible for the enhanced shielding properties when the fabric was stretched. Furthermore, using the fabric in a 90°/90° laminated form improved the EMSE values compared with a single layer and a 0°/90° laminated versions. Importantly, the W-SCF exhibited resistance to 10 laundering cycles, 20 stretching cycles (at 25% extension), 50 bending cycles and 100 abrasion cycles, demonstrating its robustness and durability. This work is believed to take a new step in development of reliable and advance shielding materials for special protective application.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994891
  • Plasma-exposed TiO2 nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate matrix
           surface and its effects on the durable hydrophobic coating
    • Authors: Eshraga AA Siddig, Yu Zhang, Baojing Yang, Tianshu Wang, Jianjun Shi, Ying Guo, Yu Xu, Jing Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Commercial dull polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric treated by radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma and further coated with perfluoroalkyl methacrylate copolymer C6 displays much highly durable hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The as-prepared fabric exhibited a water contact angle above 170°, a water spray rating of 80 (ISO 3), and oil resistance ratings of B and C separately for different oil composition grades after 10 washing cycles, which were two levels higher than the untreated and C6-coated PET[TiO2] fabric. The organic component PET was more prone to etching than TiO2, which created a waviness structure and exposed prominent TiO2 nanoparticles on the PET fiber surface. The relative atom ratio O and Ti increased through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. This result indicates that the exposure of TiO2 and the introduction of reactive polar groups such as O=C-O on the fiber surface contributed to react with C6 and improved the washing durability. In general, such coating technology may provide a simple benign technique for constructing materials with physicochemical properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521990904
  • Synthesis of red fluorescent dye with acid gas sensitive optical
           properties and fabrication of a washable and wearable textile sensor
    • Authors: Junheon Lee, Heejung Jun, Yasuhiro Kubota, Taekyeong Kim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Two halochromic red fluorescent dyes, whose chromophores are the same as Nile red, were synthesized by introducing dibutyl- and dihexyl-substituents for improving their affinity toward chemically resistant and hydrophobic fibers made of high molecular weight polyethylene. The optical properties of the two synthesized dyes (Dibutyl NR, Dihexyl NR) compared with Ethyl NR (Nile red), such as the maximum absorption, Stokes shift, molar absorption coefficient, and quantum yield, were almost the same. However, the most hydrophobic Dihexyl NR exhibited the best washability of the three dyes. It was shown that the change of both the color and the fluorescence emission properties can be achieved not only in a hydrochloric acid solution but also inside the polyethylenic fiber on exposure to the gaseous phase of hydrogen chloride even at very low concentrations. The sensing performance was maintained even after several repeats. The highly sensitive and visible fluorescent acid gas sensing textile sensor having washability and reusability was fabricated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T06:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994496
  • Chitosan–gelatin enhanced antibacterial and biological properties of PLA
           and PGA braided threads for juvenile pseudomyopia treatment
    • Authors: Shaoju Fu, Peihua Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolide acid (PGA) have been the most widely used biomedical materials in the acupoint catgut-embedding therapy (ACET) fields. However, a lack of antibacterial and biological properties is a definite obstacle that hinders its further application in juvenile pseudomyopia treatment. Here, four different kinds of PLA and PGA threads were fabricated, and were then modified using chitosan–gelatin coating method. Afterwards, PLA and PGA braided threads were fully characterized with respect to structure, mechanical and biological properties. The results showed that the surface roughness of PLA and PGA had been greatly improved; FT-IR analysis proved the existence of chitosan and gelatin molecules, the modified PLA (M-PLA-a = 87.1° ± 1.5°, M-PLA-b = 83.5° ± 1.4°) had smaller contact angle values than that of non-modified PLA (PLA-a = 108.6° ± 2.6°, PLA-b = 116.2° ± 3.1°), and that of the modified PGA (M-PGA-a = 79.3° ± 3.2°, M-PGA-b = 73.8° ± 1.8°) was smaller compared with that of the non-modified PGA (PGA-a = 98.2° ± 1.7°, PGA-b = 83.5° ± 1.4°). Based on the mechanical testing results, the tensile property and flexibility of samples increased slightly, and their swelling behavior also increased correspondingly. All the prepared samples exhibited non-toxicity with cell viability of more than 75%, and samples M-PGA-b presented the largest cell attachment ratios. In sum, this work exhibited great potential in the ACET application for juvenile pseudomyopia treatment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T06:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994884
  • Modeling of fibrous tow transmission considering residual strain and
    • Authors: Jinkai Che, Zengmeng Zhang, Jiaoyi Hou, Yinglong Chen, Yongjun Gong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study established a mechanical model based on the mechanical properties of fibrous tows and their force of interaction with spools. The proposed model not only describes the hysteresis, nonlinear elastic, and viscoelastic stress components, but also analyzes the effect of residual strain on aramid fiber mechanical properties. Moreover, the effect of the interaction force between the fiber and spool on the transmission accuracy should be considered. Contrary to the conventional view, hysteresis is caused not only by internal sliding among molecules and molecular chains but also by friction between the fibers and spools. To assess this effect, several monotonous and cyclic tensile tests were conducted, with the results showing that the maximum relative error of the mechanical model did not exceed 5%. The proposed mechanical model can help designers determine effective carrying ranges and predict the fiber mechanical behavior, thereby laying a foundation for achieving nonlinear control of the fibrous tow transferring load.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T05:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993483
  • Preparation and study of electromagnetic properties of
           graphene/graphite/bismuth oxide three-layer coated textile materials
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yi Wang, Xiang Wu, Xiaoming Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Three-layer coated composites with good electromagnetic properties were prepared on a plain polyester–cotton blended fabric with PU2540 polyurethane resin as a matrix; graphene, graphite and bismuth oxide were used as coating functional particles; and the influences of types of surface-layer functional particles, middle-layer functional particles and bottom-layer functional particles on electromagnetic properties of three-layer composites were explored. Results showed that when graphite, graphene and graphene were respectively used as bottom-layer, middle-layer and surface-layer functional particles, within the range of 1–1000 MHz, the polarization, dissipation and absorption-attenuation ability of the coated composite to electromagnetic waves was the strongest, and within the range of 10–3000 MHz, the wave-absorbing properties and shielding properties to electromagnetic waves of the coated composite were the strongest. When the frequency was 1600.7 MHz, the value of the reflection loss of the sample was the minimum, which reached –7.15 dB.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T05:29:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994506
  • Development of apparatus to evaluate cutting resistance of protective
    • Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Elshiamaa Mohamed Eid
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, attention has been focused on the design of protective soft fabrics against cutting. The anticipated textiles should shield the wearer's body from threats caused by pointed or sharp-edged objects, such as a knife, sharp blade, or spike. Therefore, as it is of great importance to design slash-resistant fabrics, it is also necessary to have an apparatus that gives the possibility to simulate the conditions of cutting processes of the protective fabric. The main objective of the present work is to develop a new apparatus to test the slash-proof materials used in soft protective armor or gloves. The apparatus can test the material with different cutting angles, different speeds, and various normal forces applied to the sample at the point of contact between the material and the cutting blade, with the capability to change all the parameters affecting the cutting force. This study aims to develop a cutting apparatus to study the cutting mechanism of textile materials with the capability to change all the parameters affecting the cutting force. The cutting angle and cutting speed have a significant effect on the maximum cutting force; however, the latter showed a high decrease of the maximum cutting force.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994676
  • Development of novel segmented-pie microfibers from copper-carbon
           nanoparticles and polyamide composite for antimicrobial textiles
    • Authors: Longsheng Jin, Fang Zhou, Shaohua Wu, Congjing Cui, Shibin Sun, Guanglu Li, Shaojuan Chen, Jianwei Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Development of novel antibacterial fibers with mass production is urgently required in the technical textiles industry. In this paper, a series of segmented-pie composite microfibers based on polyamide 6 (PA6) and different amounts of copper–carbon nanoparticles (CuCNPs) were fabricated by utilizing a melt-spinning apparatus with twin-screw extruders. The encapsulation of CuCNPs and the formation of segmented-pie structure of as-prepared PA6/CuCNP microfibers were confirmed. The CuCNPs or their agglomeration with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm exhibited a uniform distribution in PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers. Compared with the pure PA6 microfibers, the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers showed obviously enhanced crystallinity, thermal stability as well as UV resistance. As the CuCNP content increased to 1.0 wt%, the tensile strength and initial modulus increased to 3.79 cN/dtex and 22.4 cN/dtex, respectively. Importantly, the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers presented excellent antimicrobial activities to both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (antimicrobial efficiency around 99%) and great antifungal activity to Candida albicans (antimicrobial efficiency around 82%). Taken together, our present study demonstrated that the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers show great prospects in the fabrication of technical textiles for healthcare applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993484
  • A study on the electromagnetic properties of graphite/bismuth/bismuth
           oxide-coated composites
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yanfeng Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Coating is a commonly used process for the preparation of protective textiles. In this study, the absorbing coated composite material was prepared by a coating process, using plain weave polyester/cotton fabric as the base fabric, PU-2540 polyurethane as the binder, and graphite, bismuth and bismuth oxide as the functional particles. The effects of the content of functional particles and the ratio of functional particles on the dielectric constant, reflection loss, shielding effectiveness, and tensile strength of the single-layer coating composites were studied using the control variable method. The results showed that when the frequency was 1–1000 MHz, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, the tangential value of the loss angle, and the tensile value increased with the increase of the coating content, and the polarization, loss and attenuation property, and mechanical property of the electromagnetic wave were enhanced. When graphite, bismuth, and bismuth oxide was mixed at the ratio of 9:0:0 in weight, the polarization property was the best. When mixed at the ratio of 6:1:2 in weight, the loss performance and attenuation ability were the best. When mixed at the ratio of 6:3:0 in weight, the absorbing property and mechanical property were the best. When mixed at the ratio of 6:2:1 in weight, the shielding property was the best.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521994342
  • Influence of re-entrant hexagonal structure and helical auxetic yarn on
           the tensile and auxetic behavior of parametric fabrics
    • Authors: Junli Chen, Yonggui Li, Taohai Yan, Xiang Liu, Jiqiang Cao, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on systematically analyzing the influence of macro fabric structure and yarn architecture on the mechanical and auxetic performance of parametric auxetic fabrics. Re-entrant hexagonal (REH) and helical auxetic yarn (HAY) were adopted as a macro fabric structure and weft yarn to produce three kinds of auxetic fabrics: REH fabric with HAY as weft yarn (REH-HAY); REH fabric with elastic yarn as weft yarn (REH-1, REH-2, REH-3); and plain fabric with HAY as weft yarn (NREH-HAY). By controlling the existence of the HAY and REH structure, the influence of the REH structure and HAY on the mechanical and auxetic properties was thoroughly analyzed. It is demonstrated that both the REH macrostructure and HAY micro configuration can contribute to the performance of the auxetic fabric. Specifically, in the presence of the REH structure and HAY, the auxeticity was found to a 77% increase compared with NREH-HAY and the breaking strain and load rises by about 37.50% and 90.42%, respectively. Notably, the variation of the polyurethane (PU) weft yarn per unit length influenced the tensile and auxetic performance to a lesser extent, while by changing PU to HAY, a significant increase of negative Poisson’s ratio value from –1.155 to –1.492 was noticed without greatly jeopardizing the stretchability. Furthermore, the cyclic tensile results demonstrate the stability and elasticity of the fabric. The comparative analysis can give guidance to optimize fabric design and inspire the innovative design of the auxetic textiles, all of which will pave the way for a quantitative and optimizing design for auxetic textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993490
  • Verification of numerical analysis for unwinding cable with time-varying
           unwinding velocity
    • Authors: Hyun-Gyu Park, Ji-Heon Kang, Kun-Woo Kim, Jae-Wook Lee, Chang-Young Choi, Jin-Seok Jang, Sung-Yong Kim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the nonlinear unwinding behavior of cables in a transient state wound in a cylindrical spool package was analyzed using unwinding dynamics. In previous studies, investigations were conducted using constant unwinding velocity. However, this method is limited due to complexities regarding the analysis of the actual behavior where the unwinding velocity increases or decreases. In this paper, to prevent problems, such as twisting, entanglement, and cutting, that occur during the rapid unwinding process, an experimental device that converts unwinding velocity over time was developed. Using a cable unwinding system, high-speed camera, and tension sensor, the equation of motion, which was derived in a previous study using the expanded Hamilton theorem, was experimentally verified. Moreover, the cable’s tension change and behavior in the unwinding process were analyzed, and a method to solve the unwinding problem was studied.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T06:32:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993489
  • Effects of cotton genotype, defoliation timing and season on fiber
           cross-sectional properties and yarn performance
    • Authors: Robert L Long, Christopher D Delhom, Michael P Bange
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cotton fiber cross-sectional properties influence the performance of ring spun yarns. The spinning performance of two Gossypium hirsutum L. Upland cotton genotypes known to have inherently different fiber fineness properties were compared. Genotypes were grown together in field experiments conducted over two growing seasons, and crops were subjected to early and late defoliation treatments. The aim was to quantify the differences in yarn properties following changes targeting fiber fineness properties in isolation from other fiber properties. For the first time, the percentage difference in yarn properties was captured along with the associated changes made to alternative fiber fineness properties within the base micronaire 3.50 to 4.90 G5 range. As expected the genotype with lower fiber micronaire, linear density, and perimeter, spun yarns that were stronger and more even. Late defoliated cotton plants produced fibers that were higher in micronaire and maturity ratio, and were bigger in perimeter, which demonstrated that the fibers had expanded during the secondary wall thickening phase of development. However, the defoliation treatment effect on fiber fineness properties was smaller compared with the effect of genotype, and no change to any yarn property was detected. In terms of environmental effects, the first season cotton had smaller perimeter finer fibers that spun stronger and more even yarns. In contrast, the second season cotton had bigger perimeter fibers that spun weaker and less even yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-11T05:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992769
  • Strain-sensing fiber with a core–sheath structure based on carbon
           black/polyurethane composites for smart textiles
    • Authors: Wanchao Li, Zeguang Pei
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fiber-shaped sensors have great potential for real-time monitoring of human physiological signals thanks to the merging of electronic and textile technologies. This work reports on the fabrication of a core–sheath structured strain-sensing fiber based on the wet-spinning method. The sensing fiber is composed of a core of non-conducting polyurethane and a conducting sheath of carbon black in a polyurethane matrix. Microscopic observation reveals the irregular shape or scattered appearance of the core as well as the porous structure of the fiber, the diameter of which is in the range 200–500 μm. The electro-mechanical properties and their dependence on carbon black concentration in the sheath and draw ratio between the spinneret and first drafting roller are experimentally investigated. It has been found that the percolation threshold of the fiber is in the range 15–16 wt%. The resistance of the fiber rises stably as the fiber is stretched up to a strain of 120% and increases with the increase of draw ratio between the spinneret and first drafting roller. In the cyclic tensile tests, the resistance of the fiber exhibits good repeatability in subsequent loading–unloading cycles after pre-stretching, despite partial recovery of the resistance in the first few cycles. The integration of the strain-sensing fiber into textiles is demonstrated by the core-spun yarn fabricated based on a modified vortex spinning method. The results of this study indicate the fiber could be a promising candidate for a sensor for smart textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T04:10:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992355
  • An integrated framework for supplier selection and performance evaluation
           for apparel retail industry
    • Authors: Canan Sarıçam, Said Melih Yilmaz
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Supplier evaluation, including supplier selection and performance evaluation, has become a critical issue for apparel retailers within the apparel supply chain dealing with severe competition in the global market. An effective evaluation of suppliers requires considering both the quantitative and qualitative performance aspects and integrating the efficiency measurement. In an attempt to address this issue, this study proposes an integrated framework that can handle supplier selection and overall performance evaluation in a comprehensive but feasible manner. The proposed integrated framework customized for apparel retailers combines the current techniques having specific capabilities: data envelopment analysis (DEA), analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). DEA has been used to make the overall performance evaluation, whereas AHP and TOPSIS have been used in combination to provide the quantitative data required by DEA. The proposed integrated framework was implemented and verified using numerical data gathered from a global apparel retailer. The findings revealed that suppliers can be more successful when they put a balanced effort into improving their performance in regards to the important criteria instead of concentrating on only the most important criterion. Moreover, the overall performance evaluation can be much more convenient and rewarding for apparel retailers in terms of finding out the true potential of suppliers when quantitative and qualitative data and efficiency measurements are taken into account at the same time.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T08:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992353
  • Control quantity or toxicity of textile chemicals' A case study of
           denim jeans in the warp-dyeing phase
    • Authors: Yan Luo, Yi Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The extensive use and discharge of chemicals is one of the main factors leading to serious environmental pollution in the textiles and apparel industry. The chemical footprint (ChF) is a toxicity-based chemical management method that is used to quantitatively evaluate the potential toxic effects of chemical pollutants discharged during the production of textiles and apparel products on human health and environmental safety. Compared with the traditional quantity-based method, this method needs to simulate the entire process of chemicals from discharge to impact, involving a series of steps of fate, exposure and effect, which greatly increases the difficulty of modeling. A scientific question is whether it is worth spending so much effort to quantify the toxicity of chemicals. Taking the warp-dyeing phase of denim jeans as an example, this paper calculated the ChFs for both human and ecological toxicities of textile chemicals based on the USEtox model, and compared them with the values of discharge quantities. The results reveal that there is a certain inconsistency between the discharge quantity and toxicity of chemical substances. Relying solely on the amount of chemicals discharged can sometimes lead to misjudgments, emphasizing the importance of controlling the toxicity of chemicals.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T08:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993488
  • The influence of two types of functional particles on the electromagnetic
           properties and mechanical properties of double-layer coated basalt fiber
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yongtao Yu, Huanfu Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The double-layer coated basalt fiber fabric was prepared using polyurethane as the matrix and adopting a coating technology on the basalt fiber fabric. Firstly, the influence of two types of functional particles, graphite and graphene, on the dielectric properties (the real and imaginary parts and the loss tangent value), shielding effectiveness and mechanical properties of the double-layer coated basalt fiber fabric was analyzed. Then, the double-layer coated basalt fiber fabric of two types of structures, graphite/fabric/graphite and graphene/fabric/graphite, were prepared. Secondly, the influence of the contents of graphite and graphene on the electromagnetic properties and mechanical properties of the double-layer coated basalt fiber fabric using the method of controlling variables was studied. The results showed that the polarizing ability, the loss ability, the attenuating ability and the shielding ability of the double-layer coated basalt fiber fabric for the graphene coating were all superior to those of the graphite coating. Within the range of 0–1100 MHz, when the graphite content was 20%, the polarizing ability, the loss ability and the attenuating ability of the double-layer fabric were the strongest. When the graphene content was 20%, the polarizing ability to electromagnetic waves of the double-layer fabric was the strongest; when the graphene content was 15%, both the loss ability and attenuating ability to electromagnetic waves of the double-layer fabric were the strongest; and when the graphene content was 5%, the shielding ability to electromagnetic waves of the double-layer fabric was the strongest. When the graphite content was 20% and the graphene content was 10%, the displacement was within the range of 0–4.7 mm, and the load was 3411.1 N.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T08:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992766
  • Microfibers from synthetic textiles as a major source of microplastics in
           the environment: A review
    • Authors: Sanjit Acharya, Shaida S Rumi, Yang Hu, Noureddine Abidi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Microplastic fibers, also known as microfibers, are the most abundant microplastic forms found in the environment. Microfibers are released in massive numbers from textile garments during home laundering via sewage effluents and/or sludge. This review presents and discusses the importance of synthetic textile-based microfibers as a source of microplastics. Studies focused on their release during laundering were reviewed, and factors affecting microfiber release from textiles and the putative role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a pathway of their release in the environment were examined and discussed. Moreover, potential adverse effects of microfibers on marine and aquatic biota and human health were briefly reviewed. Studies show that thousands of microfibers are released from textile garments during laundering. Different factors, such as fabric type and detergent, impact the release of microfibers. However, a relatively smaller number of available studies and often conflicting findings among studies make it harder to establish definitive trends related to important factors contributing to the release of microfibers. Even though current WWTPs are highly effective in capturing microfibers, due to the presence of a massive number of microfibers in the influent, up to billions of fibers per day are released through effluent into the environment. There is a need to establish standardized protocols and procedures that can allow meaningful comparisons among studies to be performed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T07:41:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521991244
  • Effect of DMDHEU treatment on properties of bacterial cellulose material
    • Authors: Florentina Sederavičiūtė, Jurgita Domskienė, Lina Jurgelionytė, Audronė Sankauskaite, Dushan Kimmer
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of purification and treatment with textile finishing agent procedures on structural, mechanical, and water barrier properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) in order to predict the end-use properties. Kombucha fungus generated by Komagataeibacter xylinus species, formerly known as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, was used to produce the BC material. The BC was purified with 0.5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of N, N-dimethylol 4,5-dihydroxy-ethylene urea (DMDHEU). By Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was estimated, that the purification with a weak alkali solution was effective to remove amorphous matter of the BC material. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated the BC structure, similar to a non-woven textile fabric with clearly visible three-dimensional networks of fine cellulose fibers. After the purification process, the BC material tensile strength increased by 52%; however, the strain decreased by 93%. BC material after treatment with 20% DMDHEU regained deformability and tensile properties analogous to untreated samples. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values increased and water absorption capacity (WAC) decreased in BC material with increasing DMDHEU concentration. According to the FTIR results, the crosslinking reaction of DMDHEU and adjacent BC molecules was proved. The treatment with DMDHEU restores the amorphous properties of BC material, and therefore blocks water absorption, and the decrease in the water absorption parameter might be determined.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T07:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992357
  • Support vector machine classification model for color fastness to ironing
           of vat dyes
    • Authors: Xinliang Yu, Hanlu Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Investigations of quantitative relationships between structure and color fastness of dyes are crucial in seeking novel dyes. For the first time, this work reported a classification model based on a quantitative structure–property relationship to predict color fastness to ironing of vat dyes. By performing binary classification analysis based on a support vector machine (SVM) and genetic algorithm, 56 vat dyes in the training set together with seven molecular descriptors were used to develop the classification model, which was validated with 59 vat dyes in the test set. The optimal SVM model (C = 208.465 and γ = 5.9692) possesses overall accuracy of 91.1% for the training set and 83.1% for the test set, which is more accurate than those from the binary logistic regression model (87.5% and 81.4%, respectively). Furthermore, the mechanism of molecular descriptors correlated with color fastness to ironing of vat dyes is discussed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T07:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521992366
  • Automatic weaving method for three-dimensional composite preforms using
           vision system
    • Authors: Siyuan Li, Zhongde Shan, Dong Du, Li Zhan, Zhikun Li, Yunzhi Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Three-dimensional composite preform is the main structure of fiber-reinforced composites. During the weaving process of large-sized three-dimensional composite preform, relative rotation or translation between the fiber feeder and guided array occurs before feeding. Besides, the weaving needles can be at different heights after moving out from the guided array. These problems are mostly detected and adjusted manually. To make the weaving process more precise and efficient, we propose machine vision-based methods which could realize accurate estimation and adjustment of the relative position-pose between the fiber feeder and guided array, and make the needles pressing process automatic by recognizing the position of the weaving needles. The results show that the estimation error of relative position-pose is within 5%, and the rate of unrecognized weaving needles is 2%. Our proposed methods improve the automation level of weaving, and are conducive to the development of preform forming toward digital manufacturing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T07:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982385
  • Biological functionalization of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) with
           ammonia and chitosan–gelatin combined treatment for acupoint
           catgut-embedding therapy
    • Authors: Shaoju Fu, Peihua Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has attracted extensive attention in acupoint catgut embedding therapy (ACET). However, developing biological functionalization for ACET materials remains challenging to due to its poor surface properties. In this work, PLGA was first treated with ammonia solution, and chitosan–gelatin coating was then introduced onto the surface of PLGA braided thread to achieve biological functionalization. Characteristics such as structural, mechanical, and in vitro properties were then fully evaluated. The results showed that modified samples showed more surface roughness than non-modified ones, and weight and diameter changes in samples increased after coating treatment, together with surface hydrophilicity; mechanical properties such as tensile property and bending stiffness of samples were greatly enhanced. Non-coated samples exhibited no antibacterial properties, while that of coated samples showed different antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. No samples showed toxicity, with more than 75% cells viable. In sum, the strategy of surface-modified PLGA using a combined ammonia and chitosan–gelatin treatment showed great potential in the application of ACET.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T06:33:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989278
  • Influence of ethanol–alkali mixture on the structure of chitosan
           fibers and film coatings
    • Authors: Irina P. Dobrovolskaya, Natalia N. Sudareva, Ekaterina N. Mayevskaya, Elena N. Dresvyanina, Elena M. Ivan’kova, Vladimir E. Yudin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Structural features of films and fibers obtained from mixtures of a chitosan solution in acetic acid with an ethanol and NaOH solution were investigated. Phase separation in the system that included chitosan, acetic acid, ethanol, NaOH and water was studied using scanning electron microscopy and time dependence of optical density. Optical densities of the mixtures were measured at λ = 330 nm. Structural studies involved two types of films: (a) the samples obtained from the mixtures of the chitosan solutions and various precipitants by lyophilization; and (b) the samples obtained by drying at room temperature. It was demonstrated that the most stable structure is formed upon the mixing of the chitosan solution with the ethanol–alkali mixture. Chitosan fibers prepared by wet spinning had the following characteristics: tensile strength σ = 188 ± 9.1 МPа; Young’s modulus E = 11.5 ± 0.6 GPа; tensile strain ε = 4.8 ± 0.6%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T06:33:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520986515
  • Evaluation of the crimp formability of side-by-side PLA/PTT bicomponent
    • Authors: Jinchao Yu, Xiaoyun Li, Hong Ji, Yang Zhang, Kang Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To explore the feasibility of developing bio-based elastic fibers, bio-based polylactide (PLA) and polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) were selected for fabrication of side-by-side bicomponent fibers using bi-constituent melt-spinning technology. The structure development and performance of PLA/PTT bicomponent fibers was investigated using thermal mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction in order to evaluate the crimp formability of PLA/PTT bicomponent fibers. The PLA and PTT components could form regular boundary structure and exhibit excellent interface compatibility by regulation of the rheological behavior of the two melts. In the fiber forming process, the PTT component in PLA/PTT bicomponent fibers experienced higher tensile stress, and thereby enhanced the crystal and oriented structure development, while the structural evolution of the PLA component was inhibited. The difference in the structure of the two components causes the imbalance force existence in the PLA/PTT fibers, which is the main reason of fiber crimp. In addition, the crimp formability of the PLA/PTT fibers could be enhanced by expanding the shrinkage stress difference between the two components, which could be realized by increasing the PTT ratio in PLA/PTT bicomponent fiber or draw ratio. The maximum crimp extension that could be achieved was 85% for the bicomponent fibers with PLA30/PTT70 ratio at a draw ratio of 4.2.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T06:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521990903
  • Effect of process and nozzle structural parameters on the wrapping quality
           of core-spun yarns produced on a modified vortex spinning system
    • Authors: Zeguang Pei, Xingbao Wang, Zhimin Li, Lei Xiao, Tao Bai, Ge Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Vortex core-spun yarn containing a metal wire has a broad application prospect owing to the combination of its fasciated structure, durability, comfort, and its electrical properties. In this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulations on the flow characteristics inside the nozzle of a modified vortex spinning system for producing core-spun yarns are carried out to investigate the effect of some process and nozzle structural parameters—the nozzle pressure, distance between nozzle inlet and spindle, and protrusion length of the filament feeding tube—on the flow field. Using a machine vision system, experiments are also conducted to investigate the effects of these parameters on the wrapping defects of the vortex core-spun yarns which are then analyzed based on the simulation results. The number of wrapping defects on the yarn greatly decreases as the nozzle pressure increases from 4 × 105 Pa to 5 × 105 Pa. As the distance between nozzle inlet and spindle increases, the number of wrapping defects on the yarn first decreases and then increases. The effect of protrusion length of the filament feeding tube is found to be insignificant. This experimental and numerical study can provide a feasible way for optimizing the quality of the core-spun yarn produced on the modified vortex spinning system and analyzing the mechanism of the effects of parameters.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T06:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989094
  • Using Cu2+ ions as a detection material to verify the synthesis mechanism
           of Au nanoclusters mediated by wool keratin and silk fibroin resilience
    • Authors: Xin Zhang, Yuanyuan Dong, Gangzhong Liu, Guosheng Zhang, Jie Li, Ying Zhu, Weidong Yu, Hongling Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nanoclusters, with their ultrasmall sizes, have emerged as an indispensable tool in designing structural materials with a wide range of applications, but predicting the synthesis mechanism and structures remains challenging. This work delineates a synthesis mechanism of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), which is realized by functionalizing a wool keratin (WK) and silk fibroin (SF) resilience network structure via self-assembly with controllable microstructure transformation. We synthesized such AuNCs by reducing the thiol groups of WK into WK@AuNCs and then entering the WF&SF resilience framework during the reconstruction, achieving WK@AuNCs/WK&SF with high fluorescence intensity for selective quenching of heavy metal Cu2+ ions. Further investigation indicated that α-helix and β-crystallites resulted in a soft–hard molecular segment denoted as WK&SF resilience network, which held and separated the WK@AuNCs into the nanocages. Owing to the synergism of these features, WK@AuNCs/WK&SF displayed superior fluorescence performances compared with WK@AuNCs.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989775
  • Design and characterization of novel fabric-based multi-resonators for
           wearable chipless RFID applications
    • Authors: Huating Tu, Yaya Zhang, Hong Hong, Jiyong Hu, Xin Ding
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, the chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is attracting significant attention owing to its immense potential in tracking. However, most of the chipless tags are fabricated on hard printed circuit boards, and the wearable fabric-based chipless tag is still in the research stage. In this paper, a symmetrical 3rd L-shaped multi-resonator wearable chipless RFID tag is designed and screen-printed onto fabric. In order to investigate the influence of the non-uniform conductive layer on the signal transmission at high frequency, the surface and cross-sectional topographies of the printed conductive film are analyzed and the frequency response characteristics are simulated and measured. The obtained results show that the common fabric can be used as the substrate to screen print the L-shaped multi-resonators of the chipless RFID tag, and the quality of the screen printed line, especially a narrow line, significantly affects the radio frequency performance. For the screen-printed 3rd L-shaped stub resonators, the relative frequency shift compared with the simulation results are 0.99%, 0.88% and 2.26%, respectively. Generally, the surface morphology of fabric and screen-printed precision are critical in improving the performance of L-shaped multi-resonators.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T06:43:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989780
  • Integration of multivariate control charts and decision tree classifier to
           determine the faults of the quality characteristic(s) of a melt spinning
           machine used in polypropylene as-spun fiber manufacturing Part I: The
           application of the Taguchi method and principal component analysis in the
           processing parameter optimization of the melt spinning process
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Chang-Chiun Huang, Cheng-Han Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Melt spinning is the most extensively used method of fabricating polymeric fibers in the textile industry. This series of studies aimed to construct an automatic abnormality diagnosis system for polypropylene (PP) as-spun fiber produced by the melt spinning process. Part I of this study aimed to construct the processing parameter optimization for the PP as-spun fiber produced by the melt spinning machine. The product quality resulting from the processing parameters of the melt spinning process included six control factors: extruder temperature, gear pump temperature, die-head temperature, rotational speed of extruder, rotational speed of gear pump, and take-up speed. The quality characteristics included fiber fineness, breaking strength, breaking elongation, and modulus of resilience. The quality data were derived from the experiments, the design of which were based on the orthogonal array of the Taguchi method in order to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio, analysis of variance, and confidence interval. Principal component analysis was then applied to eliminate the multi-correlation of the output responses and transform the correlated responses into principal components, to obtain multi-quality optimum processing parameters. These optimum parameters, including the extruder temperature (180°C), gear pump temperature (220°C), die-head temperature (240°C), the rotational speed of the extruder (7.5 rpm), the rotational speed of the gear pump (15 rpm), and take-up speed (700 rpm) would later be used to build a prediction of an abnormality diagnosis system for identification of fault processing parameters in a melt spinning machine in Part II of this study.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T07:33:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520988615
  • Design of three-strand compact spinning system and numerical flow-field
           simulation for different structures of air-suction guides and suction
    • Authors: Murat Demir, Musa Kilic, Serdar Sayin, Zeki Kiral, Furkan Balduk, Kıymet Kübra Denge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to design a compact three-strand spinning approach as inspired by the twist and compact spinning. In the design process, auxiliary parts of twist and pneumatic compact spinning technologies were modified. First, a three-strand funnel and three-groove delivery cylinder were designed to feed three-strand into the drafting zone and control strand space. Then, air-suction guides and suction inserts with different structures of air-inlet slots were designed to create a separate condensing zone for each of the strands. Different structures of the air-suction guide and suction insert were used for modeling the compacting zone and four different systems were introduced. The effectiveness of compacting zones was discussed according to the numerical flow-field simulation studied with SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. Numerical simulation results showed that creating separate condensing zones for three-strand yarns was achieved with all of the new designs. However, the air-guide with longer air-inlet slot channels provided better flow-velocity components and static pressure values. It was also seen that using the same guide with narrowed slots suction insert results in greater flow-velocity components. In the experimental part, the guide with longer air-inlet slots and narrowed slots of suction insert was produced with a 3D printer and used for compact three-strand production. Properties of the compact three-strand yarns were compared with ring three-strand yarns to investigate compacting effects, and it was seen that better yarn properties were obtained with the compact three-strand spinning.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T07:32:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987521
  • Simulation of carding condensing process
    • Authors: Xixi Qian, Yuanying Shen, Qiaoli Cao, Jun Ruan, Chongwen Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A simulation describing the fiber movement during the condensation was conducted, and the effect of the condensation in the carding machine was studied. The simulation results showed that the condensation has the blending and the evening effect on the condensed sliver, which can be explained by the fiber rearrangement. Moreover, the increasing web width and the decreasing condensing length can result in a more uniform sliver. Further, the evening effect of the web width on the web was verified by experiments. The simulation results were in general agreement with the experimental results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T07:32:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520988125
  • Soft robotic fabric design, fabrication, and thermoregulation evaluation
    • Authors: Yan Cui, Xiaogang Liu, Jintu Fan, Dahua Shou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Usually, traditional insulation materials have a constant thermal resistance value that cannot change within the ambient temperature and will decrease as ambient humidity or external stress increases. Humans heavily rely on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to meet the thermal comfort requirements of their bodies, giving rise to energy waste and global warming. As an infinitely available natural resource, air is one of the most efficient thermal retaining substances known to science. Inspired by soft pneumatic robotics, we propose an architecture for air-driven thermoregulation fabrics called soft robotic fabrics (SRF). By changing the thickness of trapped air layer in fabric system through SRF, wearers could modify garments’ thermal insulation performance. A fabrication method is introduced to rapidly manufacture low-cost pneumatic structures using various types of construction and dimensions. With excellent ductility, elasticity, and compression resistance, the thickness of SRF increases by 12 times or more after inflation, and the fabric even can lift an object 270 times heavier than its weight. The excellent deformability can effectively increase stable air layer between clothing and skin. Based on the Predicted Mean Vote–Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied model, the thermoregulation capability of SRF helps HVAC expand the temperature setpoint range by 3–8 times when compared with traditional fabrics, and has far-reaching significance in saving energy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T08:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520985900
  • Using an N-vinylpyrrolidone co-polymer in reactive dye printing as an
           alternative to urea
    • Authors: Jie Min, Meng-ru Ding, Jin-xin He
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A series of water-soluble co-polymer (NS) from N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and sodium p-styrenesulfonate (SSS) with a low molecular weight are synthesized as substitutes for urea in the reactive printing of cotton fabrics. The effects of the monomer ratio of NVP to SSS on the color yield of the printed fabrics, the color fastness, and the solubility of the reactive dyes were investigated. The possibility of using a flocculation treatment for printing wastewater was also evaluated. When the dosage of NS-02 (NVP:SSS=7:3) in the printing paste is 1.0 wt%, the color yield and the color fastness of the printed fabric are equivalent to or better than those obtained with 3.0 wt% urea. Compared with the traditional reactive printing with urea, the total nitrogen content in the wastewater after NS-02 is reduced to 15% of that using urea when treated with a suitable amount of inorganic flocculants. It meets the national discharge requirements for printing and dyeing wastewater. The study shows that a low-molecular-weight co-polymer (NS-02) has a high potential to replace urea for the printing of cotton fabric with reactive dyes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T08:01:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987519
  • Dual-functional SFP/PAN based nano drug release system for treatment and
    • Authors: Ling Han, Yingbo Ma, Hao Dou, Wei Fan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nano drug delivery systems can control the ordered release of drugs. To achieve the target of supplying therapeutics and nutrients at the same time, a novel nano drug delivery system with a core–shell structure was prepared by coaxial electrospinning. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used to produce a drug release scaffold in the shell section, mixed with absorbable silk fibroin peptide (SFP) as a nutrient. Ciprofloxacin (CPFX), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was used as the core, as well as an antibacterial agent. Owing to its low molecular weight, using a pure SFP thin solution to manufacture nanofibers by electrospinning is still technically challenging. Thus, different ratios of PAN to SFP were used in the shell electrospinning solution. In this research, a novel nano dual-functionality drug delivery system has been successfully prepared. In vitro testing demonstrated that nanofibers could supply more nutrients with increasing SFP in shell solutions; however, the ability to maintain controlled release was reduced. It was found that the nanofiber membrane had the best controlled drug release capability for a PAN-to-SFP mass ratio of 95:5. Overall, most ciprofloxacin was released in the first 12 h, while the release of SFP was constant throughout the first 24 h. Our modeling demonstrated that the release of CPFX and SFP is best described using a first-order kinetic model. The developed drug delivery system is designed to release antimicrobial drugs in a controlled manner and provide absorbable nutrients simultaneously.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520988094
  • Study on frequency selective/absorption/reflection multilayer composite
           flexible electromagnetic wave absorbing fabric
    • Authors: Hengyu Zhang, Jianying Chen, Yan Wang, Hui Ji, Ni Wang, Hong Xiao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to realize wide-band, high-efficiency and flexible electromagnetic wave absorption, an effective method is the combination of different electromagnetic functional materials. How to use and make the multilayer materials with individual absorption, reflection and selective transmission characteristics is very important. In this work, multilayer composite flexible absorbing fabrics made of a frequency selective surface (FSS), carbonyl iron coated fabrics (CIFs) and copper-nickel plated conductive woven fabrics (CWFs) were prepared. The layered composite materials have a thin thickness, good flexibility and adjustable absorption band, which provide a reference for the development of lightweight and efficient electromagnetic wave absorbing materials. The influence of the resonance point, wave absorbent content and conductive layer on the absorbing properties were studied. CIF-3 with a surface density of 2046.9 g/m2 has the best absorption performance with a minimum reflectivity of –20.52 dB at 12.56 GHz. A one-layer FSS can broaden the absorption bandwidth; the broadening degree varies with the resonance point of the FSS, which also makes the absorption band adjustable. The bandwidth of f12/CIF-3 with reflectivity of less than –10 dB can reach 5.68 GHz. Besides, CWF is beneficial to increase the absorption intensity, and the best reflectivity of CIF-3/CWF can reach –27.73 dB. Furthermore, three-layer composites can improve the absorption strength and bandwidth of CIF at low frequency. Compared with CIF-3, the reflectivity of f14/CIF-3/CWF decreases 8.06 dB at 11.28 GHz, and the bandwidth is 4.72 GHz, which widens by 0.32 GHz.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989093
  • Effect of ultrasonic welding process parameters on hydrostatic pressure
           resistance of hybrid textiles for weather protection
    • Authors: Muktar Seid Hussen, Yordan Kostadinov Kyosev, Kathrin Pietsch, Stefan Rothe, Abera Kechi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the research project presented in this paper, the effects of welding width, pressure force, power, and speed of ultrasonic welding parameters on hydrostatic pressure resistance were examined. A flexible and lightweight PVC-coated hybrid textile material with uniform thickness was used for weather protection purposes. Three main welding parameters at three different levels were selected based on the preliminary test results involving welding widths of 6 and 12 mm. A lapped type of seam was applied for ultrasonic welding and conventional joining techniques. A conventionally sewn zigzag seam was produced using three main factors at two different levels according to the application area. To avoid seam permeability, the conventional seam was sealed with tape by means of hot-air tape welding and subsequently investigated regarding its hydrostatic pressure resistance. The hydrostatic pressure resistance value of the conventional seam was then compared with ultrasonic weld seams of 6 and 12 mm welding width, and its parametric influence on the quality of the seam was analyzed. The result shows that the ultrasonic weld seam with a 12 mm welding width provided a higher hydrostatic pressure resistance than the 6 mm welding width and the conventionally sewn seam. Statistical analyses were also carried out to prove the significant effect of welding process parameters on hydrostatic pressure resistance, whereby the obtained results were statistically significant. A suitable nonlinear numerical model was also developed to predict the hydrostatic pressure resistance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520988124
  • Spectrophotometric color matching for pre-colored fiber blends based on a
           hybrid of least squares and grid search method
    • Authors: Ge Zhang, Ruru Pan, Jian Zhou, Lei Wang, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Computer color matching can improve production efficiency and reduce costs in color spun. However, in practice the computer color matching success rate for pre-colored fiber blends has not been good, leading to customers being unsatisfied with the accuracy of the color matching results. Aiming to improve the accuracy, a hybrid of least squares and grid search method has been proposed for spectrophotometric color matching of pre-colored fiber blend based on the improved Kubelka–Munk (K-M) double-constant theory. Two-primary, three-primary, four-primary, and five-primary pre-colored cotton fiber blends were prepared as standard samples to evaluate the color matching accuracy of the proposed method. Compared with the least squares method and the grid search method, the proposed method achieved better color matching effects and greatly shortened the calculation time, respectively. For 42 pre-colored fiber blends, the average color difference between the predicted results obtained by the proposed method, least squares method, and grid search method and the spectrophotometer measurements were respectively 0.29, 0.53, and 0.36 CIE2000 units. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method could predict the formulation of standard samples quickly and effectively, and that it was superior to other methods in providing satisfactory color matching results for the enterprises.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T06:18:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989788
  • Auxetic behavior of warp knitted fabric under repeating tension
    • Authors: Zhao Shuaiquan, Chang Yuping, Yang Yadie, Zhang Minglonghai, Hasan Karmurl, Hu Hong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In our previous study, a novel class of auxetic warp knitted fabrics were developed and their auxetic behaviors were studied under a single tensile test. However, during daily use, the fabrics are usually subjected to repeating tension rather than single tension. Therefore, the durability of the fabrics’ auxetic performance is of great importance. So far, the auxetic behavior of fabrics under repeating tension has not systematically been investigated. In this paper, we report a study on the auxetic behavior of warp knitted fabrics under repeating tension. All the fabric samples were subjected to a repeating tensile test within a tensile strain of 25% until 100 tensile cycles. The results show that the fabrics can keep their auxetic effect in both course and wale testing directions after 100 tensile cycles, and the auxetic effect in the wale direction is retained longer under higher tensile strains than that under lower tensile strains with the increase of tensile cycles. The results also indicate that auxetic stability in the course direction is much better than that in the wale direction. We hope that this study can offer useful information to improve the auxetic stability of auxetic fabrics for practical use.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T01:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521989277
  • Prediction of garment fit level in 3D virtual environment based on
           artificial neural networks
    • Authors: Zhujun Wang, Jianping Wang, Xianyi Zeng, Shukla Sharma, Yingmei Xing, Shuo Xu, Li Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a probabilistic neural network-based model for predicting and controlling garment fit levels from garment ease allowances, digital pressures, and fabric mechanical properties measured in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment. The predicted fit levels include both comprehensive and local fit levels. The model was set up by learning from data measured during a series of virtual (input data) and real try-on (output data) experiments and then simulated to predict different garment styles, for example, loose and tight fits. Finally, the performance of the proposed model was compared with the Linear Regression model, the Support Vector Machine model, the Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network model, and the Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network model. The results of the comparison revealed that the prediction accuracy of the proposed model was superior to those of the other models. Furthermore, we put forward a new interactive garment design process in a 3D virtual environment based on the proposed model. Based on interactions between real pattern adjustments and virtual garment demonstrations, this new design process will enable designers to rapidly, accurately, and automatically predict relevant garment fit levels without undertaking expensive and time-consuming real try-ons.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-22T06:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987520
  • Grasping model of fabric cut pieces for robotic soft fingers
    • Authors: Junqiang Su, Jinzhu Shen, Fan Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to progress the research on automatic separation of fabric pieces from a cutting pile during the garment manufacture, a summary of the methods of grasping was made. Next, the process of cut garment pieces grasping by soft fingers was defined, and the mechanical model was analyzed in detail. After that a grasping experiment by soft fingers was carried out. The experiment results show that the parameters of a soft finger (positive pressure, opening distance) and the parameters of the fabric (grams per square meter, thickness, friction coefficient, stiffness) have great influence on the grasping effect. Furthermore, a grasping model was proposed. Finally, a test experiment was implemented to verify the applicability of the model proposed. This paper mainly contributed a bridge between the parameters of fabrics and the parameters of soft fingers which can help greatly to select or to design a suitable soft finger according to the properties of a fabric accurately and quickly. In addition, the grasping model of fabric pieces of garment by using robotic soft fingers was found to have a good potential applicability in the field of smart manufacture of garment in the near future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-22T06:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520988118
  • Influence of sulfuric acid solution on the durability of high-performance
           modified polyphenylene sulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene sewing thread
           for high-temperature filtration
    • Authors: Wanzhen Huang, Bin Zhang, Abeer Alassod, Guangbiao Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      High-temperature filtration is a promising development in particle collection technology. In this field, the filtration efficiency of the filter bag is affected by the surface hairiness of the sewing thread, which has the function of sealing pinholes. A high-performance modified polyphenylene sulfide (MPPS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sewing thread had been prepared. However, the effect of the addition of MPPS fibers on acid resistance of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread was a crucial issue that was still unknown. In this study, surface morphology, tensile properties, and the corrosion mechanism of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread exposed to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution was investigated under different temperatures, concentrations, and times. It was noticed that the auxiliary agent on the surface of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread was partly removed. Besides, the surface of MPPS fibers was slightly damaged by H2SO4 solution. Moreover, the tensile properties showed that the maximum loss of fracture strength and the maximum deviation of elongation at break of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread were around 9.1% and 4.6%, respectively. Hence, it could be concluded that the addition of MPPS fibers had little effect on MPPS/PTFE sewing thread. Furthermore, when the concentration of H2SO4 solution did not exceed 10 mol/L, MPPS/PTFE sewing thread showed a good acid resistance. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis did not show a change in the structure of the benzene ring skeleton of the macromolecular chain in MPPS/PTFE sewing thread after treatment with H2SO4 solution. In contrast, the carbon–sulfur bonds attached to the benzene ring in MPPS/PTFE sewing thread had rotated or even partially broken. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that the thermal stability of MPPS/PTFE sewing thread was slightly decreased.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-22T06:40:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987210
  • Design of warp knitting electronic shogging system based on mixed-velocity
           planning curve
    • Authors: Baoping Zheng, Gaoming Jiang, Zhijia Dong, Haisang Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To realize high-speed running of a warp knitting machine, the shogging motion should not only meet the requirement of high dynamic response but should also satisfy high positioning accuracy. Due to the large location disturbance and the dynamic response delay in the interpolation method or the single velocity planning curve method, an electronic shogging system for a warp knitting machine based on the mixed-velocity planning curve is proposed in the present study. Through the analysis of the shogging motion combined with the knitted structure, the optimal resolution of the instruction signal is calculated, which is 725 pulses for one needle step, and the velocity loop bandwidth of the servo driver is optimized. In addition, the motor with a load inertia ratio close to 1 is also selected. Analysis of the shogging motion vibration curve confirms that the shogging motion has advantages of high positioning accuracy and high dynamic response under the mixed-velocity planning curve. The response performance with the mixed curve is 12.5% higher than that with the quintic polynomial, and the positioning accuracy of the mixed curve is 26% higher than that with uniform acceleration–deceleration curve.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T05:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982583
  • Are running socks beneficial for comfort' The role of the sock and
           sock fiber type on shoe microclimate and subjective evaluations
    • Authors: Anna M West, George Havenith, Simon Hodder
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the effect of socks (different in fiber type) and the effect of not wearing a sock on perceptions of thermal comfort in relation to changes in foot skin temperature and shoe microclimate (temperature and humidity) during rest and exercise. Ten females completed five trials on separate occasions. Four socks (cotton, wool, polyester, Coolmax) and no sock were evaluated. Trials were conducted at 23°C, 50% relative humidity and consisted of rest (10 min seated), treadmill running (40 min, 7.5 km·h−1) and recovery (15 min seated). Foot skin temperature and shoe microclimate were measured at seven sites on the right foot. Foot skin hydration was measured at nine foot sites. Perceptual responses were recorded. Foot thermo-physiological and foot perceptual responses were similar for all sock conditions (p > 0.05). Similar foot thermo-physiological responses were also observed between the sock and no sock conditions (p > 0.05). Interestingly, however, not wearing a sock resulted in greater perceptions of foot wetness, stickiness and discomfort (p 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T05:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520986511
  • Functional assessment of biodegradable cotton nonwoven substrates
           permeated with spatial insect repellants for disposable applications
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Hron, Doug J. Hinchliffe, Michael Santiago Cintrón, Kenneth J. Linthicum, Brian D. Condon
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Arboviral diseases and malaria transmitted by mosquitoes are major health concerns worldwide responsible for millions of deaths annually. Spatial repellents have been used as preventative measures via direct application to the skin or disposable devices worn outside of clothing. Naturally derived, plant-based repellents are safe, effective alternatives to synthetic repellents and may be applied to disposable substrates including adhesive patches. Many disposables are composed of synthetic petrochemical-based polyester and polypropylene nonwoven fabrics, contributing to growing concern surrounding microplastic pollution. Sustainable and biodegradable substrates including those made from cotton are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Therefore, we explored the utilization of cotton-based substrates for the application of natural spatial and synthetic contact insect repellents. Cotton fibers used in the study were commercially available greige cotton, scoured and bleached greige cotton and reginned greige cotton motes, a value-added byproduct of the ginning process. Synthetic polyester and polypropylene were used for comparison. Thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) in combination with modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) were used to discern vaporization properties of repellents from the substrates. Retention times of repellents on the substrates were analyzed using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy–focal plane array detector and compared with the TG/DTG and mDSC data. Mosquito landing assays confirmed the feasibility of using cotton-based substrates treated with plant-based spatial repellents as an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:29:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987213
  • Optimization of process parameters of recycled carbon fiber-reinforced
           thermoplastic prepared by the wet-laid hybrid nonwoven process
    • Authors: Xin Yan, Xiwen Wang, Jin Yang, Guanglei Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The wet-laid hybrid nonwoven process can produce affordable carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) because of its process simplicity, which can promote the application of CFRTP products in automobile weight reduction. The wet-laid hybrid nonwoven process involves two procedures, mainly: prepare preforms by a papermaking-like process and heat-molding compression. The parameters of heat-molding compression affect the quality of CFRTP directly, but there are not enough researches focusing on the effects of heat-molding compression parameters. This study aims to optimize the wet-laid hybrid nonwoven process to prepare recycled CFRTP. A proper carbon fiber content was determined firstly. Then, response surface methodology was used to optimize the heat-molding compression parameters. The effects of fiber length on composite properties were also investigated. The results showed that the fiber content of 30 wt% was the most suitable. The optimized heat-molding conditions were temperature, pressure, and time of 190°C, 2 MPa, and 10 min, respectively, leading to the lowest void content of 0.9%. CFRTP comprising carbon fibers with a length of 6 mm had the best properties, with the tensile strength of 59.34 MPa and flexural strength of 145.91 MPa.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520987212
  • The migration behavior of electrospun nanofibers within cotton slivers in
           roller drafting and their effects on composite yarn quality
    • Authors: Ning Mao, Xiaohong Qin, Liming Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Functional electrospun nanofibers of composite yarns provide high extra value for their textile products. Whereas various functionalities have been developed, research on the formation mechanism of these composite yarns still lacks. Here, the migration behavior of two different electrospun nanofibers (polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polystyrene (PS)) within cotton slivers in roller drafting was demonstrated through a combination of mechanical and statistical methods. The accelerated point distribution of electrospun nanofibers during roller drafting was determined and the effect of these fibers on their yarn properties was evaluated. The results showed that electrospun fibers had a similar distribution to 15 mm tracer fiber under the small draft ratio, but when the ratio became larger, the accelerated points of electrospun fibers distributed more widely than all the tracer fibers. Furthermore, the addition of PAN electrospun nanofibers had a positive impact on their yarn quality whereas PS electropsun nanofibers had an adverse impact on the physical properties except breaking strength. At last, by analyzing the relationship between electrospun nanofiber content and drafting force, the electrospun fiber content should be controlled under 10 wt.% to guarantee high quality of composite yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520986519
  • Effect of 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treatment on structure and adhesion
           properties of thermotropic liquid crystal polyarylate fibers
    • Authors: Xin Chen, Bingqian Liu, Dan Sheng, Honghui Xia, Heng Pan, Dongmei Wang, Bo Deng, Genyang Cao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the surface modification of thermotropic liquid crystal polyarylate (TLCP) fibers by 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treatment, specifically, whether it enhanced their interfacial adhesive properties. The surface chemical compositions and microstructures of both control and 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treated TLCP fibers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, thermal, dyeing, and adhesion properties of both control and 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treated fibers were compared by thermogravimetric analysis, colorimetry, and universal material testing system, respectively. The results indicated that 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treatment increased the surface-anchored oxygen atom amount: the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio at the surface of the TLCP fibers increased from 0.17 to 0.22. However, 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treatment showed almost no effect on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the TLCP fibers. The peeling strength of the 2-phenoxyethanol pre-treated TLCP fabric was around twice that of the control TLCP fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:12:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520985888
  • Preparation of fluorine-free anti-acid and breathable composite fabric
           based on modified SBS/pitch electrospun nanofibers
    • Authors: Qingle Zhang, Yiqing Shao, Chengmeizi Wang, Lu Wang, Huimin Zhou, Xin Xia
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To develop a fluorine-free material of acidproof and breathable fabric, styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) blended with pitch was directly deposited on polyester/cotton blended fabric through electrospinning to fabricate a nanofibrous membrane composite fabric. Acrylic acid (AA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were used to graft SBS to improve compatibility between SBS and pitch, and the modified temperatures were set at 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The effects of different grafting monomers and temperatures on the properties of SBS/pitch membrane composite fabrics were explored by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis; morphological structures, acid-resistant properties and breathability (vapor permeability and air permeability) were also examined. The results showed that modified SBS/pitch membrane composite fabrics possessed good acid resistance and modest breathability. SBS-g-MMA/pitch (means SBS grafted by MMA) exhibited the highest acid resistance due to more evenly distributed beads than original SBS/pitch membrane composite fabrics and higher roughness than SBS-g-AA/pitch (means SBS grafted by AA) membrane composite fabrics. By systematically changing the grafting temperature, SBS-g-MMA/pitch membrane composite fabrics for which SBS was grafted by MMA at 80°C presented appropriate air permeability (120.5 mm/s), modest water vapor transport rate (13,656.45 g/(m2·d)), good tensile strength (1203 N) and bursting strength (616 N), and the best acid resistance (143°); meanwhile the acid penetration level reached level 3, which was attributed to the low surface energy caused by the fused ring from the pitch and the rough surface caused by the micro-beads in the nanofibers. The obtained modified SBS/pitch membrane composite fabric could be potentially applied in acidproof fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982588
  • Functional dyeable polypropylene fabric development and process parameter
           optimization Part I: Dyeable modified polypropylene development with
           process parameter optimization
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Shih Hsiung Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to develop dyeable modified polypropylene (PP) granules with disperse dye. The optimal dyeable modified PP granule process used polyester as a mixed copolymer. The purpose was to overcome the excessive difference between the polyester material melting point and PP melting point. The development of a low-melting modified co-polybutylene adipate terephthalate (Co-PBAT) was the key point. After the low-melting modified Co-PBAT was presented, PP and a PP grafting maleic anhydride compatibilizer were made into a composite by dual-screw mixing process. The disperse dye dyeability was reached by the molecular behavior of the Co-PBAT chain segment. The prepared material was applied to explore the thermal properties of modified ester pellets and the functional group was verified by Fourier infrared spectroscopy. In this study, the Taguchi method and principal component analysis were used to optimize the process parameter design of two quality characteristics; namely, the color strength and the polymer melt flow index (MFI). According to the results, the multi-quality optimization of the ester pellets consisted of a modified Co-PBAT melting point of 170°C, the modified Co-PBAT content of 9 wt%, the compatibilizer content of 3 wt%, and the mixing temperature of 205°C. The MFI of the regular PP polymer was 28.1 g/10 min, the color strength was 100 K/S. For the optimal process, the MFI of the PP/Co-PBAT dyeable granules was 37.88 g/10 min, and the color strength was 121.31 K/S. It could be observed that the developed polymer had good circulating workability and color strength.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T07:04:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984979
  • Effect of fabric softener on crossing torque and compression properties of
           cotton yarn
    • Authors: KyoungOk Kim, Kaori Shimizu, Takako Igarashi, Koichi Nakamura, Masayuki Takatera
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of a fabric softener treatment on the properties of the crossing torque–intersecting angle behavior of yarns and the transverse compression properties of single and crossing yarns, which are related to the shear properties of a fabric, is investigated. The crossing torque required to change the intersecting angle between two yarns, the hysteresis in the crossing torque–intersecting angle curve (i.e., crossing torque hysteresis), and the compression properties of cotton yarns after water treatment with and without softener were measured. To measure those properties, the drying condition was varied after the treatment to comprise crossed yarns with an applied load and parallel yarns in a bundled state. The average crossing torque value of the sample with a softener treatment was less than that with a water treatment for yarns from a bundle. For yarns dried while crossed, the average crossing torque value of the sample with a softener treatment was somewhat less than that with a water treatment. For both drying conditions, the average crossing torque hysteresis value decreased after a softener treatment. The compressional resilience value of the sample with a softener treatment was greater (bouncier) than that with a water treatment for yarns dried while crossed. The results suggest that the softener treatment reduces the crossing torque and increases the compressional resilience of yarns. This is due to the reduction of hydrogen bonding between surface fibers via the softener. The softener treatment also decreased the crossing torque hysteresis, corresponding to decreased friction between fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T07:04:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520986513
  • Dynamic simulation of the relationship between pressure and displacement
           for the waist of elastic pantyhose in the walking process using the finite
           element method
    • Authors: Rui Dan, Zhen Shi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The inward displacement perpendicular to body surface produced by external pressure is an important index to evaluate pressure comfort and optimal design of tight clothing products. Because of the limited pressure exerted on the human body after wearing compression clothing, the corresponding displacement is generally small, and it is difficult to obtain an accurate displacement value of the human body using general methods. In this paper, we focused on the functional relationship between pressure and displacement when the human body was in the walking state after dressing in elastic pantyhose, and then the displacement data could be easily obtained using this method.Through computerized tomography scanning, establishing of the waist cross-section, finite element simulation, and curve fitting, we finally obtained the functional relationship between the pressure/displacement ratio and angle when the body is dressed in four sample elastic pantyhose during the walking process in this study. In the formula, pressure data can be easily obtained through the pressure experiment, and the corresponding displacement value at any point of the human body can be calculated using the quadratic fitting curve equation. Results indicated that no matter what state the human body was in (static or dynamic) after wearing elastic pantyhose, the relationship between pressure and displacement at the corresponding point remains basically unchanged. That is to say, the relationship between pressure and displacement was basically not affected by the state of the human body when dressed in a tight garment. The conclusions provide an important reference for evaluating pressure comfort and optimizing clothing structure. This method is also applicable to other types of compression clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-15T04:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981741
  • Experimental study of a modified drafting system based on the ring
           spinning frame
    • Authors: Yuemin Cui, Hong Song, Longdi Cheng, Wansheng Deng, Yijun Ji
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A systematic study of a modified drafting system based on the ring spinning frame, which is called the SDS (soft drafting system), is reported in this article to raise yarn quality. Two parts of an experiment were conducted to investigate differences between the conventional and modified drafting systems by spinning three kinds of yarns (in part I) and the effects of process parameters (block gauge, pressure on the front rollers and break draft) on the SDS by using response surface methodology (RSM) to spin 18.2 tex cotton yarn (in part II). The results show that the SDS can significantly improve yarn evenness and reduce yarn imperfections of thick places by +35% and +50%, respectively, and neps by +140% per km. In addition, it is noted that the three parameters are all statistically significant for the SDS to spin yarns, while interactions between them are not. More importantly, RSM predicted a minimum CVm% of 13.95% under the optimum conditions of 1.75 mm, 190 N and 1.21 for the block gauge, pressure on the front rollers and break draft, respectively, which is very close to the conditions of the practical spinning test.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T06:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984977
  • Electrospun nanofiber/cotton composite yarn with enhanced moisture
           management ability
    • Authors: Ning Mao, Xiaohong Qin, Liming Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wet comfort is a critical performance for fabrics, especially when human bodies release sweat in daily life. Despite excellent moisture absorption performance, cotton yarns are still limited in the moisture release/transfer ability. Here, based on a novel electrospinning technology, polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene (PS) electrospun nanofiber/cotton composite yarns were produced, respectively. Under fluorescence microscopic observation, electrospun fibers within the composite yarns showed a uniform distribution. As a result, these composite yarn-based knitted fabrics obtained a good water transport ability and a fast water evaporation rate. According to the moisture management test, PS electrospun nanofiber composite yarn-based fabrics exhibited a relatively high one-way transport index R (400%), claiming an enhanced moisture management performance. Finally, specific surface area tests and finite element analyses were used to analyze the water transport mechanism inside the yarns. The results proved that a small number of electrospun fibers played a predominant role in enhancing the moisture management ability of the composite yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:58:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984978
  • Influence of inlaid material, yarn and knitted structure on the net
           buoyant force and mechanical properties of inlaid knitted fabric for
           buoyant swimwear
    • Authors: Nga-wun Li, Chu-po Ho, Kit-lun Yick, Jin-yun Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Buoyant swimwear is becoming more common in recreational swimming use, so the performance of buoyant fabric is important when designing functional swimwear. In this study, potential buoyant inlaid knitted fabrics for buoyant swimwear are investigated. Three types of knitted structures, half milano, full milano and 1 × 1 rib, are selected and various kinds of tubes and foam rods in different diameters are prepared for inlaying during the knitting process by using a 7 G hand-knitting machine. The mean differences among the levels of three independent variables, (1) inlaid material, (2) yarn and (3) knitted structure, on three dependent variables (net buoyant force, compression and tensile properties) are analyzed by using a multivariate analysis of variance. The result shows that the net buoyant force and mechanical properties of the fabric are significantly different due to the inlaid material and knitted structure, but not the yarn. The net buoyant force increases with fabric thickness and the outer diameter of the inlaid material. The inlaid fabrics are less compressible than the control fabric and show better recoverability with an increase in the diameter of the inlaid material. For the tensile properties, the inlaid material reinforces the fabric in both the wale and course directions, in which the stiffness in the course direction is significantly increased. The inlaid fabric is stronger and resistant to breakage in the course direction when the diameter of the inlaid material is increased. The findings of this study contribute to developments in the textile and sportswear industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T07:58:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981742
  • Appearance change for colored spun yarn fabric based on image color
    • Authors: Ning Zhang, Qun Hu, Lei Wang, Shuo Meng, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fabric of colored spun yarn has ever-changing appearances and styles with different fancy yarns. The fabric image is commonly designed by the designer using the software, which needs complex user interactions and difficult image segmentation. In this paper, a modified color transfer method was proposed to generate the fabric appearance of colored spun yarn. Given the color card as the target image, the style fabric image was matched as the reference image based on the dominant luminance. After transferring the two images to lαβ color space, Wavelet transform and luminance sampling were utilized to filter the redundant high-frequency information and select the representative pixels, respectively. Then, the chromatic channels were transferred based on the best matched luminance and the neighborhood relation. Finally, the image after color transfer was reconstructed by wavelet reconstruction. The proposed reference image matching maintained the result to be the ground truth. For the samples selected, the combined methods based on wavelet transform and luminance sampling improved the efficiency and performance of the proposed scheme. Experiments were conducted on different fabrics with different colors and styles. Experiments demonstrated the validity and superiority of the proposed method, which can provide referential assistance for the designer and save considerable amounts of labor.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T06:19:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984093
  • Mechanical and electrical properties of graphene-coated polyimide yarns
           improved by nitrogen plasma pre-treatment
    • Authors: Chuanli Su, Fangbing Lin, Jinhua Jiang, Huiqi Shao, Nanliang Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      One-dimensional high-performance yarns with excellent conductivity and flexibility are of considerable interest in the energy and aerospace industries. However, how to achieve highly conductivity, excellent flexibility, extreme condition durability and high mechanical performance in one fiber material is still a great challenge using economically viable materials and synthesis technologies. Herein, we report electrically conductive yarns (modified polyimide (M-PI)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) yarns) consisting of RGO coated on the surface of nitrogen plasma M-PI yarns, which are fabricated by combining the N2 plasma pre-treatment and repeated dip-coating and reducing technique. N2 plasma treatment is used to roughen the surface of the PI yarn and introduce functional groups, contributing to improve wettability, which can provide a stronger adhesion of the graphene coating. The dip-coating and reducing process was repeated 10 times to enhance the loading mass of RGO on the PI yarns, then M-PI/RGO yarns with better conductivity property can be obtained. The effects of N2 plasma treatment power and time on the M-PI yarns and M-PI/RGO yarns are investigated and discussed. The results demonstrate that the graphene layer is uniformly and densely coated on the PI yarn when being treated at 200 W for 8 min, and the conductivity of the M-PI/RGO yarn reaches 1.51 × 102 S/m. The M-PI/RGO yarn combine the advantages of RGO and PI yarns, retaining the mechanical properties and thermal stability of PI yarn while exploiting the conductive property of RGO. In addition, the enhanced adhesion between the PI yarn and graphene coating endows the composite yarns with excellent fastness and superior flexibility. This work describes an environmentally friendly, controllable and facile method to develop flexible and conductive functional graphene-coated PI yarns with high-performance properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T06:19:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984102
  • Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of text printed with flexography
           on woven labels
    • Authors: Urška Stanković Elesini, Sara Pančur, Klementina Možina
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Even though textile labels are not often the subject of research, their quality must not be neglected. Printed typographic elements (i.e. letters and texts) must be visible regardless of textile ribbons and typeface or type size to be printed. Thus, the aim of the research was to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze and evaluate the text printed with flexography in two different typefaces (Helvetica and Verdana) in three different type sizes (4, 6 and 8 point) on five textile ribbons made of polyester and polyester/cotton mixture in two different weaves (plain and satin). The results of our research showed that the quality of printed letters is influenced by the properties of textile ribbons as well as by the chosen typographic features. When textile ribbons were composed of polyester filaments, the quality of prints was better than in the case of the mixed composition with cotton fibers. The coating and previously dyed textile ribbons had a positive influence on the quality of printed letters. The typeface Verdana gave more distinct and contrasted printed letters than Helvetica. The quality of printed letters (measured by the cover factor) decreased with the reduced type size; letters (and text) in a smaller type size (4 point) were hence, depending on the properties of textile ribbons, less visible.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-30T06:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981740
  • Poly(lactic acid) fibers, yarns and fabrics: Manufacturing, properties and
    • Authors: Yadie Yang, Minglonghai Zhang, Zixin Ju, Po Ying Tam, Tao Hua, Muhammad Waseem Younas, Hasan Kamrul, Hong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber was developed more than a decade ago. It has been regarded as the most promising sustainable and biodegradable fiber to replace conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester fiber in textile products. This paper reviews recent developments in PLA polymerization, PLA filament and fiber spinning, staple yarn spinning, fabric production, dyeing and finishing and aftercare procedures. The properties of PLA fiber are broadly similar to those of PET fiber; however, the properties of PLA fiber that differ, including thermal degradation and low hydrolytic resistance to strong alkaline, significantly affect the method selection and parameter setting of production and processing of PLA fibers and fabrics. PLA filaments are mainly produced by two-step melt spinning to get fibers with stable quality, but degradation at high temperature is still a problem. PLA staple yarns are normally spun using ring spinning. Currently existing knitting or weaving techniques can be used to produce PLA fabrics. PLA fabrics can be dyed with disperse dyes at 110°C, but their color fastness and shades are different from PET fabrics when using the same dyes. The scouring and dyeing of PLA/cotton blended fabrics and the reductive clearing after dyeing remain to be improved. As a new fiber, the entry of PLA fiber into the textile market faces difficult challenges as well as great opportunities in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-30T06:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520984101
  • A spacer fabric-based three-dimensional patterning method with two-colored
           jacquard systems
    • Authors: Xinxin Li, Meiling Tian, Yanping Liu, Ya Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To generate three-dimensional (3D) patterned spacer structures with non-continuous jacquard appearance in two colors, such as the yarn-cutting style, this paper attempts to propose a novel 3D patterning method based on the single jacquard technique. Two sets of jacquard threads are spaced apart and threaded in split bars as two patterning systems with separate colors. Then, for independent patterns, each single loop should be able to be selectively observable on patterned layers and hidden in the spacer layer. Cases of continuous jacquard loops and zero-loop ones in both course and wale directions are to be solved based on the characteristic of one-wale left offset. Besides, by differing the moment when offset occurs, jacquard threads are transferred from stitching on both layers to a single or zero layer, thus enabling one to hide jacquard loops in non-patterning areas. This approach theoretically brings new patterning possibilities to 3D spacer structures with the single jacquard technique.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-24T04:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982004
  • Mechanical properties of warp-knitted metal mesh fabric under biaxial
           tension loading
    • Authors: Tong Yang, Ping Yang, Zhuanyong Zou, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, warp-knitted metal mesh fabric was used as the research object, and its mechanical loading behavior under uniaxial and biaxial stress loading states was studied. The relationship and connection between the effective elastic modulus of its anisotropic structure was studied with different loading angles of stress as variables. The results showed that there were differences in the mechanical properties and effective elastic modulus under these loading angles, and there was a linear relationship between the effective elastic modulus of the metal mesh with the same warp-knitted structure under different directions of stress, which will provide a theoretical basis for broadening its application in the field of anchor spray support, flexible wearable electronic devices, satellite antennas, water filter walls and other applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520981997
  • Construction and system realization of the yarn tension model of fully
           fashioned flat knitting fabric
    • Authors: Boyu Zhao, Honglian Cong, Guangjun Wu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, fully fashioned flat knitting fabrics have been extensively studied owing to their superior formability, rich application range and advanced knitting technology. However, the yarn tension fluctuations during the knitting process are difficult to control. The yarn tension in the knitting process is affected by many factors, such as the carriage running speed, structure, yarn properties, clothing parameters, and so on. In this work, a tension model of the yarn was established to explore the regularity of yarn tension variation, which was caused by the running speed and direction of the carriage when producing fully fashioned fabrics. Then, a tension compensation device was set up to reduce tension fluctuations to improve the quality of fully fashioned fabrics. Results showed that the tension fluctuation in the dynamic change of the tension was reduced to a certain extent by adding the tension compensation device. Meanwhile, the average value and fluctuating standard deviation of the yarn tension between the forward and backward processes were significantly reduced during a cycle of the knitting process. This indicates that controlling the tension fluctuation in the knitting process will effectively improve the surface evenness of the fully fashioned flat knitting fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982386
  • Three-dimensional simulation and experimental investigation of
           three-dimensional printed guiding devices on lattice-apron compact
    • Authors: Malik YH Saty, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The compact spinning system with a lattice apron utilizes air-flow dynamics to condense fibers in a bunch and enhance the yarn properties. One of the main challenges with this method is the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the air-flow field's effect in the condensing zone. This work presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the effects of three-dimensional (3D) printed guiding devices on the air-flow characteristics and yarn properties. Firstly, the 3D numerical model of the compact spinning system was set up based on the compact spinning machine geometrical dimensions. Secondly, different 3D prototypes were developed, simulated, and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics based on ANSYS software. The prototypes (A-type, B-type, and C-type), selected according to the simulation results, were then 3D printed to enable further experimental investigation. Air-flow analysis results in the air-suction flume area exhibiting a very high negative pressure, and the centerline zone was characterized by high velocity. Experimental results revealed that the three yarns spun with guiding devices had better strength, hairiness, and evenness than those spun without a guiding device. The model developed can be further improved and utilized for commercial purposes and is anticipated to improve compact spun yarn properties significantly.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:13:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520982586
  • Nano-bio finishing of cotton fabric with chitosan nano-hydrogels
           containing Rhus coriaria (L)
    • Authors: Loza Taghavi, Nahid hemmatinegad, Azadeh Bashari, Seyyed Abbas Noorian Najafabadi, Sepideh Shakibi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this paper was to study some chemical and physical effects of chitosan nano-hydrogels containing Rhus coriaria on cotton fabric. The finished fabrics showed antimicrobial effects against two pathogenic microorganisms, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the particle size, as well as the effect of encapsulating sumac extract in chitosan nano-hydrogel on some physical and visual characteristics of fabrics, are then confirmed by using various methods, including antimicrobial testing, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of the samples are also studied. The as-prepared samples with higher sumac content have more ultraviolet (UV) absorbing activity (about 52%) than the un-treated sample, as well as excellent washing fastness and antimicrobial properties after five washing cycles. More specifically, these methods indicated negligible changes in color and thickness of treated cotton fabrics. Finally, the application of cotton fabric along with the synthesis of chitosan nano-hydrogel and sumac loading introduced a novel cotton fabric with high antimicrobial properties, washing fastness and UV protection property.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-21T06:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520978926
  • Evaluating the biomechanical interaction between the medical compression
           stocking and human calf using a highly anatomical fidelity
           three-dimensional finite element model
    • Authors: Yongtao Lu, Daxing Zhang, Liangliang Cheng, Zhuoyue Yang, Junyan Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The beneficial effects of the medical compression stocking (MCS) in the treatment of venous disorders of the human lower limb have been recognized. However, the effectiveness of the MCS on the internal tissues of the lower limb has not been properly evaluated. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the mechanism of compression therapy using a highly anatomical fidelity three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. A FE calf model of a 40-year-old female was created from magnetic resonance images, in which the bones, the muscle groups, three veins (the great saphenous vein, medial peroneal vein and small saphenous vein), the subcutaneous tissues (fascia) and the skin were reconstructed. The model was validated using experimental data collected in-house, and then the influence of different levels of external compression and the biomechanical effect of the MCS under the pathological conditions were investigated. The results showed that the pressure at the skin–stocking interface was largely influenced by the external compression pressure with an increase of up to 54.98%, while the pressure was neither influenced by the impairment of the muscular tissues nor by the impairment of the calf veins, with the largest change of just 5.63%. The trans-mural pressure was increased more by the impairment of the calf veins than by the impairment of the muscular tissues. The volume reductions in the calf veins were not evenly distributed. The present study provides some guidance on compression therapy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520979743
  • Acoustical absorptive properties of meltblown nonwovens for textile
    • Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Gajanan Bhat, Affaf Eloufy, Samar Abdel Latif, Yasmin Ayman
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Noise pollution is one of the harmful physical sources in the textile industry, which is among those industries that are faced with noise exposure problems. The results of environmental sound measurements at modern textile mills have shown that the sound pressure level varied from 95 to 130 dB, where the highest sound pressure level was at weaving machines. Textile insulation materials can be fitted in order to decrease sound pollution at a low cost. The objective of this work is to design a sound absorber that can be fixed to the body of the machines, at the point of the noise generation, to reduce noise pollution. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), which is an environmentally friendly material, was used to produce different samples of meltblown nonwoven absorbers to be used for damping the noise of textile machinery. PLA meltblown nonwoven fabric with the areal density of 16.7 g/m2, average fiber diameter of 1.1 µm, mean pore diameter of 9.8 µm and thickness of 0.27 mm exhibited significant sound absorption. The sample with the smallest average fiber diameter among those investigated had the highest damping effect: 23.95, 41.29 and 29.32 dBA at frequencies of 400, 1000 and 1500 Hz, respectively. Our goal is to have a practical tool that accurately evaluates the absorber sound damping under the actual running conditions of the textile machinery. The design of the absorber from one layer of the PLA meltblown nonwoven over a rigid polyurethane foam sheet had an excellent sound absorption property.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980460
  • Effect of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of kenaf
           fiber-reinforced bio-based epoxy resin
    • Authors: EA Franco-Urquiza, AV Rentería-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ecological composites materials have become a topic of interest in materials science and engineering in recent years because of the growing need for environment-friendly composites that maintain properties like light weight, but gain biodegradability and renewability. Bio-composites of kenaf fiber-reinforced bio-based epoxy resin filled with different kind of nanoparticles were prepared in this work using a hybrid manufacturing process combining vacuum-assisted resin infusion and an autoclave. Nanoparticles of carbon, metal oxides and layered silicates were employed in this work to analyze their effect on the mechanical properties of bio-kenaf composites. Nanoparticles were synthesized and heat-treated according to their nature, and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the presence of functional groups. Laminar structures, such as graphene or layered silicates, had more influence on the bio-kenaf composite toughness than the particle-like morphology of metal oxides. However, the nanoparticles influenced the strength because of their effective stress transfer mechanism. Despite voids of different sizes, which were detected using scanning tomography, they did not influence the mechanical properties of the bio-kenaf composites, showing that the filler effect of the nanoparticles is the dominant mechanism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T04:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980459
  • A novel method for evaluating the slurry coating characteristics of sized
           yarns based on the starch-iodine color reaction principle and image
    • Authors: Wenjun Yan, Bo Zhu, Jianli Liu, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The slurry coating characteristics of sized yarns directly impact warp weavability. Due to the damage to sized films, the conventional methods of detecting sized-yarn coating characteristics have drawbacks of low efficiency and poor repeatability. A novel detecting method of slurry coating characteristics was proposed based on image processing. Through the starch-iodine color reaction principle, a self-made dynamic image acquisition device was developed in this paper, in which the apparent images of starch-based sized yarns after color reaction were captured consecutively. The slurry coating percentage (SCP), slurry coating depth (SCD) and slurry coating unevenness (SCU), respectively reflecting the sizing coating integrity, sizing coating thickness and thickness unevenness, were extracted by image processing. The effects of experimental parameters, including immersion time and concentration of I2-KI solution, on slurry coating characteristics were analyzed, and central composite design was adopted to optimize the stability of the test system. Sized yarns commonly used in textile mills were characterized by the proposed method. The experimental results indicated that immersion time of 3.56 min and I2-KI concentration of 0.11‱ (‱ represents that the mass of the solute is one ten-thousandth of solution) led to the optimal stability of slurry coating characteristics (the CV of SCP, CV of SCD and CV of SCU were 3.32%, 5.56% and 9.37%, respectively). The much lower CV of the proposed method compared with conventional ones confirmed that the method was useful for evaluating slurry coating characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T07:42:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520980805
  • Experimental and numerical study of helical auxetic yarns
    • Authors: Yajie Gao, Xiaogang Chen, Rachel Studd
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Auxetic materials, including textiles, exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which is of interest for many applications. This research aims to optimize the structural parameters of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) and to evaluate the auxetic performance of these yarns. The research reports on the improvement of auxetic yarn quality and the yarn auxeticity through studying the effect of helical angles, diameter ratio and tensile moduli of the two plies, as well as the binder filament feeding. The maximum NPR of the optimized auxetic yarns was experimentally achieved as low as –9.6, with the helical angle of around 14.0° on average using the optimal machine setting. The optimized yarn parameters enabled the making of high-quality auxetic yarns with a wider range of machine settings than before. In parallel, theoretical and numerical studies were carried out for the engineering design of auxetic yarns, which enabled comparisons among the experimental results, calculated results and results from finite element analysis. The comparison showed that a lower initial helical angle, higher tensile modulus of the wrap ply and lower tensile modulus of the core ply led to a higher auxetic effect. A new finding is reported in that a concave relationship between the diameter ratio and the NPR was discovered. The results of this study could assist researchers in producing HAYs, and this type of HAY could be used for many potential applications, such as filtration and impact protection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T07:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977194
  • Determination of the strength and elongation distribution of single wool
           through fiber bundle testing based on acoustic emissions
    • Authors: Di Lu, Weidong Yu, Ning Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The method to obtain the breaking strength and elongation distribution of fiber through numerous single fiber tests is tedious and time-consuming. In the present work, a method based on acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by fiber fracture during the fiber bundle test has been developed for estimating the distribution of single wool breaking strength and elongation. AE detection is performed simultaneously during the fiber extension. According to the AE signal, it is proved that every individual fiber break can be detected, and the failure probability distribution of wool elongation can be obtained. Based on this, the single wool breaking strength is estimated from the tensile response of the fiber bundle, and then its distribution can be deduced. Finally, the distributions of breaking strength and elongation determined by the bundle test are compared with that obtained from the single fiber samples. The results show that the method developed in this work can be used to estimate the breaking strength and elongation of the single fiber within the bundle. Their cumulative probability distributions are similar to the results of single fiber sample tests, especially the distribution of the breaking strength.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-06T11:38:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975093
  • Superhydrophobic fabric mixed with polyester and cotton yarns modified by
           alkaline treatment and thermal aging
    • Authors: Hyewon Kim, Ji-Hyun Oh, Chung Hee Park
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Superhydrophobic fabric composed of polyester and cotton single yarns was developed by alkali treatment and thermal aging. During the alkali treatment to make the nano-roughness of the polyester fibers, micro-roughness also increased due to differences in the thicknesses of the two yarns arising from the increased polyester surface roughness and swollen cotton. The superhydrophobicity, with a static contact angle of 155.8 ± 3.2° and shedding angle of 11.1 ± 0.8°, was achieved with 90% polyester/10% cotton fabric treated with 20% alkali concentration for 20 min under applied tension, then followed by 24 h thermal aging at 130℃. The tensile strength of the superhydrophobic polyester/cotton fabric (28.7 MPa) was higher than that of 100% polyester fabric (20.1 MPa). The breathability of the superhydrophobic polyester/cotton fabric was improved compared with 100% polyester fabric. In durability assessment, a static contact angle of ≥150° was shown for the tape tests. Five times of repeated adhesion with a clothing tape cleaner were conducted for the five samples each. Although washing and dry-cleaning decreased contact angles to as low as 137.7°, a static contact angle of 150° was achieved by additional thermal aging (130℃, 24 h). We developed a superhydrophobic fabric mixed with polyester and cotton yarns by exploiting differences in the characteristics of the two yarns induced by alkali treatment, which causes fabric surface roughness, and thermal aging without the use of any chemicals. Moreover, this superhydrophobic fabric has improved breathability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-06T11:38:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977211
  • Applicability of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate)
           impregnated polyurethane nanoweb as a transmission line for smart textiles
    • Authors: Hyeon-seon Cho, Eunji Jang, Hang Liu, Gilsoo Cho
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Smart clothing, which can be manufactured based on smart textiles with electrical conductivity, can be used as a transmission line to transmit signals. The performance of the fabricated textile-based transmission line can be determined by evaluating light-emitting diode consistency. In this study, a textile-based transmission line was fabricated by impregnating two concentrations of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) to impart the electrical conductivity to a polyurethane (PU) nanoweb. Three conditions of thermal treatment were conducted to decrease the electrical resistance, and the thickness, electrical, surface, and chemical properties were evaluated. The thickness of the specimens tended to decrease at the low concentration, and the thermal treatment temperature increased. The linear resistances decreased from 1580 Ω/cm (PA) to 310.6 Ω/cm (PB120) as the concentration of PEDOT: PSS and thermal treatment temperature increased. Field emission scanning electron microscope images show that the PU nanoweb was uniformly and successfully impregnated with PEDOT: PSS. Raman spectra indicate an effect of the thermal treatment on the structural change of the PEDOT chains, which suggests an electrical resistance change of specimens. As a result, the optimum concentration of the PEDOT: PSS impregnated PU nanoweb as a transmission line for smart textiles is 2.6 wt%, and the thermal treatment temperature is 120℃. The performance of the textile-based transmission line (PB120) according to the length was higher as the length of the specimen was shorter. The highest consistency was 51 lm/m2 (50 mm), and the lowest was 45 lm/m2 (150 mm). Therefore, the PEDOT: PSS/PU nanoweb has applicability and feasibility as a transmission line.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T06:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975633
  • Composite phase change materials improve the photo-thermal effects of
           cotton fabrics
    • Authors: Wei Zhang, Shang Hao, Jiali Weng, Yibo Zhang, Jiming Yao, Sainan Wei
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We report on the impregnation-based preparation of composite phase change materials (CPCMs) with thermal storage properties, using paraffin wax and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We coated the CPCMs on the fabric by scraper coating, then evaluated their shape stability, latent heat, thermal conductivity, thermal storage stability and photo-thermal effects. Results show that CPCMs with 10% acid-oxidized MWCNTs introduce only a small phase leakage when heated at 50℃ for 900 s; their latent heat energy reduces by 16.5%, while their thermal conductivity increases by 131.9% compared to pure paraffin. When exposed to sunlight at an ambient temperature of 12.5℃, the cotton fabrics coated with CPCMs record a 12.8℃ higher surface temperature than the pristine fabric, while their heat dissipation is delayed by 120–180 s. The fabric surface temperature increases to twice the ambient temperature during daytime. Overall, these findings indicate that the coated fabric has excellent thermal stability, affirming its potential as photo-thermal functional material.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-30T04:37:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975617
  • Tactile evaluation of down jacket fabric by the comprehensive handle
           evaluation system for fabrics and yarns
    • Authors: Yuan Tian, Yi Sun, Zhaoqun Du, Dongming Zheng, Haochen Zou, Zhenrui Liu, Gui Liu, Xingxing Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Down jacket fabric is greatly important in determining the quality of a down jacket. In order to enrich the research on fabric handle, subjective and objective evaluations were made for down jacket fabrics that were less studied. The comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY) can be used to evaluate the tactile handle of the fabric by accurately and efficiently measuring the basic mechanical properties of the fabric. Therefore, the CHES-FY was used to link the objective evaluation with the subjective handle, so as to effectively estimate the total handle value of the down jacket fabric. Fifty-two kinds of down jacket fabrics were objectively tested through measuring 17 extracted parameters, and principal component analysis was adopted to establish the five main handle characteristics of fullness, softness, stiffness, smoothness, looseness and tightness to characterize basic style of the down jacket fabrics. The results showed that the subjective and objective results were in good agreement. These characteristics can be used as indicators to characterize fabric performance, and the principal component expression to characterize fabric handle can better predict the handle characteristics of down jacket fabrics. This also proves that the CHES-FY can quickly and accurately obtain the fabric handle value, and can also evaluate the fabric quality level.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977207
  • An enhanced quantum-inspired gravitational search algorithm for color
           prediction based on the absorption spectrum
    • Authors: Zehai Gao, Yan Zhang, Shisheng Zhou, Wei Lyu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Spot color is widely applied to printing and packing in modern industry, which can satisfy the individualization requirements and express the emotion of products. Color prediction is the core technique for spot color restoration. In this paper, a method that combines the least squares method and gravitation search algorithm is proposed to address the color prediction by using the absorption spectrum. Firstly, the spectral transmittance of the thin film with high transmission and low reflectance characteristics is researched to find the absorbance. Secondly, the least squares method is used to ascertain the primary colors of the spot color. Thirdly, an enhanced quantum gravitation search algorithm is designed to predict the spot color. The predicted results on the 30 spot colors show that the proposed method has higher accuracy in comparison with the three existed methods. The color differences between the prepared spot colors and the reproduced spot colors are all less than 3, in which 75% of the color differences are less 1 and 35% of the color differences are less 0.1. All the results confirm that the proposed method can predict the spot color accurately.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520977007
  • Optimization of the water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal
           process in nylon fabrics application using the Taguchi-based gray
           relational analysis method
    • Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Min-Yan Dong, Chi-Ping Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study synthesized the water-permeable and hydrophobic property of water-based polyurethane (WPU) and applied it to nylon fiber-based functional textiles. Specifically, poly-stearyl acrylate (PSA) homopolymers with different molecular weights were used as end-capping agents in the WPU to form water-based polyurethane with acrylate terminal (WPUA). In the WPUA process, dimethylacetamide was adopted as a neutralizing agent to form a stable WPUA emulsion. The effects of the design parameters, such as the hydrophilic ionic group dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), the PSA molecular weight and content, were set as the control factors and are analyzed by the Taguchi method and gray relational analysis (GRA). The water-repellent characteristic, water vapor permeability (WVP) and fabric flexural rigidity were considered as performance parameters as multi-qualities. The Taguchi method was based on the analysis of variance and implemented orthogonal arrays for experimental design. Each performance parameter was optimized independently. Then, the performance parameters were optimized together with GRA. According to the experimental results, the most important factor for the water-repellent characteristic, WVP and fabric flexural rigidity is the DMPA content, followed by the PSA molecular weight and content. The corresponding results showed that in the optimal parameter combination, the content of DMPA was 30.8 phm (parts per hundred monomer by weight), the PSA molecular weight was 3000 g/mol and the PSA content was 4 phm. After WPUA padding, the water contact angle of the water-repellent nylon was 135.3°, the WVP was 2271.7 g/m2/day and the flexural rigidity was 2.7 cm.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:19:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975660
  • Mobile-Unet: An efficient convolutional neural network for fabric defect
    • Authors: Junfeng Jing, Zhen Wang, Matthias Rätsch, Huanhuan Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Deep learning–based fabric defect detection methods have been widely investigated to improve production efficiency and product quality. Although deep learning–based methods have proved to be powerful tools for classification and segmentation, some key issues remain to be addressed when applied to real applications. Firstly, the actual fabric production conditions of factories necessitate higher real-time performance of methods. Moreover, fabric defects as abnormal samples are very rare compared with normal samples, which results in data imbalance. It makes model training based on deep learning challenging. To solve these problems, an extremely efficient convolutional neural network, Mobile-Unet, is proposed to achieve the end-to-end defect segmentation. The median frequency balancing loss function is used to overcome the challenge of sample imbalance. Additionally, Mobile-Unet introduces depth-wise separable convolution, which dramatically reduces the complexity cost and model size of the network. It comprises two parts: encoder and decoder. The MobileNetV2 feature extractor is used as the encoder, and then five deconvolution layers are added as the decoder. Finally, the softmax layer is used to generate the segmentation mask. The performance of the proposed model has been evaluated by public fabric datasets and self-built fabric datasets. In comparison with other methods, the experimental results demonstrate that segmentation accuracy and detection speed in the proposed method achieve state-of-the-art performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T07:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520928604
  • Development and characterization of electrospun curcumin-loaded
           antimicrobial nanofibrous membranes
    • Authors: Javeed A Awan, Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Kashif Bangash, Fiaz Hussain, Jean-Noël Jaubert
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Curcumin is a naturally occurring hydrophobic polyphenol compound. It exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antifungal, anti-HIV, and antimicrobial activity. In this research work, antimicrobial curcumin nanofibrous membranes are produce by an electrospinning technique using the Eudragit RS 100 (C19H34ClNO6) polymer solution enriched with curcumin. The morphology and chemistry of the membrane are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Kirby Bauer disk diffusion tests are carried out to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the membrane. Experimental results show that the nanofibers produced are of uniform thickness morphology and curcumin is successfully incorporated into the nanofibrous mat, while no chemical bonding was observed between curcumin and the polymer. The antimicrobial curcumin nanofibrous membranes can be effectively applied as antimicrobial barrier in a wide variety of medical applications such as wound healing, scaffolds, and tissue engineering.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T05:18:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520925514
  • Phenomenological modeling and simulation of a textile stenter
    • Authors: John Wilmer Parra Llanos, Rossane Mailde Santos, Marintho Bastos Quadri, Ianto Oliveira Martins
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Mathematical modeling and simulation of cotton fabric drying in a stenter machine was performed using a finite element method. A standard κ-ɛ turbulence model was coupled with heat/mass transfer in porous media models. A novel approach to simulate all injectors enabled a new perspective of the process and the calculation of local convective coefficients. Three simulations were run: Simulation I reproduced real operational conditions; Simulations II and III estimated the effects of increasing drying air inlet velocity and decreasing translational velocity of the fabric, respectively. The highest drying air velocities occurred at the nozzles on the edges of the injectors, leading to high convective heat and mass transfer coefficients. Results indicated the drying process was not uniform along the fabric’s width. The models were acceptable in realistically predicting the drying of a cotton fabric in a stenter machine and could be useful in optimizing the stenter design considering the final product’s quality and energy consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-04-29T02:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520918231
  • Wool felt: Characterization, comparison with other materials, and
           investigation of its use in hospital accessories
    • Authors: Heloisa Nazaré dos Santos, Sebastiana Luiza Bragança Lana Lara, José Henrique Martins Neto
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents groundbreaking research on wool felt for use in hospital accessories. The results of mechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical, flammability, and microbiological tests are presented, as well as research on the acceptability of three wool felt hospital accessories (i.e. sheet cover, pillowcase cover, and insole). An innovative approach was utilized to compare the mechanical properties of unwashed and washed wool felt samples by three different washing machines, with textiles commonly used in hospital (i.e. nonwoven of polyester felt, woven of 100% cotton, and woven of a blend of 67% cotton and 33% polyester). The mechanical tests showed that the wool felt had tensile resistance similar to that of polyester felt, superior elongation to the 100% cotton and the blend, inferior tearing stress, lower resistance to slippage, and good pilling resistance. After washing, the wool felt washed with the extractor washer and dry washer increased their tensile strength 33% and 19%; the tear strength did not change; the slippage decreased; and the samples washed with the dry washer showed 14% less pilling than those not washed. The SEM tests showed differences in appearance of the fibers after the washing processes. Chemical tests revealed that 0.11% of lanolin was retained in the wool felt after washing the samples with the dry process. The flammability tests showed the dependence of carbonization length with the wool felt washing process. The volunteers showed a good acceptance of the wool felt accessories emphasizing the feeling of freshness, release of pain, and reduction in sweating and unpleasant odors. Microbiological tests showed growth in the insoles of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans, commonly found in the hospital environment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T02:40:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520915836
  • Thermal properties of thermal insulation chambers
    • Authors: Dubravko Rogale, Snježana Firšt Rogale, Goran Majstorović, Goran Čubrić
      First page: 953
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The paper presents the investigation of thermal properties of thermal insulation chambers as an actuator in intelligent clothing, having the property of automatically adjusting the thermal protection level. The chambers are designed to vary their thickness based on the pressure of the inflated air in them. The pressure value measured in the thermal insulation chamber gives the microcomputer information on the thickness of the chamber. The paper presents the investigation of the functional dependencies of changes in the thickness of the chambers on the air pressure in them and the thermal resistance depending on the thickness of the thermal insulation chamber. Experimental thermal insulation chambers were made and integrated into an intelligent article of clothing and filled with air of 0–50 mbar, whereby chamber thicknesses of 0–25 mm were measured. Next, thermal resistance of 0.1876–0.5022 m2 k/W was measured on the thermal manikin. It was found that the ratio of thermal insulation of non-activated to maximally activated chambers was 1:2.7. Research has shown good results for the area where intelligent clothing can automatically adjust its thermal insulation properties. The technical systems described represent a suitable basis for experiments and scientific research during the introduction of intelligent clothing with active thermal protection into human life. The third-generation prototype shows very good properties from the aspect of automatic control of thermal protection in intelligent clothing. This forms the basis for further research. Cold protection has always been carried out by wearing garments with higher or lower thermal protection as well as wearing multiple layers of clothing. The conceptual starting point of the development of intelligent clothing is the development of an adaptive insulation layer with changeable thickness in the form of thermal insulation chambers filled with air. In this way, layered clothing as well as the use of several clothing layers can be avoided. Thus, one intelligent article of clothing regulating its thermal insulation properties can be used in a wide range of cold weather in the environment of the wearer.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T07:15:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520966718
  • Semi-supervised fabric defect detection based on image reconstruction and
           density estimation
    • Authors: Qihong Zhou, Jun Mei, Qian Zhang, Shaozong Wang, Ge Chen
      First page: 962
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Defective products are a major contributor toward a decline in profits in textile industries. Hence, there are compelling needs for an automated inspection system to identify and locate defects on the fabric surface. Although much effort has been made by researchers worldwide, there are still challenges with computation and accuracy in the location of defects. In this paper, we propose a hybrid semi-supervised method for fabric defect detection based on variational autoencoder (VAE) and Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The VAE model is trained for feature extraction and image reconstruction while the GMM is used to perform density estimation. By synthesizing the detection results from both image content and latent space, the method can construct defect region boundaries more accurately, which are useful in fabric quality evaluation. The proposed method is validated on AITEX and DAGM 2007 public database. Results demonstrate that the method is qualified for automated detection and outperforms other selected methods in terms of overall performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T08:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520966733
  • Preparation of polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites and a study of
           their dielectric properties and conductivity
    • Authors: Yuanjun Liu, Yi Wang
      First page: 973
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites were prepared using pyrrole as the monomer, adopting an in situ polymerization on the plain polyester-cotton fabric. The influence of the pyrrole concentration, type and concentration of doping agents on the dielectric properties and conductivity of polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composites were investigated using the method of control variables. The results show that within the frequency range 0.01–1.0 GHz, and for concentrations of pyrrole monomers of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mol/L, the polypyrrole/polyester-cotton composite had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability to electromagnetic waves, and the surface resistance was the smallest and conductivity was the best when the pyrrole concentration was 0.9 mol/L. Within the same frequency range, five doping agents were tested, namely sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, p-toluenesulfonic acid, ferric chloride, sodium lignosulfonate and camphor sulfonic acid. The composite with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as the doping agent had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability to electromagnetic waves, the lowest surface resistance and the strongest conductivity. Finally, within the same frequency range and using doping agent concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mol/L, the composite with doping agent concentration of 0.1 mol/L had the strongest polarization ability, dissipation ability and absorbing-attenuation ability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520965696
  • Theoretical analysis of the moisture transfer property for
           polytetrafluoroethylene/polyethylene terephthalate bi-layer complex
    • Authors: Dongming Zheng, Haochen Zou, Zhenrui Liu, Qingqing Shao, Zhaoqun Du, Jinkang Liu, Mingxing Wang
      First page: 984
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main content in the paper aims to characterize the moisture transfer property of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bi-layer complex fabric. Firstly, theoretical analyses of moisture permeability from the moisture transfer cup method and moisture resistance from the moisture resistance method were conducted, and the function between the two indexes was acquired. Results show that there is a negative correlation between moisture permeability and moisture resistance. The higher the moisture permeability of the fabric, the lower the moisture resistance. Then, in order to study relationship between moisture permeability and resistance, several PTFE/PET bi-layer complex fabrics were prepared, and a theoretical model of moisture resistance was constructed by the serial method so as to evaluate the relationship of the moisture transfer property between complex fabric and two components (PTFE film and PET fabric). Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results of moisture resistance of complex fabric were conducted, which demonstrated that the serial model was effective in characterizing the moisture transfer property of complex fabric assembled by membrane and fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T07:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968851
  • Towards simulation of force and velocity fluctuations due to turbulence in
           the relay nozzle jet of an air jet loom
    • Authors: Lucas Delcour, Lieva Van Langenhove, Joris Degroote
      First page: 990
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research was aimed at obtaining a first estimation of the effect of turbulent vortices present in the relay nozzle jets of an air jet loom on the weft. To this end a large eddy simulation (LES) model was set up and validated capable of simulating a highly underexpanded jet up to a point sufficiently far from the nozzle exit such that flow features at the weft location could be analyzed. The quality of the LES was evaluated based on several quality criteria as well as by comparing the results with experiments and data from the literature. The results show that for a free jet substantial velocity fluctuations are present at a representative yarn location. By inserting a rigid cylinder at this location, the corresponding force fluctuations on a smooth yarn were also obtained. The research shows that the unsteadiness in the jet is quite substantial, as are the corresponding force fluctuations. These fluctuations could have a profound impact on the yarn motion and should at least be considered when using numerical tools to evaluate the forces on or the motion of a yarn acted on by a relay nozzle jet.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T07:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968285
  • The impact of textile relief structures on pressure distribution and heat
    • Authors: Małgorzata Cieślak, Ewa Gromadzińska, Irena Kamińska, Ewa Witczak, Katarzyna Śledzińska
      First page: 1009
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A long-term static position causes inter alia hypoxia, poor blood circulation, slowing down of the metabolism, and problems in air and heat transport, which in consequence lead to the occurrence of bedsores. In the design of seats and mattresses for people with impaired mobility, advanced textile and composite materials should be used to improve safety and comfort. This functionality can be obtained using spatial textile materials. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of two unmodified woven relief structures I.0 and II.0 made of different yarns and ones modified by inserting linear elements (1: braided round tape and 2: polyethylene tube) to their rib tunnel on the heat transport and on the pressure distribution under loading of 0.5, 1, and 2 N. Element 1 lowers the value of average pressure on the fabrics I.1 and II.1, respectively, by 6.9% and 3.5% at the lowest loading and by 9.8% and 4.6% at the highest loading. For fabric II.2 with element 2, the decrease is of 10.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The thermal conductivity values increase by 8.8%, 9.4%, and 40.1%, respectively for I.1, II.1, and II.2. The pressure distribution and thermal characteristic of the fabrics depend on the type of yarn, the structure of ribs, and the linear element and its fit to the rib tunnel.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T06:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970170
  • Three-dimensional stretchable knitted design with transformative
    • Authors: Yishu Yan, Shouxiang Jiang, Jinyun Zhou
      First page: 1020
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes the use of digital knitting to fabricate three-dimensional stretchable fabric with transformative properties. The research focus is on the application of the curling effect and the resultant stitch structures. Rib, purl, and links structures, which have alternating face and back loops in the structural knit cell and produced the curling effect, are investigated. Thirty-six samples based on the three structures along with 12 different stitch combinations are produced through the digital knitting process. The properties of the samples, including the dimensional changes, surface texture, weight and thickness, and tensile properties, are subsequently evaluated and compared by using both quantitative and qualitative assessment methods. The results show that the developed knitted fabrics that use the curling effect through alternating face and back loops are significantly three-dimensional in surface texture and have considerable stretchability. These effects in general increase with the growth of stitch number in a structural knit cell. However, only the links structures show considerable extensibility along both course and wale directions, while the rib and purl structures have enhanced stretchability in only the course and wale directions, respectively. Therefore, this design-led textile study provides a simple but effective means for producing new materials that offer both function and aesthetics for fashion with transformable designs. The work here also provides a technical-based integrated approach for innovative textile and fashion developments.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T06:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968281
  • Preliminary study of weave pattern influence on microplastics from fabric
    • Authors: María Berruezo, Marilés Bonet-Aracil, Ignacio Montava, Eva Bou-Belda, Pablo Díaz-García, Jaime Gisbert-Payá
      First page: 1037
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nature, including the oceans, is polluted by the presence of plastics. Different products can be found, including plastic bottles, toys, toothpaste tubes, fruit meshes, etc. Small pieces of plastics, known as microplastics, have been found in the oceans and there is concern that their impact is increasing. Some of those microplastics are considered to come from the textile products. In this article, the authors will suggest how to minimize the environmental problem of the presence of microplastics in wastewaters from textile laundries. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of some parameters related to the design of fabrics. A relationship between microplastic release and parameters from weave design will be established. A fiberglass filter was used to analyze water from the laundry. Results demonstrated that the interlacing coefficient influences the number of particles in the wastewaters. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the higher the density of yarns/cm in the fabric, the lower the quantity of fibers could be found in the wastewater. Results demonstrated that the presence of weave patterns, such as a plain pattern, work better from the sustainability point of view than a twill. The interlacing coefficient and the weft density are important to prevent the microplastic release.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T09:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520965708
  • Emulsion electrospun polylactic acid/Apocynum venetum nanocellulose
           nanofiber membranes with controlled sea buckthorn extract release as a
           drug delivery system
    • Authors: Lu Wang, Chenmeizi Wang, Ling Wang, Qingle Zhang, Ying Wang, Xin Xia
      First page: 1046
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Prolonging the duration of drug action and reducing toxicity play a vital role in wound administration as they reduce the chance of infection and decrease complications and cost. This study reports the natural antioxidant procyanidins extracted from sea buckthorn (SBT) and laboratory-manufactured Apocynum venetum cellulose nanofiber as core drugs. The sustained-release nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning on polylactic acid/polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanofibers. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the phenolic compounds in SBT extracts and confirmed the presence of procyanidins with a content of 0.0345 mg/g. The nanofiber membrane was characterized through transmission electron microscopy, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug-release study and antioxidant assay. The results indicated that the extracted procyanidins were successfully encapsulated in the core–sheath structure nanofibers, and the encapsulation efficiency of nanofiber membranes reached 83.84%. In vitro measurements of the delivery showed this core–sheath structure could significantly alleviate the drug burst release, which is followed by a linear and smooth release within 30 hours. Further tests showed that the removal efficiency of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reached 88.62%, indicating that the membranes had high antioxidant activity. This work implies that the combination of Apocynum venetum nanocellulose and emulsion electrospun fibers has promising potential applications in tissue engineering or drug delivery.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T09:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970171
  • Screening and identification of pectinolytic bacteria for ramie degumming
    • Authors: Lifeng Cheng, Shengwen Duan, Xiangyuan Feng, Ke Zheng, Qi Yang, Huan Xu, Wei Luo, Yuande Peng
      First page: 1056
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To explore high-quality microbial resources with the capability of ramie degumming, we collected soil samples from rotten ramie and straw heaps. After enrichment culture by ramie raw materials, bacterial strains with the potential ramie-degumming function were screened using a pectin-hydrolysis plate. Dominant bacteria were identified by combining colonial morphological characteristics with the molecular biology method, and their ramie-degumming effects were verified through comprehensive biological degumming indices. Results demonstrated that Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus thuringiensis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, and Acidovorax temperans were successfully obtained. The highest pectinase activity, 98.2 U/mg, was found by A. temperans. B. thuringiensis showed the best ramie-degumming effect. The residual gum content, single-fiber linear density, and bundle-breaking strength of the degummed ramie fiber treated with B. thuringiensis were 8.32%, 6.80 dtex, and 7.84 cN/dtex, respectively. The residual gum content of the ramie fiber treated with B. thuringiensis met the textile requirement (
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T05:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968280
  • Computational design of shape-changing robotic mannequin based on 3D human
    • Authors: Jituo Li, Chengdi Zhou, Juncai Long, Haocan Xu, Dongliang Zhang, Guodong Lu
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A shape-changing robotic mannequin is a mechatronic robot used to simulate different human body shapes. With such a robot, the dressing effects of a ready-made garment on different human bodies can be simulated and evaluated, which is very useful for garment design and garment online sales. Currently, the robotic mannequin surfaces are mostly designed into patches. However, the methodological lack of design result evaluation and shape deformation control hinders the performance of the robotic mannequins. In this paper, the robotic mannequin is computationally designed and optimized based on a large number of three-dimensional scanned human bodies, which endows the robot with a high simulation capability. The robot is designed into three layers comprising a skin layer composed of patches, a muscle layer consisting of shape-controllable elastic bars, and a skeleton layer made of linear actuators. The skeleton layer controls the overall shape change of the robot, and the muscle layer attached on the skeleton adjusts the bending of the skin layer, which makes the robot deformation predictable and controllable. A prototype of the robotic mannequin has been made on which the simulations of various human bodies have been experimented, and examples of predicting the dressing effects of ready-made garments on different human bodies via augmented virtual try-ons have been experimented as well.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T05:17:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520970169
  • Sustainable low liquor ratio dyeing of cotton with C.I. Reactive Blue 21
           using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
    • Authors: Shekh Md. Mamun Kabir, Salauddin Sk, Joonseok Koh
      First page: 1083
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Low liquor ratio (material to liquor ratio = 1:5) dyeing of cotton fabric with C.I. Reactive Blue 21 using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate as a surfactant was thoroughly analyzed. The dye–surfactant interactions in the micelles during low liquor ratio dyeing were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the chemical mechanism of the process was evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Cotton fabric was subjected to low liquor ratio dyeing and conventional dyeing by varying the temperature, pH, treatment time, and non-identical chemical concentration. The effectiveness of the process was assessed based on the color strength (K/S), exhaustion (%), fixation (%), and levelness. Low liquor ratio dyeing afforded superior dyeing compared to conventional dyeing, attributed to the anti-agglomeration effects of the former, which also had no adverse impact on the fastness of the dye. The lower environmental impact due to the lower effluent footprint (biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and dissolved oxygen) is another benefit of low liquor ratio dyeing. High-pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the low liquor ratio dyed fabric is free of toxic substances (alkylphenol ethoxylates and formaldehyde). Moreover, low liquor ratio dyeing is more cost-effective and outperformed conventional dyeing in all aspects, while being a sustainable process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T08:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520971363
  • Influence of polyurethane foam on chemical clogging of nonwoven geotextile
           and tailings caused by ferrous iron
    • Authors: Sheng Liu, Yuan Wang, Di Feng
      First page: 1094
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The chemical clogging of geotextiles filters is a common issue, which threatens the safety of engineering projects. To reduce the chemical clogging of nonwoven geotextiles and enhance their drainage capability, a polyurethane foam was innovatively placed under the nonwoven geotextiles in this paper. A series of column tests were conducted to study the mechanism of the polyurethane foam to reduce the chemical clogging of the nonwoven geotextile filters in tailings caused by ferrous iron. In addition, the influence of the concentration of Fe2+, hydraulic gradient and thickness of the tailings specimen on the chemical clogging of the polyurethane foam and nonwoven geotextiles was examined. Less chemical clogging of geotextiles caused by polyurethane foam was observed and the related mechanism was firstly explained. The polyurethane foam under the geotextile reduced the contact between the geotextile and air. As a result, the chemical clogging of the geotextile was alleviated, which increased the drainage capability of the geotextiles. A high water saturation of the polyurethane foam would help to a reduce the extent of the chemical clogging of the geotextile. The chemical clogging characteristics of geotextiles and polyurethane foam under different concentrations of Fe2+ and hydraulic gradients were observed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T01:06:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520973456
  • Amino-modified Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl
           acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres with
           high coloration performance for enhancing cotton dyeability
    • Authors: Dongwei Wang, Kuanjun Fang, Xiuming Liu, Xinqing Zhang
      First page: 1104
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Reactive dye is widely used for cotton dyeing, but its low utilization results in vast amounts of colored effluent with high salinity discharge. Amino-modified Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres (Am-RPNs) are a kind of novel colorant that exhibit excellent dyeing ability for cotton fabrics and higher dye utilization than original reactive dyes. The colored polymer nanospheres demonstrated small size, high stability and dye content in the dispersion system when cationic polymer nanospheres were dyed at an optimal dye dosage of 100%. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the polymer nanospheres have smooth spherical shapes. Am-RPNs with an average hydration diameter of 96.5 nm and zeta potential of −33.7 mV were fabricated after being modified with ethylenediamine at pH 11. Both analytical techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated the presence of –NH2 on the surface of Am-RPNs. The amino-modification mechanism of the Reactive Red 195/P(styrene-co-butyl acrylate-co-trimethyl(vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride) nanospheres depended on the dyeing bath pH. The color depths of the cotton fabrics dyed with Am-RPNs reached up to 3.1 times higher than those with Reactive Red 195. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Am-RPNs form stable deposits on the surface of the modified fibers. The cotton fabrics dyed with Am-RPNs possessed excellent rubbing and washing fastness, satisfactory light fastness, and desirable handle. This study provides an innovative method that employ Am-RPNs with high coloration performance to endow the cotton fabric with deep color and good colorfastness without using inorganic salt.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T02:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520974043
  • Hydrodynamic modeling of e-textile fabric washing behavior by the Coupled
           Eulerian–Lagrangian method
    • Authors: T Tetik, RA Yildiz, AR Labanieh, B Yoruk, S Kursun Bahadir, F Kalaoglu, V Koncar
      First page: 1117
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The paper examines the washing behavior of fabric by using the finite element method (FEM) along with the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) approach. Many prototypes of e-textiles with different functions have been developed for various applications in laboratories worldwide, but only a limited number of products exist on the market. The washing process, even for mild wash cycles, damages mainly conductive yarns and electrical contacts on wearable fabrics. A hydrodynamic simulation method is proposed to investigate the mechanical response of fabric during a washing cycle, using the FEM and CEL approaches with the Abaqus finite element solver. The FEM is described with the following inputs: the fabric properties; the Mie–Grüneisen equation of state (EOS) for water; the ideal gas EOS for air; the geometry of the model; the drum spin data; and the boundary conditions. The movement of fabric inside the drum and reaction forces on the drum are utilized to verify the simulations. The fabric movements that are attributed to be the reason for damage in a conductive yarn showed a typical washing response. The frictional dissipation energy results show different regions depending on the motion and interaction of the components inside the drum. Also, the contact forces were determined. These forces can be input for future damage modeling studies. The findings of the study are expected to be used in development phases of reliable e-textile products with an extended life of service and readiness for the market.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T12:32:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520973455
  • Investigation of the mechanical and flame retardant properties of carbon
           fiber modified phenolic epoxy resin
    • Authors: Guoqiang Chai, Guoqing Zhu, Yang Wang, Zhan Wang, Tianwei Chu, Ying Zhou
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Epoxy resin and carbon fiber were used as the reinforcement to modify phenolic resin. Phenolic epoxy resin was prepared by physical blending, and carbon fiber was introduced into the resin matrix, and meanwhile the curing agent was added. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the samples were evaluated, and the mechanical performance of the samples was characterized to investigate the overall performance. The flame retardancy of phenolic epoxy resin decreased slightly with epoxy resin of 5 wt%. The oxygen index was decreased by 6.3%, the ignition time was shortened by 66 s, and the peak heat release rate was increased by 8.9%. The tensile strength and elastic modulus were increased by 46% and 26.1%, respectively. The flame retardant and mechanical properties of phenolic epoxy resin were improved the most with short carbon fiber of 0.5 wt%. The oxygen index was increased by 4.6%, the ignition time was delayed by 35 s, the peak heat release rate was reduced by 18.9%, the carbon residue rate at 800℃ was increased by 60.4%, the apparent activation energy was increased by 11.3%, and the tensile strength and elastic modulus were improved by 90.4% and 87.9%, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520971361
  • Enhanced mechanical performance of biocompatible silk fibroin films
           through mesoscopic construction of hierarchical structures
    • Authors: Yifan Zhang, Ronghui Wu, Aniruddha Patil, Liyun Ma, Rui Yu, Wei Dong Yu, Xiang Yang Liu
      First page: 1146
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Silk fibroin (SF) material receives a great deal of attention in the biomedical field for its extensive mechanical performance and applications due to its singular structure/properties and applications, especially hierarchical structure. Here, we blended polyethylene glycol (PEG) into SF solutions that reconstruct the hierarchical micro structure of SF. The effect of PEG on the SF gelation process was in situ observed through rheological measurement and optical density changes. The structural change of SF/PEG blended films with different concentrations and their effects on the mechanical performance were investigated. The results indicated that with increasing PEG content, the β-sheet content of the films increased with the α-helix declining, which enables a composite film with a fracture strain exceeding 300%, Young's modulus exceeding 200 MPa and a fracture strength exceeding 20 MPa. The culture of MC-3T3 proves that the film is beneficial for cell proliferation and adhesion. By constructing the mesoscopic structure of SF, the plasticized silk materials provide great options for biodegradable and flexible protein-based materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975622
  • Design of novel buoyant swimming vest using inlay knitting technology
    • Authors: Nga-wun Li, Chu-po Ho, Kit-lun Yick, Jin-yun Zhou
      First page: 1155
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The use of children’s buoyant swimwear has become more common. However, its bulkiness and hardness restrict the wearer’s movement. For better fit, comfort and mobility, a knitted buoyant swimming vest is developed. It is compared with two market samples using subjective evaluation according to the Functional, Expressive and Aesthetic (FEA) Consumer Needs Model and laboratory tests of objective measurements. The results of a paired-sample t-test show that a tightly fitting buoyant swimming vest should be worn out of water, as the vest becomes a perfect fit in water. Tests on the knitted buoyant swimming vest demonstrate improved functionality and higher buoyancy than that of two market samples conforming to British Standard EN13138-1:2014. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance show an overall significant higher satisfaction level in the knitted buoyant swimming vest than two market samples in terms of fit, comfort and mobility. The results of this study are significant for both the textile industry and the fast-growing sportswear industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-28T01:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520975632
  • Review of carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials: film,
           composite, foam, textile
    • Authors: Lulu Zhong, Rufang Yu, Xinghua Hong
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials are reviewed in terms of their performance, type, and preparation. They include film, composite, foam, and fabric with particular attention on their frequency selectivity ascribed to the periodic structure. The SE/t, referring to shielding effectiveness per unit thickness (dB/mm), and SSE, referring to shielding effectiveness per unit density (dB·cm3/g), are summarized. The main conclusions of this work are as follows: (1) large area film shows higher SE/t, in which carbon nanotube (CNT) film is endowed with the most attractive value (19,500 dB/mm); materials containing CNTs achieve higher shielding efficiency, ascribe to a high specific surface area, have a greater length–diameter ratio, and a one-dimensional continuous-oriented structure; (2) notably, frequency selectivity based on varied period structures has been widely studied; the method includes multilayer structure/printing/cutting/backfilling and, especially, woven fabric; (3) favorable shielding effectiveness is attributed to the shielding material's intrinsic electrical conductivity and structural integrity. Based on these developments, this paper aims to provide some valuable data, highlight the important research direction, and advance the development of carbon-based electromagnetic shielding materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T07:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520968282
  • Seawater as an alternative to dye cotton fiber with reactive dyes
    • Authors: Iêda Letícia de Souza Ferreira, José Ivan de Medeiros, Fernanda Steffens, Fernando Ribeiro Oliveira
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The textile industry is a sector completely dependent on water for its full functioning; on the other hand, water represents a very high cost in the production process. The textile chemical processing area is mainly responsible for the large consumption of water. On the opposite side of this high consumption there is an evident water crisis worldwide. That fact has led to many problems to textile companies, mainly for the preparation, dyeing and printing sectors. This present work focuses on an ecologically friendly alternative for cellulosic fiber dyeing processes using seawater. Dyeing cotton fabrics with reactive dye in three primary colors (blue, yellow and red) was performed, and the results compared with processes using distilled water. Samples dyed with seawater exhibit good uniformity, intense color (color strength – K/S) and excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties compared to the conventional process. It was possible to observe also that the use of seawater did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. Thereby, it was verified that the use of seawater presents as a potential and important alternative to applications in the textile dyeing process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T05:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517520972482
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