Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription  
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
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Textile Research Journal
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0040-5175 - ISSN (Online) 1746-7748
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  • Multiscale fibril structure of hollow windmill palm fibers

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      Authors: Changjie Chen, Zhong Wang, Sui Zhou, Guohe Wang, Limin Bao, Xinhou Wang
      Pages: 2421 - 2429
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2421-2429, November 2021.
      Windmill palm fiber is a kind of multicellular lignocellulose fiber material. Multiscale structure is an essential factor in mechanical properties and applications. The multiscale fibrils under sulfuric acid treatment had been prepared to improve the understanding of the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale structure of the windmill palm fiber. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze these samples’ structure. Furthermore, the result showed that the elementary fibril diameter was 4–10 nm, whereas that of the microfibrils was 20–70 nm. The diameters of macrofibril and macrofibril bundles were 0.4–1.0 µm and 1.2–5.5 µm, respectively. The elementary fibril assembled into spiral microfibril with an angle of 46°. The crystallinity of nanofibril extracted from windmill palm fiber was about 62%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T06:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005186
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Identification of dynamic contact parameters between contact roller and
           filament package

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      Authors: Xunxun Ma, Shujia Li, Haiyan Yu, Shengze Wang, Yongxing Wang
      Pages: 2430 - 2447
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2430-2447, November 2021.
      During the high-speed winding of polyester filament, a contact roller must be applied to press on the filament package’s surface to ensure the filament is placed stably and precisely on the package surface. Thus, a twin-rotor system with contact coupling characteristics between the contact roller and the filament package is formed. Identifying the contact parameters between the contact roller and the package are prerequisite to precisely analyze the dynamic behavior of the winding system, as well as to determine the technical parameters. In this paper, an approach was proposed to identify the equivalent contact stiffness and contact damping coefficients by means of coordination through experiment and simulation. First, based on the forced non-resonance method of a single-degree-of-freedom system, the testing scheme was drawn up in consideration of the winding process parameters. Then, an experimental device for the twin-rotor system was developed, and the dynamic contact parameters just in the working frequency band corresponding to low linear speed of winding were obtained by the experiment, due to the requirement of the forced non-resonance theory and economic limitations of the experimental device. Third, the basic parameters including equivalent radial Young’s modulus and damping ratio of the package were obtained through experimental test. Furthermore, the contact parameters in the working frequency band corresponding to high linear speed of winding were obtained through simulation. Finally, the curve fitting of contact parameters was finished; in addition, the comparative results between the simulation and the experiment are in good agreement. The dynamic contact parameters present nonlinear frequency variation characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006211
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Electromagnetic interference shielding with absorption-dominant
           performance of Ti3C2TX MXene/non-woven laminated fabrics

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      Authors: Hengyu Zhang, Jianying Chen, Hui Ji, Ni Wang, Shuo Feng, Hong Xiao
      Pages: 2448 - 2458
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2448-2458, November 2021.
      Electromagnetic interference (EMI)-shielding materials with remarkable shielding effectiveness (SE) based on dominant absorption are highly desirable, especially if they are also flexible and lightweight. Herein, we prepared MXene (Ti3C2TX, TX-=O,-OH,-F)-based lightweight and absorption-dominant EMI-shielding non-woven fabrics. In view of the porosity and soft properties of textiles, as well as the unique high conductivity and hydrophilicity of Ti3C2TX MXene, Ti3C2TX MXene was coated on the fiber skeleton of three different non-woven fabrics made from polyester, cotton, and calcium alginate. The conductive layer formed by Ti3C2TX MXene on the fiber led to heterogeneous interfaces. They improved the multiple reflection of electromagnetic waves among Ti3C2TX MXene sheets and then contributed to the attenuation of the electromagnetic waves. Among all the samples, calcium alginate/Ti3C2TX MXene reached a maximum SE of 25.26 dB at 12.4 GHz with the fabric thickness of 3.17 mm. Cotton/Ti3C2TX MXene achieved maximum SSEt (ratio of specific shielding effectiveness (SSE) to thickness) of 2301.95 dB cm2g−1 at 1.36 mm with a loading of Ti3C2TX MXene of only 5.77mg/cm3. Further, fabric thickness, layer number, conductivity, and substrate type were selected to analyze the EMI-shielding mechanism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006216
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Qualitative identification of waste textiles based on near-infrared
           spectroscopy and the back propagation artificial neural network

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      Authors: Wenxia Li, Zihan Wei, Zhengdong Liu, Yujun Du, Jiahui Zheng, Huaping Wang, Shuo Zhang
      Pages: 2459 - 2467
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2459-2467, November 2021.
      Hand sorting for different types of waste textiles is time-consuming, laborious and inaccurate. The non-destructive and efficient identification of fibers in waste fabrics is of great significance to the reuse of textile materials. In this paper, 593 samples were selected as the research objects, including polyester, cotton, wool, viscose, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester/nylon, polyester/cotton, polyester/wool and silk/cotton waste textiles. The near-infrared spectrum of each sample was obtained by a portable near-infrared spectrometer, and the influence of environmental humidity and fabric thickness on the near-infrared spectrum of the sample was discussed to obtain the best test conditions. On this basis, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to the qualitative classification of waste textiles to complete the automatic identification of fabric components in the sorting process. Firstly, a standard sample set was established by waveform clipping and normalization, and a BP-ANN deep web suitable for near-infrared spectroscopy was established. Then the BP network was trained according to the input near-infrared spectrum data of known sample categories and the classification results of the preset 11 types of labels, and the weights and thresholds of each layer were adjusted in the repeated training process. Finally, a 1500 × 100 × 11 network structure was established when the network error was the smallest, and the number of corresponding hidden layer nodes was 100. When the number of training steps was 500, the sum of squared errors reached 0.001, and the model recognition effect was the best. Meanwhile, the validity of the model was verified by inspecting additional 299 samples outside the model, and the recognition accuracy rate of the established model also exceeded 99%, which verified the effectiveness of the model. These results show that this near-infrared qualitative analysis model can more accurately classify and identify waste textiles, especially polyester waste textiles. In addition, it provides a new idea for the recycling and reuse of waste textiles for enterprises.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211007516
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Carbon footprint and water footprint assessment of virgin and recycled
           polyester textiles

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      Authors: Weiran Qian, Xiang Ji, Pinghua Xu, Laili Wang
      Pages: 2468 - 2475
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2468-2475, November 2021.
      Recycled polyester textile fibers stemming from waste polyester material have been applied in the textile industry in recent years. However, there are few studies focusing on the evaluation and comparison of the environmental impacts caused by the production of virgin polyester textiles and recycled polyester textiles. In this study, the carbon footprint and water footprint of virgin polyester textiles and recycled polyester textiles were calculated and compared. The results showed that the carbon footprint of the virgin polyester textiles production was 119.59 kgCO2/100 kg. Terephthalic acid production process occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 45.83%, followed by polyester fabric production process, ethylene production process, paraxylene production process, ethylene glycol production process and polyester fiber production process. The total carbon footprint of waste polyester recycling was 1154.15 kgCO2/100 kg, approximately ten times that of virgin polyester textiles production. As for the water footprint, it showed that virgin polyester fabric production and recycled polyester fabric production both had great impact on water eutrophication and water scarcity. Chemical oxygen demand caused the largest water eutrophication footprint, followed by ammonia-nitrogen and five-day biochemical oxygen demand. The water scarcity footprint of virgin polyester fabric production and recycled polyester fabric production was 5.98 m3 H2Oeq/100 kg and 1.90 m3 H2Oeq/100 kg, respectively. The comprehensive evaluation of carbon footprint and water footprint with the life cycle assessment polygon method indicated that the polyester fabric production process exhibited greater environmental impacts both for virgin polyester and recycled polyester.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006213
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Effective treatments for enhancing carbon fiber/epoxy interfacial
           properties and carbon yarn weavability

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      Authors: Lan Yao, Xinyi Ruan, Shiting Hong, Jiahua Yang, Xiujun Fan, Huoyue Lin, Shiyuan Sun, Xianhong Zheng, Huarong Tang, Yiping Qiu
      Pages: 2476 - 2486
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2476-2486, November 2021.
      Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites have wide applications in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries, etc. However, due to the chemically inert surface of carbon fiber, interfacial problems always exist when the carbon fiber is infiltrated by the resin. In this study, polypyrrole (PPy) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on the carbon fiber surface in order to improve the interfacial properties between the carbon fiber and epoxy resin. After treatment, the interfacial shear strength increased as high as 55.7%, which was verified by microstructure characterization, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, PPy and CNTs were added to the epoxy sizing agent to strengthen the weavability of carbon yarns. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of the sized carbon yarns was significantly improved, and the fuzz weights were reduced.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006939
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Facile thermoplastic polyurethane-based multi-walled carbon nanotube ink
           for fabrication of screen-printed fabric electrodes of wearable e-textiles
           with high adhesion and resistance stability under large deformation

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      Authors: Lihong Jiang, Hong Hong, Jiyong Hu
      Pages: 2487 - 2499
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2487-2499, November 2021.
      Carbon nanotubes have been widely used to formulate printed conductive ink in recent years due to their excellent conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical properties. However, the common problems of this ink, such as poor adhesion and low resistance stability under large deformation, hinder its application in the fabric electrodes (FEs) of wearable and stretchable e-textiles. Herein, conductive inks with a simple preparation process, high adhesion and conductive stability were formulated by mixing the conductive filler, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix with a reversible cross-linked structure. Then it is evaluated whether the MWCNT-based conductive ink is suitable for the screen-printing fabrication of highly durable and washable FEs. The experimental results showed that the screen-printed fabric electrode exhibited remarkable resistance stability under bending and folding deformation. In particular, after 1000 bending cycles and 100 folding–unfolding cycles under additional pressure, the sheet resistance of FEs only increased by 0.8% and 5.0%, respectively. Moreover, the screen-printed conductive pattern has strong adhesion to polyamide fabric substrate by the Scotch tape and washing tests, and there are no significant changes in resistance and surface morphology. High-performance conductive inks with facile and large-scale production potential are developed, and show great prospect in the development of wearable printing e-textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T01:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008613
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Influence of incident energy on the properties of arc rated para-aramid
           fabric

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      Authors: Xia Li, Qilong Sun, Shuo Wang, Hong Tang
      Pages: 2500 - 2507
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2500-2507, November 2021.
      To study the protection mechanism of para-aramid fabrics under an electric arc, the structural composition, surface morphology, and thermal properties of an untreated para-aramid fabric and that treated with different incident energy arcs were compared. The intensity of the N-H peak of the para-aramid cellulose amide decreased with increasing exposed arc energy. Moreover, intensities of the C=O peak of the amide bond type I carbonyl and the C-H deformation vibration absorption peak originating from the benzene ring gradually weakened. In contrast, the carbon content of the fabric increased. In the arc deflagration process, the fiber broke and then carbonized and embrittled. With an arc energy of 30.9 cal/cm2, the carbonization degree of the front surface of the fabric increased and was highest at the float line. The initial combustion temperature remained unchanged, and the mass residual quantity gradually increased with increasing arc energy exposed to the fabric. The above results suggest that para-aramid fabric can protect the end user in an arc by carbonization, offering effective assistance in the research and development of personal protective equipment for arc flashes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T06:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010679
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • A facile method for the preparation of a high-performance, hybrid
           separator for use in lithium-ion batteries

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      Authors: Pok Yin Wong, Chunhong Zhu, Qianyu Wang, Jian Shi, Kenji Hyodo, Ick Soo Kim
      Pages: 2508 - 2517
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2508-2517, November 2021.
      Polyethylene (PE) membrane has poor wettability and poor thermal stability, which results in insufficient wetting by liquid electrolytes, thermal shrinkage, and no guarantee of safety. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabric has inhomogeneous pores and no shutdown function. Therefore, it may cause some problems for independent use, either in the assembly or in usage. In this study, a hybrid separator used in lithium-ion batteries was investigated. The separator was fabricated by laminating a PE membrane and PET nonwoven fabric with or without a ceramic coating on the PET nonwoven. The morphology, wettability, thermal stability, and battery performance were evaluated, and the results showed that the homogeneous distribution of pores can be obtained from the hybrid separators. The wettability properties were also improved in terms of contact angle, liquid electrolyte absorption height, and the decrease in the spreading area. Moreover, with laminated PET nonwoven fabric, the hybrid separators kept the dimensional shape at 180°C for 1 hour of heating, but the PE membrane shrank and became a small wad. The difference between the shutdown and meltdown temperatures ensured that the battery was safe to use. In addition, the evaluation of the battery’s performance indicated that the hybrid separators can be used instead of a PE membrane. This study showed a facile method for the preparation of a hybrid composite separator with improved wettability, thermal stability, and safety for lithium-ion batteries, and it has the potential to be used extensively in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006675
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Surface modification of melt electrospun polypropylene fibrous film by
           silicon dioxide gel for high thermomechanical properties

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      Authors: Jumei Zhao, Hongtao Zhou, Huizhen Ke, Xueliang Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Quan Feng
      Pages: 2518 - 2527
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2518-2527, November 2021.
      In this work, a polypropylene (PP) porous film was made-up by melt electrospinning. The fibrous film was coated by a superthin layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) gel. The surface morphology of the SiO2 gel was decoded by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The SiO2 gel interface with film, as well as its crystallinity, were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The PP composite film's thermomechanical properties were studied through thermal shrinkage, thermal gravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and an Instron tensile machine with a heating chamber. The results showed that the coated SiO2 gel network could effectively reduce the PP film's thermal shrinkage by 48.5% without change of crystallinity. The coated SiO2 gel is capable of enlarging the decomposition temperature range and the storage modulus of the PP film. Meanwhile, it was discovered that, along with the increase of measured temperature, the loads on both pure PP film and PP/SiO2 gel film decreased under a constant strain, or the tensile strain of both of them was enhanced under the same load. The solid gel network endows the PP electrospun film with relatively higher thermal safety.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010671
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • A novel digital imaging method for measuring cashmere color and its
           application

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      Authors: Chong Heng, Hua Shen, Fumei Wang
      Pages: 2528 - 2539
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2528-2539, November 2021.
      The quality of cashmere, such as color and length, determines its price and application. In the current cashmere inspection system, color and length are tested by visual assessment, which is a subjective, time- and labor-consuming process. Herein, the goal of this research is to develop a new method of testing cashmere color using image analysis, and to study the application of color in length measurement. During the color measurement, cashmere was prepared under two sample placement methods, and color features including RGB, XYZ and Lab obtained by the new method were compared with the standard. The calculation method of optical index used in length testing was determined based on theoretical and experimental analysis. Experiments show that fixed weight and pressure are suited for cashmere color measurement. In RGB space, the correlation coefficients (R2) between the two devices were calculated and were 0.990, 0.995 and 0.996 for parameters R, G and B, respectively. Good agreement also exhibited in XYZ space, with R2 equal to 0.994, 0.996 and 0.999 for X, Y and Z, respectively. This confirmed the accuracy of the proposed color measurement method in RGB and XYZ space. Finally, an accurate fibrogram was obtained by the proposed conversion model for calculating optical index from color values, which is the key curve to testing cashmere length. This study emphasis on methodological aspects and the results acquired are regarded as preliminary, as the experiments studied compose the first stage of research on the exploration of the application of image analysis on cashmere color measurement.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008664
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Preparation and characterization of electrospun cellulose acetate
           sub-micro fibrous membranes

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      Authors: Zhenzhen Quan, Yihan Wang, Jiajun Wu, Xiaohong Qin, Jianyong Yu
      Pages: 2540 - 2550
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2540-2550, November 2021.
      Electrospun sub-microfiber membrane of cellulose acetate (CA), with excellent biodegradability, high specific surface area and high porosity, has attracted wide attention in various research fields. Even so, the stable continuous electrospinning of CA sub-micro fibers is affected by the solution parameters and CA acetylation degree dramatically, which still remains challenging. In the present work, electrospun CA sub-micro fibrous membranes have been prepared from four distinct solvent systems, respectively, to explore the proper solution parameters for membrane fabrication. After hydrolysis and electrospinning, the produced CA sub-micro fibrous membranes were analyzed in terms of fiber size distribution, hydrophilicity and porosity. Current analysis has shown that the degree of substitution of CA sub-micro fibers decreases with the increase in hydrolysis time, resulting in increased diameter irregularity, decreased average porosity and increased hydrophilicity of the sub-micro fibrous membrane.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011772
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Unsupervised defect detection algorithm for printed fabrics using
           content-based image retrieval techniques

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      Authors: Xudong Hu, Mingyue Fu, Zhijuan Zhu, Zhong Xiang, Miao Qian, Junru Wang
      Pages: 2551 - 2566
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2551-2566, November 2021.
      Automatic detection of printing defect technology is significant for improving printing fabrics’ appearance and quality. In this research, we proposed an unsupervised printing defect detection method by processing the difference map between the test image and the reference image. Aimed at this, we adopted a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method to retrieve the reference image, which includes an image database, a convolutional denoising auto-encoder (CDAE) and a hash encoder (HE): the elements of image database are extracted from only one defect-free sample image of the test fabric; the CDAE prevents the system being affected by the texture of the fabric and provides a reliable feature description of the patterns; the HE indexes the feature vectors to binary code while maintaining their similarity; both CDAE and HE are trained in an unsupervised manner. With the retrieved reference image, the defect is determined by applying the Tsallis entropy thresholding and opening operation on the difference map. The method can be implemented without labeled and defective samples, and without consideration of the periodical primitive of patterns. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method in defect detection for printed fabrics with complex patterns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T06:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008614
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Integration of multivariate control charts and the decision tree
           classifier to determine the faults of the quality characteristic(s) of a
           melt spinning machine used in polypropylene fiber manufacturing. Part II:
           The application of multivariate control charts and the decision tree
           classifier to determine the faults of quality characteristic(s)

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      Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Chang-Chiun Huang, Cheng-Han Yang, Sung-Hua Chen
      Pages: 2567 - 2580
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2567-2580, November 2021.
      In this study, a multivariate statistical process control was used to analyze the abnormal samples derived from the deviation of optimum processing parameters. The experimental samples derived from the optimum processing parameters were applied as the optimal historical data to determine the control limit, and then the T2 value was obtained from Hotelling's T2 method. If the T2 value exceeds the control limit, the corresponding sample is considered as abnormal. After that, the Runger, Alt and Montgomery method is used to decompose the abnormal T2 value. Then, each quality characteristic value can be obtained and the corresponding decision tree classifier can be implemented. To improve the classification accuracy, we classify the decision tree classifier into single–double identification, single-factor abnormality and double-factor abnormality. For the individual classification test, the result showed that the accuracy of single–double identification was 98.6%, the single-factor abnormality classification was 100% and the double-factor abnormality classification was 96.0%. For the combination classification test, we can get a 98.6% accuracy rate for the single–double identification, 98.3% accuracy rate for the single-factor abnormality classification and 95.3% accuracy rate for the double-factor abnormality classification. Therefore, it can be confirmed that the proposed methods in this study can effectively identify abnormal samples and establish a fault processing parameter diagnosis system for melt spinning machines.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011775
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Natural mulberry biomass fibers doped with silver as an antimicrobial
           textile: a new generation fabric

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      Authors: Touseef Amna, M. Shamshi Hassan, Faheem A Sheikh, Hae Cheon Seo, Hyun-Chel Kim, Najla Alotaibi, Thamraa Alshahrani, Myung-Seob Khil
      Pages: 2581 - 2587
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2581-2587, November 2021.
      In this study, silver-doped natural mulberry fibers were successfully obtained by the dip-coating technique. Arrays of material consisting of synthetic compounds (organic as well as inorganic) are being utilized to impart antimicrobial functionality to textiles. Therefore, the current study for the first time attempted to establish an innovative class of textiles made up of silver-doped natural mulberry fibers. This fabric will be utilized for the fabrication of antimicrobial socks. The morphology, physicochemical and antibacterial characteristics of Ag-doped mulberry fibers were scanned via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antibacterial testing. SEM analysis evidently demonstrated uniform distribution of Ag on mulberry fibers and the outcome of XRD and FTIR analyses authenticated assimilation of Ag in the Ag-doped mulberry composite. The Ag-doped mulberry fibers revealed venerable antibacterial action against representative bacterium E. coli. The antibacterial analysis lead to the conclusion that the Ag-doped mulberry fiber textile has an enhanced bactericidal effect owing to the synergism of Ag and mulberry compounds. Moreover, Ag imparted an anti-odor effect on mulberry fiber. These distinctive organic–inorganic fibrous composite socks are antimicrobial, odor free and skin and environment friendly. Thus, this study recommends the use of Ag-doped mulberry fibers as a future material for the preparation of durable antibacterial new generation socks. These composite fibers can also be used as textile material for clothes such as sportswear and for medical purposes; for instance, bedcovers in hospital beds, etc.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T06:56:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013422
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Calculation of interlock, 1 × 1 rib, and single jersey knitted
           fabrics shrinkage during the dyeing process after determining loop shape

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      Authors: Jorge Llinares Berenguer, Pablo Díaz-García, Pau Miró Martinez
      Pages: 2588 - 2599
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2588-2599, November 2021.
      This study investigated existing dimensional variations in knitted fabrics produced by weft-knitting technology for knitting and dry relaxation, dyed and dry relaxation, and dyed and wash relaxation for the interlock, 1 × 1 rib, and single jersey structures. This paper demonstrates that once the structure has been knitted, the shape that the loop takes in the fabric, and loop length and loop width, for each relaxation state will be the main factor responsible for dimensional variations in cotton knitted fabrics. It also shows how loop length affects knitted fabric dimensions when knitting machine parameters are modified by varying the use of feeders, and obtaining more loosely or more tightly knitted fabrics. In this study a model to predict the longitudinal and transversal shrinkage of interlock, 1 × 1 rib, and single jersey fabrics after the dyeing process is presented. This avoids following the conventional analysis procedure according to Standard UNE-EN ISO 6330 of September 2012 and, thus, avoids investing relatively long calculation times, which speeds up the production process by avoiding product lots being stopped. These results are important for textile industry technicians as they substantially simplify production calculations in weft-knitted fabrics companies. This work offers an effective method for predicting the longitudinal and transversal shrinkage and width of knitting fabrics after the dyeing process from the loop dimension after the knitting process. The application of the study results may help businesses to significantly save time and, consequently, imply an intermediate product stock investment saving.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T12:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211014238
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Flammability, morphological and mechanical properties of sugar palm
           fiber/polyester yarn-reinforced epoxy hybrid biocomposites with magnesium
           hydroxide flame retardant filler

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      Authors: MJ Suriani, SM Sapuan, CM Ruzaidi, DS Nair, RA Ilyas
      Pages: 2600 - 2611
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2600-2611, November 2021.
      This paper aims to study the surface morphology, flammability and tensile properties of sugar palm fiber (SPF) hybrid with polyester (PET) yarn-reinforced epoxy composite with the addition of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as a flame retardant. The composites were prepared by hybridized epoxy and Mg(OH)2/PET with different amounts of SPF contents (0%, 20%, 35% and 50%) using the cold press method. Then these composites were tested by horizontal burning analysis, tensile strength testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The specimen with 35% SPF (Epoxy/PET/SPF-35) with the incorporation of Mg(OH)2 as a flame retardant showed the lowest burning rate of 13.25 mm/min. The flame took a longer time to propagate along with the Epoxy/PET/SPF-35 specimen and at the same time producing char. Epoxy/PET/SPF-35 also had the highest tensile strength of 9.69 MPa. Tensile properties of the SPF hybrid with PET yarn (SPF/PET)-reinforced epoxy composite was decreased at 50% SPF content due to the lack of interfacial bonding between the fibers and matrix. Surface morphology analysis through SEM showed uniform distribution of the SPF and matrix with less adhesion, which increased the flammability and reduced the tensile properties of the hybrid polymeric composites. These composites have potential to be utilized in various applications, such as automotive components, building materials and in the aerospace industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-09T11:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008615
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Geometric simulation for warp-knitted tubular bandages with the mesh model

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      Authors: Haisang Liu, Gaoming Jiang, Zhijia Dong
      Pages: 2612 - 2623
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2612-2623, November 2021.
      The purpose of this paper is to geometrically simulate warp-knitted medical tubular bandages with a computer-aided simulator. A flat mesh model is established according to unfolded fabric considering the knitting characteristics of double-needle bed warp-knitted tubular fabrics. Moreover, a 3D (three-dimensional) mesh model corresponding to the actual product shape is created. To better describe the spatial geometry of stitches, eight-point models are introduced, and stitches are generated with the flat mesh model. Founded on matrix operations, the stitch position in the 3D mesh model is determined through coordinate mapping. Various stitch paths are rendered in computer programming languages C# and JavaScript to conduct simulations. Warp-knitted medical tubular bandages with a large number of shapes are effectively modeled.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T12:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013836
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Plasmonic silver nanoparticle-decorated electrospun nanofiber membrane for
           interfacial solar vapor generation

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      Authors: Ye Liu, Jian Xiong, Ailin Li, Rongwu Wang, Liming Wang, Xiaohong Qin
      Pages: 2624 - 2634
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2624-2634, November 2021.
      Interfacial solar vapor generation as an emerging technique has great potential in solving water shortage and pollution problems. Electrospun nanofiber membrane with high porosity, mechanical flexibility, numerous microsized channels for fast water transport, and low thermal conductivity offers an ideal platform for solar vapor generation. In this research work, plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were utilized as photothermal materials and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber membranes as substrates to fabricate Ag nanoparticles-uniformly decorated PAN (Ag@PAN) nanofiber membranes by electroless plating method. The morphology and chemical composition of the membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. By varying the volume ratios of glucose and silver ammonia solution, the sizes of Ag NPs as well as the light-absorption ability of corresponding nanofiber membrane were regulated. As a result, the optimal Ag@PAN nanofiber membrane demonstrated a high light-absorption efficiency of 92.8% in the range of 280–2500 nm wavelength. The evaporation rate reached 1.34 kg m−2 h−1 and 5.83 kg m−2 h−1 under 1 sun and 5 sun irradiations, respectively. The plasmonic nanofiber membrane also exhibited long-term use stability, without any degradation in solar vapor generation performance even after 10 cycle tests. This work paves the way for the design and development of plasmonic nanofiber membranes as high-performance interfacial solar vapor generators.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T03:34:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211014966
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Effect of initial pressure of oblique-blowing airflow and folding-in
           airflow on yarn tucked-in in the pneumatic tucked-in selvedge apparatus

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      Authors: Yisheng Liu, Xinlei Zhou, Xiaoying Cheng, Dandan Liu
      Pages: 2635 - 2655
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2635-2655, November 2021.
      In this paper, numerical simulation and laboratory experiments were combined to research the tucked-in behavior of the yarn in the pneumatic tucked-in selvedge apparatus, and explore the effect of initial pressure of oblique-blowing airflow and folding-in airflow on yarn tucked-in. This work focused on the motion of a single yarn of which one end was fixed while the other was free. Initial pressures for oblique-blowing airflow and folding-in airflow were set as parameters. A numerical model was developed to simulate the process based on the one-way fluid–structure interaction. Then a laboratory experiment was carried out with the help of a high-speed camera to record the motion behaviors of yarns. The motions were compared with the simulation data and showed that the proposed numerical model can properly replicate the motion of yarn and its points in the airflow field. Each group of yarns with different initial pressures was able to be tucked-in and had an elongation. Increasing the initial pressures of oblique-blowing airflow from 0.3 MPa to 0.4 MPa and folding-in airflow from 0.35 MPa to 0.4MPa shortened the time for the yarn to complete the entire oblique-blowing and tucked-in process by 0.4625 ms, and extended the yarn elongation by 0.151 mm.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T03:32:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013419
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Modeling to predict thermal aging for flame-retardant fabrics considering
           thermal stability under fire exposure

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      Authors: Xiaohan Liu, Miao Tian, Yunyi Wang, Yun Su, Jun Li
      Pages: 2656 - 2668
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2656-2668, November 2021.
      The performance of firefighters’ clothing will deteriorate due to various exposures. Predicting its service life before decommissioning is essential to guide the use and maintenance of the uniform. The aim of this study is to introduce a model to predict the tensile strength of flame-retardant fabrics under fire exposure. The thermal degradation and microstructure of Kevlar/polybenzimidazole and polyimide/Kevlar fabrics were investigated. The decrease of tensile strength was attributed to the chemical changes and the development of microstructure cracks and charring of the fibers. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were established to predict the tensile strength after thermal aging. The ANN model presented a better prediction result (R2 = 0.88, root mean square error (RMSE) = 96.91) than the MLR method (R2 = 0.76, RMSE = 138.61). The addition of fabric backside temperature (T), glass transition temperature (Tg), and degradation temperature (Td) further increased the R2 (4%) and decreased the RMSE (14.99) of the ANN model, which was recommended as a prediction approach with better accuracy. The findings of this study will contribute to estimating the continuous performance of firefighting clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T03:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013835
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Dyeing silk and cotton fabrics using Fuji apple peel and the properties of
           the dyed fabrics

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      Authors: Akemi Yasukawa, Momoko Fukuyama, Kunihisa Iwai
      Pages: 2669 - 2681
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2669-2681, November 2021.
      A new source of natural dyes, which possessed antibacterial and UV protection properties, was proposed. Natural dyes were extracted from Fuji apple peel. The extract contained two anthocyanins and five quercetin glycosides. Silk and cotton fabrics were dyed using the extract with and without six types of mordants: Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+, Ti4+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. The properties of the dyed fabrics were investigated by various means. The K/S values were used to show relative color strength of the dyed fabrics and the CIELAB color system was used to show the color hue of the dyed fabrics. The crystallinity of the silk was lower than that of the cotton. The silk was dyed deeper than the cotton regardless of the dyeing conditions, including dyeing temperature, dyeing period, and solution pH. This result comes from the existence of carboxyl and amino groups and low crystallinity of silk fibers. Fabrics with various colors, including pink, green, brown, and gray, were obtained by mordant dyeing. The dyed fabrics had splendid performance; that is, antibacterial and UV shielding properties. Color fastness to washing (color change) was comparably low but was enhanced with Ti4+ and Fe3+ mordants.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T12:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008617
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • The effect of backside elements on the light emission of a plastic optical
           fiber assembly

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      Authors: Hakyung Cho, Hayoung Song
      Pages: 2682 - 2691
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2682-2691, November 2021.
      With the recent increase in leisure time and wellbeing trends, the number of individuals who enjoy nighttime leisure activities has rapidly increased. Thus, the demand for luminous night safety clothing ensuring safety and that is also fashionable is increasing. Although higher visibility is important, studies on the influence of the backside elements of optical fiber materials on light emission are limited. The main components of the plastic optical fiber assembly in this study are the plastic optical fiber and backside elements, consisting of retroreflective material, and the backside sheet. The effects of the four types of retroreflective material, which are low, medium, high, and ultra-high luminance types, and the color of the backside sheet, white or black, on the luminance of the plastic optical fiber assembly are evaluated in bright, dusky, and dark environments. The results are analyzed using the statistical analysis software, SPSS 20.0.In the dusky environment, the plastic optical fiber assembly with prism material (80.78 ± 2.17) exhibits the highest luminance. However, there was no difference between the plastic optical fiber assembly with high- (38.52 ± 1.27) and medium-retroreflective material (36.76 ± 0.68). In the dark environment, the plastic optical fiber assembly with the prism material shows the highest luminance (66.83 ± 0.24), and there is no difference between the plastic optical fiber assembly with the low- (24.43 ± 0.42), medium- (24.63 ± 0.36), and high-retroreflective material (25.12 ± 0.42). Also, the luminance of the plastic optical fiber assembly with the white backside sheet is higher than that with the black backside sheet for all retroreflective material in dusky and dark environments. In summary, the optimal constitution of a plastic optical fiber assembly’s backside element is the retroreflective material of a prism type with the white backside color.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006941
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Thermodynamic properties of cotton dyeing with indigo dyes in non-aqueous
           media of liquid paraffin and D5

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      Authors: Jie Fan, Min Shao, Junhua Miao, Junran Ma, Mingan Hu, Yuan An, Jianzhong Shao
      Pages: 2692 - 2704
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Volume 91, Issue 21-22, Page 2692-2704, November 2021.
      On the basis of investigation into the dyeing equilibrium of cotton fibers with indigo dyes in decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), liquid paraffin and water, the thermodynamic properties of cotton dyeing with indigo dyes in non-aqueous medium systems were studied in comparison with aqueous dyeing. The main works involved are as follows: firstly, the adsorption isotherms were created; then, the three theoretical adsorption models of Nernst, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to fit the adsorption isotherms created; finally, the thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms were all in line with the Freundlich model. The order of dyeing affinity was in the sequence: liquid paraffin > D5 > water. The dyeing entropy in the three media showed positive values, which is mainly attributed to the adsorption of both indigo-leuco and water onto cotton fibers, thus reducing the ice-like structure formed among the water molecules in the dyeing system and the hydrophobic bonding structure formed among the non-aqueous medium molecules, then leading to an increase in the system disorder. The dyeing heat in the three media also showed positive values, due mainly to the absorption of thermal energy to “melt” the ice-like structure and to “break” the hydrophobic bonding structure. These dyeing thermodynamic properties are conducive to understanding and interpreting the dyeing performance and behavior of indigo dyes in non-aqueous dyeing systems.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T07:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211011773
      Issue No: Vol. 91, No. 21-22 (2021)
       
  • Establishment of the three-dimensional model of the nonwoven structure
           with fiber scale based on the GAN algorithm

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      Authors: Jiang Wang, Qianqian Shi, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Yuze Zhang, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The structure of nonwovens gives special functions, and the establishment of the structure model has important reference significance for the realization of functions. In this work, the two-dimensional configuration of polyester fibers in a spunlaced nonwoven fabric was extracted, and the configurational feature points of 2500 fibers were obtained. Combined with the generative adversarial nets algorithm, the generation model of the two-dimensional configuration of fibers was proposed after learning the configuration feature of 2500 fibers. Based on the assumption that the fibers are randomly distributed in the nonwoven fabric, we established a three-dimensional model of the spunlaced nonwoven fabric on the fiber scale using ABAQUS software. In addition, the water diffusion experiment and simulation were carried out to visualize the diffusion process of a water droplet in the nonwoven fabric, verifying the accuracy of the model. This method provides a novel idea for the modeling of textile structure on the fiber scale, which can be regarded as a model basis for the subsequent simulation analysis and function research.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T11:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211067280
       
  • Influence of the hydrodynamic degumming process on the quality of
           decorticated flax fibers

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      Authors: Małgorzata Zimniewska, Wanda Różańska, Anna Kicińska-Jakubowska, Jerzy Mańkowski, Marek Wiśniewski, Katarzyna Dziedziczak, Przemysław Baraniecki
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The study explored the impact of the hydrodynamic degumming process applied for decorticated monomorphic flax on fiber quality. The experiment was designed as the first stage of research leading to the development of a method for decorticated flax fiber elementarization and cottonization; in particular, effectively dividing the fiber bundles to ensure low linear density and reducing impurities in the content, to make the fibers suitable for cotton spinning systems. The degumming process of the decorticated fibers covered hydrodynamic disposal of the gluing substances, mainly pectins from the fibers, with use of a specially designed lab-scale Model Device for Physical Degumming of the Flax Fibers. The degummed fibers were tested for linear density, length, impurity content and chemical composition by thermogravimetric analysis combined with the analysis of evolved gases (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and analysis of images of fiber cross-sections and longitudinal views from a scanning electron microscope. The study outcomes allowed us to determine the optimal parameters of the degumming process applied for decorticated flax fibers, in which the obtained fibers were of the highest quality. It was found that the optimal parameters of the process were a bath temperature of 30°C and a degumming process duration of 24 hours. These lab-scale process conditions were used in further work on the degumming process of flax fiber carried out on a semi-technical scale, followed by a mechanical cottonization of the fiber, at the final stage of the technological chain.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-23T10:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056982
       
  • Anti-microbial and methylene blue dye adsorption properties of cotton
           fabrics modified with TiO2, Fe, Ag-doped TiO2, and graphene oxide
           nanomaterials

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      Authors: M Khairy, R Kamal, MA Mousa
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nanoparticle materials have received increasing attention in the functional modification of textiles. In this work, pure TiO2, Ag-doped TiO2, Fe-doped TiO2, and graphene oxide nanoparticles were used to impart the anti-bacterial and adsorptive properties of nanoparticles to cotton fabric. The treated fabric materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained treated fabrics were used as adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The functionalized cotton fabrics were tested for their anti-microbial capability against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. All the functionalized fabrics have higher anti-microbial activity compared to untreated cotton, especially the fabrics containing silver and Fe-doped TiO2. The optimum conditions of the adsorption process are determined via the study of the effect of the initial concentration of dye, pH, and contact time on the removal efficiency. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms are applied for the equilibrium adsorption data. GO-Cot and Ag-Ti@GO-Cot samples showed the highest adsorption removal activity. The linear correlation coefficient (R2) showed that the Temkin model well fitted the data of adsorption in the GO-Cot sample. The analysis of experimental data with different kinetic models showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well fitted the adsorption data better than the other kinetic models of the pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-23T01:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211066148
       
  • Preparation of multiple-reactive-site and flexible crosslinking agent with
           transaconitic acid and acrylic acid and its application for
           three-dimensional crosslinking of cellulose

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      Authors: Ting Liang, Kelu Yan, Tao Zhao, Bolin Ji
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A novel multiple-reactive-site crosslinking agent, P(TAA‒AA), was developed from transaconitic acid and acrylic acid in this study. Cotton fabrics with durable wrinkle-resistant properties were obtained by crosslinking with P(TAA‒AA), which benefited from the multifunctional carboxyl groups of crosslinking agents and the three-dimensional crosslinking inside cotton fibers. The wrinkle-resistant properties of P(TAA‒AA)-modified fabrics were evaluated and compared with those of other polycarboxylic acid-treated fabrics, and the P(TAA‒AA)-modified fabrics showed a wrinkle recovery angle of 262° as high as the 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid-modified fabrics while maintaining nearly two-fold higher tearing strength retention (62.9%), and they showed a much higher value of whiteness index than the citric acid-modified fabrics. This demonstrated that the obtained P(TAA‒AA) is an ideal polycarboxylic acid already known to date simultaneously to realize the high wrinkle recovery angle and high tearing strength retention for treated cotton fabrics. The Raman depth mapping images and the scanning electron microscope images of P(TAA‒AA)-modified samples indicated that P(TAA‒AA) molecules can diffuse into the amorphous regions of the cellulose fibers and form crosslinking bridges between cellulose chains. The multiple reactive carboxyl groups in P(TAA‒AA) may form three or more ester bonds between the P(TAA‒AA) molecule and different cellulose chains, which were regarded as the main contribution to the high crosslinking effectiveness of the P(TAA‒AA)-modified fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T08:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211067823
       
  • Effect of magnetic lens on the electrospinning whipping instability, fiber
           diameter and its distribution

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      Authors: Peng Chen, Qihong Zhou, Jun Wang, Ge Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospinning is an efficient and straightforward method for producing thin fibers from various materials. Although such thin fibers have diverse potential applications, the remaining problems with electrospinning are the whipping instability (also known as bending instability) of electrically charged liquid jets of polymer nanofibers and uneven fiber diameter distribution. In this study, we report a novel magnetic lens electrospinning system and discuss the principle of reducing the fiber diameter and width of the whipping circle in this electrospinning process. The effects of three types of electrospinning devices, needle-to-plate, needle-exciting coil-to-plate, and needle-magnetic lens-to-plate types, were studied through numerical simulation to analyze the electrospinning fiber collection state. For the 12 wt% polyacrylonitrile solution, when the applied voltage was 14–20 kV, the feed rate was 0.4–0.7 ml/h, and the current applied to the excitation coil or magnetic lens was 1 A, the experimental results demonstrated that, compared with needle-to-plate-type and needle-exciting coil-to-plate-type electrospinning, needle-magnetic lens-to-plate-type electrospinning produced smaller whipping circles with thinner and more uniform fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211066625
       
  • Elastic melt-blown nonwoven fabrication of
           styrene‐ethylene/butylene‐styrene copolymer and polypropylene blends:
           a study of morphology and properties

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      Authors: Li Chang, Chuanfen Wu, Pengfei Lan, Bing Bai, Liang Jiang, Shaojuan Chen, Stephen Jerrams, Jianwei Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fabrics produced by the melt-blown nonwoven process have the advantage over competing materials of possessing an ultrafine fibrous and porous structure. However, their brittleness and poor toughness restrict their wider application. There is increasing demand for nonwovens that have high stretchability and elasticity while maintaining a melt-blown structure. In this study, polypropylene (PP) and styrene‐ethylene/butylene‐styrene copolymer (SEBS) were blended at different ratios and subsequently used in the melt-blowing process. The morphology of the blends displayed a co-continuous structure when the ratio of SEBS to PP in blends was similar. Furthermore, it was found that all the blends had good spinnability from the melt-blowing process during rheological and thermal properties tests. All the elastic melt-blown nonwovens fabricated in this research had elongations higher than 400% and elastic recoveries higher than 50%, which was indicative of good elasticity. Meanwhile, the nonwovens maintained fine fiber diameters and good filtration properties, in keeping with traditional melt-blown nonwovens.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T04:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211066359
       
  • Evaluation of bamboo water-retting for fiber bundle extraction

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      Authors: Yu Li, Jiajia Fu, Hongbo Wang, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Bamboo fiber bundles were successfully extracted from bamboo culms using water-retting, taking advantage of enzymes secreted by microorganisms in the retting liquid. The harvest year and place of origin of the bamboo and the source of water impacted the products of the retting process. One-month-old bamboo was decomposed completely, whereas the one-year-old sample was hardly changed after 24-day retting. Moisture regain and crystallinity varied with the different origins of the bamboo. However, all samples resulted in similar chemical structures and thermal properties. The best operational conditions for water-retting were 3-month-old bamboo from Wuxi incubated in deionized water. Enzyme activities, including cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, and ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase) were monitored during a 24-day retting. Manganese peroxidase was the primary enzyme used to degrade lignin, resulting in absorbance at 294 nm of UV-Vis spectra. In addition, xylanase played a leading role in hydrolyzing hemicellulose, which was consistent with the change in reducing sugar yield. In addition, variations in dissolved oxygen and pH values were also recorded, indicating the changes in bacterial strains and the enzymatic system. The wastewater from bamboo retting showed good biodegradability but a lack of nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall, a manganese peroxidase–xylanase combined enzyme-retting treatment would offer a more environmentally friendly approach for extracting bamboo fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T04:11:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211062048
       
  • Exploring the transverse wicking behavior of mechanically robust warp
           super-elastic woven fabric for tight-fitting garments

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      Authors: Yong Wang, Qifan Qiao, Zongqian Wang, Changlong Li, Stuart Gordon
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The ability of a fabric to wick moisture away from the human body directly determines the moisture management ability of any given textile, and thereby has a great influence on the comfort offered by garments made from that textile. In this paper, the effects of tensile extension and liquid drop height on the transverse wicking behavior of a warp stretch woven fabric were systematically investigated. By virtue of the unique structure of the nylon/spandex air-covered warp yarn, the woven fabric has a denser and tighter surface, which facilitates its warp elastic stretchability beyond 60%. Furthermore, an acceptable cyclic tensile behavior at an extension of 30% was obtained, indicating the superior mechanical robustness of the fabric to a certain extent. The experimental results demonstrated that the transverse wicking performances of the fabric, including the wetting time and liquid spreading area, were dependent on the tensile extensions and the heights between the water droplet and the fabric surface. Specifically, the wetting time increased with an increase of tensile extension or a decrease of liquid drop height. The spreading area of the water droplet increases as a function of the wicking time, and it fits a power relation appropriately. In addition, the water vapor transmission behavior of our fabric during stretch was clarified. Such work is essential to get an in-depth evaluation of the wicking behavior of complex stretchable fabric structures.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T10:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211066149
       
  • The secret of egg white fabric: an investigation of its fabrication and
           properties

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      Authors: Mei Yu Yao, Yin Shan Lau, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The egg white fabric of the Dong Minority exemplifies their wisdom and represents rich regional features. It is renowned for its superior properties, especially its fabulous luster and excellent handle. However, the production method is rarely documented and instead has been handed down mostly by oral communication, and thus it is shrouded in mystery. In addition, due to low economic efficiency, a secret prescription and the challenges brought about by modern technology, this unique ethnic costume is threatened by extinction. Should this traditional handicraft be preserved or sacrificed' In this study, the secret of egg white fabric is solved by investigating its fabrication and properties. It is obvious that making egg white fabric involves complicated handiwork and numerous processes, including dyeing, fixation, brightening and starching; nevertheless, it has good physical properties. The experimental results indicated that egg white fabric has excellent texture, good thermal insulation, abrasion property and color fastness to laundering. Hence, this provides valuable inspiration for designers and manufacturers to produce unique and sustainable products.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211065481
       
  • The tensile properties of weft-knitted biaxial tubular fabrics and
           reinforced composites

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      Authors: Mengmeng Zhou, Gaoming Jiang, Zhe Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Weft-knitted biaxial tubular (WKBT) fabrics have been infiltrated via a resin film infusion technique to fabricate reinforced composites. To understand the mechanical properties of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites, the strength efficiency of insertion yarns and insertion fiber volume fraction are used to evaluate the tensile strength. The tensile properties of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites are studied in the 0° and 90° directions. The results show that both have two failure stages. The first stage is the fracture of insertion yarns which provide the main tensile strength, and the second stage is the fracture of stitch yarns which have significant effect on the tensile strength of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites. It is observed that the deformation behavior and failure mechanism of WKBT fabric reinforced composites are closely related to the structure of WKBT fabric, which can be used to predict the failure mode and morphology of WKBT fabric reinforced composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T10:04:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211064805
       
  • Investigation of fabric movement in a tumble dryer for the development of
           drying methods for wool fabrics to save energy

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      Authors: Wei Bao, Jinsong Shen, Xiongying Wu, Xuemei Ding
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Tumble dryers are widely used for drying garments, but felting shrinkage can be caused to wool garments during the tumble drying process. To dry wool fabrics or garments in tumble dryers, the flat dry function has been introduced in the dryers; however, the energy efficiency is very low. The current study investigated fabric movement at different rotation speeds in the tumble dryer and their resultant performances in terms of specific moisture extraction rate, evenness of drying, fabric shrinkage, and fabric smoothness. For shrink-resist-treated wool fabrics, tumble drying at the rotation speed to keep fabric movement in projectile motion accompanied with occasional tumbling could achieve better energy efficiency, drying uniformity, and fabric smoothness. For untreated wool fabrics, introducing vertical movement to the flat dry in the tumble dryer can improve the heat exchange between the fabric and hot air, resulting in an increase in energy efficiency of approximately 30% compared with motionless flat drying. Wool fabric shrinkage can be controlled at less than 2% with the smooth appearance of fabric at grade 3.5 after drying under the recommended drying condition. This study could help tumble dryer manufacturers design optimal drying methods for wool fabrics with the potential for the reduction of energy consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-16T10:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211062097
       
  • Effects of temperature on melt electrospinning with auxiliary heating:
           experiment and simulation study

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      Authors: Cheng Ge, Yuansheng Zheng, Kai Liu, Binjie Xin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the effect of the heating temperature of the spinneret on the melt electrospinning process under the condition of application of auxiliary heating was investigated, in a systematical and comprehensive way. The temperature distribution of the melt jet during the melt electrospinning process was simulated by finite element software in order to provide a good deal of insight into the experimental results. In addition, high-speed photography was adopted to capture images of jet formation and jet motion during the melt electrospinning process. The experimental results indicated that the cooling rate of the polypropylene jet decreases obviously under the condition of auxiliary heating; in addition, the higher spinneret temperature leads to greater drafting force, a drawing fiber drafting rate, and greater jet whipping motion, which is conducive to secondary drawing and refinement of the jet.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T10:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211058219
       
  • Development of suits for upper-body movement-assistive wearable robots for
           industrial workers

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      Authors: Sujin Park, Sohui Kim, Kyeoungeun Sim, Jiaoli Piao, Ru Han, Seongmi Kim, Sumin Koo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to develop suits for upper-body wearable robots that can satisfy the needs of industrial workers. Firstly, a preference survey was conducted to understand the workers’ preferences in terms of design and functions. Secondly, designs were developed and prototyped after performance tests of the materials used, including washing dimension-change rates and resilience for the stability of sensors and actuators. Thirdly, a satisfaction survey was conducted to evaluate the developed designs. The major results were as follows: (a) the most preferred function was assisting movements while lifting heavy objects or patients from the floor or at lower levels below the waist; (b) the preferred design features included waist-length shirts without collars, a style that can be worn outside, black or blue designs, wicking fabrics, and flexible materials; (c) four designs were developed and prototyped after confirming the fabric and clothing performance tests; (d) upon evaluating design and function satisfaction, more than 73% of participants were satisfied with the four designs, and 85% wanted to wear them. Design D was the most satisfactory in terms of material mapping details (featuring seams along muscular body lines and added three-dimensional (3D) patterns on the elbows). Design B was the most satisfactory regarding purchase and use/wearing. This was the design with tapered lines for raglan sleeves and horizontally cut lines on the shoulders. Participants expected Design C, with seams along muscular body lines and 3D patterns on the elbows, to easily suit patients and nurses. This research will be helpful when developing suits for upper-body movement-assistive wearable robots.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-13T04:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041717
       
  • Study of the optimization of embroidery design parameters for the
           Technical Embroidery Machine: derivation of the correlation between thread
           consumption and electrical resistance

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      Authors: Soo Hyeon Rho, Suhyun Lee, Wonyoung Jeong, Dae-Young Lim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The smart textile industry has become increasingly interested in textile products with electronic functions. In these smart textile products, sensing and data communication are conducted through conductive circuits by conductive threads. In embroidery technology that uses conductive threads as the material for the conductive line as a circuit, their resistance is an important factor when designing a product. The main purpose of this study was to derive an equivalent circuit model and a calculation equation for the consumption of conductive threads according to the embroidery design parameters. The effects of the embroidery design parameters on the appearance and electrical characteristics of the conductive line were also analyzed. The appearance and electrical characteristics of the embroidered conductive line were different when the embroidery design parameters were not the same. The calculation equation for the consumption of conductive threads could establish a quantitative system that could indicate the line resistance of an embroidered conductive line using the embroidery design parameters and the given thread resistance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T11:09:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211061028
       
  • Electrospun hybrid nanofibrous meshes with adjustable performance for
           potential use in soft tissue engineering

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      Authors: Ye Qi, Huiyuan Zhai, Yaning Sun, Hongxing Xu, Shaohua Wu, Shaojuan Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have gained extensive attention in the fields of soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, a series of biodegradable nanofibrous meshes were fabricated by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO) blends with various mass ratios. All the as-developed PCL/PPDO nanofibrous meshes possessed smooth and highly aligned fiber morphology. The mean fiber diameter was 521.5 ± 76.6 nm for PCL meshes and 485.8 ± 88.9 nm for PPDO meshes, and the mean fiber diameter seemed to present a decreasing tendency with the increasing of the PPDO component. For pure PCL meshes, the contact angle was about 117.5 ± 1.6°, the weight loss ratio was roughly 0.2% after 10 weeks of degradation, and the tensile strength was 41.2 ± 2.3 MPa in the longitudinal direction and 4.2 ± 0.1 MPa in the transverse direction. It was found that the surface hydrophilicity and in vitro degradation properties of PCL/PPDO meshes apparently increased, but the mechanical properties of PCL/PPDO meshes obviously decreased when more PPDO component was introduced. The biological tests showed that 4:1 PCL/PPDO nanofibrous meshes and 1:1 PCL/PPDO nanofibrous meshes could obviously promote the adhesion and proliferation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells more than pure PCL and PPDO meshes and 1:4 PCL/PPDO meshes. The results demonstrated that it is feasible to adjust the surface hydrophilicity, degradation profile, and mechanical properties as well as biological properties of as-obtained nanofibrous meshes by blending PCL and PPDO components. This study provides meaningful reference and guidance for the design and development of PCL/PPDO hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds for soft tissue engineering research and application.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T11:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211063904
       
  • Novel and durable flame-retardant modification based on the Schiff base
           and Pudovik reaction for wool fabric

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      Authors: Xian-Wei Cheng, Wen-Jie Jin, Chen Zhang, Yan-Xiang Wu, Jin-Ping Guan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Durable and formaldehyde-free flame-retardant (FR) modification of wool fabric using phosphorous compounds is of great interest. In this study, Schiff base imine groups were firstly introduced onto wool fiber through aldehyde-amine condensation between p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and wool fiber. Then, an efficient and durable FR wool fabric was fabricated by incorporating diethyl phosphite (DEP) into a Schiff base intermediate via the Pudovik reaction. The potential reaction mechanism among p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, DEP and wool fiber was explored. The thermal stability, smoke generation ability, FR ability and washing durability of the modified wool fabric were studied. The FR modification significantly increased the thermal resistance of wool fabric and suppressed smoke generation by half. The wool fabric modified by 20 g/L DEP was able to self-extinguish during the burning test, suggesting the higher FR efficiency of the DEP-incorporated Schiff base system. The modified wool fabric still self-extinguished after 20 commercial launderings, which is attributed to the covalent grafting of DEP onto wool fiber. Char residue analyses revealed the condensed charring FR mechanism of the DEP-incorporated Schiff base system on wool. This work provides a novel approach to prepare efficient and durable FR functional wool fabric via the Schiff base reaction and Pudovik reaction among p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, DEP and wool fiber.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T11:08:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211063907
       
  • Influence of quadrat characteristics on the evolution of the dispersion
           effect for fiber–water dispersions

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      Authors: Yunlong Shi, Xiaoyu Guan, Xiaoming Qian
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Dispersing fibers in a water dispersion is an important issue for many fiber-based materials that significantly affects the mechanical and many other properties of materials. However, the measurement and assessment of the dispersion effect remains a significant challenge. In this study, we presented an image analysis method based on quadrat analysis from ecology and geography, transforming the issue of the dispersion effect into the statistics of point distribution. Furthermore, we changed the type of sampling and adjusted the shape, size and numbers of each quadrat to investigate its influences on the evaluation results. Our results showed that the area of one quadrat had a more obvious effect on the evaluation results compared to the number of quadrats. In addition, having a quadrat of an optimum shape enlarged the difference in various dispersion effects; the results of a square quadrat exhibited stably in both complete coverage and random sampling. Quadrat analysis realizes good measurement of dispersion states as a result of image processing and offers an assessment of the dispersion effect in a fiber–water dispersion.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T11:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211064248
       
  • The prediction of loss tangent of sewed multilayer fabric

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      Authors: Yaya Zhang, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan, Huating Tu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The thickness and dielectric properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of fabric substrate play a key role in the design and properties of wearable antennas. Related research shows that a thicker substrate with a low dielectric constant and high loss tangent can enhance the bandwidth of antennas. Here, sewing multiple fabrics together was a good way to increase the thickness while maintaining flexibility, but it is hard to control the dielectric properties because of the lack of the relationship between the dielectric properties and that of the components. Although previous works have established the equivalent capacitance model of sewed multilayer fabric, they cannot obtain its dielectric properties completely. In this work, based on the circuit model proposed by Chin and Lee, the equivalent capacitance and resistance models of sewed multilayer fabric were established to predict its loss tangent. The sewed multilayer fabrics were fabricated and measured by split post dielectric resonator at 1.11 GHz to validate the model. From the comparison of the predicted and measured loss tangents of sewed multilayer fabrics, it was found that the predicted loss tangents agreed well with the experimental results. It is believed that the proposed model is beneficial to the rapid and rational configuration of the components for multilayer fabric according to thickness and dielectric properties of the components, and will provide a theoretical basis for the design of multilayer flexible electronic substrate.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-11T11:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211064249
       
  • Filtration efficiency and differential pressure of fabrics used in
           non-medical masks based on SARS COVID-19 particle size

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      Authors: Charles Freeman, Reuben Burch, Catherine Black, Lesley Strawderman, Jaime Rickert, John Wilson, David Saucier, Brian Smith
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Non-medical fabric masks, recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, are available in various fabrics. There is limited research on the overall effectiveness of fabrics used to make masks. The purpose of this study was to assess fabrics commonly used in non-medical masks against their ability to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 based on the size and throughput of aerosols and particles (
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T06:44:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046056
       
  • Study on frequency selective/absorption/reflection multilayer composite
           flexible electromagnetic interference shielding fabric

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      Authors: Hengyu Zhang, Jianying Chen, Hui Ji, Ni Wang, Hong Xiao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Three kinds of electromagnetic functional materials, frequency selective surface, carbonyl iron coated absorbing fabric and conductive woven fabric, were laminated to filter, absorb and reflect electromagnetic waves. Through equivalent circuit analysis, the frequency selection characteristics and the correlation between the shape and size of the periodic structure of cross-shaped and Jerusalem-shaped frequency selective surfaces were studied. It is found that frequency selective surfaces can reduce the transmission coefficient of carbonyl iron coated fabric at the resonance point, so that the working frequency band of the composite shielding material can be controlled and adjusted. The stacking order has no effect on the frequency selective surface/frequency selective surface double-layer materials, but influence the transmission coefficient of composite materials with frequency selective surface superimposed carbonyl iron coated fabric and/or conductive woven fabric. Among all samples, the transmission coefficient of Jerusalem-shaped/carbonyl iron coated fabric-3/conductive woven fabric has the most strong shielding effect, which is up to −51.72 dB at 10.48 GHz. It is proved that using flexible fabric as the matrix and compounding materials with different electromagnetic functions is an effective method to realize high efficiency and adjustable electromagnetic shielding ability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T11:42:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041718
       
  • Textronics spacer knitted material tests as a key element of the
           diagnostic system that monitors above the proper level of seat vibration

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      Authors: Michal Pawel Frydrysiak, Zbigniew Pawliczak
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research is focused on the construction and examination of a prototype of a spacer knitted material with integrated sensors. The combination of textiles with elements of electronics, computer science, and a knowledge of automation is called textronics. This type of material has been proposed as a component of diagnostic systems to monitor the extension level of vibration in employee seats at selected workstations or in children’s chairs. The purpose of the diagnostic system is to improve personal protective equipment (PPE) and increase employee safety. The spacer knitted material was tested with vibration frequencies in the range of 0–40 Hz to develop metrological properties under reproducible and repeatable conditions. The tested spacer knitted material meets the requirements of sensory properties such as vibration. The tested material is characterized by the following metrological parameters: total uncertainty U = 4.5%, sensitivity Sa = 0.64 [V/s2/m] and excitability threshold of 5 Pa with simultaneous high coefficient of low-frequency vibration damping of effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) = 2.3. Spacer knitted materials are modern constructs that enable the creation of new hybrid structures that have other properties, e.g., sensory suppression, in addition to spatial form.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:24:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211062051
       
  • Development of the Auto-Fit Dial and its application to protective vests

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      Authors: Jaewook Ryu, Sujin Park, Sumin Helen Koo, Giuk Lee
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes the Auto-Fit Dial, which is suitable for high-speed fitting; it includes a function that can wind wire at high speed using an energy storage–release mechanism. The Auto-Fit Dial can store energy in advance in the spiral spring via the rotation of the knob cover, and it releases the stored energy to wind the wire when required by pushing the knob cover. Firstly, the concept design and working principle of the Auto-Fit Dial are explained. Next, a detailed design and structural stability analysis of the mechanical components are described based on the design formula and finite-element analysis. An Auto-Fit Dial prototype is manufactured according to the detailed design with the weight, diameter, and height of 9.7 g, 30.5 mm, and 16.7 mm, respectively. The maximum number of rotations is 5.2 turns, which can wind a wire up to a length of 320 mm. The pulling force applied when the Auto-Fit Dial pulls the wire is initially measured as 5.10 N. The time required to wind a 320 mm wire is 0.015 s, which results in an average speed of 21.33 m/s. Moreover, the Auto-Fit Sleeve is fabricated and applied to the arm sleeve to verify the utility of the Auto-Fit Dial, which combines wire and fabric. Finally, the Auto-Fit Vest is developed by applying a protective vest to the Auto-Fit Dial.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060886
       
  • Material description for textile draping simulation: data structure, open
           data exchange formats and system for automatic analysis of experimental
           series

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      Authors: Yordan Kyosev
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The simulative development of clothing and other textile products requires a complete set of material parameters to be provided. Currently, different simulation software providers users with different values and formats for these parameters. This paper provides an overview about the most important values and proposed structures for storing both the raw data and the extracted parameters. The structure is implemented in both JSON and XML formats, allowing integration in proven formats for three-dimensional worlds such as gltf and x3d. Finally, a structure for organization of the raw data of the testing devices is described. Following this structure allows automatic processing, normalization and extraction of the parameters in short time. The goal of the paper is to simplify and unify the exchange of material parameters for textile fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T10:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211061192
       
  • Fabrication of biopolymer nanofibers from natural sources

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      Authors: Ahmed Abutaleb, Vimalanathan ArunPrasanna
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The methods available for the disposal of synthetic polymers are not advanced in an environment-friendly way. Consequently, their waste persists as a non-degradable pollutant that discharges toxic substances, which have now reached the deepest parts of the ocean. As an alternative, biopolymers such as polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and poly(butylene succinate), synthesized from natural sources such as plants, animals, and microbes, are an eco-friendly option, as they are biodegradable and a better option to shift from synthetic polymer dependency. The fabrication of electrospun nanofibers (NFs) using biopolymers is a novel approach, by which new ideas have been proposed in various fields, such as agriculture, biomedical, food packing, textiles, adsorption, drug delivery, three-dimensional printing, etc. Electrospun NFs are receiving increasing attention due to their diverse properties, including flexibility. This review provides a perception of the novel biopolymers that are currently utilized by the electrospun technique and their various applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-03T11:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211055052
       
  • Improvement of the electromagnetic properties of blended electromagnetic
           shielding fabric of cotton/stainless steel/polyester based on multi-layer
           MXenes

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      Authors: Zhe Liu, Sijia He, Haoyu Wang, Xiuchen Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Blended electromagnetic shielding (EMS) fabrics of cotton/stainless steel/polyester have been widely applied. The porous structure of the fabric is the guarantee of its good comfort performance, but it also hinders the improvement of shielding efficiency and the endowing of wave absorption performance. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a mixed resistance field based on fabric pores by the construction of multi-layer MXenes. Ti3AlC2 is etched by hydrochloric acid and lithium fluoride to generate hydrofluoric acid in situ to prepare multi-layer Ti3C2Tx. The finishing experiments are designed to finish the fabric around the pores with Ti3C2Tx impregnation. The enhancement effect and mechanism of the mixed resistance field on the shielding effectiveness and wave absorbing properties of the fabric are analyzed. The result shows that the multi-layer Ti3C2Tx for textile finishing is prepared quickly and effectively using the proposed method. The micro media of the Ti3C2Tx in the dispersion are adsorbed on the surface of various fibers, most of which are cotton fibers. The shielding effectiveness of the finished EMS fabric is improved significantly in the frequency ranges of 6.57–14 GHz and 11.97–18 GHz. The wave absorbing performances in the frequency range of 11.97–18 GHz are excellent. It is proved that the effect of the mixed resistance field of the pores was satisfactory. This paper provides a new way for the application of Ti3C2Tx in EMS fabric, solves the disadvantages caused by pores, and can provide a reference for the design and production of wave absorbing EMS fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T08:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211062352
       
  • Preparation and properties of fluffy high-shrinkage polyester/polyamide 6
           hollow segmented pie microfiber nonwovens

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      Authors: Yongchao Duo, Xiaoming Qian, Baobao Zhao, Longfei Gao, He Bai, Xun Guo, Bing Song
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Bicomponent spunbond hydroentanglement technology can break the interface between the two components by physical extrusion and shearing, thereby realizing the green and efficient production of high-strength microfiber nonwoven materials. Herein, we report a soft and fluffy bicomponent spunbond hydroentanglement nonwoven material using high-shrinkage polyester/polyamide 6 (HSPET/PA6) as the bicomponent. HSPET/PA6 hollow segmented pie composite fibers with different volume ratios were prepared by spunbond technology, the HSPET and PA6 segments were alternately arranged, and the interface was flat. The composite fibers were split by heat treatment. The dry heat shrinkage rates of the composite fibers were 8.45% (50/50) and 10.57% (70/30), and the boiling water shrinkage rates were 10.02% (50/50) and 12.27% (70/30). HSPET/PA6 hollow segmented pie microfiber nonwovens were prepared by hydroentanglement technology. After heat treatment, the fibers of nonwovens were further split and the HSPET fibers curled, giving the nonwovens a fluffy characteristic. By comparing the properties of HSPET/PA6 after heat treatment, the shrinkage effect of the water bath was obviously better than that of dry heat, and the split degree of fibers reached 81.97% (50/50) and 84.65% (70/30). Compared with polyester/PA6 nonwovens, the softness of HSPET/PA6 nonwovens increased by 45.1% (50/50) and 49.3% (70/30) after boiling water shrinkage. At the same time, the mechanical properties of HSPET/PA6 nonwovens were also improved. The successful fabrication of HSPET/PA6 microfiber nonwovens provides a new method for enhancing the softness of bicomponent spunbond hydroentanglement nonwovens.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T08:37:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211062098
       
  • From fabric to smart T-shirt: fine tuning an improved robust system to
           detect arrhythmia

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      Authors: Abdel Salam Malek, Ashraf Elnahrawy, Hamed Anwar, Mohamed Naeem
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) systems should be comfortable, non-stigmatizing, and capable of producing high-quality data. Many different designs of wearable textile ECG systems have recently emerged. Some of them are not considered to be smart garments, whereas most of the others present only the electronic side of the system. Our research work introduces a comprehensive study for an improved single-lead ECG smart shirt to identify automatically premature ventricular contraction as a common form of arrhythmia.For artifact-free results, Marvelous Designer is implemented to design our optimized relaxed slim fit shirt. In addition, a weft-knitted fabric of 80% nylon–20% spandex is used to manufacture the outer part of the shirt.Moreover, lightweight and small size electronic components are integrated to the outer part via low-resistance dry textile electrodes and 100% cotton fabric as an inner layer for easy transmission of weak ECG signals.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T08:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060887
       
  • Effect of the cobalt ferrite and carbon fiber powder doping ratio on the
           electromagnetic properties of coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton
           fabric

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      Authors: Yi Wang, Yuanjun Liu, Chao Yang, Xiaoming Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this project, firstly, polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric was prepared by in situ polymerization using polyester–cotton fabric as the base fabric, aniline as the monomer, ammonium persulfate as the oxidizer, and camphor sulfonic acid as the dopant. Secondly, cobalt ferrite/carbon fiber powder-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric was prepared by the textile coating process using polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric as the base fabric, PU2540-type polyurethane as the adhesive, and cobalt ferrite and carbon fiber powder as functional particles. Finally, the effect of the cobalt ferrite and carbon fiber powder doping ratio on the shielding effectiveness, reflection loss, dielectric constant real part, imaginary part, and loss angle tangent of cobalt ferrite/carbon fiber powder-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric was studied by using the controlled variable method with emphasis on the cobalt ferrite/carbon fiber powder doping ratio. The results show that in the frequency range of 0.01–3.0 GHz, when the doping ratio of cobalt ferrite to carbon fiber powder is 0:3, the reflection loss of cobalt ferrite/carbon fiber powder-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric reaches the minimum value at 1.49 GHz, the minimum reflection loss is –21.4 dB, and the effective absorption band is 1.25–1.94 GHz. In the test band, the shielding efficiency, reflection loss, the real part and imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and the loss angle tangent of the carbon fiber powder-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric are larger than those of cobalt ferrite-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric. The smaller the doping ratio of cobalt ferrite to carbon fiber powder, the larger value of the shielding efficiency, reflection loss, the real part and imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and loss angle tangent of the cobalt ferrite/carbon fiber powder-coated polyaniline-based polyester–cotton fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T08:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060885
       
  • Structural development of a flexible textile-based thermocouple
           temperature sensor

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      Authors: Tin Wai Cheung, Tao Liu, Mei Yu Yao, Yifei Tao, He Lin, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Textiles are conventionally utilized as the raw materials for making clothing and complementary accessories. To keep abreast of the times, a new direction of integrating textiles into electronic technology has been given in order to develop a temperature-sensing device with outstanding built-in flexibility, versality and softness. In this study, a flexible construction of the textile-based thermocouple temperature sensor via an industrial-and-technological-based weaving process was designed. The feasible arrangement of the conductive textile materials in the warp and weft directions related to the temperature-sensing ability was studied in detail, and significant linearity was shown in the range of 5–50[math] with different groups of combinations of the conductive yarns. More cross-intersections and ‘hot junctions’ resulted from the 3 × 3 warp–weft arrangement, offering higher stability and accuracy in thermal sensation. Besides, the resistance of the thermocouple remained almost constant under different degrees of bending. The relationship between the resistance and the bending flexibility was also investigated over a range of temperature.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-12-01T08:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211057132
       
  • Fractal structure and hydration-driven shape memory of duck down in the
           dry–wet state

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      Authors: Wei-dong Yu, Zhaoqun Du, Hongling Liu, Weidong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Duck down, as a natural keratin material, has been widely used as a filling material. The multilevel bifurcation structure of down has been observed and characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The structure is a complex fractal structure composed of four-level self-similar structures including five units, that is, the calamus, main barb, barb, barbule, and node or prong. The differential friction effect of the dynamic friction coefficients of the barb was reduced from 0.4 (dry state) to 0.23 (wet state), namely a decrease of 42.5%. The friction locking effect decreases due to the swelling of the fiber diameter. The down is zero gravity in water, and under the action of vibration and internal stress, down that has been subjected to friction or heat setting treatment can quickly return to its original shape in water. This shape memory mechanism was further confirmed, in which down after heat setting can restore its shape to the natural state by shaking it quickly and vigorously. This research provides inspiration to investigate more complicated functions of natural materials and encourages the creation of very intelligent synthetic polymers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T11:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060083
       
  • Fabric defect detection with an attention mechanism based on hard sample
           training

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      Authors: Hongge Yao, Qin Na, Shuangwu Zhu, Min Lin, Jun Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In view of the various types of fabric defects, and the problems of confusion, density unevenness and small target defects, which are difficult to detect, this paper builds a deep learning defect detection network incorporating an attention mechanism. The data augmentation strategy is used to enrich the number of samples of each defective type, and the enriched samples were extracted by the feature extraction network integrated with the attention mechanism, which can improve the feature extraction ability of confusable defect types and small defect types. Region proposal generation generates a proposal box for extracted features, and adds an online hard example mining strategy to re-learn hard examples to accelerate network convergence. Region feature aggregation maps the proposal box to the feature map to obtain the region of interest. Finally, the defect features are classified and the bounding boxes are regressed. The results show that this algorithm can effectively detect 39 categories of fabric defects with a detection speed of 0.085 s and a detection accuracy of 0.9338.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T11:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060081
       
  • Study on the accelerated-point distribution of floating fibers in the
           drafting zone

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      Authors: Na Sun, Na Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The motion of floating fibers in the drafting zone has a significant effect on the sliver quality after drafting. In this study, the distribution of the accelerated point of floating fibers in the drafting area was simulated based on the distribution of fibers and frictional forces during the drafting process. The simulated results denoted that the acceleration distribution of the floating fibers was more concentrated and closer to the front roller as the drafting ratio increases. The distributions of accelerated points of the floating fibers became more and more decentralized and further away from the front roller as the gauge length grew when the other parameters remained constant. In the simulation, the frictional forces of the other floating fibers moving at high velocity and low velocity and the actual contact relationships of fibers in the drafting zone were taken into consideration. Moreover, whether the fiber lengths are identical or not, the simulated accelerated-point distributions of the floating fibers were demonstrated to conform more to the actual values compared to other models. Hence, the developed model can offer effective reference from the point of view of the distribution of accelerated points in order to realize the simulation of roller drafting.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T11:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211059204
       
  • Modeling the airflow field of vortex spinning

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      Authors: Shanshan Shang, Zikai Yu, Guangwu Sun, Chongwen Yu, R Hugh Gong, Guozhong Wang, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Vortex spinning technology adopts a high-speed swirling airflow to rotate the fibers with open-ends to form yarn with real twists. The airflow behavior within the nozzle has a great effect on the yarn-formation process. In this study, a three-dimensional calculation nozzle model and corresponding three-dimensional airflow region model were established to enable the numerical calculation; airflow behavior—pressure, velocity, and the turbulent airflow field, and the streamline of airflow—was investigated in the presence of fiber bundles within the vortex spinning nozzle. Hybrid hexahedral/tetrahedral control volumes were utilized to mesh the grids in the calculation region. To consider airflow diffusion and convection in the nozzle, the Realizable k-ε turbulence model with wall function was adopted to conduct the calculation. Dynamic and static pressure values were obtained by numerical analysis to predict the action of the inner surface of nozzle and the wall resistance on the high-speed swirling airflow. The numerical simulation of dynamic airflow behavior can generate great insight into the details of airflow behavior and its distribution characteristics, and is helpful for understanding the spinning mechanism and promoting optimization of the spinning process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T11:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056980
       
  • Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of PBO Paper-based Composites

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      Authors: Ziqi Huang, Yi Wang, Jin Long, Jian Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Poly (p-phenylene benzoisoxazole; PBO) paper is a potential raw material for use in honeycomb sandwich composites in the aerospace industry, which are able to sustain high temperatures exceeding 300°C. This work presents a wet-forming method of making PBO paper, consisting of PBO chopped fibers. The paper was impregnated with phenolic resin to simulate honeycomb wall material. The structure and mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the raw and impregnated paper were characterized. The performance of PBO paper was tested against p-aramid paper. The comparative results showed the tensile strength of PBO raw paper was 2.17 kN/m, which was slightly worse than p-aramid raw paper: 2.66 kN/m. After impregnation, the tensile strength of the PBO paper was 13.93 kN/m due to the increase in the number of bonding points—better than p-aramid paper: 7.99 kN/m. The tearing resistance value for PBO raw paper versus p-aramid raw paper was 3252 mN against 845 mN. The morphology of the torn samples in the impregnated paper revealed higher levels of PBO fiber pullout than p-aramid fiber, therefore the tearing resistance value was 6000 mN for PBO impregnated paper, which was again superior to p-aramid impregnated paper: 675 mN. The PBO paper also showed higher storage modulus than p-aramid paper after impregnation. Experimental studies showed that PBO paper could be used in load-bearing structures and in honeycomb components where high resistance to deformation and thermal stability is necessary.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T11:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056382
       
  • Classification of clothing images based on a parallel convolutional neural
           network and random vector functional link optimized by the grasshopper
           optimization algorithm

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      Authors: Zhiyu Zhou, Wenxiong Deng, Yaming Wang, Zefei Zhu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To improve accuracy in clothing image recognition, this paper proposes a clothing classification method based on a parallel convolutional neural network (PCNN) combined with an optimized random vector functional link (RVFL). The method uses the PCNN model to extract features of clothing images. Then, the structure-intensive and dual-channel convolutional neural network (i.e., the PCNN) is used to solve the problems of traditional convolutional neural networks (e.g., limited data and prone to overfitting). Each convolutional layer is followed by a batch normalization layer, and the leaky rectified linear unit activation function and max-pooling layers are used to improve the performance of the feature extraction. Then, dropout layers and fully connected layers are used to reduce the amount of calculation. The last layer uses the RVFL as optimized by the grasshopper optimization algorithm to replace the SoftMax layer and classify the features, further improving the stability and accuracy of classification. In this study, two aspects of the classification (feature extraction and feature classification) are improved, effectively improving the accuracy. The experimental results show that on the Fashion-Mnist dataset, the accuracy of the algorithm in this study reaches 92.93%. This value is 1.36%, 2.05%, 0.65%, and 3.76% higher than that of the local binary pattern (LBP)-support vector machine (SVM), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)-SVM, LBP-HOG-SVM, and AlexNet-sparse representation-based classifier algorithms, respectively, effectively demonstrating the classification performance of the algorithm.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T02:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211059207
       
  • Improving the ultraviolet protection factor of textiles through mechanical
           surface modification using calendering

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      Authors: Alicia Bernhard, Barnaby Caven, Tom Wright, Eduard Burtscher, Thomas Bechtold
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The textile modification technique of calendering was used to change the cover factor of wearable textiles in order to improve the ultraviolet protection factor and decrease the amount of ultraviolet radiation transmitted through the fabric. Using optical microscopy and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the quantifiable changes that occurred after repeated passes through the calender were measured. It was found that after one pass the uncovered area decreased by a factor of two and the ultraviolet protection factor increased by 200%. The thickness and air permeability of treated fabric decreased with repeated calendering. The bending stiffness remained nearly unchanged, and thus the mechanical properties were not altered substantially by the fabric compression.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-19T11:48:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046624
       
  • An intelligent defect detection system for warp-knitted fabric

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      Authors: Xie Guosheng, Xu Yang, Yu Zhiqi, Sun Yize
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In textile factories, the most typical warp-knitted fabric defects include point defects, holes, and color differences. Traditional manual inspection methods are inefficient for detecting these defects. Existing intelligent inspection systems often have a single function. Factories require a real-time inspection system that can detect common defects and color difference. The YOLO (you only look once) neural network is faster than the two-stage neural network and has lower hardware requirements. The system’s color difference detection algorithm compares the color difference between the standard image and the image to be measured and records where the color difference value is exceeded. Finally, the comparison of the factory application proves that the designed system has good real-time performance and accuracy and can meet the fabric inspection requirements of warp-knitted fabric factories.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T12:24:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060084
       
  • Effect of waist ease distribution on aesthetic fit

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      Authors: Huijuan Bi, Yue Sun, Fengyuan Zou, Zheng Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      When a garment is given a certain amount of ease, the body shape characteristics and matching degree of air gap distribution determine the aesthetic fit of garment sculpt. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the aesthetic fit and air gap distribution of the bust and waist sections. Three factors, the ratio of the horizontal radius vector to the bust and waist sections (HrvB, HrvW) and the location and proportion of darts (DL, DP), have been considered in this analysis. Ten female participants with different Hrv (including HrvB and HrvW) were recruited and asked to wear 10 sample blouses with different DL and DP. Samples worn by participants are observed at different angles, and evaluated with scores by 30 experts. The air gap thickness (THA) between the garment and skin are measured by a TC2 scanner and Qualisys three-dimensional motion capture system. The results show that Hrv is the most important factor affecting the aesthetic fit, while DL and DP have significant influence on the formation of garment wrinkles. A round body shape has higher scores when wearing sample garments whose waist dart is close to the front and middle (samples L2, L3) and smaller back middle dart and front waist dart (samples P1, P2), while a flat body shape has higher scores in the opposite condition (sample L5, P5). In terms of air gap distribution, there is a significant positive correlation between HrvB and THA in the front area (132–180°). Here, HrvW was negatively correlated with THA in the back side area. The correlation coefficients are all above 0.6. The DL has a great influence on THA in the side area of the bust section and front side area of the waist section, while DP has a great influence on THA in the front and back areas of the bust section and the back side area of the waist section. In a comparative analysis, this paper proved that the smaller fluctuation of THA and the uniform ease distribution are more likely to present an aesthetic and fit dressing appearance. Although the relationship between THA and the three factors was not significant, the regularity of its distribution is accompanied by a significant change of dressing score.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T05:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211059211
       
  • A multi-function textile with pH-induced switch wettability transition for
           controllable oil−water separation

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      Authors: Long Feng, Yimiao Hou, Qingqing Hao, Mingxing Chen, Shuo Wang, Xuemin Hu, Wenxiu Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The deterioration of water ecology caused by the discharge of oil spill wastewater, industrial sewage, and municipal sewage has attracted wide attention worldwide. Thus, it is significant to design a simple, environmentally friendly approach to separate oil–water mixtures. In this work, three different fabrics with pH-induced wettability transition were prepared by a dip-coating process for oil and water separation. The dip-coating fabrics had the advantages of oil–water separation, photocatalytic degradation, and recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate/polyamide nonwoven fabric was used as the substrate materials of the fabric. The carboxylic acid-modified TiO2 endowed the fabric with hydrophilicity–hydrophobicity and photocatalytic properties. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained by the coprecipitation method provided magnetism for the fabric, facilitating the recycling of the fabric and improving the hydrophobicity of the fabric. The fabrics coated with dipping solutions were superhydrophobic in a neutral environment and hydrophilic in an alkaline environment. Among the three coated fabrics, the fabric coated with stearic acid/TiO2-Fe3O4 (FST) had the most satisfying oil–water separation performance and durability. Under the neutral condition, the contact angle of the FST was 151° and the separation efficiency was 98%. Under the alkaline condition, the underwater oil contact angle of the FST was 150° and the separation efficiency was 95%. After 15 cycles, the oil–water separation rate of the FST was still higher than 90%. Due to the presence of TiO2, the coated fabric had an exceptional performance in the photodegradation of organic pollutants (69.9%). In addition, the fabrics can be quickly recovered due to magnetism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T05:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056981
       
  • Cotton-containing printing wires based on the two-dimensional braiding
           method for three-dimensional printing of clothing

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      Authors: Meng-jie Wu, Chao Zhi, Li Tu, Yong-zhen Wang, Yang Dai, Ling-jie Yu, Jia-guang Meng, Xiao-yi He
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There is a large somatosensory gap between the three-dimensional (3D) printing of clothing and traditional garments due to the limitations (e.g., air permeability and skin-friendliness) of the printing materials. For this reason, the application of traditional textile materials in 3D printing has become a hot topic in the field of 3D printed clothing. Based on the above, this work prepared four kinds of cotton-containing composite solutions and then impregnated thermoplastic polyurethane core yarns in these solutions to obtain four types of 3D printed cotton-containing composite core yarns (3Dp-C-CYs). Afterward, based on the two-dimensional (2D) braiding method, four kinds of cotton-containing 3D printing wires used for fused deposition molding technology were prepared by wrapping low-melting polyester filaments around the different 3Dp-C-CYs. After comparing the printing performance of the four cotton-containing 3D printing wires, the wire containing cotton powders had the best comprehensive performance and was selected to print the cotton-containing 3D printed fabrics. The results showed that the cotton-containing 3D printed fabric has good flatness and contains a large number of cotton powders; in addition, compared with the traditional polylactic acid and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer 3D printed fabrics, the 3D printed fabric made up of cotton-containing 3D printing wire can provide a closer wearing experience to that of cotton fabric. The 3D printing wire produced by the 2D braiding method offers a new idea for applying traditional textile materials in 3D printing, showing great application potentials in the field of 3D printing of clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T05:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211059208
       
  • An analytical approach of filament bundle swinging dynamics, Part II:
           identifying equivalent dynamic constitutive parameters of filament bundles
           

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      Authors: Xunxun Ma, Yongxing Wang, Shujia Li, Shengze Wang, He Ye
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A filament bundle is a type of yarn, which is composed of nearly parallel and highly oriented polymer monofilaments. Due to its nonlinearity both in material constitutive properties and structure, the filament bundle possesses nonlinear viscoelastic properties. It is important to study the dynamic behavior of the filament bundle accurately during its high-speed movement. Therefore, an accurate expression of the constitutive relation of the filament bundle is an essential prerequisite for its dynamic simulation and analysis. Continued the previous study in Part I: modeling filament bundle method, in this paper, an approach was proposed to identify the equivalent dynamic constitutive parameters of the filament bundle considering frequency-dependent characteristics. Firstly, the identification formulas of the dynamic elastic modulus and viscoelastic coefficients were derived based on the Kelvin model. Then, a testing method of the cross-sectional parameters of the filament bundle under a certain tension was proposed, and the testing device was developed to obtain the area of the filament bundle; The dynamic loading test of the bundle filament was conducted in a DMA Q800 dynamic mechanical tester. Thirdly, the equivalent dynamic elastic modulus and viscoelastic coefficients were obtained through the experimental test. Finally, an analytical method was proposed to verify the correctness of experimental results through simulation. The results show that the excitation frequency has a significant influence on the dynamic elastic modulus and viscoelastic coefficient, and the curves of the equivalent dynamic elastic modulus and viscoelastic coefficient present nonlinear variation characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-15T05:22:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211059205
       
  • Modeling and drafting process simulation of cotton slivers based on an
           octahedron structure

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      Authors: Tao Wang, Xiaochuan Chen, Jun Wang, Yong Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to study the variation of the drafting force of cotton slivers, a three-dimensional model of cotton slivers was proposed. The model is based on the three-dimensional network structure of the fibers in the cotton sliver. The three-dimensional network structure is simulated by an octahedron. Based on the similarity between dynamic drawing and static drawing, the static drawing simulation of the model is carried out by using ANSYS software, and the static drawing force of different quantitative cotton slivers is simulated. The results show that the average relative error of the static stretch force and dynamic drafting force is 8.09%, and the maximum relative error is less than 15%. Then, the equations of the dynamic drafting force and static stretch force are obtained by linear regression, and the drawing force under other quantitative conditions is successfully predicted. Finally, static stretching is used to simulate the influence curve of different roller spacings on the dynamic drafting force, and the results show that the simulation results are consistent with the actual situation. Therefore, the octahedral cotton sliver model is effective, and the simulation results also provide a reference for the approximate prediction of dynamic drafting force.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T07:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056383
       
  • Analysis of the characteristics of air–yarn coupling movement in the
           profiled reed groove of an air-jet loom

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      Authors: Yuzhen Jin, Hailang Xiong, Jingyu Cui
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The movement characteristics of yarn in the profiled reed groove of an air-jet loom can have a great impact on the performance of the fabric. Unstable yarn movement tends to lead to weft defects, as short wefts or weft breaks may occur, which could deteriorate the quality of the final fabric. In this paper, the characteristics of the yarn movement in a profiled reed groove are numerically studied. The arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method is used to solve the two-way airflow–yarn interaction and the yarn is simulated with the ball–socket model. A fluctuation ratio is defined to characterize the unsteadiness of the yarn movement. Our simulation first investigates the effect of the gap ratio of the profiled reed groove (β) on the yarn movement then compares the movements of different yarn kinds. The simulation results indicate that a larger β not only decreases gas leaks (thus saves gas consumption), but also stabilizes the yarn movement. Our simulation results also show that the movement of the yarn of polypropylene is more stable than the other two weft-yarn materials. An experiment is also conducted to validate our numerical results, which shows a favorable agreement between them. Our numerical results of the yarn movement in the profiled reed groove can provide a valuable insight into the optimization of the weft insertion system of the air-jet loom.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T07:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056979
       
  • The comfort properties of hemp and flax blended denim fabrics with common
           industrial washing treatments

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      Authors: Canan Saricam
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the moisture, thermal, and tactile comfort properties of flax and hemp blended denim fabrics treated with selected common industrial washing treatments were analyzed. Being used recently in denim fabric production, four different types of flax and hemp blended fabrics in different compositions and a reference cotton fabric were produced in similar construction and treated with rinse, stone, and bleach washes. The impact of fiber composition and the washing treatments on comfort properties was analyzed statistically. The findings revealed that the blended fabrics had better moisture comfort properties and thermal resistance than the cotton fabrics. Moreover, their tactile comfort properties were within acceptable limits. The washing treatments improved the comfort properties of all fabrics in a similar way.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T05:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211054216
       
  • Finite element modeling and experimental testing of woven fabric based on
           a new instrument: simulative analysis of the compression property

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      Authors: Yi Sun, Gui Liu, Dongdong Lu, Xingxing Pan, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A multi-scale finite element (FE) model including a macro-scale instrument and fabric composed of meso-scale yarns is established so as to deeply understand the compression mechanism of woven fabrics based on the Quick-Intelligent Handle Evaluation System. The compression stress and strain of the fabric and its internal warp and weft yarns are revealed in the FE analysis, and a parameter study involving the friction coefficient, Young’s modulus, yarn spacing and crimp height is addressed to understand the fabric deformation. The results show that fabric parameters have a significant impact on the compression behavior, indicating that the compression performance of the fabric is limited by the nonlinear mechanical and geometric properties of the yarn. Moreover, by comparing the FE modeling and experimental testing, the FE model proved to be sufficient to simulate the compression response of the fabric, so as to predict the compression property based on actual or preset material properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-11-03T08:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211056381
       
  • Improved separation performance of SS fiber nonwoven felt by the coating
           of a non-isotropic porous SS membrane layer

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      Authors: Hongbin Li, Wenying Shi, Tengfei Li, Qiyun Du, Haixia Zhang, Xiaohong Qin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With excellent mechanical properties, large porosity, and permeability, stainless steel (SS) fiber nonwoven felt has outstanding application advantages in high-temperature filtration and purification. However, the pore size of the SS nonwoven felt, which is directly determined by the diameter of the produced fiber stacked inside, usually varies from tens of microns to several microns. Low filtration accuracy greatly limits its application in the fields of fine separation and purification. In this study, the separation performance of SS fiber nonwoven felt was improved by the coating of a non-isotropic porous SS membrane layer via the immersion precipitation phase inversion-sintering method. The effects of sintering temperature on pore structure, surface wettability, separation performance, and mechanical properties of the coated SS nonwoven felt were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), water permeability, and tensile test, respectively. The results suggest that with the increase of sintering temperature from 1000°C to 1200°C, both porosity and pore size reduce gradually. The WCA value shows an increase from 31.4 to 62.3° and pure water flux shows a corresponding decrease from 2562 to 889 L . m−2 . h−1. The sintering temperature has a negative effect on the mechanical strength of the coated SS fiber nonwoven felt, which is mainly determined by the mechanical properties of the sintered SS fiber nonwoven felt substrate. The coated SS fiber nonwoven felt exhibits a long-term durable separation performance even after frequent combined physical washing and chemical cleaning when applied in the treatment of potato starch wastewater.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T06:28:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211054220
       
  • The color matching design based on polynomial regression

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      Authors: Jianguo Ran, Heng Liu, Jiqing Luo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Camouflage spots are mostly color patches of different colors. Compared with the traditional empirical color matching method, computer color matching can quickly and effectively calculate the proportion of red, yellow, and blue primary colors. In general, camouflage computer color matching in the practical application of the initial formula is not accurate and multiple color modification still cannot match. First, we measured the chroma coordinates of 98 standard swatches made of red, green, and blue coatings in different proportions by the OHSP-660 spectral reflectance tester. Then, we adopted polynomial regression algorithm by Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) to obtain the regression equation between [math], [math], [math], and [math]. Finally, the fitting equation is used to obtain the paint color scheme in the coordinates of [math], [math], and [math] in arbitrary uniform color space, so as to realize the purpose of computer color matching. The experimental results show that the minimum color difference is 1.691 (L*a*b* unit) the maximum color difference is 2.497, which meets the design requirements of camouflage and target color difference being no more than 3. Our work provides a theoretical basis for the further development of computer color matching system in camouflage.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-27T01:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211054222
       
  • Preparation and characterization of an electromagnetic composite
           polypyrrole/polyethylene short filament geotextile

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      Authors: Yanfeng Yang, Yuanjun Liu, Xiaoming Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, firstly, polypyrrole was prepared by in situ polymerization using pyrrole as the monomer, hexahydrate ferric chloride as the oxidizer and dopant, and polyethylene geotextile as the substrate to prepare a polypyrrole/polyethylene short filament geotextile composite; secondly, the electromagnetic microwave absorption property and shielding property of the polypyrrole/polyethylene short filament geotextile composite were investigated; finally, the chemical structure of the polypyrrole/polyethylene short filament geotextile composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman test methods. The results show that the reflection loss value is up to the minimum value of –17.53 dB in the frequency range of 0–3 GHz and the best absorbing performance is obtained at the frequency of 1.12 GHz. In the frequency range of 0.95–1.25 GHz, the reflection loss value is less than –10 dB, and the electromagnetic wave is effectively absorbed. The shielding effectiveness value is up to the maximum value of 16.07 dB at the frequency of 1.19 GHz, that is, the shielding ability becomes strongest at the frequency of 1.19 GHz; otherwise, the shielding effectiveness is higher than 14 dB in the frequency range of 0.17–3.0 GHz. The FTIR, Raman, XRD, and DSC tests result show that polypyrrole has been successfully loaded on the polyethylene geotextile, improving the crystallinity and thermal stability property of the composite.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T06:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211053396
       
  • The art reconstruction of waste ribbons based on encouraging people to
           overcome coronavirus disease 2019

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      Authors: Fangdong Zou, Zhou Qi, Li Na, Ziyin Xiong, Shiqing Huang, Liu Shan, Wanting Shi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To achieve efficient and environmental reuse of waste ribbons, artworks reconstructed from waste ribbons for decorative occasions were inspired by the dedicated and determined people working against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and developed through a handmade and delicate strategy. With the theme of ‘Ordinary * Extraordinary,’ the artworks aim to convey endless positive energy and hope to people suffering from COVID-19. To fulfill the art reconstruction, the design idea, composition design and color design were comprehensively considered and carefully described. The artworks were applied for decoration in hospital wards and the home environment. Their composition and color gave medical workers, patients and ordinary people suffering from COVID-19 a sense of comfort and warmth. All positive energy from our artworks accompanied people and encouraged them never to give up and overcome COVID-19. The art reconstruction of waste ribbons proposed in this study may provide an excellent way for the reuse of waste ribbons. More importantly, it improves the added value of products and strengthens people's determination to overcome COVID-19.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T06:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211053397
       
  • A study of the physical properties and bending stiffness of antistatic and
           antibacterial knitted fabrics

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      Authors: Norina Asfand, Virginija Daukantienė
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Different fiber blends, knit patterns, and treatments may be applied to increase the functionality and comfort of knitted fabrics. In this research, the physical properties and bending stiffness of 1 × 1 rib and half-milano rib fabrics with four fiber blends (90% cotton/10% antistatic PET, 80% cotton/20% antistatic PET, 70% cotton/30% antistatic PET, and 65% cotton/35% antistatic PET) applied to each knit pattern were studied. The effect of fabric direction (course and wale), technical side (face side and back side), and treatment (dying, softening with Aquasoft® SI hydrophilic softener, and Polygiene VO-600 antibacterial finish) on the physical characteristics and bending stiffness of the fabrics was evaluated. The results revealed that dyeing and softening increased the fabric area density and both wale and course densities and decreased fabric thicknesses compared to the control fabrics. The antibacterial finish applied to the softened samples did not change the physical properties. Bending stiffness in the course direction was lower than in the wale direction, and it was higher for technical face samples than for technical back ones. The 1 × 1 rib knitted fabrics showed lower stiffness than the half-milano rib fabrics. Treatment of the investigated fabrics decreased bending stiffness for both treatment sample groups compared to the control group.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T06:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211055070
       
  • Optimal analysis and application of the warp tension control system for a
           rapier loom

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      Authors: Yanjun Xiao, Zhenpeng Zhang, Zhenhao Liu, Weiling Liu, Nan Gao, Wei Zhou, Zhe Mao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control performance optimization is an essential method to improve a loom’s warp tension control performance. This work proposes an improved genetic algorithm optimized PID control scheme to overcome the decline in control performance of the traditional PID control algorithm in a loom’s warp tension control system. Through the decoupling analysis of loom motion mechanism, the establishment of warp tension model and the optimization of fitness evaluation mechanism of genetic algorithm can effectively overcome the problems of local optimal solution and algorithm degradation of genetic algorithm. Simulation experiments were carried out with the traditional PID, the integral separation PID, and the genetic PID in warp tension control. The results show the advantage of the genetic-PID algorithm to control warp tension stability. Ultimately, according to the functional characteristics of the loom mechanism, a tension control platform for experimental studies was established. The test results show that the maximum fluctuation range of warp tension is within [−2, +6] at the test speed of 850 rpm, which meets the requirements of long-term stable and reliable control of warp tension under different weaving conditions.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T06:33:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211053662
       
  • Preparation of sodium alginate/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofiber
           membranes for adsorption of dyes

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      Authors: Xiaodong Jiang, Caixia Sang, Jiankun Wang, Jing Guo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, electrospinning was used to prepare sodium alginate (SA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite nanofiber membranes. Effects of electrospinning parameters on the morphology and fiber diameter were investigated, and an orthogonal design was chosen to optimize the parameters. The optimized nanofiber membranes were applied as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB), basic fuchsin (BF), and methyl orange (MO). Kinetic and isotherm of adsorption and effects of different experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and initial dye concentration on adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the optimum parameters for the nanofiber membranes were SA/PVA blend ratios (3:7), electric field strength (20 kV), flow rate (0.05 mL/h), and distance (12.5 cm) between the syringe needle and collector, and the mean fiber diameter of the optimized membranes was 99.58 nm. The adsorption of nanofiber membranes was well described by the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model and the Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption mechanism was chemisorption by a monolayer. Based on the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacities for MB, BF, and MO were 9.25 mg/g, 9.02 mg/g, and 7.35 mg/g, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-22T06:33:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211053663
       
  • Differential scanning calorimetry/small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of
           ultraviolet sensible polypropylene filaments

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      Authors: Martina Vikova, Shinichi Sakurai, Aravin Prince Periyasamy, Hidekazu Yasunaga, Miroslava Pechočiaková, Anna Ujhelyiová
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, ultraviolet (UV) sensible metallocene isotactic polypropylene (miPP) filaments were produced with different drawing ratios and various concentrations of photochromic pigment. The effects of pigment concentration and drawing ratio on the chromatic properties and the structural modification for the miPP filaments were studied extensively by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) measurements. The change in melting temperature and the polymeric structures, such as lamellar thickness, long period and degree of crystallinity of miPP with the addition of a UV sensible pigment into miPP and the drawing process, were evaluated. The results show that the pigment concentration and the drawing ratio influence the inner structure of miPP filaments. Finally, our investigation shows that SAXS and also WAXS are appropriate to determine the lamellar thickness and the degree of crystallinity established by the DSC approach. This work attempts to correlate the results of lamellar thickness, the degree of crystallinity and the higher-order structure of the polymer acquired by DSC as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques in order to develop an appropriate approach to find the influence of pigment concentration and drawing ratio on miPP filaments.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-19T06:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211053394
       
  • A review of textile-based electrodes developed for electrostimulation

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      Authors: Luisa Euler, Li Guo, Nils-Krister Persson
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrical stimulation can be used for the treatment of various nerve and muscle injuries as well as acute and chronic pain conditions. An electrical pulse is applied to a muscle or nerve to activate excitable tissue using internal or external electrodes with the aim of building muscle strength, artificially creating or supporting limb movement or reducing pain. Textile electrodes offer several advantages over conventionally used disposable surface electrodes: they are flexible and re-usable and they do not require hydrogels, thereby avoiding skin irritation and allergic reactions and enhancing user comfort. This article presents a literature review that assesses the state of research on textile electrode constructions. Based on the review, production approaches and designs are compared, methods for evaluating stimulation discomfort and pain are proposed and issues related to user compliance are discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for future work focused on investigating the impacts of textile-based electrode parameters on comfort, convenience and ease of use.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-19T06:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211051949
       
  • Experimental investigations on two-sided upward flame spreading over thin
           flax fabric under the influence of restricted distance

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      Authors: Yunji Gao, Xiaolong Yang, Yueyang Luo, Zhisheng Li, Liang Gong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Up to 2021, most previous work focused on upward flame spread over thin solid fuel completely attached to objects or with both sides freely exposed to the air, but did not take the restricted distance (distance between fuel and objects) effects into account. In this paper, the restricted distance effects on upward flame spread over thin solid fuels were investigated using 0.65 mm thick, 120 cm tall and 6.0 cm wide flax fabric sheets under various restricted distances of 1.0–3.5 cm. The essential parameters were monitored and analyzed simultaneously, including flame length, pyrolysis spread rate, surface temperature and ignition time. The main conclusions drawn are as follows: when the restricted distance is no more than 1.5 cm, the flame length on the unrestricted side is larger than that on the restricted side, whereas the variation exhibits the opposite trend when the restricted distance is beyond 1.5 cm. As the restricted distance increases from 1.0 to 3.5 cm, the flame length and flame spread rate first increase and then decrease, reaching a maximum value at 3.0 cm restricted distance, whereas the ignition time shows the opposite trend. The decrease rate of the surface temperature with the distance from the pyrolysis front first drops and then rises as the restricted distance increases, which qualitatively characterizes that the heat flux received by the virgin surface first increases and then decreases with restricted distance. The non-monotonic trends of heat flux received by the virgin surface and consequently the flame spread rate as a function of restricted distance are due to the combined restricted distance effects of the chimney effect, wall radiation and restricting oxygen supply. The results of this paper are not only helpful in better understanding the upward flame spread over a thin flax fabric under restricted distance, but also provide some basic data for fire prevention of thin solid fuels.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-17T04:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211051099
       
  • Effect of the addition of aliphatic diamine-functionalized carbon
           nanotubes on the interfacial adhesion of glass fiber/epoxy composites

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      Authors: Yecheng Fan, Shen Ziyue, Shaohua Zeng, Pengpeng Chen, Ying Xu, Wangyan Nie, Yifeng Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the interfacial adhesion of glass fiber (GF)/epoxy composites, the GF surface was treated by dispersing aliphatic diamine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Carboxyl MWCNTs were first modified by aliphatic diamine with different alkyl chain lengths and then deposited on the surface of GF. The effect of aliphatic diamine chain lengths on the MWCNTs’ dispersion and interfacial properties of resultant composites was investigated in detail. The results showed that uniform dispersion of MWCNTs and strong fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion could be achieved, based on the grafting of 1,8-octanediamine onto MWCNTs. Compared with the control sample, the interlaminar shear, flexural, and tensile strengths of the treated composites increased by 41%, 29%, and 30%, respectively; the interlaminar fracture toughness and storage modulus in the glass region were significantly enhanced; and the glass transition temperature increased by more than 8°C. This work demonstrates that the carbon nanotubes functionalized by appropriate chain lengths of amine modifier can improve the fiber/matrix interfacial interactions and thus enhance the strength, toughness, and stiffness of fiber-reinforced composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-17T04:54:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211051952
       
  • Characterization of a polyaniline/pre-oxidized fiber felt electromagnetic
           wave absorbing composite

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      Authors: Yi Wang, Yuanjun Liu, Xiaoming Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Firstly, a polyaniline/pre-oxidized fiber felt composite was prepared by in situ polymerization using pre-oxidized fiber felt as the substrate, aniline as the monomer, ammonium persulfate as the oxidant, and p-toluenesulfonic acid as the dopant. Secondly, the electromagnetic wave absorbing property and tensile property of the polyaniline/pre-oxidized fiber felt composite were investigated. Finally, the structure and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that the reflection loss of the polyaniline/pre-oxidized fiber felt composite is the smallest at the 3000 MHz frequency, reaching –8.23 dB, and the average surface resistance is 2059.84 Ω, with good conductivity. The characterization analysis shows that polyaniline has been successfully loaded on the pre-oxidized fiber felt, and the protonation reaction occurs at the nitrogen atom on the imine -N-. The polyaniline structure is doped by p-toluenesulfonic acid with a certain degree of order and crystallinity, and the composite has good thermal stability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-17T04:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211051953
       
  • Understanding the difference in softness of Australian Soft Rolling Skin
           wool and conventional Merino wool

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      Authors: Hao Yu, Christopher Hurren, Xin Liu, Xungai Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Softness is one of the key elements of textile comfort and is one of the main considerations when consumers make purchasing decisions. In the wool industry, softness can reflect the quality and value of wool fibers. There is verifiable difference in subjective softness between Australian Soft Rolling Skin (SRS) wool and conventional Merino (CM) wool, yet the key factors responsible for this difference are not yet well understood. Fiber attributes, such as crimp (curvature), scale morphology, ortho-to-cortex (OtC) ratio and moisture regain, may have a significant influence on softness performance. This study has examined these key factors for both SRS and CM wool and systematically compared the difference in these factors. There was no significant difference in the crimp frequency between these two wools; however, the curvature of SRS wool was lower than that of CM wool within the same fiber diameter ranges (below 14.5 micron, 16.5–18.5 micron). This difference might be caused by the lower OtC ratio for SRS wool (approximately 0.60) than for CM wool (approximately 0.66). The crystallinity of the two wools was similar and not affected by the change in OtC ratio. SRS wool has higher moisture regain than CM wool by approximately 2.5%, which could reduce the stiffness of wool fibers. The surface morphology for SRS wool was also different from that of CM wool. The lower cuticle scale height for SRS wool resulted in its smoother surface than CM wool. This cuticle height difference was present even when they both had similar cuticle scale frequency.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T06:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050524
       
  • Fabric defect detection based on feature fusion of a convolutional neural
           network and optimized extreme learning machine

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      Authors: Zhiyu Zhou, Wenxiong Deng, Zefei Zhu, Yaming Wang, Jiayou Du, Xiangqi Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Aiming to accurately detect various defects in the fabric production process, we propose a fabric defect detection algorithm based on the feature fusion of a convolutional neural network (CNN) and optimized extreme learning machine (ELM). Firstly, we use transfer learning to transfer the parameters of the first 13 convolutional layers and first two fully connected layers of a VGG16 network model as pre-trained by ImageNet to the initial model and fine-tune the parameters. Subsequently, the fine-tuned model is used as a feature extractor to extract features of RGB images and their corresponding L-component images. A principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensionality of the features and fuse the reduced features. The moth flame optimization (MFO) algorithm is used to initialize the optimization variables of a parallel chaotic search (PCS) algorithm, and the PCS algorithm (as optimized by the MFO algorithm) is used to optimize the input weight and bias of the ELM (i.e., the PCS-MFO-ELM (PMELM)). Finally, the PMELM is used to replace the softmax classifier of the CNN to classify and detect fabric defect features. The experimental results show that on the amplified TILDA dataset, the precision, recall, F1-score, and accuracy rates of this algorithm for fabric holes, stains, warp breaks, dragging, and folds in fabric can reach 98.57%, 98.52%, 98.52%, and 98.50%, respectively, that is, higher than those of other algorithms. Through a validity experiment, this method is shown to be suitable for defect detection for unpatterned fabrics, regular patterned fabrics, and irregularly patterned fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-09T02:06:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044794
       
  • Effect of intra-tow flow on plain woven fabric permeability using virtual
           fiber-voxel element method

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      Authors: Junling Liu, Junbo Xie, Li Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A geometric modeling platform based on the virtual fiber-voxel element is proposed to characterize textile reinforcement in a cost-effective way, which could reflect the systemic local changes of the tow path and tow cross-section. The finite volume method is used to solve the governing equation of the boundary value problem, and the permeability of the fabric is calculated by using the flow field data obtained from the model. The flow field analysis and pressure drop in flow direction of different thickness unit cells suggest that the size of inter-tow channels play a vital role in determining the overall in-plane permeability values. The flow channels of the inter tow in warp direction were found to be greater than in the weft direction, which causes the overall permeability to be anisotropic.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050517
       
  • Changes of color and antibacterial characteristics of knitted fabrics dyed
           with reactive dyes after treatment with a nanocomposition of silver and
           carboxymethyl starch

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      Authors: Ainur Bektursunova, Nurzhan Botabayev, Gani Yerkebay, Donyor Nabiev
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Changes in the color characteristics of knitted fabrics after bactericidal finishes were studied by the colorimetric method. Antibacterial activity was tested with regard to gram-negative bacterium E. coli and gram-positive bacterium S. aureus.The strongest color changes due to the presence of Ag NPs were observed on samples dyed with lighter shades, where the color difference was mainly caused by the change in lightness and brightness. After treatment with silver NPs, the colors in samples dyed with Navy K-EN and Black NN are deepened, that is, the color intensity increases many times and the reflection coefficient decreases. Due to this effect, darker color tones can be achieved using less dye.The dyed knitted fabrics modified with Ag-carboxymethyl starch (AgCMS) NPs exhibited excellent antibacterial properties regardless of the dye color used. The dyeing did not affect the antibacterial activity of fabrics modified with AgCMS nanocomposites. The research on the resistance of the dyed knitted fabrics treated with nanocomposite AgCMS solution to washing showed the preservation of a sufficiently high antimicrobial activity, slightly decreasing only after the 10th wash in a washing solution. This is proved by exceptional resistance to washing of knitted fabrics modified with AgCMS.The results of the research allow one to solve the problem of expanding the range of antibacterial products and special clothes by treating textile materials with silver and carboxymethyl starch NPs.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050512
       
  • Tearing behaviors of polytetrafluoroethylene coated fabric under uniaxial
           in-plane tearing tests

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      Authors: Xubo Zhang, Minger Wu, Han Bao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study conducts alternative-basic-angle trapezoidal tearing and single-edge notch tearing tests on a polytetrafluoroethylene coated woven fabric, where the two methods are related through the basic angle of a trapezoid. The tearing process and failure modes are carefully examined, and load–displacement curves and tearing strength are analyzed. The tearing process comprises three stages, which are distinguished photographically or in different load–displacement curve sections. Corresponding to these stages, failure modes can be classified into three parts with varying extension directions. The effect of the basic angle is clearly illustrated. As the angle increases, three stages and parts appear in sequence; the tearing strength increases, but the larger one changes from weft to warp. The relationship between the tearing process and tearing strength is described. The three stages correspond to the increase in tearing strength, occurrence of the maximum tearing strength, and failure. Because the single-edge notch tearing method is more complex and important, it is the method that is studied mainly. Digital image correlation equipment is used to observe the strain distribution at the crack section. Moreover, the applications of four frequently used models are investigated. The results indicate that Thiele’s empirical formula offers the best simulation among the three tearing strength prediction models, and the theoretical stress distribution model also provides good simulation. Furthermore, a numerical simulation is conducted. The critical tearing strength and load–displacement curves before tearing initiates acquired through the simulation and test agree well. All results may provide basic data for future improvements in design theories.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:08:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211047252
       
  • Electric conductivity and surface potential distributions in carbon fiber
           reinforced composites with different ply orientations

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      Authors: Chaofeng Han, Baozhong Sun, Bohong Gu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The electric conductivity and surface potential distributions of carbon fiber laminated panels with different ply orientations have been investigated. We found that the unidirectional (UD) lamina has higher conductivity along the carbon fiber direction than the perpendicular direction, and equipotential contours also show different gradients along the two directions. The cross-ply (CP) and quasi-isotropic (QI) laminates have the mixed effects of the UD lamina electric conductivity and ply orientations, while the surface potential distributions mostly depend on the surface lamina direction. The conductivity along the thickness direction depends on each lamina and inter-laminar bonding. A finite element analysis model was also developed to show the effect of ply orientation on potential distribution. The CP and QI laminates with 0° surface ply have uniform potential distributions and isotropic electricity behaviors. The results could be used to monitor damage locations and design electric composite materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:08:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211048160
       
  • The effects of preloading on tensile properties of braided polyarylate
           fiber ropes

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      Authors: Xu Ding, Ying Sun, Chunhui Dong, Mengwei Guo, Li Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, the effects of preloading on the tensile properties of braided polyarylate fiber ropes were investigated experimentally. Four kinds of samples with different pitch lengths were tested with designed preload levels. The deformation responses of the ropes were captured using digital image correlation (DIC) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). It is shown that the nonlinearity in the mechanical behavior of the ropes can be almost eliminated post-preloading with one cyclic loading, and the transverse strains are much greater than the longitudinal strains due to the compaction of rope structure because of the spiral interlaced path of braid yarns. The rope with shorter pitch length (larger braid angle) has larger longitudinal strain and smaller transverse strain due to the higher yarn crimp rate and tighter yarns, respectively. The preload level is the most important parameter for preloading. The chord modulus of the ropes reached an optimum level at the preload level of 40% break load, and the tensile strength can be increased by 15% at the preload level of 50% break load. Moreover, the stability of the tensile properties could be accelerated at the higher preload level. Consequently, preloading is vital to improve the tensile properties of braided polyarylate fiber ropes, with a preload level at least of 40% break load and 10 cyclic loadings.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T03:08:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050540
       
  • Design, preparation, and characterization of auxetic weft backed weave
           fabrics based on Miura origami structure

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      Authors: Qiaoli Xu, Longxin Gu, Gui Liu, Zhuoran Liu, Dongdong Lu, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio are called auxetic materials, which as a branch of metamaterials has drawn a lot of attention in many areas. Existing auxetic knitting textiles combine flexibility and auxeticity, however the loose structure has been a main disadvantage for its application. In this study, we fabricated Miura origami structure fabrics by weaving technology in order to acquire more stable auxetic textiles. The results show that using the combination of fabric structure type and elastic yarns, an origami structure can be realized in a jacquard loom. In the Miura origami structure, the crease pattern can be separated into three parts, unfolding areas, convex areas, and concave areas. One warp system and two weft systems are compounded together, in which a weft backed weave is used to get elastic floats in the convex and concave areas, and to make the fabrics bend to the concave side. The physical map showed that the fabrics had a clear Miura origami structure and the unfolding areas were flat and even. On the basis of the designed geometric pattern, weft backed weaves can be used to construct different folded areas, spandex wrapped PET (Polyester) and inelastic PET are selected as two weft systems for weaving. Meanwhile, the Miura origami fabrics exhibit distinct in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio and out-of-plane positive Poisson’s ratio. Apart from the Miura origami structure, other origami and paper-cut structures can be realized using this method, and these special auxetic textiles have potential in protective cloths, ornamented textiles, wearable devices, and flexible sensors.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T04:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050534
       
  • Impact of size and shape for textile surface electromyography electrodes:
           a study of the biceps brachii muscle

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      Authors: Carolina Solorzano Barrera, Eduardo Piña-Martínez, Ricardo Roberts, Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electromyography is a technique to record and analyze signals from muscle tissue. Commonly, gel-based (Ag/AgCl) electrodes are used to detect muscle action potentials. Current gel-based electrode designs, however, do not perform well under constant movement and therefore are less suitable to monitor muscle behavior under everyday activities. Textile electrodes do well under movement and extended use, but produce weaker signals than their gel-based counterparts. This work points towards a reduction of this performance gap when the textile electrodes are designed to fit the target muscle. Four textile electrodes of different sizes and shapes are tested on the biceps brachii of 13 subjects. Signal parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio and voltage root-mean-square are used to determine the quality of the myoelectric signals generated by these electrodes. Results with statistically significant differences show that the electrode area and alignment to the muscle fibers affect signal quality and strength. These results indicate that target muscle characteristics should dictate the electrode dimensional parameters to optimize surface electromyography signal acquisition.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T04:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211048936
       
  • Mordant-free dyeing of nylon fabric with mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni)
           seed pods: A cleaner approach of synthetic fabric coloration

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      Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, M Mahbubul Bashar, Sumaiya Khan, Manindra N Roy, Mohammad M Hossain, Mubarak A Khan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The extraction and consequent application of natural colorants obtained from mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) seed pod powder is described here. The colored solution was extracted by facile boiling in an acidic medium. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the mahogany seed pod extract contained lignocellulosic substances. The typical strong broad band for -OH stretching vibration appeared at around the 3400 cm−1 region in the spectra indicating the presence of alcoholic groups in the substance. The acidic boiling of the mahogany seed pod extract showed the color bearing character at λmax 400–480 nm in the visible range of the ultra-violet spectrum. Subsequently, commercial single jersey-knitted nylon fabric was dyed with the mahogany seed pod extract. The effects of temperature, pH, and time were investigated meticulously for the above dyeing. The optimum conditions for nylon fabric dyeing with the mahogany seed pod extract were selected as the temperature of 100°C, dyeing time of 60 min, and dyebath pH 4.5. The results were interpreted in terms of color strength and fastness properties. The color fastness to wash and perspiration of nylon fabric dyed with mahogany seed pod extract was found to be moderate to good in the grey scale rating 3–4 to 4 grade in the case of optimum dyeing condition whereas color fastness to light was observed to be poor in the blue wool scale rating 2 grade. It was observed that dyeing time, temperature, and pH had profound influences on the color strength of the dyed material. The color strength was increased with the increase of dyeing period and dyebath temperature. The acidic dye liquor produced the darker hues while the alkaline condition had no effect on color yielding. The fabric was dyed uniformly, confirming the evenness of dyeing which is very important for successful commercial dyeing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T04:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211050526
       
  • Simulation on the fiber arrangement and distribution in the drafting zone

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      Authors: Na Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Roller drafting is an indispensable and fundamental procedure in attenuating the sliver to an adequate linear density during the spinning process. In this study, the drafting dynamic process was reflected in the arrangement containing hooked fibers and straight fibers, and the fiber straightness in the drafting zone in real-time. The drafting process was implemented from the initiation of the sliver head moving into the drafting zone to the achievement of the straightening process for all fibers in the sliver. The developed model demonstrated that the simulated weight distributions of various fibers, including the total fibers, back fibers, front fibers and floating fibers, were more in line with the actual results than the simulative ones based on the previous drafting model with the simulation of the straight fiber arrangement in the sliver. In conclusion, the drafting model with the application of the hooked fiber arrangement was effective and precise in quantizing the drafting process of a sliver with many hooked fibers, such as a cotton card sliver. Moreover, the drafting model can offer the theoretical foundation for setting the drafting parameters from the perspective of the distributions of slow-floating fibers and fast-floating fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T02:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211047109
       
  • Sustainable materials with high insulation capacity obtained from wastes
           from hemp industry processed by wet-laid

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      Authors: O Gutierrez-Moscardo, M Canet, J Gomez-Caturla, D Lascano, E Fages, L Sanchez-Nacher
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on the revalorization of hemp waste from the textile industry, focusing on the development of new sustainable materials with high insulating properties. Wet-laid technology was used to manufacture nonwovens with different binding fibers, polylactic acid, and viscose fibers. The characterization of the acoustic insulating capacity was carried out using a Kundt tube, and the thermal insulating performance by measuring the heat transmission resistance (R) and thermal conductivity (λ). The results showed that the developed nonwovens have lower thermal conductivity values of about 0.027–0.034 W/(m K), were even lower than those of traditional thermal insulating materials, being the sample with 100 g/m2 of areal density and with a composition of 80% of hemp, 10% of polylactide and 10% of viscose the one with the lowest thermal conductivity (0.027 W/(mK). Their acoustic absorption capacity was around 0.76 at a frequency of 6 kHz, in samples containing high hemp waste (>80 wt%). However, the heterogeneous, discontinuous, and high void density structure that contributes to excellent insulating properties, lead to a decrease in their mechanical properties. This demonstrated that these materials are suitable for substituting traditional materials in insulating applications. Additionally, antifungal tests were carried out. However, hemp nonwovens proved to be inefficient against fungal proliferation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T10:06:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046058
       
  • Analyzing the output performance of the knitted triboelectric
           nanogenerator based on the fish-scale shape using fast Fourier transform

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      Authors: Li Niu, Shuqiang Zhao, Qing Liu, Guangjun Wu, Chaoyu Chen, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Knitted textiles as one kind of outstanding flexible substrate that have been universally applied in smart wearables. Structural design and output performance analysis of knitted-based triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is significant research points. It is essential to provide inspiration in the TENGs applications. In this study, we designed and fabricated a fish-scale-based triboelectric nanogenerator using a formed knitted textile composed of commercial threads as a pair of contact areas. The deformation of the scale-shaped fabric was from the three-dimensional structure, which provided an effective contact area. We investigated the elastic yarn specification and scale-shaped distribution and analyzed their output performance in the frequency domain using fast Fourier transform. The result illustrated that the amplitude, phase, and power spectrum had obvious differences and can reflect the working states during the motions. The power spectrum could reach the maximum value of 280, which showed the potential for applications in the low-frequency motion.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T06:04:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044545
       
  • Mechanical properties of the surface membrane of lattice spacer-fabric
           flexible inflatable composites

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      Authors: Tong Yang, Min Luo, Zhuanyong Zou, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The surface membrane plays a vital role in bearing loads of flexible inflatable composites. In this work, the mechanical properties of the upper and lower surfaces of inflatable composites and spacer fabrics were studied. It focused on the changes in mechanical properties of surfaces of spacer fabrics with different structures after coating and damage characteristics. The results show that the PVC resin improves the mechanical properties of the surface, which penetrates into the structure to make the yarns bond to each other and adhere to the resin on the surface. And compared with knitted structures, composite membranes with a woven structure have the characteristics of specific strength. This provides data accumulation for performance research of flexible inflatable composites, finite element calculation analysis, and the experimental reference for broadening the application in military pontoons and marching tents.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T06:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046623
       
  • Research and implementation of a fabric printing detection system based on
           a field programmable gate array and deep neural network

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      Authors: Feng Li, Qinggang Xi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, aiming at the problems of difficult positioning, slow speed and low precision of digital printing, a detection system suitable for textile printing positioning is proposed and designed. This detection system innovatively combines a neural network and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize rapid and accurate positioning of printing. In the neural network part, this paper selects the backbone network Darknet19 of YOLOv2 as the backbone network, and under the premise of ensuring a certain detection accuracy, the network model is pruned and quantified to make it suitable for deployment on the embedded device FPGA. In addition, before the network training, this paper optimizes the candidate boxes by introducing k-means clustering to customize the analysis of the fabric print dataset to improve the detection accuracy. In the FPGA part, this paper optimizes the architecture on the FPGA side in two parts: data computation and data transmission. In terms of computational optimization, parallel optimization of the neural network is performed by combining FPGA optimization methods, such as pipeline and unroll. In terms of transmission optimization, we use a double-buffered design to ping-pong in the input and output modules to overlap the latency, and then use multi-port transmission to improve the overall bandwidth utilization and reduce the transmission latency caused by on-chip and off-chip interactions. The experimental results show that the detection system combining the neural network and FPGA can effectively position fabric prints and meet the needs of real-time. The design scheme has lower power compared to the graphics processing unit and is faster compared to the central processing unit.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T02:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211048156
       
  • A woven electrode with convex structure for electrical impedance
           tomography

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      Authors: Xi Zhang, Yueqi Zhong, Qi Wang, Chang Dou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We developed a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) woven electrode, which was woven in a convex high-density structure. The convex structure can decrease the motion artifacts caused by the slippage between human skin and the electrode. The high density can reduce the noise caused by the change of contact resistance. The model of the electrode–skin interface was proposed, and its equivalent circuit model was built, which can present an intuitive understanding of electrode design principles. Furthermore, AgCl particles were electrochemically deposited on the Ag electrode in terms of 23 schemes to optimize the deposition uniformity. The effects of deposition time, electrolyte concentration, and current/voltage magnitude were investigated. According to the result, the best combination is a constant current method, with the current at 0.01 A, the deposition time set to 300 s, and the electrolyte concentration as 0.05 M. The resistances of the deposited electrodes are qualified for impedance monitoring due to their small resistance. A bioimpedance system was assembled followed by the electrical impedance tomography mechanism. The frequency response and bioimpedance–time relationship were measured and analyzed in our bioimpedance system. The result reveals that the frequency response from [math] to[math] Hz presents a stable state for the convex woven electrode. The woven electrode system has a wider stable frequency band than the wet electrode. The bioimpedance of wet electrodes is stable in the initial time, whereas that of woven electrodes decreases with time. However, the wet electrode bioimpedance increases with time after 3 h, and the woven electrode bioimpedance is stable after 3 h. Both the interface capacitance and resistance have very important roles in the bioimpedance system. The woven electrode is better in long-term monitoring than the wet electrode. In addition, convex electrode bioimpedance presents less noise than the plain electrode. Therefore, the convex electrode is the best choice for the bioimpedance monitoring system.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T02:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211047110
       
  • Color prediction model for hybrid multifilament fabric

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      Authors: Yujuan Wang, Wengang Li, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to facilitate the design of a hybrid filament before spinning, a k-m (Kubelka-Munk) iteration model was proposed, which was based on the calculation method for reflectance of a translucent object and needed to be used in conjunction with a fabric model that can reflect the arrangement order of monofilaments. Therefore, the model can not only calculate the color of each point on the fabric surface, but also the mixed color of the fabric. Twenty fabrics with five different blending ratios of black monofilaments and white monofilaments, four multifilament fineness and three fabric weave types were woven. The relationship between the gray distribution of all points on the fabric surface captured by the camera in a DigiEye colorimeter and calculated by the k-m iteration model was analyzed, and the color difference between the mixed color of the fabric tested by the Datacolor spectrophotometer and that calculated by the k-m iteration model was calculated. The results show that the intersection distance and Pearson correlation coefficient between the gray histogram of the photographed fabric image and that of the calculated fabric image were 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. The average color difference obtained by the k-m iteration model was 0.92 Color Measurement Committee (2:1) units, which was best compared with the calculation results of other models. By discussing the fabric structure parameters causing the lightness difference, it was concluded that the calculated lightness was smaller than the measured lightness difference for fabric with a longer float length, smaller multifilament fineness and a larger black monofilament blending ratio.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-26T03:53:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211047114
       
  • Predictions of the axial tensile property of the unidirectional composite
           influenced by microfiber breakage defects

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      Authors: Tao Liu, Yuan Gao, Wei Fan, Xingzhong Gao, Jianhua Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper primarily investigated the effect of fiber breakage defects on tensile properties of the unidirectional composite (UD) using the numerical simulation method. Different kinds of fiber breakage defects were firstly proved to exist in the UD according to the sub-micro computed tomography images at the microscale level. A strict random uniform distribution hypothesis was then proposed to introduce fiber breakage defects into the composite. Numerous microstructural models within random fiber breakage defects were created with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the fiber breakage defect effect on the UD. The results show that the tensile modulus of the UD was reduced by 17% when the fiber breakage defect volume fraction was only 1%, which indicates the effect of this kind of defect was very significant. The fiber volume fraction, defect volume fraction and property all have influences on the decrease of the UD caused by the fiber breakage defect. Finally, we derived a mathematical model to calculate the tensile modulus of the UD based on the numerical results. The proposed mathematical model has an application on the prediction of the axial modulus of the UD or the fiber tow containing large numbers of fiber breakage defects in the composites with complicated structure.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T03:49:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034247
       
  • A new strategy to improve ramie degumming based on removal of the xylan
           branched structure

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      Authors: Huihui Wang, Tong Shu, Pandeng Li, Yun Bai, Mengxiong Xiang, Tianyi Yu, Ya Wu, Longjiang Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ramie fiber is known as the “king of natural fibers,” and the key to its wide application is efficient and green manufacturing. Microbial degumming has gradually become a hot area of research due to its environmental protection and mild operating conditions. However, some gummy materials remain after microbial degumming. Xylan is the main component of residual gums; its acetylated branched chains create the space barrier that makes the removal of hemicellulose difficult during ramie degumming. An acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) was obtained from Bacillus pumilus and characterized to solve this problem. Its optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and 8.0, respectively, and it had good temperature and pH stability. These properties were consistent with the conditions of ramie degumming and they laid a foundation for the application of AXE in ramie degumming. Besides, an engineered strain with a high activity of AXE was constructed successfully on the basis of the wild-type degumming strain Pectobacterium carotovorum HG-49 and used for ramie degumming. The removal rate of hemicellulose and total gums by the engineered strain increased by 4.89% and 2.53%, respectively, compared with that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, the role of this AXE in ramie degumming was further proven by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This study showed that AXE played an important role in the removal of hemicellulose in the degumming process of ramie fibers, thus providing a promising degumming strategy for ramie and other bast fiber plants.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T05:23:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044913
       
  • Reusable textile microfiber and laundry in healthcare: Critical analysis
           of problematic published information

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      Authors: Michael Overcash
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Recent analyses of environmental services products and practices in healthcare have covered the concepts of hygienically clean, mechanisms of cleaning, and comparison of reusable and disposable textile microfiber products. In 11 referred papers, it was discovered that three had sufficient factual errors to influence the citations found in the broader literature. This study evaluating these problematic papers is an obligation of the scientific community for accuracy. In light of newer data on the efficacy of important textiles for microfiber cleaning, these previous studies were reexamined to see if methodological corrections are needed. Closer investigation of the authors’ data was used to ascertain the validity of their initial conclusions. These current reevaluations reverse conclusions in these journal articles. It appears factors such as multi-variant statistical comparisons, combining variables, and use of extremely high inoculum for cleaning led to the wrong conclusions in these three papers. The revised results show that for hospital surface cleaning with reusable textile microfiber products, no detectable levels were found for two of the most challenging organisms for hospital-acquired infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile. Commercial laundry was substantially better than hospital laundry and reusable microfiber products improved with use.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T05:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044547
       
  • Image classification method of cashmere and wool based on the
           multi-feature selection and random forest method

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      Authors: Yaolin Zhu, Jiameng Duan, Yunhong Li, Tong Wu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cashmere and wool play an important role in the wool industry and textile industry, and suitable features are the key to identifying them. To obtain effective features and improve the accuracy of cashmere and wool classification, the multi-feature selection and random forest method is used to express in this article. Firstly, the gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix model is used for texture feature extraction to construct the original high-dimensional feature data set; secondly, considering that the original feature data set contains a large number of invalid and redundant features, the feature selection algorithm combining correlation analysis and principal component analysis–weight coefficient evaluation is used to obtain important features, independent features, and principal component sensitive features to complement each other; last but not least, the optimized random forest model analyzes the results. The results show that the combination of multi-feature selection subsets and random forest makes the classification accuracy of cashmere and wool more reliable, and the accuracy fluctuates around 90%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T05:17:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046060
       
  • Numerical simulation of dynamic pressures on a novel drafting system and
           experimental study on yarn properties based on friction fields

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      Authors: Jing Quan, Longdi Cheng, Jianyong Yu, Wenliang Xue
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The friction fields of a novel drafting device based on the ring spinning frame are investigated in terms of numerical simulation and experimental studies. In numerical simulation, the results demonstrate that the dynamic pressure distribution in the drafting zone is presented in the form of wave undulation in the main drafting zone. Besides this, the pressure peak greatly increases close to the front nip. The effect of different spacers and middle roller speeds on the pressure distribution was also simulated, which indicates that the dynamic pressure decreases strictly with increasing spacer size, while at middle roller speeds of 0.18 rad/s and 0.26 rad/s the pressure distributions only show a significant difference at the pins nip and not throughout the drafting zone. For experimental studies, the friction fields of the novel drafting device were tested with different spacers. The peaks of the friction field decrease with the increasing spacing in the main drafting zone. The friction force shows a wavy undulation in the direction of the middle roller nip to the front roller nip, and there is also a great increase in the peak of the friction force near the front roller nip. Analysis of the properties of the three yarns spun by the novel draft device under different spacers shows that changing the spacer affects the friction forces of the drafting zone and has a significant effect on the yarn evenness, imperfections, and strength, but not on the hairiness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T06:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211046059
       
  • Multifunctional CeO2/Co3O4@polyacrylonitrile nanofibers for
           high-efficiency air-pollutant removal

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      Authors: Qi Wang, Tingting Hu, Wenqi Zhang, Zhenlin Jiang, Pinhua Rao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As many countries in the world are paying increasing attention to air quality, reducing the concentration of pollutants in the air, protecting human health and improving the ecological environment have become problems that need to be solved urgently. This paper describes how ceria and cobalt tetroxide@polyacrylonitrile (CeO2/Co3O4@PAN) nanofiber membranes are produced using electrospinning technology, which have broad applications for the removal of air pollutants. Results show that CeO2/Co3O4@PAN has high electrostatic attraction to particulate matter (PM). CeO2/Co3O4@PAN membranes show better mechanical properties, thermal stability and air-purification performance than pure PAN membranes. Nanofiber membranes with 5 wt% of CeO2/Co3O4 have excellent removal efficiency: 93.4% and 94.5% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, and 96.2% and 98% for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds, respectively. They also show low pressure drops, high stability and good recyclability. This work shows that they are promising candidates as highly stable, recyclable and efficient agents for the removal of air pollutants.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T09:31:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211045727
       
  • A hybrid forecasting model for ageing breast deformation during yoga
           practice

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      Authors: Jie Zhou, Jianming Chen, Newman Lau, Qian Mao, Zidan Gong, Yang Liu, Joanne Yip, Winnie Yu, Jun Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, the deformation of bilateral breasts was investigated with an established hybrid model to predict the nipple movement specifically for senior women during yoga exercise. A motion capture system was used to collect the displacement of 10 markers on the breasts from 11 senior women (average age of 62) during yoga practice and then the data were analyzed by integrating the absolute grey relation analysis (AGRA) and extreme learning machine (ELM). The right and left breasts had the maximum motion amplitude in the horizontal direction but they were respectively featured with contraction and extension during yoga practice. AGRA showed that the nipple motion was highly associated with the vertical region above the nipple for the left breast but the parallel region along with the nipple for the right breast. The ELM model is able to predict the nipple movement within tolerable error (∼0.0037). This study lays a foundation for a better understanding of ageing breast kinematics during yoga poses with limited practical experiments. Besides, the accurate and efficient results can be used not only for yoga pose instruction but also for ergonomic sports bra design.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T12:45:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040867
       
  • Ultralow emission micro-printing process for PET fibers using liquid
           disperse dye

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      Authors: Li Ai, Hongmei Cao, Yawei Zhu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The commercial powder disperse dye used for printing polyester fabrics exhibits many environmentally-unfriendly properties, especially the associated high wastewater emission. In this study, three kinds of liquid disperse dyes (C.I. Disperse Blue 291:1, (L-DB); C.I. Disperse Red 179, (L-DR), and C.I. Disperse Orange 30, (L-DO)), two kinds of binders (A and/or B), and a micro-printing process, were applied to polyester fabric, with the goal of reducing freshwater consumption while maintaining color fastness. The influences of rheological and printing performance and color fastness were studied. Home-made liquid dyes of L-DB, L-DR and L-DO were found to exhibit higher color depth, excellent color fastness, and ultralow emission of wastewater and waste residual during the micro-printing process. The binder comprised of silicone-modified polyacrylate was observed to increase dye uptake, reduce dye sublimation, and improve color fastness. The liquid dyes of L-DB, L-DR and L-DO also exhibit stable and better rheological properties, which appeared to have little effect on the viscosity of printing pastes when compared with commercial powder disperse dye of Blue 3GFL (C.I. Disperse Blue 291:1), Red 2B (C.I. Disperse Red 179) and Yellow brown S-4RL (C.I. Disperse Orange 30), respectively. Results of this micro-printing process indicated that it is an environmentally clean production technology.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T12:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211045723
       
  • Influence of some knitting and finishing parameters on the snag resistance
           of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) knit fabric

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      Authors: Mehmet Fahri Yibar, Hamdi Ogut, Neslihan Cingu, Suna Cetin, Tugce Koroglu Yatikci, Kenan Yildirim
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To assess the effects of fabric take-up, yarn tension, feeder position, and yarn feeder material on the occurrence of snagging, fabrics produced with two different finishing processes, were subjected to longitudinal or transversal 100, 300, and 600 revolutions, and the degree of snagging was measured and compared afterwards with gray fabric. Our results showed that, during the knitting process, the use of ceramic yarn feeders resulted in significantly fewer snags compared with metal yarn feeders. The gray fabric, having no finishing, was fragile and easily snagged, whereas the fabric treated by a finishing process – either drying in relaxed condition (Treatment A) or under stress conditions (Treatment B) – was more resistant to snagging. Moreover, the snagging property of the gray fabric tended to increase with increasing longitudinal or transversal 100, 300, or 600 revolutions. Slight increases in snagging were also present in fabrics having Treatment A or Treatment B at the same revolutions, but the differences were not statistically important (P > 0.05). Frequency of snags was higher when revolutions were transversal rather than on longitudinal direction. Yarn tension and feeder position had no effect on snagging degree, while fabric take-up had limited effect. For acquiring a fabric resistant to snagging, the gray fabric produced with ceramic yarn guiders during the knitting process should be subjected to drying under relaxed condition. We also suggest that quality control tests be carried out taking the results of our study into consideration.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T12:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043252
       
  • Double-appearance patterning model of warp-knitted spacer textiles based
           on the jacquard loop index

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      Authors: Yanting Zhang, Gaoming Jiang, Aijun Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research focuses on a three-dimensional jacquard spacer fabric, which has two sets of jacquard yarn systems to form double-appearance patterns. Because of the unique structure and formation characteristics, a specific computerized patterning model needs to be solved for efficient jacquard structure design. After a systematic analysis of double-needle bed knitting and the piezo-jacquard principle, a loop index is proposed to coordinate jacquard loops and define the single-loop-based jacquard bitmap. Also, an algorithm is derived to solve offset data to guide the knitting action by inferring the jacquard bitmap and the corresponding loops hypotaxis. This new patterning method is proposed based on two basic elements of the jacquard bitmap and lapping data. In comparison with the traditional two-course bitmap method, the new approach shows the advantage of more simplified operations by a significant decrease of jacquard color definitions.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041716
       
  • The wettability and micro-equilibrium of different essence liquids to
           alkali-treated kapok fiber

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      Authors: Liyao Cao, Yanfang Xu, Kaifang Xie, Fumei Wang, Guangbiao Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Kapok fiber is a natural hollow fiber that has superior biocompatibility and biodegradability and is naturally antibacterial. Because of its unique properties, it has great potential in the application of postoperative repair dressings. The wettability and micro-equilibrium of kapok fibers play a critical role in dressing applications. In this study, the critical adhesion volume and adhesion energy of essence liquid to alkali-treated kapok fiber (AKF) were quantitatively calculated to explore the wettability and micro-equilibrium through the equilibrium wetting theory. Meanwhile, the three-phase contact line (TCL) structure was described. The results showed that the critical adhesion volumes of the three types of essence liquid for AKF were 3.45, 3.81, and 4.12 μL, respectively. Moreover, the critical volumes and low error rates derived from the equilibrium wetting theory were 3.41 μL and 1.16%, 3.99 μL and 4.51%, and 4.60 μL and 10.43%, respectively. Therefore, the critical volume of adhesion could be well calculated by the theoretical model. The average adhesive energies of essence liquid to the AKF were 0.38, 0.45, and 0.56 J, respectively, caused by the difference in liquids properties. The TCL showed a mechanical lock and bonding points at both ends because of the curvature difference and higher surface energy. These results are proposed to inspire the design of a liquid carrier of kapok fibers based on the fiber network structure.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211032088
       
  • Synthesis and characteristic applications of silicon resins for the
           modifying agent in heat conduction

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      Authors: Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo, Naveed Ahmad, Sheng-Yu Lin, Garuda Raka Satria Dewangga, Min-Yan Dong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Heat energy retention and dissipation have become key points of global smart textiles in recent years. This study describes the designing of silicon resin by using a sol–gel process, which acts as the modifying agent for siloxane substrate. The modifying agent was effectively blocked by silicon resin mixed with the ethylene or aluminum bond group, to control the molecular weight. Advanced polymer chromatography confirmed that the number average molecular weight (Mn) of silicon resin is 41,301 g mol−1, the weight average molecular weight (Mw) is 47,982 g mol−1, and the molecular weight distribution is 1.1617, which is relatively narrow. When the addition of vinyl groups is 5%, the silicone resin Mn decreases to 18,906 g mol−1 and Mw decreases to 28,641 g mol−1. When the addition of aluminum bond groups is 5%, the silicone resin Mn decreases to 17,497 g mol−1 and Mw decreases to 27,114 g mol−1. The result of thermogravimetric analysis shows that the pyrolysis temperature rises from 265.43°C to 266.17°C after the ethylene is added to the silicon resin, and the index of heat tolerance increases from 179.14°C to 191.38°C. After the addition of aluminum bond groups, the pyrolysis temperature rises from 265.43°C to 309.37°C, and the index of heat tolerance increases from 179.14°C to 193.09°C, meaning the silicone resin has higher thermal stability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034243
       
  • Waterless sterilization and cleaning of sheep wool fiber using
           supercritical carbon dioxide

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      Authors: Faisal Aboelkasim Allafi, Md Sohrab Hossain, Marwan Shaah, Japarang Lalung, Mohd Omar Ab Kadir, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There is increasing concern regarding the existing sheep wool processing technology in the textile industry owing to the enormous volume of toxic effluents generated. The application of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in sheep wool processing is cleaner and increases wool fiber production while avoiding toxic effluent generation. scCO2 is a novel clean technology that can be utilized in sheep processing for sterilization, cleaning, and drying sheep wool at the same time. In the present study, scCO2 was used to treat sheep wool with varying pressure, temperature, and treatment time. These parameters influence the scCO2 treatment of sheep wool fiber through the inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of the whiteness index. The identification of bacteria in sheep wool was carried out based on biochemical analysis by molecular means, using 16s rRNA sequencing. It was found that scCO2 completely inactivated the microorganisms present in sheep wool and potentially enhanced the percentage whiteness index at the highest pressure of 30 MPa, temperature of 80°C, and treatment time of 80 min. Several analytical methods were employed to assess the physicochemical, thermal, and morphological properties of untreated and scCO2 treated sheep wool fibers. The results show that scCO2 effectively removes the impurities and completely inactivates the microorganisms present in sheep wool. The findings of the present study reveal that scCO2 can be utilized as an alternative treatment technology for sheep wool processing in the textile industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211042897
       
  • Ti3C2Tx MXene/polyvinyl alcohol decorated polyester warp knitting fabric
           for flexible wearable strain sensors

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      Authors: Qinghua Yu, Jinhua Jiang, Chuanli Su, Yaoli Huang, Nanliang Chen, Huiqi Shao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible wearable strain sensors with excellent sensing performance have received widespread interest due to their superior application capability in the field of human-computer interaction, sports rehabilitation, and disease diagnosis. But at present, it is still a considerable challenge to exploit a flexible strain sensor with high sensitivity and wide sensing range that is easily manufactured, low-cost, and easily integrable into clothing. MXene is a promising material sensitive enough for flexible sensors due to its superior conductivity and hydrophilicity. The warp knitting weft insertion textile structure gives the fabric excellent elasticity, making it suitable as a flexible, stretchable substrate. Therefore, utilizing a polyester elastic fabric with a warp knitting weft insertion structure, a fabric strain sensor with high sensitivity and wide sensing range prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyvinyl alcohol layers and MXene layers is reported in this study. The strain sensor exhibits high sensitivity (up to 288.43), a wide sensing range (up to 50%), fast response time (50 ms), ultra-low detection limit (a strain of 0.067%), excellent cycle stability (1000 cycles), and good washability. Besides, affixing the MXene/polyvinyl alcohol/polyester elastic fabric strain sensor on the joints can detect the movement of limbs. Therefore, the MXene/polyvinyl alcohol/polyester elastic fabric strain sensor demonstrates potential application opportunities in smart wearable electronic devices, and the researcher can also apply this method in the production of other flexible, intelligent wearable devices.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044163
       
  • Effect of the solvent evaporation rate of silver ink on the
           electrohydrodynamic-printing formability of textile-based printing
           electronics

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      Authors: Wenjing Guo, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The enabling electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing technology in a one-step forming, continuous, and controllable manner has gained wide attention in the field of flexible printed electronics. The evaporation characteristic of ink solvent during the EHD printing greatly affects the shape of the jet as well as the penetration and diffusion of inks on fabrics, which is crucial to the formation of high-quality printed electronics. However, few works have deeply investigated the control of ink solvent evaporation to adjust the formability of EHD printing electronics on rough and porous textiles. Here, conductive inks with different solvent evaporation rates are formulated. The effect of solvent evaporation on the motion of inks is evaluated by the contact angle over time. Furthermore, the morphology and electrical properties under different deformation of EHD-printed conductive lines are observed and measured. The results show that the morphology of conductive lines printed on fabric could be accurately controlled by the ratios of the solvent in inks, and the solvent evaporation rate has a significant inverse-parabolic effect on electrical resistance and its stability under deformation. Moreover, the serviceability of the optimal ink is demonstrated by the performance of an EHD-printed antenna for ultra-high frequency radio frequency identification tags, and its maximum reading range is 9.1 m under typical application examples. These findings will provide a guide for ink formulation and process control of EHD printing in flexible textile-based electronics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T11:58:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044161
       
  • Selection of breast features for young women in northwestern China based
           on the random forest algorithm

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      Authors: Jie Zhou, Qian Mao, Jun Zhang, Newman ML Lau, Jianming Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the research of breast morphology, numerous breast features are measured, whereas only a few parameters are adopted for classification. Therefore, how to extract the key variables from the multi-dimensional features in a rational way is an issue that is focused upon. This study aimed to reduce the complexity of the dimensionality reduction for further improving the objectivity and interpretability of the selected breast features. Since the random forest (RF) algorithm can quantify the feature importance during training, the method was adopted to determine the optimal breast features for classification and recognition in this paper. Firstly, the anthropometric data of 360 females from northwestern China aged from 19 to 27 years were measured by non-contact three-dimensional body scanning technology and the contact manual measurement method. Then, the k-means clustering was applied to categorize breast shapes, and the RF algorithm was utilized to quantify and rank the importance of 25 breast features. Finally, to verify the availability of the RF algorithm on breast feature selection, the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding method was adopted to visualize the distribution of breast shape clusters into two dimensions. Meanwhile, four neural networks were determined to recognize the breast morphology. The results demonstrate that fewer breast features can effectively increase the accuracy of breast shape classification and recognition. The best performance of breast shape classification and recognition is obtained when the number of breast features is 13. In this case, the average Hamming loss of four neural networks is the smallest (0.1136). Interestingly, the bust circumference and the horizontal curve of breasts across the bust points are found to be the most important of the 25 breast features in this paper. The importance of the breast curve features is higher than that of the breast cross-sectional features, while the breast positioning features have the lowest importance. Meanwhile, the RF algorithm is verified to be more effective than traditional dimensionality reduction methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and recursive feature elimination. The approach developed in this paper can be generalized to the dimensionality reduction of other body morphology.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T12:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040869
       
  • Assessment of the possibility of surgical masks re-use after a
           sterilization process in the pandemic condition of COVID-19

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      Authors: Malgorzata Zimniewska, Henryk Witmanowski, Anna Kicinska-Jakubowska, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Edyta Kwiatkowska, Barbara Romanowska, Lukasz B Malinowski
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to explore the possibility to re-use disposable masks in order to prevent excessive waste generation during the pandemic period.The COVID-19 pandemic has caused rapidly increasing waste production resulting from the necessity of common usage of disposable personal protective equipment. This research covers the evaluation of the structure of surgical masks subjected to a threefold steam, gas or plasma sterilization process in order to verify the possibility of their re-use.The results of the study showed that gas sterilization even after three cycles did not cause significant changes in mask structure or air permeability. Hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization caused significant changes in the structure of layer A after the third cycle of sterilization; nonetheless, it did not influence the air permeability of the mask. A significant reduction in the cover ratio of layers composing surgical masks causes an increase of air permeability in the case of steam sterilization, leading to a reduction of the mechanical ability to prevent the penetration of microorganisms. The reduction in cover ratio limits the filtration efficiency.Surgical masks subjected to threefold gas sterilization can be recommended for re-use. This allows one to use the mask thrice, ensuring safety for users and limiting the mask-waste production to one-third of the volume compared with when the mask is used once.The volume of mask-waste can be reduced with the application of the sterilization process for used masks during the pandemic period. Currently, it is not possible to sterilize all one-use masks, but implementation of this method in hospitals and medical centers is a step in the pro-environmental direction.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T12:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211042889
       
  • Effect of blending ratio on the hollow coffee carbon polyester/cotton
           blended yarn

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      Authors: Chentian Zhang, Lianying Zhao, Xuefeng Gu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of blending ratio on the performance of hollow coffee carbon polyester/cotton blended compact siro-spun yarn was investigated. Five blend ratios of hollow coffee carbon polyester/cotton fiber (i.e. 20/80, 35/65, 50/50, 65/35, and 80/20) and polyester/cotton fiber 35/65 were designed, and six groups of 14.6 tex yarn were spun by compact siro. Indices for the performance of the yarn (surface morphology, evenness, hairiness, tensile property, and hydroscopicity) were tested and analyzed. The regression analysis showed the excellent linear relationship between the content of hollow coffee carbon polyester and each performance index was obtained. Cubic curve models were built to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the yarn. The blending effect in these yarns was evaluated using the Hamilton transfer index. The tests results show that with the increase of the content of hollow coffee carbon polyester in the blended yarn, the evenness and tensile properties of the hollow coffee carbon polyester/cotton blended yarn continue to increase, whereas the hairiness index and moisture regain of the yarn gradually decrease. With the change of blending ratio, the transfer index of each fiber in hollow coffee carbon polyester/cotton blended yarn will change. When the content of hollow coffee carbon polyester is more than or equal to 50%, it has the tendency to preferentially distribute inward, whereas the cotton fiber has the tendency to preferentially distribute outward. When the content of hollow coffee carbon polyester is less than 50%, the reverse is true. The comprehensive evaluation value of the yarn performance decreased first and then increased with the increase in the content of hollow coffee carbon polyester.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T12:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211032085
       
  • Influence of fabric structure on electrical resistance of graphene-coated
           textiles

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      Authors: Tamara Ruiz-Calleja, Marilés Bonet-Aracil, Jaime Gisbert-Payá, Eva Bou-Belda, Ignacio Montava, Rocío Calderón-Villajos
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Coating is a technique widely used in the textile industry for different purposes, mainly in coloring and functional finishes. Graphene is usually applied to fabrics using coating techniques to provide such fabrics with properties like thermal or electrical conductivity. All woven fabrics have peaks and valleys in their structure, generated by the warp and weft threads interlacing. When spreading the graphene coating, the paste is placed in the fabric’s interstices, and the connection between conductive particles is only produced when the height of the coating is sufficient to connect the different areas where it is deposited. This article analyzes three types of satin weave with three interlacing coefficients (ICs) (0.4, 0.25, 0.17) and two sets of weft yarns each (20 and 71.43 tex). For a blade gap of 1.5 mm, the electrical resistance of samples with weft yarn count of 20 tex and IC of 0.4 is 534.33 Ω, while for IC = 0.25 electrical resistance is 36.8% higher and for IC = 0.17 this parameter increases 249.3%. For samples with weft yarn count of 71.43, the sample with IC = 0.40 exhibits an electrical resistance of 1053 Ω, for IC = 0.25 this value rises to 33.9% and for IC = 0.17 the electrical resistance value increases a total of 78.9%. This finding can be of interest for coatings where continuity is crucial, and for the application of substances that need to be protected from external factors, for which fabrics with deep interstices can be designed to house said products.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T12:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043249
       
  • Insights into detailed hierarchical puncture-resistance for Bombyx mori
           silkworm cocoons

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      Authors: Qian Wang, Yan Zhang, Chunling Liang, Yinchang Liao, Ping Wang, Dongmei Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Silkworm cocoons illustrate excellent puncture-resistance performance after an insight into their layers while a clear understanding of the correlation between the excellent puncture property and the silk secondary structure is still lacking. Herein, we peeled silkworm cocoon into eight layers, and a combination of examination techniques including scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were applied to figure out the morphologies (surface and cross-section view), mechanical properties, secondary structure, the content of β-sheet, and crystallinity of each layer's fibroin after degumming. The results indicated that the fifth layer offers a higher level of puncture-resistance than the other layers except for the eighth layer. Additionally, a high content level of β-sheet structure and high crystallinity gives rise to the high puncture strength as for hierarchical silk fibers. In general, the new finding holds great potential inspiration for the design of puncture-resistant composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T12:18:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041720
       
  • Development of a real-time machine vision system for functional textile
           fabric defect detection using a deep YOLOv4 model

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      Authors: Sifundvolesihle Dlamini, Chih-Yuan Kao, Shun-Lian Su, Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We introduce a real-time machine vision system we developed with the aim of detecting defects in functional textile fabrics with good precision at relatively fast detection speeds to assist in textile industry quality control. The system consists of image acquisition hardware and image processing software. The software we developed uses data preprocessing techniques to break down raw images to smaller suitable sizes. Filtering is employed to denoise and enhance some features. To generalize and multiply the data to create robustness, we use data augmentation, which is followed by labeling where the defects in the images are labeled and tagged. Lastly, we utilize YOLOv4 for localization where the system is trained with weights of a pretrained model. Our software is deployed with the hardware that we designed to implement the detection system. The designed system shows strong performance in defect detection with precision of [math], and recall and [math] scores of [math] and [math], respectively. The detection speed is relatively fast at [math] fps with a prediction speed of [math] ms. Our system can automatically locate functional textile fabric defects with high confidence in real time.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034241
       
  • Robot end effector based on electrostatic adsorption for manipulating
           garment fabrics

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      Authors: Wenqian Feng, Yanli Hu, Xin rong Li, Lidong Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the effectiveness of industrial robots in the textile and garment industry, it is necessary to expand the application range of electrostatic adsorption end effectors and solve the problem of automatically grasping and transferring fabrics during garment processing. Taking weft-knit fabric as an example, this paper begins by analyzing the factors that influence the electrostatic adsorption capacity, and then constructing an electrostatic adsorption capacity model based on the fabric characteristics. Next, the shape arrangement and structural parameters of the electrode plate are optimized by taking the electrostatic adsorption force model and maximizing the adsorption force per unit area. Finally, the adsorption effect of the electrostatic adsorption end effector is verified by simulation and experiment. The verification results show that the electrode with a comb-shaped arrangement and optimized structural parameters can adsorb clothing fabric well and meets the requirements of clothing automated production lines. This study provides a new method for solving the problem of automatically grasping and transferring fabrics and provides technical support for improving automation in the garment industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041886
       
  • Study on the performance characterization and yarn mechanical properties
           of poly-m-phenylene isophthalamide nanofiber

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      Authors: Han Wanli, Honglei Yi, Yuhao Zhang, Man Xi, Congliang Huang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, poly-m-phenylene isophthalamide (PMIA) staple fibers were dissolved in a LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent system in order to prepare PMIA nanofibers via the electrospinning method. The mean diameter of the nanofiber was between 72 and 247 nm and gradually increased with increasing LiCl concentration. PMIA nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, a thermogravimetric analyzer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Besides, the tensile strength of PMIA nanofiber yarns was tested and analyzed, combining the orthogonal array method. The results showed that the diameter and uniformity of nanofibers decreased gradually with increasing PMIA and LiCl solution concentration. The thermal properties, the specific surface area and chemical structures of PMIA nanofibers were improved comparing with PMIA stable fiber. It was found out that the LiCl concentration could influence the interactions among polymer molecules and caused the fibrils to wrap around each other, forming fiber clusters. The LiCl concentration was the most important factor affecting the tensile strength of PMIA nanofiber yarn.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043247
       
  • Effect of benzoyl treatment on the performance of sugar palm/kenaf
           fiber-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites

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      Authors: S Mohd Izwan, SM Sapuan, MYM Zuhri, AR Muhamed
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of benzoyl treatment on the performance of sugar palm/kenaf fiber-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites. Water absorption tests were carried out to confirm the effect of benzoylation treatment toward fabricating a more hydrophobic behavior of the hybrid composites. Both treated and untreated composites that have 10 wt.% of fiber loading with three different fiber ratios between sugar palm and kenaf (7:3, 5:5, 3:7) were analyzed. Physical and mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, and impact strength were determined from this study. Morphological properties were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the tensile strength of sugar palm/kenaf-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites was improved with the treatment of benzoyl with a value of 19.41 MPa. In addition, hybrid composite with treated sugar palm and kenaf fiber T-SP3K7 recorded the highest impact and flexural strength of 19.4 MPa and 18.4 MPa, respectively. In addition, SEM demonstrated that surface treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites. Overall, it can be suggested that benzoyl-treated composites with a higher volume of kenaf fiber than sugar palm fiber will improve the mechanical characteristics of the hybrid composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043248
       
  • The deposition of nanofibers onto a traditional filtration medium and
           their effects on filtration efficiency

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      Authors: Adéla Kotzianová, Zuzana Hrubá, Štěpán Vondrovic, Ondřej Židek, Marek Pokorný, Vladimír Velebný
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional filtration media composed of fibers with sizes on the micrometer scale have difficulty filtering particles a little smaller than 300 nm. Even though nanofibrous materials are able to capture these particles and can have excellent filtration efficiency, their widespread use continues to be inhibited by several obstacles, particularly an excessive pressure drop and the inability to form self-supporting filtration membranes. We have prepared two types of composite materials, namely an ultra-thin nanofibrous layer made of polyurethane or nylon with various fiber diameters and pore areas. Scanning electron microscopy was used for their characterization. The nanofibrous layer was deposited directly onto a traditional melt-blown polypropylene filtration fabric with a very low area weight of 30 g/m2, which facilitates handling and bypasses the need for the layer to be self-supporting. Moreover, a fine polyethylene mesh was added as a separate layer to prevent humidity from passing through the filtration material as well as to cover fabrics. The filtration efficiency and the pressure drop of the prepared materials were determined. The results showed that the incorporation of a nylon nanofibrous layer with smaller fiber diameters and pore areas leads to a significant increase in the filtration efficiency (92%) against the most penetrating particles, the critical size of which decreased to 50 nm, while the pressure drop was comparable to the pressure drop of a commercially available FFP2 respirator. The prepared filtration material could be used to manufacture respirators.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211044164
       
  • Efficacy of absorbent textiles in managing post-voiding dribble in older
           men: a systematic review

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      Authors: Adeel Zulifqar, Joanne Wai Yee Chung, Jane Jianzhen Li, Thomas Kwok Shing Wong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of absorbent textiles for incontinence (ATI) in managing post-voiding dribble (PVD) in older men. In this systematic review, a literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies using PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library databases from 2010 to 2020. The search included clinical trials and studies that evaluated the use of disposable or reusable ATI in managing PVD or urinary incontinence in older men. The quality assessment was done using Joanna Brigg's randomized controlled trial inventory method. Data was extracted from those studies meeting the quality criteria for meta-analysis. A total of 352 articles were found in the initial database search and an additional 18 articles were selected through a hand search based on the inclusion criteria. After the assessment, only two studies meeting the quality criteria were included in the data extraction. The results of the meta-analysis showed that ATI improved the psychological and physical aspects of quality of life, while urisheaths reduced the daily consumption and number of leaks of incontinence. In connection with ATI, disposable underpads can significantly lower the development of hospital acquired pressure injuries and hospital length of stay, while disposable or reusable underpads had no significant influence on the development of incontinence-associated dermatitis.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043250
       
  • Numerical and experimental approach towards an energy-efficient compact
           spinning system

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      Authors: Malik YH Saty, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Compact spinning with a lattice apron has recently become a very attractive approach for pneumatic compact yarn production spinning systems. One of the main challenges with use of this method is the high negative pressure that leads to high energy consumption. In response to this challenge, we present a numerical and experimental investigation of the effects of a three-dimensional (3D) printed guiding device on the airflow characteristics and yarn properties. Initially, the 3D numerical model of the compact spinning system was set up based on the real geometrical dimensions. Secondly, the 3D prototype was developed, simulated, and analyzed using Solidworks and Ansys. Ultimately, the design, which exhibited low negative pressure along the model domain, was adopted and then 3D printed to enable further experimental investigation. Airflow analysis results illustrated that when using the guiding device with low negative pressure, the active area of negative pressure was increased. This was due to the existence and the special design of the guiding device that prevented the decrease of the negative pressure with atmospheric pressure. This increased the transverse condensing force, which was beneficial for twisting the free-end fiber around the fiber bundle. Experimental results revealed that the three yarns spun with the guiding device achieved significant energy saving when the guiding device was used. Moreover, these yarns spun with the guiding device had better strength, hairiness, and evenness than those spun without a guiding device. The model developed can be further improved and utilized for commercial purposes, as it significantly reduces energy costs while improving yarn properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211043251
       
  • Robust self-cleaning effects of cotton fabrics coated with reduced
           graphene oxide (RGO)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposites

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      Authors: Wenjun Li, Hui Zhang, Tianyu Chen, Limeng Yang, Cuihong Sheng, Hailiang Wu, Ningtao Mao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The self-cleaning textiles coated with reduced graphene oxide-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposites have enhanced photocatalytic activities and could have great potential in practical applications. However, it is still problematic regarding how to avoid aggregation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in producing reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites. In this research article, we propose a new method to reduce the aggregation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in producing cotton fabrics coated with reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites by combining vibration-assisted ball milling and hydrothermal synthesis process. The microstructure and photocatalytic-related properties of the resultant reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites and their coating cotton fabrics were characterized by using a series of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Raman, particle size distribution, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller,(BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscope (UPS), and photoluminescence (PL). It was indicated that the aggregation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites was successfully avoided via ball milling in the presence of tetrabutyl titanate. After hydrothermal treatment, the resulting reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposites were firmly immobilized on cotton fabric. It was demonstrated in the self-cleaning experiments that the resultant self-cleaning cotton fabrics are hydrophilic and could directly decompose color contaminants such as methylene blue, Congo red, and coffee stains under simulated sunlight irradiation due to the photo-degradation reactions of the reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite coating. The reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite-modified cotton fabric also exhibited excellent performance in both robust abrasion resistance and soap-washing resistance. The fabric photocatalytic self-cleaning capability was not found to decrease significantly after being repeatedly used for five times.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:36:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211026534
       
  • Objective comparison of the softness of Australian Soft Rolling Skin wool
           and ordinary Merino wool

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      Authors: Hao Yu, Christopher Hurren, Xin Liu, Xungai Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Australian Merino wool is well-known in the wool market for its top quality, and the bulk of it is used in apparel where softness is a key factor for consumers. However, the ethical issue of mulesing is driving textile manufacturers and retailers to purchase non-mulesed wool from other sources instead of Australian mulesed wool. Australian Soft Rolling Skin (SRS) wool, grown on non-mulesed sheep, has been perceived to have a softer handle than ordinary Merino (OM) of the same diameter. In this research, three different methods were deployed to objectively compare the softness of SRS and OM wool. The force required to pull a bundle of clean wool through a series of parallel pins, that is, the pulling force, was used to evaluate the combined effect of fiber bending rigidity and surface friction. SRS wool resulted in lower pulling force than OM wool, with a difference of 15 cN/ktex (approximately 12.5%). According to the Resistance to Compression test results, SRS wool (4.5–5.7 kPa) was easier to compress than OM wool (5.4–6.5 kPa). The modified Resistance to Compression method showed different compression profiles for the two types of wool, and the slope of the decreasing curve (SDC) was used to study the softness property, with lower SDC values representing softer handle. These results confirm that over a fixed diameter range the SRS wool was more compressible and flexible, and this should result in a softer handle for clothing made from the fiber.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T11:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211042887
       
  • Comparison of the airflow characteristics and yarn properties between
           conventional and dual-feed-opening rotor spinning units

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      Authors: Qianqian Shi, Jiang Wang, Yuze Zhang, Qian Ding, Nicholus Tayari Akankwasa, Huiting Lin, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to explore the differences between conventional and dual-feed-opening rotor spinning units (RSUs), this work compares the airflow characteristics of two RSU models utilizing a computational fluid dynamics simulation model with the accuracy verified by airflow behavior observation and air pressure measurement. The effect of two different opening roller speeds on the airflow field distribution of a dual-feed-opening model is also investigated. In addition, the yarn properties of six pure and blended yarns corresponding to the two RSU models are evaluated. The results reveal that the distributions of airflow velocity vector and air pressure in the two RSU models show a strong similarity under the same boundary conditions. However, the dual-feed-opening model possesses a centrosymmetric and more balanced airflow field distribution compared to the conventional model. In addition, the dual-feed-opening yarns show a superior performance in comparison to the conventional yarns. Furthermore, for the dual-feed-opening model, there are equivalent contributions of two separated opening and fiber transmission systems to the airflow field distribution and yarn formation. Compared to the configuration with the same two opening roller speeds, the dual-feed-opening model configured with two different opening roller speeds obtains an improved blended yarn performance with having few effects on the airflow characteristics. This strength of the dual-feed-opening RSU could facilitate the production of blended and fancy yarns employing the fibers with diverse properties. This study could provide some guidelines for the manufacture of rotor-spun yarns and the future design of RSUs.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T11:01:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041721
       
  • A self-healing fluorine-free superhydrophobic cotton fabric under heat
           stimulation

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      Authors: Xue Yang, Jing Su, Jingjing Xiong, Hongbo Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics have been widely explored for their excellent properties, although there are still a few limitations in the practical applications for the reasons of poor environmental performance and short service life. In this study, the hexadecyltrimethoxysilane emulsion was prepared using O2-plasma and ultrasound for the superhydrophobic functional finishing of raw cotton fabric by immersion method. The prepared cotton fabrics showed a superior hydrophobicity with water contact angles larger than 156.0°, as well as an excellent self-healing ability. This self-healing ability was gained by simple heating treatment, which could restore the superhydrophobicity of the hydrophilic cotton fabric damaged by abrasion or O2-plasma treatment. The superhydrophobic cotton fabrics demonstrated excellent washing durability, which can withstand 50 times accelerated laundering cycles. Besides this, the superhydrophobic coatings also displayed fair chemical stability in strong acidic and alkaline solutions. The prepared nonfluorinated superhydrophobic cotton fabric with self-healing ability shows a potential for practical functional textile application.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T01:32:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037189
       
  • Non-contact detection of polyester filament yarn tension in the spinning
           process by the laser Doppler vibrometer method

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      Authors: Dongjian Zhang, Qihua Ma, Yuan Tan, He Liao, Chenhui Lu, Fangming Tang, Xiangyu Liu, Yanan Fu, Xiangyang Wang, Xuehui Gan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The precise detection of polyester filament yarn (PFY) tension in the spinning process is critical to ensure product quality. The laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) method is proposed to achieve non-contact detection of PFY tension in this paper. By employing the Hamilton principle, the transverse dynamics differential equations of PFY are derived, which are discretized and solved by the Galerkin method and Runge–Kutta method, respectively. In the equations, the PFY between two adjacent rollers is simplified as an axially moving string to verify the generality of calculating natural frequencies. The calculated natural frequencies from the axially moving string model are compared with solved results from the transverse dynamics differential equations. It is shown that the approximation of natural frequencies can be obtained from the axially moving string model. This study attempts to establish an approximate generic model among the PFY tension, the spinning speed and the first natural frequency based on axially moving string model, from which the PFY tension can be calculated efficiently by employing the measured natural frequencies. The LDV method is used to measure the natural frequencies. A major advantage of the proposed method is to realize non-contact detection of PFY tension. The method is more useful under high-speed spinning conditions where contact tension detectors are not available. An experimental analysis is carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Therefore, it is believed that the non-contact detection of PFY tension in the spinning process by the LDV method is feasible.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T01:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034246
       
  • Improvement of the image analysis method for quantifying low-polarity oily
           stains on fabric

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      Authors: Keiko Sugita, Masaru Oya
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The stain quantification method using image analysis is excellent because it is non-destructive and applicable for non-uniformly adhered stains. The technique is difficult to adapt to colorless stains, but can be used by coloring the stains. However, low-polarity oils have poor compatibility even with oil-soluble dyes, and it is difficult to accurately quantify them from the appearance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the quantification of low-polarity oily stains by three methods: (1) search for a dye tracer suitable for non-polar oil; (2) use an ultraviolet (UV) image by mixing a fluorescent tracer; and (3) use an UV image using a model stain that absorbs UV rays. In the experiment, the soiled samples were prepared by dropping soiling liquid on a cotton fabric and washing with a tergotometer, and the cleaning efficiency was determined from the image obtained with a digital camera. Results showed that Elixa Red 348 with lower polarity than Sudan IV and Oil Red O is superior as a dye tracer for non-polar oil. In the fluorescence tracer method, the sum of G values (ΣG) in the red, green, blue signals of the image data can be used, but the decrease in fluorescence over time is a problem in the case of pyrene. It was also found that UV-absorbing stains such as alkylbenzene can be quantified from UV images by utilizing the slight fluorescence coloration of cotton fabric generated under 254 nm UV irradiation. The future potential of image analysis methods for quantifying non-polar oily stains was suggested.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T01:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041719
       
  • Comparative study of the illumination effect on the appearances of woven
           fabrics composed of single and multiple colors of yarns

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      Authors: Youngjoo Chae
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Color has been strategically used to attract consumers in the textile and clothing industry, and yarn color mixing is one of the most typical methods of imparting color to textile products. However, the fact that color appears different depending on the illumination has concerned textile designers and sellers at the point of color communication and sale. This study quantitatively analyzed how the color appearance of woven fabrics composed of single and multiple colors of yarns changes under a broad spectrum of illumination conditions. The lightness, chroma, and hue appearance values of 36 chromatic fabrics, in which red, yellow, green, and blue yarns were woven together, under 16 different illumination conditions were calculated. For the illumination conditions, correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2700, 4000, 5000, and 6500 K and luminance of 100, 1000, 4000, and 8000 cd/m2 were employed. The color appearance values of fabrics under the 16 light sources were compared with each other and also with their true physical colors. It was observed that the ranges of the varying lightness, chroma, and hue appearances of fabrics ranged up to 8.49, 16.24, and 27.04, respectively, indicating the huge effect of illumination on color appearance changes. In particular, the lower CCT of light sources induced the larger lightness appearance changes of fabrics from their actual physical colors. It was also found that the magnitudes of the color appearance changes of fabrics induced by light sources differed significantly according to the number of yarn colors and the overall colorimetric properties of the fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T06:59:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211039572
       
  • Durable flame retardant hybrid sol–gel coating on poly(ethylene
           terephthalate) fabric and its flame retardant mechanism

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      Authors: Gu Wei, Chang Shuo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, an organic/inorganic phosphorus and silicon-containing coating was prepared by the sol–gel method and its flame retardant mechanism for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics was thoroughly investigated. The influence of hybrid coating on PET fabric was investigated by the limited oxygen index (LOI), vertical flammability test (VFT) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC). The results revealed that the LOI of the coated PET fabric was up to 29.2% and no dripping was observed in the VFT. MCC results showed that hybrid coating reduced the peak heat release rate, heat release capacity and total heat release of PET fabric. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated increased thermal stability and char residue of PET fabrics due to the hybrid coating. Furthermore, the char residues were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The above results proved that the synergistic effect between the 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide group and the silicon network played a key role in the flame retardancy of PET fabrics. In addition, the durability of coated PET fabrics was interpreted by calculating the interaction energy through molecular dynamics simulation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T06:59:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040874
       
  • Structure modeling in three-dimensional simulation of weft-knitted
           seamless kneepads

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      Authors: Yingle Shen, Zhijia Dong, Honglian Cong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a simulation method suitable for weft-knitted seamless kneepads. The purpose of this study is to realize the simulation of complete weft-knitted products, and it has the advantage of speed to display the simulation results online in real-time. The loop of the basic loop model is controlled by up to eight characteristic points and the yarn path is fitted by a three-dimensional spline curve. To string the loop model into the fabric, the coordinate of the characteristic point of the loop at other positions is obtained based on the loop model at the origin by using the translation matrix and the rotation matrix. The simulation of the weft-knitted kneepad is realized by the joint programming of Visual Studio and WebGL. The results show that the structure model can achieve the simulation of the kneepad with high efficiency. This method has strong real-time performance and practicability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-27T06:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040872
       
  • Effect of alkaline and benzoyl chloride treatments on the mechanical and
           morphological properties of sugar palm fiber-reinforced poly(lactic acid)
           composites

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      Authors: SFK Sherwani, SM Sapuan, Z Leman, ES Zainudin, A Khalina
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The present study deals with the effects of alkaline and benzoyl chloride treatments of sugar palm fibers (SPFs) on the mechanical and morphological properties of SPF-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites. Seven different parameters of SPFs were compared, which were untreated, three alkaline solution concentrations of 4%, 5%, and 6% for alkaline treatment, and 50 ml benzoyl chloride-treated SPFs at three different soaking durations of 10, 15, and 20 min. Composites of 30 wt.% SPF–reinforced 70 wt.% PLA were prepared by using a Brabender plastograph mixer and a hot press. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the SPF/PLA composites were improved after alkaline and benzoyl chloride treatments on the SPFs. However, the best tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the composites were observed at 6% alkaline treatment of SPF; the morphological analysis also supported this. The 6% alkaline treatment of the SPF/PLA composite demonstrated the highest tensile, flexural, and impact strength values of 17.08 MPa, 32.34 MPa, and 4.39 kJ/m2, respectively. These treated SPF/PLA composites could be appropriate for automobile component applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T11:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211041878
       
  • Effect of test parameters on the stability of fabric shape retention
           indexes increase recovery testing

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      Authors: Qianhui Tang, Lei Wang, Weidong Gao, Ruru Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Fabric shape retention is a crucial property that impacts the durability and usability of fabric and which needs a convenient and accurate evaluation method. In the previous research, the automated crease recovery testing method was used to obtain fabric crease recovery information and evaluate the property of shape retention. Based on the previous research, an orthogonal test method was adopted to investigate the effect of different test parameters on the stability of shape retention detection in this paper. First, three factors, that of sample size, pressure, and pressure time, and three different levels of each factor were determined by the L9(34) orthogonal test table. Next, the fabric shape retention indexes were detected by nine different test schemes, and the comprehensive score of shape retention index standard deviation was obtained as the evaluation criterion of the orthogonal test results. Finally, the optimal test scheme was determined by visual analysis and variance analysis. The results show that the sample size has a certain effect on the stability of shape retention indexes, while the pressure time and the pressure have no significant influence. The optimal test scheme is that the sample size is 30 cm × 30 cm, the pressure time is 60 s, and the pressure is 40 N. The test result measured by the optimal test parameters reveals excellent stability when the vertex angle standard deviation is 2.0°, the height standard deviation is 0.06 cm, and the shape retention area standard deviation is 0.16 cm2. This paper provides an experimental basis for improving the accuracy of fabric shape retention evaluation method.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T11:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211024251
       
  • Color-matching model of digital rotor spinning viscose mélange yarn based
           on the Kubelka–Munk theory

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      Authors: Ruihua Yang, Chuang He, Bo Pan, Zhuo Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The color-matching model is conducive to expanding the scope of application of colorful fabrics and can speed up the achievement of intelligent production. To solve the problem in which the existing color-matching system of intelligent colored spun yarn cannot be applied to the digital rotor-spinning products of dope dyed viscose fiber, 66 types of mélange yarn were spun with a digital rotor-spinning frame using red, yellow, and blue dope dyed viscose fibers at a ratio gradient of 10%. Furthermore, the knitted fabric samples were produced using a circular machine. Meanwhile, a Datacolor 650 spectrophotometer was used for color testing, and the experimental results were recorded. Based on the color-matching model of the Kubelka–Munk theory, a color-matching model is built based on the experimental results. In addition, the accuracy of the model was analyzed and verified using the least-squares and relative value methods. The results show that, compared with the relative value method, the color-matching model constructed using the absorption coefficient K value and scattering coefficient S value calculated based on the least-squares approach is more accurate. The error between the predicted ratio of the test sample and the actual ratio was only 0.0979, the average color difference was only 0.465, and there were no visible differences between the predicted color of the sample and the actual color.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-23T02:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040871
       
  • Optimization of acquisition parameters of slurry coating characteristics
           based on multiple yarn simultaneous detection

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      Authors: Wenjun Yan, Bo Zhu, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A simultaneous detection method was proposed to detect slurry coating characteristics based on the same spatial resolution of starch-based sized and raw yarns. A dynamic image acquisition device was improved to capture the apparent images of multiple yarns simultaneously after the starch–iodine color reaction. The slurry coating characteristics were calculated utilizing image-processing technology. For the sake of effective and stable detection, the effects of illumination conditions on the concentration of I2-KI solution were studied through the absorbance value test. The effects of image-processing parameters on the experimental results were analyzed respectively by measuring six kinds of yarn of different counts and size pick-up. The results showed that the illumination conditions within an illumination time of 0–60 min, illumination intensity of 0–80,000 lux and illumination distance of 0.01–0.20 m had no significant effects on the concentration of I2-KI solution. Eight rows of pixels in the central axis areas of the yarn were determined as the effective statistical areas. It was determined that the sample size can meet the needs of stability test in 200 pieces. A dynamic threshold method, which served the intersection of the gray histogram of sized and raw yarn under the same spatial resolution as the threshold, can effectively segment the slurry coating areas. On the above basis, the optimization acquisition parameters of the detection method were obtained. The proposed method can meet the requirements of the efficiency test, common applicability and ease of operation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T08:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211040870
       
  • Accurate simulation of draped fabric sheets with nonlinear modeling

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      Authors: Yin Chen, Q Jane Wang, Mengqi Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports a numerical approach, based on a nonlinear particle spring model and a collision detection procedure, to simulate the shape of a draped cloth, or a flexible sheet, together with a simple but precise three-dimensional shape reconstruction method for real fabric applications. The latter is utilized to verify the accuracy of the proposed drape simulation model. The drapes of four types of fabric on a cylinder are simulated, and the results are compared with the reconstructed shapes of the same cloths; the results show an excellent agreement. The simulation model is further used to calculate the shapes of skirts of different materials and sizes, and the effects of fabric parameters, length, and waist size are numerically investigated. The results reveal that under the same conditions, the behaviors of different materials are affected by their properties in terms of stiffness coefficients of the springs. The silk skirt looks soft and fluttering; the outer contour curve of the skirt simulated for the polyester fabric appears relatively smoother, but the shape of the cotton skirt seems to be stiffer. The skirt made of fabric of 10% cotton and 90% polyester combines the characteristics of the polyester and cotton fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T07:38:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211039573
       
  • Optimization of fluid characteristics in the main nozzle of an air-jet
           loom

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      Authors: Xinlei Huang, Lee Michael Clemon, Mohammad Saidul Islam, Suvash C. Saha
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As part of the propulsion system, the fluid dynamic features of the main nozzle can immediately affect the stability and efficiency of an air-jet loom. This study aims to optimize the fluid characteristics in the main nozzle of an air-jet loom. To investigate ways of weakening the effect of airflow congestion and backflow phenomenon occurring in the sudden expansion region, the computational fluid dynamics method is employed. Three-dimensional turbulence flow models for a regular main nozzle and 12 prototypes with different nozzle core tip geometry are built, simulated, and analyzed to get the optimum performance. Furthermore, a set of modified equations that consider the direction of airflow are proposed for better estimation of the friction force applied by the nozzle. The result shows that the nozzle core tip's geometry has a significant influence on the internal airflow, affecting the acceleration tube airflow velocity, turbulence intensity, and backflow strength of the sudden expansion region, and other critical fluid characteristics as well. Several proposed models have succeeded in reducing the backflow and outperforming the original design in many different aspects. Models A-60 and C-P, in particular, manage to increase the propulsion force by 37.6% and 20.2% in the acceleration tube while reducing the maximum backflow by 57.1% and 52.2%, respectively. These simulation results can provide invaluable information for the future optimization of the main nozzle.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T09:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211039579
       
  • Preparing cationic dyeable polyamide 6 filaments by combining the
           masterbatch technique with melt copolymerization

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      Authors: Shengming Zhang, Yuhao Wu, Hanbin Yang, Peng Ji, Chaosheng Wang, Huaping Wang, Zhiyong Yan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cationic dyeable polyamide 6 (CD-PA6) fiber, as a novel functional polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber, conforms to people's requirements for fashion clothing. However, due to the limitation of the hetero-end groups after caprolactam hydrolysis, it is difficult to introduce comonomers into the PA6 molecular chain to prepare PA6-based polymers with a certain molecular weight and maintain the original physical properties and spinnability. In this paper, through molecular design of PA6 segments, 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (5-SSIPA) was introduced into PA6 by copolymerization, and a CD-PA6 masterbatch with an addition amount of 10 wt% was prepared. CD-PA6 were prepared by blending with pure PA6 with masterbatch technology. The melt-spinning method was used to prepare CD-PA6 filaments, and they were woven into fabrics. The results show that the CD-PA6 masterbatch and PA6 have good blending compatibility. CD-PA6 filaments and fabrics maintain the excellent physical properties of PA6. When the addition amount of 5-SSIPA is 3%, the dye uptake rate of the cationic pigment exceeds 90%, and it has color affinity and excellent color fastness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T05:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211039577
       
  • The knitting methods for seamless garments based on four-needle bed
           computerized flat machine

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      Authors: Lisha Lu, Gaoming Jiang, Guangjun Wu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Seamless garments reducing the cutting and sewing processes are created using seamless knitting technology. This type of garment, being less dependent on labor, is knitted as a whole and makes a great contribution to improving production efficiency. More importantly, seamless garments are more comfortable and natural compared with those styles produced by traditional technology. However, the techniques of seamless garments are huge and complex, making the pattern design process more difficult. In addition, the seamless knitting technology has great restrictions to the styles with rich shapes due to the limitation of the devices. Therefore, how to knit more complex styles using seamless knitting technology still faces great challenges. For these reasons, this study extensively investigated the knitting principle of seamless garments and proposed six knitting models for different kinds of garments. Then the transformation methods from 3D style to 2D pattern were explored respectively based on the knitting characteristics of each model. Finally, by package programming in the SDS-ONE APEX design system, the actual knitting for six types of garments was conducted on the computerized flat knitting machine. The results showed that different types of seamless garments have significant differences in the pattern design and the approaches proposed above can make different kinds of garments using seamless knitting technology.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T09:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211035139
       
  • Evaluation of some physical performance properties of ultrasonic seaming,
           conventional seaming and sealing adhesive tape on waterproof polyester
           knitted fabrics with polyurethane

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      Authors: Ayşe Şevkan Macit, Bahar Tiber
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ultrasonic seaming has become an important issue in recent years due to its various features. In this study, waterproof polyester knitted fabrics with polyurethane coating were used and the bursting strength, bending property and water permeability property of ultrasonic seaming were examined by changing various parameters. Besides, the ultrasonic seaming method was compared to conventional seaming and adhesive tape application. It is observed that there were high water permeability values generally in ultrasonic seaming and also fabrics with no water penetration were seen in this method, although, in some ultrasonic seaming parameters, values are lower than adhesive tape sealed ones. On the other hand, the bursting strength values of the ultrasonically sewn fabrics are found to be comparable to conventional seam and sealing adhesive tape when the optimum seaming parameters are determined. Also, it can be said that for the bending property according to increasing bending length values in this method compared with the others, ultrasonic seaming may find more usage areas where fabric stiffness is more advantageous. It has been observed that it is important to determine the fabric and ultrasonic sewing parameters according to the required performance property.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T09:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211038857
       
  • Intelligent textiles: designing a gesture-controlled illuminated textile
           based on computer vision

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      Authors: Jeanne Tan, Li Shao, Ngan Yi Kitty Lam, Anne Toomey, Lan Ge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Artificial intelligence (AI) offers the potential for the development of e-textiles that give wearers a smart and intuitive experience. An emerging challenge in intelligent materials design is hand gesture recognition textiles. Most current research focuses on number gesture recognition via smart gloves, so there is a gap in research that studies contact-less number gesture recognition textiles via computer vision. Meanwhile, there is lack of exploration on the integration of illuminating function and number gesture recognition textiles to improve interactivity by real-time visualizing detection results. In this research, a novel interactive illuminating textile with a touch-less number gesture recognition function has been designed and fabricated by using an open-source AI model. It is used in sync with a polymeric optical fiber textile with illuminative features. The textile is color-changing, controlled by the system's mid-air interactive number gesture recognition capability and has a woven stripe pattern and a double-layer weave structure with open pockets to facilitate integration of the system's components. Also described here is a novel design process that permits textile design and intelligent technology to integrate seamlessly and in synchronization, so that design in effect mediates continuously between the physical textile and the intangible technology. Moreover, this design method serves as a reference for the integration of open-source intelligent hardware and software into e-textiles for enhancement of the intuitive function and value via economy of labor.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T07:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034245
       
  • Design and manufacture of three-dimensional auxetic warp-knitted spacer
           fabrics based on re-entrant and rotating geometries

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      Authors: Chang Yuping, Yanping Liu, Zhao Shuaiquan, Hu Hong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Warp knitting technology is a fabric-forming technologies that is very suitable to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) auxetic fabrics due to its high efficiency and powerful pattern designing possibilities. In this study, two typical auxetic geometries, namely the re-entrant hexagonal network and rotating square solids, were selected as the design prototypes for the design and manufacture of 3D warp-knitted spacer fabrics. While two 3D warp-knitted spacer fabric structures with representative units of different sizes designed based on the re-entrant hexagonal geometry were manufactured by using a RD7 double needle bar Raschel machine with seven yarn guide bars, two 3D jacquard warp-knitted spacer fabrics with different base fabric structures designed based on the rotating squares geometry were fabricated by using a RDPJ4/2 double needle bar jacquard machine with two ground yarn guide bars and four jacquard guide bars. The Poisson’s ratios of these 3D warp-knitted fabrics in the course direction and wale direction were evaluated respectively through constant-rate tensile tests. The results revealed that the re-entrant hexagonal fabric structure with double chain stitches has auxetic behavior across a wide range of tensile strains along the course direction, while the rotating square fabric structure with elastic chain stitches as the base is auxetic within a narrow range of tensile strains along the wale direction. The study provides an alternative method to directly produce auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabrics through a single knitting process instead of using an additional post-compression and heat-setting process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T11:46:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037204
       
  • Efficacy of cooling garments on exertional heat strain recovery in
           firefighters: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Jian Li, Wen Zhu, Yunyi Wang, Jun Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There is no consent regarding the efficacy of cooling garments as a treatment for reducing heat strain for firefighters. To quantify whether cooling garments mitigate exertional heat stress in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among firefighters, a systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to explore the issue by following the PRISMA checklist. The searched databases include PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from January 1999 to January 2021. The studies are constricted to RCTs where the performance of cooling garments is compared to non-cooling control groups. The primary parameters associated with heat strain are elucidated through measuring thermoregulatory (rectal temperature [Tre], mean skin temperature [[math]sk]), metabolic (heart rate [HR], sweat rate [SR]), and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], thermal sensation [TS]) indices from baseline to the end of the exercise. Pre-planned subgroup analyses provide information on whether the outcome of the treatment influences the type of cooling garments, cooled body area, and cooling before or after firefighting activities. Twelve eligible RCTs, including 105 firefighters (mean ± standard deviation age, 29.01 ± 7.15 years; 88% male), are considered for the meta-analysis. Here, ΔTre, Δ[math]sk, ΔHR, and TS show significant improvement after the cooling intervention, while no significant change is observed for ΔSR and RPE between the cooling and control groups. Evidence from the meta-analysis suggests that cooling garments are an effective adjunct therapy to mitigate exertional heat stress on firefighters compared to non-cooling treatment. Further, subgroup analyses suggest statistically significant influence facilitated by the type of cooling garments, but cooling before or after firefighting activities had no effect on exertional heat strain recovery. However, it must be noted that more RCTs are needed to confirm the present findings.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T11:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037198
       
  • Correlation of yarn feeding to the dimensional and elastic parameters of
           tubular knitted fabric

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      Authors: Yanhong Yuan, Jie Zhong, Xin Ru, Bing Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The yarn feeding for a loop formation is a critical factor in determining the size and elasticity of highly elastic knitted fabrics. Currently, the prevalent production processes rely on experienced machine operators to set up the optimal feed rate by trial and error. To improve production efficiency and reduce the reliance on the operator’s skill, we attempt to create a structure model of tubular knitted fabric that could correlate the size as well as elasticity of fabric with the loop geometry parameters (wale spacing, course spacing) of the yarn feeding. The experimental tensile test of the elastic fabric verified that the model is able to deduce the yarn feeding parameters from the elasticity and dimensional requirements of the fabric to be knitted. It is also illustrated that the yarn feeding is a key factor in controlling the elasticity of knitted fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T11:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037199
       
  • Electrospun flexible lignin/polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofiber and
           its application in electrode materials for supercapacitors

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      Authors: Hong Wu, Chengkun Liu, Zhiwei Jiang, Zhi Yang, Xue Mao, Liang Wei, Runjun Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a lignin/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite nanofiber membrane is prepared by electrospinning and used as the precursor to prepare flexible carbon nanofibers (CNFs) through pre-oxidation and carbonization. The micromorphology, crystal structure, pore size distribution and specific surface area of the CNFs are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and specific surface adsorption analysis, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the CNF membrane are also investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy due to its potential application in binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. We successfully prepared flexible CNFs with an average diameter of about 539 nm and a specific surface area of 1053.78 m2/g when the mass ratio of lignin to PAN was 9:1 in a solution concentration of 28 wt%. The CNFs are loaded onto nickel foam to prepare the electrode materials for supercapacitors without a binder. When the current density is 0.5 A/g, the specific capacitance could be up to 201.27 F/g and the equivalent series resistance is only 0.57 Ω, which shows an excellent electrochemical performance. This study not only provides a theoretical basis for the high-value utilization of lignin and the preparation of flexible lignin/PAN-based CNFs, but also provides a new type of environmentally friendly raw material for the electrodes of supercapacitors and could be helpful to alleviate the energy crisis and environmental pollution.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T11:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037191
       
  • Image retrieval of wool fabric. Part III: based on aggregated
           convolutional descriptors and approximate nearest neighbors search

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      Authors: Ning Zhang, Jun Xiang, Lei Wang, Weidong Gao, Ruru Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      For sample reproduction, texture and color are both significant when the consumer has no specific or individual demands or cannot describe the requirements clearly. In this paper, an effective method based on aggregated convolutional descriptors and approximate nearest neighbors search was proposed to combine the texture and color feature for wool fabric retrieval. Aggregated convolutional descriptors from different layers were combined to characterize the wool fabric image. The approximate nearest neighbors search method Annoy was adopted for similarity measurement to balance the trade-off between the search performance and the elapsed time. A wool fabric image database containing 82,073 images was built to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. Different feature extraction and similarity measurement methods were compared with the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can combine the texture and color feature, being effective and superior for image retrieval of wool fabric. The proposed scheme can provide references for the worker in the factory, saving a great deal of labor and material resources.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T01:10:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211037186
       
  • Textile-based fiber optic sensors for health monitoring: A systematic and
           citation network analysis review

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      Authors: Ka-Po Lee, Joanne Yip, Kit-Lun Yick, Chao Lu, Chris K Lo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Receptivity towards textile-based fiber optic sensors that are used to monitor physical health is increasing as they have good flexibility, are light in weight, provide wear comfort, have electromagnetic immunity, and are electrically safe. Their superior performance has facilitated their use for obtaining close to body measurements. However, there are many related studies in the literature, so it is challenging to identify the knowledge structure and research trends. Therefore, this article aims to provide an objective and systematic literature review on textile-based fiber optic sensors that are used for monitoring health issues and to analyze their trends through a citation network analysis. A full-text search of journal articles was conducted in the Web of Science Core Collection, and a total of 625 studies was found, with 47 that were used as the sample. Also, CitNetExplorer was used for analyzing the research domains and trends. Three research domains were identified, among them, “Flexible sensors for vital signs monitoring” is the largest research cluster, and most of the articles in this cluster focus on respiratory monitoring. Therefore, this area of study should probably be on the academic radar. The collection of data on textile-based fiber optic sensors is invaluable for evaluating degree of rehabilitation, detecting diseases, preventing accidents, as well as gauging the performance and training successfulness of athletes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T01:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036206
       
  • Design of double teeth metallic card clothing for the high-efficiency
           carding process by computational fluid dynamics

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      Authors: Weihua Gu, Fuguo Li, Qinchao Gao, Chengzhi Zhuo, Zhong Lu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The design of metallic card clothing, which is one of the most important devices in the textile industry, has always been based on operational experience. With the development of types of fibers and the requirements for the quality of yarns, those principles concluded by engineers seem to be losing their efficiency. Recent research found that airflow played an important role in the card process, which means airflow should be carefully studied. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation greatly helps in the analysis of airflow because the gauge between carding elements is too narrow to put in any measuring device. In the present study, with the help of CFD simulation, the air around different carding clothing with varied tooth depth was analyzed. It was concluded that the carding efficiency improvement in card clothing with lower tooth depth may be related to more concentrated air velocity at the tooth tips. This resulted in more probabilities that fibers would get through the cylinder surface at the teeth tips, so that the fibers could be caught by flat-top needles more efficiently. With this assumption, a new generation of card clothing called “double teeth” containing two teeth in a single section has been invented. The new configuration design of card clothing was then applied in several spinning mills on an industrial scale for experiments. The results showed about a 30% improvement in production at the same quality level as conventional card clothing, which implied the usefulness of the newly applied principles related to airflow. Despite the difficulty in the study of the complex carding process, the new airflow analysis method has shown an optional and worthwhile way of thinking that could make a difference in future research in the textile industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T01:10:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036733
       
  • The effect of the geometric structure of the modified slot die on the air
           field distribution in the meltblowing process

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      Authors: Yudong Wang, Yiping Qiu, Changchun Ji, Xinhou Wang, Fuwang Guan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to reduce the fiber diameter and the energy consumption in the meltblowing process, a modified slot die with two blocks was designed in this article. The numerical calculation and the experimental verification of the airflow field under the modified slot die were carried out, and the effect of the block structure parameters on the air field was investigated. The research results indicate that compared to the common slot die, the modified slot die with the blocks could increase the velocity on the spinning line and reduce the rate of the temperature decay on the spinning line. When the block width and the block inclination angle lower, and the block height expands, it could increase the peak of the air velocity, the temperature and the turbulence intensity on the center line of the air field under the modified slot die. The average velocity on the spinning line of the modified die under the conditions of block width = 20 mm, block height = 30 mm and block inclination angle = 60° is the highest.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-04T06:20:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211035134
       
  • Patterned fabric image retrieval using relevant feedback via geometric
           similarity

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      Authors: Jun Xiang, Ning Zhang, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the potential value in many areas, such as e-commerce and inventory management, fabric image retrieval, which is a special case of content-based image retrieval, has recently become a research hotspot. As a major category of textile fabrics, patterned fabrics have a diverse and complex appearance, making the retrieval task more challenging. To address this situation, this paper proposes a novel approach for patterned fabric based on the non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) feature descriptor and relevance feedback technique. To integrate the color information into the NSCT feature descriptor, we extract the feature of patterned fabric images in HSV color space. An outlier rejection-based parametric relevance feedback algorithm is employed to adjust the similarity matrix to improve the retrieval results. The experimental results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approach but also demonstrate that it can significantly improve the performance of the retrieval system compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036205
       
  • Influence of fineness, length and hollow section of fibers on acoustic
           absorption

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      Authors: Roberto Atiénzar-Navarro, M Bonet-Aracil, J Gisbert-Payá, Romina del Rey, Rubén Picó
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A fibrous material is characterized by its fineness, flexibility and high length/fineness ratio and it is used to reduce noise in indoor rooms due to their porous structure. The aim of this work is focused on investigating the structure of two different fibers (acrylic and polyester) from the analysis of the macrostructural parameters, such as fineness, length and cross-section (solid or hollow). Furthermore, the degree of influence of these parameters on the average sound absorption has been investigated. The sound absorption coefficient of fibers is measured at normal incidence in the impedance tube. In acrylic fibers, results showed that the fineness of the fiber has a significant influence on the sound absorption compared to the length of the fiber. In polyester fibers, hollow fibers have a better acoustic behavior compared to solid fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036200
       
  • I-fiber implantation robot for composite parts

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      Authors: Xiaoming Chen, Tianlei Yao, Chenyang Li, Yuying Wei, Jiao Li, Hongwei Zheng, Zhipeng Ren, Li Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      I-fiber implantation is a new stitching technology that can effectively enhance the interlayer performance of laminated composites. This paper presents and evaluates the design and implementation of the I-fiber robot implantation system integrated for producing high-performance fiber preforms for advanced composites. The system was constructed and validated through I-fiber robot implantation experimentation. It was demonstrated that automated I-fiber implantation could be achieved by use of an industrial robot. The programming method and computer-aided manufacturing software of the I-fiber implantation robot were feasible and effective. The double-cantilever-beam (DCB) experiments showed that the implantation of I-fiber significantly improved the interlaminar fracture toughness of the laminated composite, where the maximum load value increased by up to 106%. The DCB load–displacement curve presented a zigzag shape, where the peaks and valleys were the location points of the I-fiber break. It was also found that for the reinforced laminated composite without an I-fiber head, the delamination failure was manifested as resin cracking and I-fiber pullout, while for the I-fiber with a certain head length, the I-fiber failure mechanism was brittle fracture. I-fiber with a certain head length could significantly improve the interlayer performance of the composite. In addition, DCB experiments also revealed that the implantation matrix had little effect on the interlayer performance of I-fiber reinforced composites, and the failure load value and the I-fiber implantation volume showed an obvious proportional relationship.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036209
       
  • Self-assembled bio-based coatings for flame-retardant and antibacterial
           polyester–cotton fabrics

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      Authors: Zhenlin Jiang, Youxian Hu, Keyu Zhu, Yue Li, Chaosheng Wang, Shuhua Zhang, Jianhua Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There are many defects in the post finishing flame-retardant modification of polyester–cotton (CT) fabric, leading to shortcomings such as single function and low flame-retardant efficiency, which still need to be solved urgently. Herein, a bio-based flame-retardant and antibacterial coating consisting of phytic acid and DL-arginine was deposited on CT fabrics using layer-by-layer assembly to obtain a flame-retardant and antibacterial CT fabric. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the assembled coating was successful deposited on the CT fabric. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the number of bilayers had no significant effect on the degradation temperature of the coated CT fabric; however, it significantly improved the charring effect of the sample, wherein the char rate of the CT fabric coated with 20 bilayers increased from 0.11 to 8.67 wt% compared with uncoated CT fabric at 700°C. In addition, the limiting oxygen index of the CT fabric coated with 20 bilayers increased to 32.0 ± 0.3%. Furthermore, the vertical results revealed that the CT fabric coated with five bilayers attained the UL-94 V-1 grade. The heat release rate (HRR) and the total heat release (THR) of the coated CT fabric were significantly decreased compared to those of the uncoated CT fabric. In particular, the HRR and THR of the CT fabric coated with five bilayers reduced by 28.97% and 30.49%, respectively. Furthermore, the coated CT fabric exhibited an obvious antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus, and the inhibitory ring increased from 0 to 4.0 mm with an increase in bilayers to 20. This study describes a facile method of flame-retardant and antibacterial modification of CT fabric using biological materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211035133
       
  • A strain gradient strategy to quantifying longitudinal compression
           behavior in slender fibrous assembly structures

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      Authors: Fengxin Sun, Yangyang Peng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Slender fibrous assembled structures can easily buckle under longitudinal compressive load. The limitation in characterizing the longitudinal compression behavior poses a significant challenge to the mechanics optimization of such structures. To address this challenge, we use one-dimensional yarns as a model system, and the yarns are deformed in bending to form a strain gradient, from tension to compression, along the radial direction of the yarns. The compression modulus as a function of compression strain is calculated based on bi-moduli elastic theory. The evolution of the fiber arrangement and the position of the neutral layer in the yarn is interpreted along with the change of compression modulus. Also, the local stress distribution in the bent yarn was determined by finite element simulation, and it is remarked that the bending property of yarns is sensitive to the compression modulus. The present study offers insights on the modeling and simulation of fabrics and garments in drape and bending deformation. Results from such investigations can provide effective guidance for the mechanical and structural design of textiles and textile-based composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211036201
       
  • A relative hairiness index for evaluating the securities of fiber ends in
           staple yarns and its application

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      Authors: Xinxin Huang, Xiaoming Tao, Rong Yin, Shirui Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Hairiness is a prominent property of staple yarns, but the existing evaluation parameters mainly describe the fiber ends already protruding out of yarn bodies. The potential fiber ends in yarns also play a crucial role in the performance of yarns in the subsequent processes and the resultant fabric quality. In our previous studies, maximum hairiness and its theoretical model have been proposed, which indicate the maximum fiber ends of a staple yarn having the potential to protrude out of yarn bodies and become hairy. On this basis, the relative hairiness index (RHI) is developed in this study to evaluate the fiber end tucking and securities of yarns. This index is treated as a ratio of the measured hairiness of sample yarns and the maximum hairiness of ring yarns in the same twist level and yarn count. A lower RHI indicates more fiber ends being tucked into yarn bodies, and a slower increment of the RHI with the increasing winding times represents more stable securities of fiber ends in yarns. The experimental results demonstrate that the RHI can directly reveal the effectiveness of different spinning parameters and methods in tucking and securing fiber ends; also, the changes of the RHI with increasing winding times visually present the stableness of fiber ends in various yarns experiencing abrasion, as well as predict the possibility of the potential fiber ends being pulled out to form hairiness during successive processes. The proposed RHI, therefore, provides a significant reference for the spinning process design and yarn quality control.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-08-03T02:26:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211035136
       
  • Antimicrobial behavior, low-stress mechanical properties, and comfort of
           knitted fabrics made from poly
           (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)/polylactide acid filaments and cotton
           yarns

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      Authors: Shirui Liu, Linlin Ma, Xujiao Ding, Kelly C Wong, Xiao-Ming Tao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a systematic investigation of the knitted fabrics made from various blends of intrinsically antimicrobial poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)/polylactide acid filaments and cotton staple fibers. The effects of blend yarn, fabric structures, and distributions of fibers on antimicrobial properties of resultant yarns and knitted fabrics were studied. The relationships among fiber distribution, blend ratio, and anti-microbial properties were experimentally determined for three blend yarns made by sirofil, wrap-spun, and core-spun spinning technologies. The fabrics made from the sirofil-spun and wrap-spun yarns show better anti-microbial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans than those of the core-spun yarns, according to the standard AATCC100-2012 Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, 2012). An alternative blending method of co-knitting of the pure poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)/polylactide acid yarns and cotton yarns achieved excellent antimicrobial effects. Furthermore, a wearing trial of underwear made from the blended knitted fabrics was conducted in a nursing home. The wearing comfort of the garments, low-stress mechanical and surface properties of fabrics were evaluated objectively by the Kawabata Evaluation System of Fabric (KESF) system and subjectively by a questionnaire survey to users.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-30T06:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211035130
       
  • The effects of firefighting boots and personal protective equipment load
           on foot thermal comfort

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      Authors: Miao Tian, Xianghui Zhang, Xumei Tang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Maintaining foot comfort is important as it influences the overall comfort of the human body. Shoe microclimate and foot skin temperature have been suggested to contribute to the thermal sensation of the foot. Considering the thermal environment and personal protective equipment (PPE) used for structural and proximity firefighting, climatic chamber tests with 13 male participants were conducted during standing and walking. Four test conditions – unloaded with training shoes, loaded with training shoes, unloaded with firefighting boots, and loaded with firefighting boots – were designed to investigate the effects of firefighting boots and PPE load on the thermal comfort of the human foot. Physiological variables of in-shoe and foot skin temperature at the whole and local regions of the foot were measured and subjective responses were gathered using psychological scales. The results showed that wearing firefighting boots may elevate the thermal sensation of wearers. The PPE load increased the in-shoe and foot skin temperature as well as subjective ratings. Subjective sensations of the foot were strongly correlated with in-shoe and skin temperature in the plantar regions. Correlation analysis of thermal sensation at the whole and local foot regions indicated that the sensation at the forefoot was closest to the whole foot, followed by the midfoot and heel. The findings address the relationship of physiological and subjective variables as well as the thermal sensation of whole and local foot regions, which can be considered for footwear design and thermal comfort prediction of the foot and whole body.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T10:25:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211026538
       
  • Polarization selection characteristics of carbon fiber orientation and
           interweaving for electromagnetic interference shielding behaviors

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      Authors: Xinghua Hong, Lulu Zhong, Junmin Wan, Yongqiang Li, Fuwang Guan, Guohao Wang, Chengyan Zhu, Zimin Jin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, to determine the impact of carbon fiber orientation and interweaving on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding behaviors, anisotropic and isotropic samples were developed by conductive/dielectric weaving of spatially distributed carbon fiber and glass fiber. Effortless and cost-effective, the electromagnetic shielding efficiency (SE) was up to 42 dB and the SE/thickness) was 41 dB/mm, which had apparent polarization selection characteristics. In addition, the angle (θ) sensitivity for the SE in transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization modes was given in detail. SE was generally proportional to θ. Moreover, the fingerprint-like radar chart of anisotropic carbon hybrid woven fabrics in the X-band was performed, which makes polarization selection characteristics more intuitive. This paper presented an easy and effective route for assembling hybrid carbon fiber fabrics with high EMI shielding performance, which offers a clear perspective on the simulation and study of carbon fiber electromagnetic properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T10:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034248
       
  • Prediction of clothing comfort sensation of an undershirt using artificial
           neural networks with psychophysiological responses as input data

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      Authors: Yuki Karasawa, Mayumi Uemae, Hiroaki Yoshida, Masayoshi Kamijo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The clothing comfort sensation is a combination of complex components, including psychological and physiological responses. General linear analysis is not always sufficient for the evaluation of the clothing comfort sensation. The current study sought to predict the clothing comfort sensation of wearing an undershirt using an artificial neural network (ANN). We constructed ANN models with psychological sensation data and physiological response data as inputs, including electrocardiogram and thermo-physiological indicators, and the clothing comfort sensation as the output. For the input layer of the model, three conditions were used: the psychological response data only, the physiological response data only, and both the psychological and physiological data. The number of hidden layers in the models ranged from one to three, and the number of units in each hidden layer was changed when fixed values of 30, 60, and 90 were used, or according to the number of data points in the input conditions. The results revealed that, among the three conditions, the accuracy rate was higher when both psychological and physiological response data were used as input. The prediction results exhibited an accuracy rate of up to 85% for unknown test data. The results suggest that the method of evaluating the state of clothing comfort sensation when wearing an undershirt using psychophysiological response measurement was effective and that neural networks are useful for predicting the clothing comfort sensation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T10:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034242
       
  • Simulation of drawing process based on fiber arrangement in the sliver
           with straightness and separation degree

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      Authors: Na Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Sliver irregularity, straightness and separation degree of fibers are three crucial factors in sliver quality. Considering the straightness and separation degree, the drafting model based on the fiber arrangement in the sliver was applied to simulate the drawing process. First, the fiber arrangement in the carding sliver was developed. Then, the drafting process was divided into the low-velocity stage, straightening stage and high-velocity stage to carry out the redistribution of the fiber arrangement so that the sliver quality after drafting can be recalculated from the new fiber arrangement after the drafting procedure. Combining the doubling procedure, the simulated sliver quality of each drawing process was demonstrated to be close to the actual values, taking the straightness and separation degree into consideration. The relative errors between the simulated straightness and percentage of separated fibers and the tested one were all less than 10%. The prediction accuracy of sliver irregularity was raised by about 40%. In addition, the simulated results strongly confirmed the theory that the drawing process has an influence on straightening the hooked fibers, separating the fiber in the assembly and improving the sliver evenness, which cannot be reflected in previous models.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T02:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211034249
       
  • Investigation into four-roller compact spinning with air damper for
           improving yarn performance

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      Authors: Yanan Yang, Xiaoxia Sun, Zhimin Li, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Compact spinning, as a new kind of spinning technology, has gained wide attention because of its great reduction in spinning triangle and yarn hairiness. In order to meet the demand of high-grade clothing, research on further improving the performance of compact spun yarn is the emphasis. Of all the existing compact spinning systems, the four-roller compact spinning with lattice apron is most widely used at present because of its low cost. Therefore, this paper aims to put forward a new kind of device to improve yarn performance for four-roller compact spinning systems. Related experiments have been done to verify the efficiency of the device, and the mechanism is analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. The numerical simulation shows that the device can change the direction of airflow and increase the velocity in the directions of transverse condensing and thickness. It is shown that the air damper is convenient to use and has potential applications in spinning compact yarns with better performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T06:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211024635
       
  • Effects of environmental temperature and humidity on evaporative heat loss
           through firefighter suit materials made with semi-permeable and
           microporous moisture barriers

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      Authors: Huipu Gao, Anthoney Shawn Deaton, Xiaomeng Fang, Kyle Watson, Emiel A DenHartog, Roger Barker
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this research was to understand how firefighter protective suits perform in different operational environments. This study used a sweating guarded hotplate to examine the effect of environmental temperature (20–45°C) and relative humidity (25–85% RH) on evaporative heat loss through firefighter turnout materials. Four firefighter turnout composites containing three different bi-component (semi-permeable) and one microporous moisture barriers were selected. The results showed that the evaporative resistance of microporous moisture barrier systems was independent of environmental testing conditions. However, absorbed moisture strongly affected evaporative heat loss through semi-permeable moisture barriers coated with a layer of nonporous hydrophilic polymer. Moisture absorption in mild environment (20–25°C) tests, or when testing at high humidity (>85% RH), significantly increased water vapor transmission in semi-permeable turnout systems. It was also found that environmental conditions used in the total heat loss (THL) test (25°C and 65% RH) produced moisture condensation in bi-component barrier systems, making them appear more breathable than could be expected when worn in hotter environments. Regression models successfully qualified the relationships between moisture uptake levels in semi-permeable barrier systems and evaporative resistance and THL. These findings reveal the limitations in relying on THL, the heat strain index currently called for by the NFPA 1971 Standard for Structural Firefighter personal protective equipment, and supports the need to measure turnout evaporative resistance at 35°C (Ret), in addition to THL at 25°C.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T06:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211026537
       
  • Failure behaviors of 3D braided composites with defects in different
           locations under low-velocity impact compression

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      Authors: Jinhui Guo, Baozhong Sun, Bohong Gu, Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to investigate the effects of the impurity defects in different locations on the transverse compressive behaviors of three-dimensional (3D) braided carbon fiber/epoxy composites under low-velocity impact. The composites with defects in different locations were prepared by placing polytetrafluoroethylene particles at the bottom surface, corner and center parts, respectively. The compression test was implemented with the drop-weight impact method. The failure morphologies were characterized using high-speed photography and micro computed tomography (Micro-CT). A mesoscale finite element model considering the defect was developed to enhance the physical understanding of the compression process. It is found that defects located at the corner zone and the central zone have a greater impact on the compression behavior of the 3D braided composite than the defect located at the bottom surface part. The defects at the corner and center zones reduce the compressive strength of the composite, increase the failure area, and cause severe damage to both the yarn and resin. In addition, the defect causes local stress concentration on the surrounding yarns. The defects in different locations cannot change the main shear failure mode of the 3D braided composite. It is shown that great attention should be given during the manufacturing or detection process to avoid such a deterioration effect of defects located in those zones on composite strength.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T06:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030882
       
  • An improved nonlinear model considering relative velocity for the friction
           behavior between untwisted glass-fiber tow and roller

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      Authors: Yang Liu, Zhong Xiang, Xiangqin Zhou, Zhenyu Wu, Xudong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Friction between the tow and tool surface normally happens during the tow production, fabric weaving, and application process and has an important influence on the quality of the woven fabric. Based on this fact, this paper studied the influence of tension and relative velocity on the three kinds of untwisted-glass-fiber tow-on-roller friction with a Capstan-based test setup. Furthermore, an improved nonlinear friction model taking both tension and velocity into account was proposed. According to statistical test results, firstly, the friction coefficient was found to be positively correlated with tension and relative velocity. Secondly, tension and velocity were complementary on the tow-on-roller friction behavior, with neither being superior to the other. Thirdly, an improved model was found to present well the nonlinear characteristics between friction coefficient and tension and velocity, and predicational results of the model were found to agree well with the observations from Capstan tests.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T06:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030877
       
  • Investigation of the properties of knitted woolen fabrics treated with
           oxygen low-temperature plasma for sportswear applications

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      Authors: Honglian Cong, Boyu Zhao, Hao Han, Xuliang Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nine groups of knitted woolen fabrics for sportswear with different technical characteristics were treated with oxygen low-temperature plasma, and the changes in the surface morphology and chemical composition of wool fibers before and after plasma treatment, as well as the changes in the applicability indexes of knitted woolen fabrics, were studied. Finally, the comfort performance of the fabrics was evaluated by combining the concentration mapping method and the function evaluation value method. The analysis found that the surface scales of wool fibers were seriously etched after oxygen low-temperature plasma treatment, and the anti-felting, bursting strength and moisture absorption of the knitted woolen fabrics were improved. At the same time, the quick-drying index of the fabric has also been improved to a certain extent. This research provides a basis for the development of knitted woolen fabric for sportswear with excellent performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-21T06:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030632
       
  • Mechanical response and failure mechanism of three-dimensional braided
           composites under various strain-rate loadings by experimental and
           simulation research: a review

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      Authors: Zhimei Chen, Chengming Yue, Yan Zhang, Ping Wang, Yuanyuan Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The high stiffness and great strength of three-dimensional (3D) braided composites mean they are widely used in the aerospace, marine and automotive industries. Three-dimensional braided composites exhibit very different mechanical responses under various strain-rate loadings (such as tensile, compression, punch and shearing) due to their complex structural characteristics. Studies under quasi-static and low strain-rate loadings predict the elasto-plastic properties of 3D braided composites, and research under high strain-rate loading has explored the conditions of industrial composites used in special environments. The investigation of the strain-rate effect can provide a sound database reference for engineering design. Through experiments and simulation analysis methods, this work reviews the braided structural effect, mechanical response and failure mechanism of 3D braided composites under various strain rates. Mechanical properties under different theoretical and structural models are reviewed and summarized. In particular, the damage evolution and stress propagation of 3D braided composites were revealed from both macroscopic and microscopic perspectives through finite element modeling.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T02:18:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030629
       
  • Development of aldehyde and similar-to-aldehyde tanning agents

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      Authors: Wenlong Chen, Zhijun Chen, Zhongzhen Long, Zhihua Shan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Aldehyde and similar-to-aldehyde tanning agents were used in oil tanning and smoke tanning in ancient times. The aldehyde group reacts with the protein amino group in electrophilic form to obtain the preservation stability and practical function of fur and leather. The results showed that aldehyde-tanned leather can promote the hydrothermal stability of skin collagen and has better water and sweat resistance properties than chrome tanning. However, aldehyde tanning agents always lack sufficient coulombic attraction to penetrate well into skin collagen, and some aldehydes have biotoxicity and color, are not easy to dissolve and have high manufacturing costs. In this paper, the structure and application characteristics of some aldehydes are reviewed. According to prior theory and practice, the development of new aldehyde tanning agents and additives has good prospects and significance for providing substitutes for chrome tanning agents.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-20T02:18:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211023813
       
  • Improved cationic dyeability of thermotropic liquid crystal polyarylate
           fabrics by ultraviolet irradiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid

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      Authors: Shan Jiang, Bingqian Liu, Xin Chen, Dan Sheng, Honghui Xia, Bo Deng, Genyang Cao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As one of the most promising high-performance fibers, it is worthwhile to investigate the dyeing property of thermotropic liquid crystal polyarylate (TLCP) fibers. In this work, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced grafting using the acrylic acid (AAc) method was employed to improve the cationic dyeability of the TLCP fabrics. The TLCP fabrics were firstly immersed in an AAc monomer solution for 24 h, followed with the UV radiation process for grafting polymerization. The results showed that the dyeing performance to C.I. Basic Red 46 of the modified TLCP fabrics was remarkably improved. Through several characterizations, it was found that the AAc-grafted TLCP fibers became more roughened with many pits on the fiber surface, while the crystalline structure of the TLCP fibers was hardly affected. More importantly, carboxyl groups have been successfully introduced onto the TLCP fiber surface, which is the main reason for the good dye uptake. Therefore, this paper provides a simple and efficient way for the improvement of the cationic dyeing property of TLCP fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T02:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211029216
       
  • Study on the testing of the accelerated point of the floating fiber in the
           roller drafting process with an improved method

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      Authors: Yuanying Shen, Jie Ni, Jianping Yang, Chongwen Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The dynamic motion of floating fibers in the drafting process, which can be characterized by fiber accelerated points, has an important effect on the sliver or yarn quality. In this study, the fiber accelerated point during the roller drafting process has been tested with an improved method. In this method, tracer fibers and standard tracer yarns of known length were embedded into the sliver in groups. By adjusting the length and fineness of the standard tracer yarns, it was possible to determine the nip line of the front roller dynamically. Therefore, the fiber accelerated points can be obtained in a continuous drafting process without an external sensor, which is simpler and more convenient, and avoids the experimental error caused by the drawing frame shutdown during the experiment. Based on this method, the effects of the drafting parameters and sliver properties on the fiber accelerated point in the roller drafting process have been investigated. In addition, the coefficient of variance of the sliver (CVFAP) caused by the fiber accelerated point variation during the drafting process was also calculated. A comparison has been made between CVFAP and the standard deviation of the fiber accelerated points. It is found that a fairly good agreement between these two is seen, and this agreement can also evidence the accuracy of experimental results about the fiber acceleration point.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T02:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030881
       
  • Arrangement of soft fingers for automatic grasping of fabric pieces of
           garment

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      Authors: Junqiang Su, Jinzhu Shen, Jia Lyu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      It is a global challenge in the textile and apparel industry to grasp and separate fabric pieces automatically using mechanical devices. This paper summarized studies on grasping a textile cutting piece by different principles and mechanical systems, and focused on bionic soft fingers made of silica gel. In the study, we first tested single-point grasping to explore the factors that influence the grasping effects of soft fingers, and found that (a) the grasping margin is a crucial factor that influences the effect of grasping, (b) the sides and the directions of a piece play important roles in grasping, and a reverse side and a vertical direction often bring better results of grasping, and (c) although the opening distance of a soft finger is significant to the result of grasping, successful grasping is a joint result of the grasping margin and the opening distance. We then experimented with the arrangement of soft fingers, and discovered that (a) the shape and the area of a cut piece are the determinants for the number of soft fingers that have to be used, (b) a soft finger is needed at the intersections of a piece to guarantee unfolded grasping and transferring, and (c) the number of soft fingers to be used for a specific grasping task can be estimated after major factors are determined. The conclusion we proposed is easy to understand and is convenient for training or application in an industrial production. In the future, it is expected to be applied to the intelligent production of clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T02:24:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030886
       
  • Simulation of sliver blending and evaluation of blending irregularity

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      Authors: Qiaoli Cao, Lili Qian, Hao Li, Chongwen Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The quality of blended yarn depends on the uniformity of the blending of the multi-component fibers in the yarn, and sliver blending is a process necessary for mixing fibers. The movement of fibers directly affects the distribution and mixing of fibers in the sliver. In this paper, the sliver blending process was simulated, and a method for the evaluation of sliver blending irregularity was proposed. The effects of passages of drawing and blending ratio on the sliver mixing uniformity were studied and verified both by experiment and simulation. The results show that the blending irregularity decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the increase of the passages of blending drawing. The more similar the blending ratio of the two components with approximately equal linear densities, the easier it is for the component fibers to mix evenly in the sliver. The simulation results are in good agreement with the measured values and previous research results. In addition, the blending irregularity of fiber components in the blended sliver can be predicted by the simulation method.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T02:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211028803
       
  • Determination of the permeability coefficient and airflow resistivity of
           nonwoven materials

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      Authors: Tao Yang, Lizhu Hu, Michal Petrů, Xiaomeng Wang, Xiaoman Xiong, Deyou Yu, Rajesh Mishra, Jiří Militký
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Air penetration behavior plays a vital role in the performance of fibrous material in various industrial applications. Two parameters, the permeability coefficient and airflow resistivity, can describe the air penetration behavior of fibrous material. FX 3300 Textech Tester III and AFD300 AcoustiFlow devices were used to respectively characterize the permeability coefficient and airflow resistivity of nonwoven materials. Nonwoven samples were compressed due to the load from the test head of the FX 3300. Finite element analysis along with the mathematical method were implemented to recover the airflow permeability of samples at the uncompressed state. The effects of pressure drop on the airflow velocity and permeability coefficient were analyzed by the Ergun-type model. The determination of airflow resistivity based on the permeability coefficient is carried out via two approaches, that is, the direct method and the extrapolation method. The results show that the airflow velocity is not linearly related to the pressure drop, which differs from Darcy's law. This non-linear relation is mainly attributed to the influence of frictional loss. By comparing the relative error between assessed and measured airflow resistivity, most of the assessed values of the compressed samples are overestimated. The results also suggest that the direct and extrapolation methods are applicable to assess airflow resistivity on an airflow velocity (or air permeability) test device. Moreover, the Ergun-type model is also applicable to determine the permeability coefficient and airflow resistivity of nonwoven materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211029212
       
  • Cornhusk retting by pectinase enzyme combined with NaOH and effects on
           fiber properties

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      Authors: Yinghua Tian, Haiyan Jin, Xiaolan Liu, Yufei Zhang, Hongyan Wu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cornhusk fiber is a kind of biodegradable lignocellulosic fiber. The conditions of enzyme and NaOH retting were optimized on the basis of weight loss rate and the Fried test score to extract the cornhusks fiber. Taking raw cornhusk fiber as a contrast, physicochemical properties of the fiber extracted from cornhusk was researched in detail by chemical analysis (GB5889-86), X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optimal retting condition of cornhusk fiber is the following: Pectinase 9032 0.5% concentration, at 40–55°C, pH 4.2–5.8, and then 5% NaOH treatment for 15 min. The crystallinity index of raw cornhusk fiber, enzyme-treated cornhusk fiber and enzyme-alkali-treated cornhusk fiber are 20.30%, 35.05% and 51.00%, respectively, and the structure of these fibres all correspond to cellulose I. The FTIR spectra showed that higher amounts of lignin and hemicellulose were removed by NaOH treatment compared with enzyme treatment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T04:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211030601
       
  • Diffusion coefficient calculated by time-lag using the film-roll method

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      Authors: Geon Yong Park
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A method for determining the diffusion coefficient by time-lag using the film-roll method for the sublimation diffusion of disperse dye was proposed. A polyethylene terephthalate film-roll coated with dye paste was treated at 170–190°C for various times. A solution consisting of the sum of a steady-state solution and a transient solution was obtained by the homogeneous boundary value problem from a trigonometrical series. The boundary conditions of the steady-state first layer and the steady-state first layer amount of dye were determined from the steady-state concentration distribution. For various diffusion times, the steady-state first layer-passed total amounts of dye that passed through the first layer in the steady-state condition were obtained by subtracting the steady-state first layer amounts from the total amounts. The time-lag was calculated from the linear regression line for the plot of the steady-state first layer-passed total number(X) of positive values against time. The diffusion coefficient was calculated by the boundary conditions of the steady-state first layer and the time-lag. For diffusion at 170°C, 180°C, and 190°C, the correlations of the steady-state first layer-passed total amounts with respect to time were very linear and the reliability of the diffusion coefficients obtained by the time-lag was proved by the good linearity of the Arrhenius plot. The activation energy obtained was 36.8 kcal[math]mol−1.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T10:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211027803
       
  • A new approach to the assessment of changes in air permeability,
           waterproofness, surface, and thermal properties of polyamide 6.6 fabric
           with polyurethane coating after washing

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      Authors: Mateusz Kowalski, Alicja Nejman, Irena Kamińska, Małgorzata Cieślak, Renata Salerno-Kochan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The research aim was to analyse the changes in the air permeability, waterproofness, surface, mechanical and thermal properties of the polyamide 6.6 fabric with a polyurethane coating before and after 1, 5, and 10 washes in the same conditions using specialized (V1) and universal (V2) laundry detergent. A new approach based on SEM and DSC techniques and assessment of surface free energy combined with standard methods was proposed to explain the nature of observed changes in waterproof and breathable material after washing treatment. SEM analysis indicated that after 10 washes the porosity of the polyurethane coating increased from 8.94% to 14.56% and 18.75% for V1 and V2, respectively. The air permeability increased from 0.747 mm/s for the reference sample to 0.766 mm/s and 0.774 mm/s after 10 washes for V1 and V2, respectively. The waterproofness of the reference sample of 992 mbar decreased with the increasing number of washes to 246 mbar and 122 mbar for V1 and V2, respectively. After 10 washes the surface free energy (γS) decreased by 18.8% and 24.3% for V1 and V2, respectively. The average tensile strength amounted to 833 N and decreased by 13.5% for V1 and by 20% for V2 after 10 washes. The glass transition temperature of the reference fabric was 47.6°C. After 10 washes it increased by 7.2°C and 8.8°C for V1 and V2, respectively. The temperatures of thermal degradation increased by 24.6°C and 22.2°C and the heat of thermal decomposition decreased by 23.6% and 15.8% after 10 washes for V1 and V2, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T10:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211024257
       
  • Objective rating of fabric wrinkles via random vector functional link
           based on the improved salp swarm algorithm

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      Authors: Zhiyu Zhou, Zijian Ma, Zefei Zhu, Yaming Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To solve the problem of inefficiency and inaccuracy associated with the classification of fabric wrinkles by human eyes, as well as improve current deficiencies in the application of neural networks for the classification of fabric wrinkles, we propose a model based on the salp swarm algorithm improved by ant lion optimization to optimize the random vector functional link to objectively evaluate the fabric wrinkle level. First, to improve the global searchability of the salp swarm algorithm and avoid the local optima problem, the use of ant lion optimization to improve the salp swarm algorithm is proposed in this study. Afterward, the improved salp swarm algorithm is used to optimize the input weight and hidden layer bias of the random vector functional link to avoid the inaccuracy and instability of random vector functional link classification owing to the randomness of the parameters. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is verified using a fabric wrinkle dataset. Comparative experiments show that the classification accuracy of the proposed ant lion optimization - salp swarm algorithm - random vector functional link algorithm were 8.46%, 2.05%, 10.28%, 3.50%, and 4.42% higher than those of random vector functional link, improved random vector functional link based on salp swarm algorithm, extreme learning machine, improved extreme learning machine based on whale optimization algorithm, and improved backpropagation based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Furthermore, the classification accuracy of the wrinkle level was effectively improved. All the fabrics used in this study were monochromatic, and multi-color printed fabrics have a significant impact on the difficulty of image processing and classification results. The next research step is to evaluate the wrinkle level of multi-color printed fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-08T06:59:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211025774
       
  • Computerized patterning method of Cliptronic jacquard structures

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      Authors: Xinxin Li, Aijun Zhang, Jonathan Y. Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cliptronic fabric is referred to as one of the most luxurious and complicated knitted fabrics because of the exceptionally complex yarn-cutting technique and Cliptronic jacquard structures. Cliptronic jacquard principles and the single-end selection mechanism were first studied to theoretically reveal its patterning algorithm. To realize computerized design, the pattern image was transferred to jacquard bitmap. Certain grid units were defined in a form of mathematical matrixes for representing offset data of jacquard elements, including half-gauge fall-plate, full-gauge inlay, and half-gauge yarn selection jacquard systems. Additionally, for generating superior and clear pattern contours, boundary grids which connect various jacquard effects required a further adjustment and a detailed designing discipline was concluded. The researched patterning algorithm of Cliptronic structures positively helps to expand product range and enhance fabrication efficiency.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:48:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211027802
       
  • A review of noteworthy/major innovations in wearable clothing for thermal
           and moisture management from material to fabric structure

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      Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Kaleem Ullah, Joseph Lejeune, Aurélie Cayla, Mélanie Monceaux, Christine Campagne, Éric Devaux
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The human body exchanges heat through the environment by various means, such as radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Thermo-physiological comfort is associated with the effective heat transfer between the body and the atmosphere, maintaining the body temperature in a tolerable thermal range (36.5–37.5ºC). In order to ensure comfort, the body heat must be preserved or emitted, depending on external conditions. If the body heat is not properly managed, it can cause hyperthermia, heatstroke, and thermal discomfort. Conventionally, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are used to provide comfort. However, they require a huge amount of energy, leading to an increase in global warming, and are limited to indoor applications. In recent decades, scientists across the world have been working to provide thermal comfort through wearable innovative textiles. This review article presents recent innovative strategies for moisture and/or thermal management at the material, filament/fiber, yarn, and fabric scales. It also summarizes the passive/active textile models for comfort. Integrating electrical devices in garments can rapidly control the skin temperature, and is dynamic and useful for a wide range of environmental conditions. However, their use can be limited in some situations due to their bulky design and batteries, which must be frequently recharged. Furthermore, adaptive textiles enable the wearer to maintain comfort in various temperatures and humidity without requiring batteries. Using these wearable textiles is convenient to provide thermal comfort at the individual level rather than controlling the entire building temperature.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211027799
       
  • Optimization and characterization of flavonoids extracted from Cannabis
           sativa fibers

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      Authors: Qilu Cui, Jiawei Li, Chongwen Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the extraction process of flavonoids from hemp fibers was studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis of the extraction parameters indicated that optimized results would be ethanol concentration 76 vol.%, bath ratio 1:50, and reaction time 139 min; therefore, an optimal extraction rate of flavonoids of 0.2275% can be obtained. The chemical structure, surface morphology and element composition of flavonoid extracts were analyzed. The test results indicated that hemp extract contains flavonoids, which can be used to extract flavonoids from hemp fiber, so as to comprehensively develop hemp fiber and reduce the discharge of waste liquid in the traditional degumming process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211027796
       
  • A superhydrophobic and flame-retardant cotton fabric fabricated by an
           eco-friendly assembling method

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      Authors: Xiang Liu, Junli Chen, Longxin Gu, Luc T Nguyen, Jiqiang Cao, Hongling Liu, Zhaoqun Du, Weidong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A novel eco-friendly and durable superhydrophobic and flame-retardant cotton fabric with fluorine-free, halogen-free was prepared via step-by-step dip-coating and spraying technology. At first, common cotton fabric was impregnated in the flame-retardant ethoxysilane-terminated phosphate polyurethane. Afterwards, methanol mixture containing silica nanoparticles, methyl triethoxysilane, and dihydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane was sprayed on the surface of the cotton fabric. Finally, a flame-retardant cotton fabric with micro-nano rough surface and low surface energy was formed. The resulting superhydrophobic and flame-retardant cotton fabric exhibited superamphiphobicity with the contact angle and sliding angle of 160° and 6°, respectively, while flame retardancy with limited oxygen index of 28.1%. and flame self-extinguishing. Furthermore, this superhydrophobic and flame-retardant cotton fabric showed robust superhydrophobicity and flame-retardancy after undergoing 1000 cycles of abrasion, 60 min of ultrasonic washing and 50 standard machine washing cycles, in sequence, indicating its potential as a multifunctional protective textile fabric. Additionally, the method proposed in this study can effectively solve durability and environmental problems currently faced by the coated fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame-retardancy.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211022628
       
  • Design of sports-abaya and its thermal comfort evaluation

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      Authors: Morooj Helmi, Salwa Tashkandi, Lijing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The market for sports-abaya in Saudi Arabia is growing due to an increasing participation rate of Islamic women in fitness and sports activities. As mandated by religious law, an abaya must be worn over daily clothes or sportswear by women in order to hide their body contour. The additional layer of the abaya will affect thermal comfort and performance of the wearer. Hence, a sports-abaya needs to be specifically designed to facilitate thermal comfort. This necessitates the selection and evaluation of fabrics appropriate for use in the production of sports-abaya. This study compared two fabrics (100% cotton knit and 100% polyester woven) for their air permeability, thermal resistance and evaporative resistance. The fabrics were then incorporated as sole variable into two models of sports-abaya. The thermal properties of these abayas were evaluated using a female thermal manikin in both standing and walking positions. Comparison was made with the results of a traditional abaya. The research work revealed that polyester woven fabric has a higher air permeability (44.9 mL/cm2/s) than cotton knitted fabric (24.1 mL/cm2/s). The vapor resistance of polyester fabric was lower than cotton fabric and their thermal resistant did not show any significant difference. Consequently, thermal manikin evaluation showed results favoring sports-abaya containing polyester fabric in both standing and walking positions. Furthermore, the thermal resistant and vapor resistant values of sports-abayas were lower compared with those of the traditional abaya. This leads to the conclusion that the newly designed sports-abaya containing 100% polyester woven fabric provides better thermal comfort than traditional abaya and sports-abaya containing 100% cotton fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-07-06T06:48:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211028802
       
  • Study on realizing the personalized customization of bra cup by solving
           the inverse problem of bra cup design

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      Authors: Ziyi Guo, Yijie Zhang, Jiazhen Chen, Ying Long, Lei Du, Fengyuan Zou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the process of bra cup customization, the matching between bra cup surface and breast shape largely depends on the practical experience of designers. To achieve effective customization, this study proposes an inverse design method. This method prescribes the surface of the main test section and subsequently optimizes the corresponding shape of the bra cup, thus minimizing the supremum of pressure in the target region. The optimization framework is mainly based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and Kriging surrogate model. The inner surface of the bra cup represents the study model, and the three-dimensional morphology of the bra cup is characterized by the free-form deformation. The result exhibits a reduction of 22.51% in the pressure of the design cup as compared to the body size cup. The developed method can contribute to the engineering and personalized customization of the bra cup, thus further improving the fitting of the bra cup.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T07:38:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211016560
       
  • Carrier delay-based method for development of the tracks for the
           transitions between patterns on 3D braiding machines with continuous
           rotating horn gears

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      Authors: Peter Glessner, Yordan Kyosev
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The pattern changes on the 3D rotary braiding machines (maypole principle with horn gears with full and empty slots) require complex planning of the carrier positions and timing and allow for production of bifurcated and other complex braids with variable cross sections for medical and technical applications. Another common application of pattern changes is to make a visually different pattern for marking of the remaining length of rope when used in a climbing context or for generally lengthened pieces for medical sutures. The development of such samples has previously been done using the trial-and-error method. This paper presents one rule for supporting a more systematic and purposeful trial, which significantly speeds up the development process. After a short review of the related literature, the main theoretical background is given and two practical cases for pattern change are demonstrated. The patterns were developed using numerical simulation before being tested on a real braiding machine. With this paper the authors hope to give some motivation for the remaining braiders in the world to continue working on the development of systematic rules for this complex process.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-28T09:53:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211026533
       
  • Optimization of the polyester fabric dyeing process using coumarin as a
           green carrier

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      Authors: CN Lima, KKOS Silva, JHO Nascimento, CGFT Rossi, MA Granato, FR Oliveira
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aims to evaluate the application of coumarin as a green carrier alternative for dyeing of polyester fabrics, as well as to optimize key dyeing parameters in order to obtain greater color strength (K/S) at lower temperatures than 130°C using single azo class dispersed dye. For this purpose, a full-factorial design was used to study the influence of the single and interactive effects of four factors involved in the dyeing process, namely, pH, temperature, and coumarin and dye concentrations. The chosen technique was a 24-factorial, one-center point, and three replicates at the center point resulting on a response surface, which has shown an increase of the color strength of five times at 90°C, and of three times at 100°C when compared to dyeing at the same temperatures without the use of a carrier. In addition, excellent fastness to washing and to rubbing were obtained.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T06:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211026539
       
  • Serialized gradient chromatography for the digital blending of colored
           fibers and spinning of gradient colored yarn

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      Authors: Xianqiang Sun, Yuan Xue, Peng Cui, Zhiwu Xu, Dejun Zeng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Gradient colored yarns are manufactured by controlling the blending ratios of three-primary-colored fibers in a slight distribution of gradients along the yarn length, thereby resulting in a continuous natural variation in mixed colors of the fibers throughout the whole yarn. The spinning of gradient colored yarns still remains a challenge, which requires the reliance on digital blending theory of colored fibers and the supporting of multi-channel computer numerical control (CNC) spinning technique. This paper constructed a three-primary-colored fiber gridded color mixing model and its mass mixing matrix and color mixing chromatography matrix by mass discretization and coupling pairing with a 10% gradient for the three-primary-colored fibers. With the aim of continuous natural gradient of mixed colors, the blending ratio gradient path of three-primary-colored fibers was planned based on the mass mixing matrix, and a method of regulating the gradient of color difference between adjacent color segments was proposed. In order to realize the natural gradient of color of the forming yarn, the spinning mechanism of gradient colored yarn was established based on three-channel CNC spinning mechanism and the time-series yarn simulation model, and the time-series spinning processing parameters of three-channel CNC spinning machine were devised. Four gradient colored yarns with different gradient paths were designed and prepared, the linear density, twist, unevenness, surface hairiness, and tensile strength of the spun yarns were measured, compared, and analyzed, and knitted fabrics with color gradient effect were fabricated by small circular knitting machine to obtain continuous and natural color transition with a dreamy and mysterious color effect.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T06:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211025773
       
  • Graphene oxide-coated amino-modified polyacrylonitrile to fabricate highly
           conductive fabrics

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      Authors: Jiliang Cao, Chaoxia Wang, Haixia Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Graphene conductive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) substrate is an important material, owing to its high strength, flexibility, and comfort. In this work, a PAN fabric was cationized with triethylene tetramine (TETA) for increased adsorption of anionic graphene oxide (GO), which mainly forms ionic bonds. The TETA-modified PAN (Amino-PAN) fabric was then treated with GO using a dipping method followed by in situ reduction of GO to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The electric conductivity of Amino-PAN fabrics was increased with the increasing of TETA modification temperature from 90°C to 110°C. A surface electric resistance of 0.61 kΩ cm−1 was obtained for 2 g L−1 GO and TETA modification performed at 110°C for 2 h. This resistance was considerably lower than that of the original PAN fabric for one cycle of the dipping–reduction GO treatment (1RGO-PAN, 42.69 kΩ cm−1) and six cycles of the dipping–reduction GO treatment (6RGO-PAN, 1.52 kΩ cm−1). The results revealed that the anionic GO was more easily adsorbed on the surface of the Amino-PAN fabrics than on the original PAN fabrics. The surface electric resistance of the 1RGO-Amino-PAN fabrics slightly increased from 0.61 to 0.79 kΩ cm−1 after 30 washing cycles. The results showed that the RGO-coated Amino-PAN fabric had excellent washability. Furthermore, the TETA modification process reduced the dipping–reduction times of the GO finishing PAN fabrics, and can be easily used in the production of RGO-based flexible conductive material.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T04:07:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211020516
       
  • Sportswear retailing forecast model based on the combination of
           multi-layer perceptron and convolutional neural network

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      Authors: Jun Xu, Yun Zhou, Liang Zhang, Jianming Wang, Damien Lefloch
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Apparel sales forecasting plays an important role in production planning, distribution decision, and inventory management of enterprises. Especially, the sportswear market has been shown rapid growth characterized by long-term sales. This paper proposes a sales forecasting model for sportswear sales based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and the convolutional neural network (CNN). A novel loss function is also proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. The proposed model is trained and validated on the time-series retailing data collected from three offline local sports stores in China. The influencing factors of retailing forecasting, such as time-series sales data, product features, distribution strategy, shop size, and other parameters, were also defined. Experimental results show that the proposed forecasting model outperforms the compared statistical methods by a large margin. Specifically, the proposed model provided 65% prediction accuracy, while the compared methods provided 16% prediction accuracy. The results show that the proposed model could be potentially used in sportswear sales forecasting, especially offline clothing and other long lifecycle clothing fields.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T04:07:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211020518
       
  • Mathematical model used for predicting arc-flash protective performance of
           fabrics based on physical parameters

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      Authors: Wen Zhu, Hong Tang, Qilong Sun, Zhen Huang, Chengjiao Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, parameters that may affect the performance of arc-flash protective fabrics were systematically analyzed. Sixteen different commonly used fabrics with different configurations and grammage were produced and investigated, namely four raw materials with different configurations (93:0:5:2, 70:23:5:2, 46:47:5:2, and 23:70:5:2) and four with different grammage (180, 210, 240, and 270 g/m2). It was found that factors had different effects on the arc protective performance. Principal component analysis showed that the four plain weave fabrics of 180 g/m2 behaved differently compared with other samples, which was ascribed to the related differences in weave structure. In addition, a predicting mathematical model was developed based on the parameters that have the greatest influence on arc protective performance. The prediction parameters were not added to the structure, but replaced with physical parameters such as air permeability and thermomechanical properties. The adjusted R2 was 0.867, which demonstrated the rationality of using multiple linear regression to accurately predict arc protective performance. It was hypothesized that the construction of the mathematical model could contribute to the arc protective fabric evaluation and future researches in this field.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T04:07:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211022633
       
  • Effect of inner layer structures of weft-knitted spacer fabrics on thermal
           insulation and air permeability

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      Authors: Vaida Buzaite, Daiva Mikucioniene
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main goal of this research was to determine the influence of the inner layer thickness and tightness, which depends on the length of the float determined by the float step and number of floats in the pattern repeat, on the thermal insulation and air permeability of the multilayered weft-knitted fabric. For this reason, weft-knitted spacer fabrics were produced by using woolen yarns for the outer layers and polyester filament yarn for the inner layer, with the number of floats in the inner layer varying between two and 20. Results from this research showed that the consequent increase in thickness and tightness of the spacer fabric’s inner layer has unequal effect on the thermal insulation and air permeability. Therefore, similar thermal insulation can be achieved by having significantly higher air permeability. This is especially evident over a long period of time.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T04:07:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211021452
       
  • New class of magenta dyestuffs based on azomethine pyrazolone disperse
           dyes: Synthesis, characterization, and dyeing performance on polyester
           fabrics with ultraviolet protection and pH-dependent properties

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      Authors: Seham A Ibrahim, Hala F Rizk
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Eight azomethine pyrazolone magenta dyes with iminodiethanol groups have been synthesized from 1,3-disubstituted-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-ones in good yield. The newly synthesized dyes were characterized using spectroscopic data and elemental analyses techniques. All dyes have been successfully applied to polyester fabrics as disperse dyes where their dyeing performances have been discussed and evaluated in detail. The shades of these dyes ranged from red violet, purple and dark purple colors with good depth, brightness and good leveling properties. Multifunctional properties such as color representation, colorimetric data (L*, a*, b*, C*, h*, K/S), fastness properties of the dyed samples with respect to washing, perspiration, rubbing and light fastness have been discussed and evaluated in detail. The degree of exhaustion and fixation was also achieved after establishing the optimal dyeing conditions at 130°C, high pressure, 2% shade, and pH ≈5. As well, the influence of the dye bath pH on the K/S percentage and color intensity was estimated and discussed. Furthermore, the dyed fabrics were tested for ultraviolet protection factor and the results showed that these dyes gave excellent ultraviolet protection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T09:08:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211024636
       
  • Acoustic characterization of silica nanoparticle-impregnated Kevlar fabric

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      Authors: Oluwafemi P Akinmolayan, James M Manimala
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Silica nanoparticle-impregnated Kevlar (SNK) fabric has better specific ballistic performance in comparison to its neat counterparts. For multifunctional structural applications using lightweight composites, combining this improved ballistic functionality with an acoustic functionality is desirable. In this study, acoustic characterization of neat and SNK samples is conducted using the normal-incidence impedance tube method. Both the absorption coefficient and transmission loss (TL) are measured in the 60–6000 Hz frequency range. The influence of parameters such as number of layers of neat or treated fabric, percentage by weight of nanoparticle addition, spacing between fabric layers, and residual porosity is examined. It is found that while absorption decreases with an increase in nanoparticle addition for frequencies above about 2500 Hz, increasing the number of layers shifts peak absorption to lower frequencies. By introducing an air-gap behind the fabric layer, dominant low-frequency (1000–3000 Hz) absorption peaks are obtained that correlate well with natural modes of mass-equivalent thin plates. Examining the influence of residual porosity by laminating the SNK samples reveals that it contributes to about 30–50% of the total absorption. Above about 1500 Hz, 3–5 dB of TL increase is obtained for SNK samples vis-à-vis the neat samples. TL is found to increase beyond that of the neat sample above a threshold frequency when an air-gap is introduced between two SNK layers. With an increase in the weight of nanoparticle addition, measured TL tends to be closer to mass law predictions. This study demonstrates that SNK fabric could provide improved acoustic performance in addition to its ballistic capabilities, making it suitable for multifunctional applications and could form the basis for the development of simplified models to predict the structural acoustic response of such nanoparticle–fabric composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T06:38:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211023812
       
  • Construction and analysis of a three-channel numerical control
           ring-spinning system for segment colored yarn

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      Authors: Xianqiang Sun, Peng Cui, Yuan Xue
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      At present, there have been a significant number of studies of segment colored yarn, and the majority of these studies have made considerable progress, which has made the types and styles of segment colored yarn more abundant. However, the problem that exists in the segment colored yarn is its relatively few kinds of color, which greatly limits its flexibility and diversity in commercial applications. To address the above problems, a multi-channel computer numerical control (CNC) ring-spinning machine was developed, and a digital spinning mechanism with online regulation of the forming linear density and blending ratio was constructed through the developed three-channel drafting mechanism and its driving and controlling system; the spinning mechanism of segment colored yarn using the time-varying three-channel drafting ratio to the spinning time-varying three-colored fiber blending ratio was established by implementing a coupling algorithm for co-drafting of multi-channel roving; the forming process and algorithm of segment colored yarn, which is used to solve the blending ratio of three colored fibers and the drafting ratio of three-channel roving based on segment color, was constructed through the digital color mixing model and the design of segment color of yarn. According to the above mechanism, three rovings with two color combinations of cyan, magenta, yellow and cyan, magenta, black were used to design and spin segment colored yarns with three, five and seven colors, respectively. By testing and analyzing the linear density, twist, unevenness, surface hairiness and tensile properties of the segment colored yarn, it is proved that the timing control of the three-channel drafting ratio based on CNC ring spinning can achieve the timing control of the blending ratio of the three colored fibers, which is beneficial to the spinning of segment colored yarn with color segment distribution.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-13T05:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211020517
       
  • Garment recommendation in an e-shopping environment by using a Markov
           Chain and Complex Network integrated method

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      Authors: Junjie Zhang, Xianyi Zeng, Min Dong, Yan Hong
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the e-commerce environment, website-based recommendation systems have been developed in order to help consumers without professional fashion-related knowledge to identify the most relevant garment products satisfying their specific personalized requirements in terms of fashion and functionalities. However, there are two main drawbacks in the existing recommendation systems: (1) the existing shopping data and/or human body data-based recommendations cannot effectively deal with fashion trends; (2) the shoppers’ experience and knowledge are rarely considered in these systems. To solve these two drawbacks, we propose in this paper a new garment recommendation mechanism using a Markov Chain and Complex Network integrated method. The Markov Chain method is employed as a suitable tool permitting one to extract fashion trends from a lower quantity of shopping data. The Complex Network method is used to formalize uncertain relations between human body shapes, garment fitting effects and garment features, provided by shopping experts. Compared with other existing recommendation methods, the proposed method is validated to be more robust and more interpretable owing to its capacity of handling body types and fashion trends.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-13T05:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211021442
       
  • Sound absorption performance of flexible polyurethane/silicon dioxide
           perforated coating composites

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      Authors: Min Peng, Xiaoming Zhao, Weibin Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Perforated materials in the traditional sense are rigid, usually dense, costly and inflexible. For this study, polyester/cotton blended woven fabric as the base fabric, nano-SiO2 (silicon dioxide) as the functional particles and PU (polyurethane) as the matrix were selected. Accordingly, flexible PU/SiO2 perforated coating composites with different process parameters were developed. The influence of the nano-SiO2 content, perforation diameter, perforation rate, number of fiber felt layers and cavity depth on the sound absorption coefficient were investigated. The resonant frequencies of materials with different cavity depths were evaluated by both theoretical calculation and experimental method. It was found that the flexible perforated composite has good sound absorption and mechanical properties, and has great potential for applications requiring soft and lightweight sound absorption materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-13T05:56:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211015516
       
  • Prediction of yarn strength based on an expert weighted neural network
           optimized by particle swarm optimization

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      Authors: Baowei Zhang, Jiuxiang Song, Suna Zhao, Hao Jiang, Jingdian Wei, Yonghua Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Aiming at solving the problem that existing artificial neural networks (ANNs) still have low accuracy in predicting yarn strength, this study combines traditional expert experience and an ANN to propose a hybrid network, named the expert weighted neural network. Many studies have shown that it is reliable to predict yarn strength based on ANN technology. However, most ANN training models face with problems of low accuracy and easy trapping into their local minima. The strength prediction of traditional yarns relies on expert experience. Obvious expert experience can help the model perform preliminary learning and help the algorithm model achieve higher accuracy. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network model that combines expert weights and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The model uses PSO to optimize the weights of experts and investigates its effectiveness in yarn strength prediction.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T05:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211022619
       
  • A filament-level analysis on failure mechanism and ballistic limit of
           real-size multi-layer 2D woven fabrics under FSP impact

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      Authors: Ying Ma, Mario Dippolito, Yuyang Miao, Youqi Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the failure mechanism and fabric ballistic performance of real-size multi-layer 2D woven fabrics impacted by sharp-edge fragment simulating projectile (FSP). First, the relations between digital fiber shear force and bending rigidity are established under the modified digital element approach (DEA) framework. Then, a systematic parametric study was carried out on the ballistic impact of a 4-inch-long single yarn and 4-inch by 4-inch 2D woven fabric at near fiber level to solve for the relations of digital fiber moment of inertia and ballistic limit. The results show that for the same number of digital fibers per yarn model, the simulated ballistic limits are in direct proportion to digital fiber moment of inertia. The increase of the number of digital fibers per yarn, however, decreases the digital fiber moment of inertia effect on ballistic limits. Second, the 1- to 28-layer real-size 2D woven Kevlar KM2 fabrics are simulated at filament level against FSP on the cluster to estimate the V50 zone. The perforation process and failure mechanism of 4-layer fabric is investigated and analyzed in detail. The simulation results demonstrate the deformed fabric shape with respect to time and the damage modes at the impact area. Numerical results are compared with standard ballistic test results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T05:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211015518
       
  • β-Cyclodextrin: Disperse yellow 211 complexes improve coloristic
           intensity of polyamide dyed knits

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      Authors: Fabricio Maestá Bezerra, Dayane Samara de Carvalho Cotre, André Plath, Helen Beraldo Firmino, Miliane Aparecida de Lima, Manuel Lis, Rafael Block Samulewski, Murilo Pereira Moisés
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Dyes are complex molecules that can sometimes cause damage to the aquatic environment and harm human health. They are often not completely removed from effluent by the usual treatments; therefore, efforts have been made to increase their exhaustion from dyeing through chemical and physical processes. In this context, the use of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as dyeing auxiliary agent promotes the reduction of harmful products, also increasing the color intensity of the fabric. In this paper, β-CD was used as a complexing agent to dye polyamide (PA) using the dye C.I. Disperse Yellow 211 (DY211) in order to improve dye exhaustion and color intensity using the β-CD:DY211 complex. The conventional dyeing process and β-CD:DY211 dyeing process by exhaustion were compared, and adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and the coloristic intensity were evaluated. The chemical shifts in the FTIR spectra and the thermal stability evidenced the formation of the β-CD:DY211 complex. Regarding dyeing kinetics and isotherm, the pseudo-first-order model was the most appropriate to describe the process, while Nernst isotherm was the one that best represented the adsorption results. Categorically, the samples dyed with the β-CD:DY211 complex obtained higher coloristic intensity in comparison with the conventional process. With this evidence, it is possible to conclude that cyclodextrin is a suitable replacement for environmentally harmful textile aides without adding further steps into the dyeing process or the need for additional equipment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T07:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211022624
       
  • Assessment of chemically and enzymatically modified chitosan with eugenol
           as a coating for viscose functionalization for potential medical use

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      Authors: Olivera Sauperl, Lidija Fras Zemljic, Julija Volmajer Valh, Jasna Tompa
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The present work deals with the preparation of chemically and enzymatically eugenol-modified chitosan and its application as a green coating on viscose for the potential production of medical textiles. The elemental composition of chemically and enzymatically eugenol-modified chitosan was determined by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Moreover, potentiometric titration was used to estimate the number of accessible amino groups. The chitosan–eugenol formulation possesses a high antioxidant capacity level, as shown by the high content of phenolic compounds analyzed by the following methods: (a) Folin–Ciocalteu; (b) reduction of Fe3+ ions; and (c) α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). Viscose coated with chitosan–eugenol formulations was evaluated by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and Acid Orange VII spectrophotometric methods, the results of which demonstrated the successful deposition of these formulations on the fibers. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of the functional coating on the viscose. Finally, antimicrobial testing was performed to determine inhibition of selected pathogenic micro-organisms using the ASTM E 2149-01 standard. The antioxidant activity of the functionalized viscose was investigated spectrophotometrically by the DPPH• method. It was found that the coatings of eugenol-modified chitosan impart antimicrobial activity to the viscose against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, and cause inhibition of free radicals by introducing an antioxidant character. The chemical and enzymatic modification of chitosan offers many opportunities for the incorporation of many natural active ingredients into the chitosan system, which provides a good basis for further work related to the functionalization of chitosan for sanitary and medical use.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-06T04:22:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211021446
       
  • Investigation into the effects of yarn structure and yarn count on
           different types of core-spun yarns

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      Authors: Samah M E Elrys, Fawkia Faheem El- Habiby, Rehab Abd Elkhalek, Ahmed S Eldeeb, Abdellatif M El-Hossiny
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The scope of this research is to study the effect of yarn structure and yarn count on properties of types of core-spun yarns, including elastic core/T400, elastic core/Lycra, dual core, and tri-core yarns. Five types of yarn structures and three yarn counts were produced. Mechanical properties, yarn irregularity, imperfections, and hairiness were measured. Full-factorial analysis and Tukey tests were performed on the test results. It was concluded from factorial analysis that yarn count, yarn structure, and two-way interaction had a significant effect on yarn properties, except for yarn hairiness where the effect of yarn structure and two-way interaction was not significant. A Tukey pairwise comparison was used in this study to specify exactly the subgroups of yarn count and yarn structure that have a significant mean difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the dual-core yarns and tri-core yarns were performed to illustrate the structure of these yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-06T04:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211021447
       
  • Effect of online shopping experience on customer loyalty in apparel
           business-to-consumer ecommerce

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      Authors: Wei Yin, Bugao Xu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives of this study were to identify major dimensions of customers’ online shopping experience and to examine their impacts on customer loyalty. Customer experience dimensions were firstly searched from the reviewed literatures, and the five dimensions, that is, website, product, service, brand, and emotional experience, were deemed to be relevant to the apparel business-to-consumer ecommerce by experienced shoppers through in-person interviews. Online shopping experience data were then collected through an online questionnaire surveyed in two timeframes, generating two datasets that have 306 and 369 valid samples, respectively. The reliability of the measurement scale was assessed with the two datasets by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients; the scale’s construct validity was verified with the first dataset by the exploratory factor analysis, and the confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the second dataset to evaluate the fit indices, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the scale. Lastly, the correlation and regression analyses were conducted to establish an experience–loyalty model. It was found that the effects of customer experience decreased in the order from product, brand, service, emotional, and website experience. The factor loadings of the scale items indicated that (a) accurate product information had the strongest effect on website experience, (b) product quality had the strongest effect on product experience, (c) product return and exchange processes had the strongest effect on service experience, (d) apparel brand had the strongest effect on brand experience, and (e) shopping journey had the strongest effect on emotional experience.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-06T04:22:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211016559
       
  • Development, fabrication and evaluation of passive interface gloves

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      Authors: Adnan Mehmood, Han He, Xiaochen Chen, Zahangir Khan, Tiina Ihalainen, Johanna Virkki
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Previously, glove-integrated communication based on gestures, hand movement and finger touch had a complex operating system and an active power source was needed. This paper introduces batteryless and maintenance-free interface gloves. Our solution is based on passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, comprising four electro-textile antenna parts and three RFID microchips (each with a unique ID). The three RFID microchips have unique IDs, which can be activated by the gentle touch of the human finger and used to control the surrounding technology. The aim is to evaluate the reliability of different conductive materials and microchip attachment methods. The antennas are fabricated from two different materials: a stretchable and a non-stretchable commercial electro-textile. Further, two types of microchip attachment methods are used with both antenna materials: a conductive silver epoxy and embroidery with conductive multifilament silver-plated thread. The developed interface gloves are tested by six users in a home and in an office environment, where they achieve 93–100% success rates. Especially those glove interfaces with the antennas fabricated from the non-stretchable electro-textile and the antenna-microchip interconnections embroidered with conductive thread showed good read ranges (80–110 cm). The gloves also show practical functionality, when tested with a mobile reader in practical identification and access control application. These results are very encouraging, especially when considering that the interface glove, being maintenance-free and cost-effective, promises versatile and interesting applications for customizing user-friendly augmentative and alternative communication solutions, easy controlling of ambient assisted-living applications, and providing simple identification and access control for increased safety and comfort.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T07:15:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211019132
       
  • Simultaneous-integrated evaluation of mechanical–thermal sensory
           attributes of woven fabrics in considering practical wearing states

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      Authors: Ling Liu, Li Wei, Fengxin Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Tactile sensations of fabrics are the primary property determining the wearing comfort of clothing; however, comprehensive evaluation of the fabric tactile property by considering the flexural buckling of fabrics under high curvature, hysteresis performance and thermal property has not been fully studied, leading to a clear gap between the existing measurement methods and application requirements. Herein, a simultaneous-integrated testing method, namely the Touch Sensation Tester for Fabrics (TST-F) was introduced to evaluate the mechanical–thermal sensory properties of woven fabrics. The introduced instrument used one device with a single mechanical sensor to test various mechanical properties by constructing different deformations of fabrics, and the thermal property was simultaneously measured using an infrared detector array, achieving an efficient characterization of the mechanical–thermal sensation properties of textiles. The measurement capacity and repeatability of the TST-F were statistically analyzed; the measurement indices and their relation with fabric mechanical–thermal sensation properties were also exhibited. Results showed that the TST-F was promising to characterize fabric touch sensations in terms of bending stiffness, compression softness with wrinkling, stretching tightness and thermal comfort by considering the infrared transmission and heat conductivity of textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T06:32:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211019903
       
  • The study of needle type influence on woven fabric surface area during the
           sewing process

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      Authors: Beti Rogina-Car, Stana Kovačević
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the damage to cotton fabrics (ticking and damask) caused by stitching with three types of needle point shapes (R, SES and SUK) and four needle sizes (70, 80, 90 and 100 Nm). Damage to the yarn and the surface area of the hole were investigated. Based on the results, it can be concluded that two types of damage occur during sewing: the needle passes through the warp/weft (it displaces the yarn) and the needle damages the warp/weft. An analysis and comparison of the surface area of the holes was carried out, obtained by a computer program based on microscopic images. The results show greater damage to the yarn at the needle piercing point in the ticking due to higher density, friction and low yarn migration. The largest surface area of the holes was produced when sewing with SUK-designated needles on ticking and damask. When sewing damask, R-designated needles cause the least damage to the piercing point, whereas SES-designated needles give the best results when sewing the ticking. Thread damage was further confirmed by testing the tensile properties of the yarn at the needle piercing points.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T06:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211019133
       
  • Design and implementation of a wearable patch antenna that serves as a
           longitudinal strain sensor

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      Authors: Julian Arango Toro, Willer Ferney Montes Granada, Sara Maria Yepes Zuluaga
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the design and simulation of a rectangular wearable patch antenna. A parametric study of the antenna was conducted to determine the effect of subjecting it to longitudinal mechanical strain (along the x-axis) on its resonant frequency. The antenna-sensor was based on a cotton fabric dielectric and conductors made of flexible copper sheets that operated at a central frequency of 2.4 GHz, which is in one of the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical application bands. The Deming’s cycle, or Plan, Do, Check, and Act, was the adopted methodology in this study to address this research problem. The resonant cavity technique was implemented to find the relative permittivity and loss tangent of the textile substrate, and a universal testing machine was used to establish its mechanical properties (i.e., Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio). The mechanical properties of the dielectric materials, the elastic modulus in tensile loading (69.34 MPa), and the experimental value of the Poisson's ratio (0.342) were extracted from the literature. Based on the CST (Computer Simulation Technology) datasheet of flexible copper, its elastic modulus in tensile loading is 240 MPa and its Poisson's ratio is 0.39. A Computer Numerical Control machine was employed to cut the flexible copper, and the cotton fabric was cut by hand based on the dimensions of the ground plane. The patch was sewn with strong textile thread at the center of the ground plane and the cotton fabric. Such sewing ensured the physical resistance of the antenna to withstand the conditions of the multiple strains it was subjected to. The antenna implemented here resonated at a frequency of 2.3968 GHz (with a 0.13% error rate) and was well coupled with the transmission line with a Standing Wave Ratio of 1.04. CST Microwave Studio® software was used to simulate the antenna frequency response to mechanical strains based on the reaction of its return losses ([math] in dB) to be compared with experimental rigs that bend at a different level of stresses. In line with the theory in the literature, the resonant frequency of the antenna was linearly and inversely proportional to the applied stress, which enabled us to calculate the transduction ratio of the sensor in terms of strain versus frequency. In the experimental setup, the range of variation of the resonant frequency of the sensor was 143.6 MHz, with a very good sensitivity of 2.38 [math]. These results pave the way for future studies in which this sensor is used as part of a biomedical system to monitor the vital signs of patients (such as respiratory rate, lung capacity, and performance under different types of physical effort; for example, in high-performance athletes) and diagnose diseases or other kinds of disorders associated with respiratory problems.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T06:31:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013828
       
  • Virtual fit evaluation of pants using the Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference
           System

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      Authors: Xueqing Zhao, Ke Fan, Xin Shi, Kaixuan Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Virtual reality is a technology that allows users to completely interact with a computer-simulated environment, and put on new clothes to check the effect without taking off their clothes. In this paper, a virtual fit evaluation of pants using the Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), VFE-ANFIS for short, is proposed. There are two stages of the VFE-ANFIS: training and evaluation. In the first stage, we trained some key pressure parameters by using the VFE-ANFIS; these key pressure parameters were collected from real try-on and virtual try-on of pants by users. In the second stage, we evaluated the fit by using the trained VFE-ANFIS, in which some key pressure parameters of pants from a new user were determined and we output the evaluation results, fit or unfit. In addition, considering the small number of input samples, we used the 10-fold cross-validation method to divide the data set into a training set and a testing set; the test accuracy of the VFE-ANFIS was 94.69% ± 2.4%, and the experimental results show that our proposed VFE-ANFIS could be applied to the virtual fit evaluation of pants.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-30T11:59:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211020515
       
  • Influence of the mechanical stretch property of fabrics on the wear
           comfort of men’s suit pants

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      Authors: Hiroyuki Kanai, Kentaro Ogawa, Tetsu Sasagawa, Kiyohiro Shibata
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The stretch property of fabrics is one of the most important factors that provide comfort to wearers. It is expected that tension building up in the fabric can be relaxed and the garment pressure on the body can be reduced by appropriately exploiting its stretch property. Currently, the stretch property is predominantly realized using spandex. However, weaving or knitting elastic threads cannot be employed for the worsted fabric used to design men’s suits because of their effects on the mechanical properties of the fabric (e.g., embrittlement), which deteriorate with time. In this study, worsted fabric with a graded mechanical stretch property was produced, and the effect of the mechanical stretch property on comfort was verified. The mechanical stretch property is developed from the tension relaxation and fabric shrinkage along the weft yarn during the crabbing, scouring, and drying stages of the finishing process. Then, the form of the fabric is set by heating. In this study, the worsted fabric had an elongation ratio varying from 5.9% to 16.1% along the weft direction that was produced without using elastic thread. Furthermore, men’s suit pants were made from the fabrics. The effect of the stretch property on the garment comfort was verified through sensory evaluation and garment pressure measurement. The contribution of the mechanical stretch property in improving the garment comfort of men’s suit pants is discussed.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-29T01:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211019131
       
  • Analysis of segmented elderly women’s lower bodies using 3D-LOOK scan
           data and virtual representation

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      Authors: Sunmi Park, Kuengmi Choi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To address the clothing needs of an aging society, this study developed a scale using three-dimensional (3D) scan data that determine elderly women’s lower body shapes to improve the way garments fit the elderly. Body type elements that play an important role in garment fit were identified and five body type elements were selected for use in this study. A stepwise discriminant analysis using 176 dimensions was performed to extract parameters reflecting body shape features, resulting in 37 parameters. A scale for determining body shapes was developed using the discriminant function equation. This study differs from existing studies on body shape classification in that we determined the diverse body shape features of individuals by extracting the lower body type elements related to garment fit. This study demonstrated an organic relationship among lower body types, where a greater posterior pelvic tilt was associated with a protruding lower abdomen, flat buttocks, and an o-type frontal leg shape. The significance of this study lies in the extraction of 3D parameters that reflect the body shape features of elderly women. Such 3D parameter data can be used to create personal virtual bodies in online shopping malls in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211019487
       
  • Pigment printing of polyester fabric using a single step synthesized
           PDMS-modified polyurethane-acrylic/pigment hybrid emulsion

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      Authors: Ziwen Xie, Xiaofei Yan, Jiawei Li, Chenkai Zhu, Dongming Qi
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A novel, waterborne polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-modified polyurethane-acrylic (Si-PUA)/pigment hybrid emulsion was synthesized by one-step miniemulsion polymerization for the pigment printing of polyester fabric. The phase structure, hydrophobicity, and thermal and mechanical properties of the formed films with different PDMS contents from the hybrid emulsion were investigated. The results indicated that the pigment particles were uniformly distributed in the homogeneous phase polymer substrate without phase separation occurring between the PDMS phase and polyurethane-acrylic. The hydrophobicity and toughness of the Si-PUA/pigment hybrid latex films gradually increased with the increase of PDMS content. Moreover, the obtained hybrid emulsion was used as a self-curable hybrid pigment that was applied to polyethylene terephthalate fabric for pigment printing. This showed that the Si-PUA/pigment hybrid latex particles yielded similarly good values in terms of color strength, and dry- and wet-rubbing fastness to the PDMS-free hybrid latex particles. Furthermore, use of the Si-PUA/pigment hybrid latex avoided certain problems related to printed fabric, such as poor air permeability and softness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211018507
       
  • Isolation and characterization of lignocellulosic fiber from jute bast by
           the organic solvent degumming system: an alkali-free method

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      Authors: Zhihui Qin, Shuyuan Zhao, Liu Liu, Zhaohe Shi, Longdi Cheng, Ruiyun Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Degumming is the dominant method for insolating lignocellulosic fibers in textile applications. Traditional alkaline degumming (TAL), as a common method, requires a high-concentration alkali and has been a severe challenge to the environment. In the research reported here, the possibility of innovative jute degumming by organic solvents 1-2 propylene glycol and a combination of additive green oxygen (GO-OS) was studied. The results revealed that fibers could be extracted by this system (under condition of 0.9% GO-OS, 180°C, 120 min), and obtained fibers with higher breaking tenacity (7.1 cN/dtex), yield (65.7%), breaking elongation (2.87%) and residual gum (11.7%), which all meet the requirement of the relevant Chinese Textile National Standards. Notably, the required reaction time (120 min) of the GO-OS system was 180 min shorter than that of the TAL method. Furthermore, the modifications introduced by the degumming effect on physicochemical aspects were characterized and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This study provides a promising degumming method for separating jute lignocellulose without acid and alkali consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:27:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211015496
       
  • Effects of the fabric substrate on performance and durability of
           textile-embroidered dipole antennas

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      Authors: Heura Ventura, Ferran Parés, Raul Fernández-García, Ignacio Gil, Monica Ardanuy
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, several fabrics with different composition and structure have been used as the substrate for the production of wearable textile-embroidered dipole antennas. The performance of the antennas has been determined by measuring their resonance frequency, return loss and bandwidth. To determine their durability as wearable fabrics, the performance has been assessed before and after subjecting the antennas to washing and abrasion cycles. The results revealed that the woven fabrics presented a good washing fastness, even in fabrics having elastic fibers or low-crimp structures. In all cases, a good performance of the antennas was maintained after 30 washing cycles. For the abrasion cycles, the substrates with higher stability (measured as the crimp ratio) presented a higher wear fastness, whereas a higher variability was observed for the substrates with lower stability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211014967
       
  • Characterization and ballistic performance of thin pre-damaged
           resin-starved aramid-fiber composite panels

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      Authors: Cerise A Edwards, Stephen L Ogin, David A Jesson, Matthew Oldfield, Rebecca L Livesey, Bryn J James, Richard P Boardman
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Military personnel use protective armor systems that are frequently exposed to low-level damage, such as non-ballistic impact, wear-and-tear from everyday use, and damage during storage of equipment. The extent to which such low-level pre-damage could affect the performance of an armor system is unknown. In this work, low-level pre-damage has been introduced into a Kevlar/phenolic resin-starved composite panel using tensile loading. The tensile stress–strain behavior of this eight-layer material has been investigated and has been found to have two distinct regions; these have been understood in terms of the microstructure and damage within the composite panels investigated using micro-computed tomography and digital image correlation. Ballistic testing carried out on pristine (control) and pre-damaged panels did not indicate any difference in the V50 ballistic performance. However, an indication of a difference in response to ballistic impact was observed; the area of maximal local out-of-plane deformation for the pre-damaged panels was found to be twice that of the control panels, and the global out-of-plane deformation across the panel was also larger.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013424
       
  • Modeling the consumption of sewing thread for stitch class 301 through
           image analysis by using Fourier series

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      Authors: Zafar Javed, Fayyaz Ahmad, Qammar Khan, M Salman Naeem, M Usman Javaid, Abdul Jabbar, Zameerul Hassan, Mehmet Karahan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research work aims at modeling the sewing thread consumption for stitch class 301 through image analysis by using Fourier series. A mathematical model was developed by using the geometry of stitch class 301 for calculating sewing thread consumption. The modeling of stitch class 301 was conducted by changing the stitch density and thickness of the stitched fabric. The stitch density was adjusted by varying the stitch length (2, 3 and 4 mm) and the thickness of stitched fabric (2, 3 and 4 plies of fabric).The interlacement of sewing thread between the needle and bobbin was used for the measurement of arc length of one stitch. The total consumption of sewing thread was determined by multiplying the arc length by 4. The developed model was verified by using nine different stitched samples for comparing the predicted and measured values of sewing thread consumption. This model predicted the sewing thread consumption with 95% accuracy. Error percentages were also calculated for determining the major influencing factors that affected the sewing thread consumption. The proposed model can effectively be employed in garment industries for determining sewing thread consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T08:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211017400
       
  • The preparation of antibacterial eco-friendly bio-based PTT-based
           β-cyclodextrin by complexation of copper and zinc ions

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      Authors: Jinping Zhang, Lingxi Qu, Yao Lin, Zhiguang Guo, Zaisheng Cai, Fengyan Ge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There has been an increasing focus on antibacterial textiles owing to their widespread applications in global public health. In this study, we prepared antibacterial bio-based poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) by multi-crosslinking with citric acid among PTT and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and then adsorbing zinc and copper ions. The results show that β-cyclodextrin was successfully grafted onto the surface of PTT. The adsorption amounts of Zn2+ and Cu2+ on β-CD/PTT were investigated by ICP and FE-SEM, which showed that Zn2+ and Cu2+ penetrated the fabric surface. Moreover, under optimal adsorption conditions, the adsorption capacity of Zn2+ and Cu2+ are about 34 mg/g and 50 mg/g, respectively. During antibacterial test, the bactericidal rates of β-CD/Cu2+/PTT reached 90.75% for E. coli and 85.36% for S. aureus, and the bactericidal rates of β-CD/Zn2+/PTT are 80.48% for E. coli and 73.10% for S. aureus. Functionalized PTT fabrics with eco-environmental and sustainable performance may have promising application in the field of antibacterial fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T08:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013834
       
  • Multicriteria optimization of a novel degradable nonwoven mulch fabricated
           from recycled natural fibers using CV-TOPSIS technique

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      Authors: Xian Liu, Changjie Chen, Xiaoxia Sun, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Conventional polyethylene mulch is widely used in arid areas; however, excess residues have caused significant problems, such as tillage soil pollution, crop destruction, and food crisis. To solve these problems, new types of degradable nonwoven mulch fabricated from recycled natural fibers are proposed in this study, which are measured by field trial performances based on cotton yield and quality indicators, and prioritized by the Coefficient of Variation-Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (CV-TOPSIS) method. The results from this study indicate the suitability of the new mulch in cropping systems. Moreover, based on the CV-TOPSIS method, five mulch samples were prioritized as N-3 > N-4 > N-1 > N-2 > N-5, considering an agricultural evaluation. This study also confirmed that the CV-TOPSIS method was precise and robust for analyzing comprehensive agronomic assessments. The development of a new degradable nonwoven mulch provides a bidirectionally beneficial approach for recycling industrial waste fibers and for enhancing agricultural production. The comprehensive evaluation method for both crop quantity and quality introduces an efficient assessment of various mulch. In the future, deducing the parameters of the degradable nonwoven mulch design and optimizing this method requires further study.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T08:20:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211014236
       
  • An in-pipe worm robot with pneumatic actuators based on origami
           paper-fabric composites

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      Authors: Cheng Jiang, Zeguang Pei
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an in-pipe worm-like soft robot with pneumatic actuators based on origami paper-fabric composites in which the paper and fabric serve as the skeleton and skin of the robot, respectively. The robot is assembled with an extensor of a bellow-like structure for implementing peristaltic locomotion and a clamp fabricated using a Kresling crease pattern at each end of the robot for anchoring. The performances of the pneumatic actuators, as well as the worm robot, are characterized and their dependence on some material, structural, and pneumatic parameters are investigated. Stepwise inflation of the clamp actuator takes place as the pressurization duration increases. The extension ratio of the extensor has a nonlinear relationship with the pressurization duration. The higher rigidity of the paper with a high weight per unit area can facilitate faster retention near the end of the extension process for the extensor with a small number of creases, while it becomes a resistance for the extension of the extensor with a large number of creases. The softness, lightweight features, low cost, ease to fabricate, modular design, and mobility of the worm robot indicate it has potential to find application in pipeline inspection, etc.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T08:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211016561
       
  • The story of two historical textile fragments: Technical analysis and
           reconstruction of the lost textile pattern

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      Authors: Mateo M Kodrič Kesovia, Željko Penava, Danijela Jemo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural heritage textile artifacts that have been preserved only in their smaller fragmented remains represent a very interesting and complex matter, very rarely analyzed and studied individually as a separate entity. This case study covers multidisciplinary research conducted on two 18th century silk fragments with a seemingly identical pattern. Demonstrating the possibilities and challenges which arise when analyzing and interpreting incomplete cultural heritage textile materials, this study can serve as a stimulus for creating a large-scale database of historical fabrics which would allow comparison based on their differences or common characteristics. By applying only non-destructive and micro-analytical methods it has been determined that the fragments were made of the same material and using the same manufacturing techniques. It has been proven that fragments were not part of the same historical fabric, but most likely originated from different parts of the same liturgical vestment. The reverse engineering process applied to preserved fragments has resulted in a detailed technical documentation and a complete reconstruction of the lost original pattern.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T08:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211017403
       
  • Investigation of e-textile dipole antenna performance based on embroidery
           parameters

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      Authors: Daniel Agu, Rachel J Eike, Allyson Cliett, Dawn Michaelson, Rinn Cloud, Yang Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      E-textile antennas have the potential to be the premier on-body wearable sensor. Embroidery techniques, which can be applied to produce e-textile antennas, assist in large production volumes and fast production speeds. This paper focuses on the effects of three commonly used embroidery parameters, namely stitch type, conductive thread location, and stabilizer, on the performance of embroidered dipole antennas in order to determine the ideal embroidery combination for optimal antenna performance. Fifty-four dipole antenna samples were fabricated and measured at the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) frequency band of 2.45 GHz. The results of this study show that machine-embroidered antenna designs with satin stitches resonate at a lower frequency and exhibit a lower transmission gain compared with those made with contour stiches, and the conductive thread location in the bobbin location plus the use of a water-soluble stabilizer can help improve impedance matching.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T08:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013421
       
  • Designing flocked energy-absorbing material layers into sport and military
           helmet pads

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      Authors: Yong K Kim, Vijaya B Chalivendra, Armand Francis Lewis, Benjamin Fasel
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A systematic study is reported on applying flocked energy-absorbing materials (FEAM) to designing sport and military helmet pad structures. An executed parametric study shows that the impact force absorbing (IFA) properties of FEAM elements are optimized when using (a) higher denier flock fiber (60 to 100 denier) and (b) longer flock fibers (3 to 4 mm length) at higher flock densities. Continuing work focuses on the importance of IFA/areal density ratios in helmet pad functional design. It is found that foam materials like vinyl-nitrile and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) inherently exhibit higher IFA/areal density (IFA/AD) ratios than FEAM material structures. With this finding, a new strategy for developing sport and military helmet pads was devised involving the combination of foam and FEAM layer elements. Here, the meritorious properties of foam materials (light weight and excellent IFA properties) and the excellent IFA and breathability (wearer comfort, sweat and heat management) properties of FEAM could be favorably encompassed. A plan was conceived and implemented whereby combination foam/FEAM test pads having high amounts of the high IFA/AD ratio VN-600 or EVA foam layer component were impact tested. By gradually introducing the more comfortable, breathable, body-heat managing FEAM layers into the helmet pad structure, some “trade-off” helmet pad configurations were designed and evaluated. Experiments showed that helmet pad designs having not more than 40% to 50% FEAM content should produce adequate IFA/AD ratio “trade-off” property helmet pad configurations.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-18T08:19:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010689
       
  • Effect of montmorillonite on the oxidative stability of polyphenylene
           sulfide fibers prepared by melt spinning

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      Authors: Jian Xing, Shunhua Dai, Zhong Chen, Yongkang Wang, Zhenghua Zhang, Guohe Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Masterbatches of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/organic montmorillonite (MMT) composites were produced via melt blending. A self-made spinning equipment was then used to produce the PPS/organic MMT composite fibers by melt spinning directly from the masterbatches. X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope were used to examine the dispersibility of organic MMT. The morphology, tensile property, crystallization behavior, and oxidative stability of PPS fibers were investigated. The results indicated that organic MMT could be uniformly distributed in the PPS matrix to form a mixed dispersion of intercalated and exfoliated structure and influence the longitudinal surface morphology of fibers to become rough. The roughness of composite fibers surface was proportional to the content of organic MMT. The organic MMT nanolayers could act as the heterogeneous nucleating agents to improve the crystallization, and the crystallity of composite fibers increased with the increase of organic MMT content. The breaking strength of composite fibers first increased and then decreased by increasing the amount of organic MMT. After the oxidation treatment, the breaking strength of neat PPS fibers and composite fibers declined, but the degree of breaking strength loss for composite fibers is lower than that of neat PPS fibers. The dynamic oxidation induction temperature of composite fibers also showed a significant increase by adding organic MMT. Moreover, the addition of organic MMT could limit the chemical combination of element sulfur and oxygen, retard the generation of sulfoxide groups, and induce the conversion of sulfur atoms from C-S bond to sulfone for improving oxidative stability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-05-05T06:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211013423
       
  • Mass production of polyacrylonitrile sub-micron fibrous webs with
           different aligned degrees via free surface electrospinning for air
           purification

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      Authors: Mengjuan Zhou, Qi Fan, Zhenzhen Quan, Hongnan Zhang, Liming Wang, Xiaohong Qin, Rongwu Wang, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Atmospheric pollution has emerged as causing irreversible harm to the ecosystem and people. Sub-micron fibrous filters play an incomparable role in effective air purification, owing to their excellent internal connectivity. Herein, three-dimensional sub-micron fibrous webs with various aligned degrees were conveniently fabricated via free surface electrospinning with different rotation speeds of the roller with a large diameter in large quantity, applied in air filtration. The influence of the orientation degrees of fibers on the performances of the fibrous filter was analyzed systematically. Results showed that the filtration performance of fibrous filters was inversely proportional to the orientation degree of the sub-micron fibers. Random fibrous webs with areal densities of ≤2.0 g m−2 exhibited high porosity (∼90%), ensuring qualified air permeability and outstanding filtration efficiency from 92% to 99.5% for ultra-fine aerosol particles (∼0.26 µm) under a higher air velocity of 14.1 cm s−1. The internal aperture channels were twists and turns with irregular polygon shape for random fibrous webs, while they were a narrow strip in the horizontal and straight in the longitudinal for aligned ones, which influenced the filter’s performances. Fibrous webs with better orientation of fibers and larger pore size are beneficial for energy efficiency and exhibited good filtration performance, better air permeability, and an improved mechanical property along the longitudinal direction. A cost-effective uniform sub-micron fibrous filter with different aligned degrees could be produced rapidly via free surface electrospinning with a mass production rate, which is beneficial for industrial production and commercial applications in respiratory protection and indoor air purification for precise purification of air pollution.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T06:36:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010688
       
  • Hydrophobic performance of electrospun fibers functionalized with TiO2
           nanoparticles

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      Authors: Vânia Pais, Miguel Navarro, Catarina Guise, Rui Martins, Raul Fangueiro
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The development of materials with hydrophobic properties has been widely explored in areas such as textiles, healthcare, sports, and personal protective equipment. Hydrophobic properties that arise from nanoparticles (nPs) directly promote other valuable properties, including self-cleaning capabilities, decreased bacterial growth, and increased comfort. In this study, biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers were functionalized by the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nPs to develop water-repellent materials. The membranes were produced through electrospinning, and variables such as the polymer concentration, nP concentration, and needle diameter were optimized to achieve PCL/TiO2 composite fibers with water-repellent capabilities. The nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the water contact angle (WCA). In general, it was observed that the nanofibers presented higher roughness values when TiO2 nPs were present and that this result promoted higher WCA values. The highest WCA value (156°) was obtained for the nanofiber mat produced with 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) PCL and 0.6% (w/v) TiO2.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T11:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010669
       
  • An investigation of the effects of weave types on surface roughness of
           woven fabric

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      Authors: Kura A Beyene, Degu M Kumelachew
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fabrics intended for clothing have more emphasis on their appearance and handling characteristics such as luster, smoothness or roughness, stiffness or limpness, and draping qualities. Nowadays, evaluating fabric touch can be of great interest in the industry to match the quality needs of the consumer and the parameters for the manufacturing process. Throughout this study, the effect of weave types on the surface roughness of cotton woven fabric was investigated and analyzed. Three different weave types namely, plain 1/1, twill 1/3, and sateen 8/3 were investigated. The fabric parameters were 27*20Ne (warp/weft) count of yarn, 38*18 (EPC [Ends per Centimeters]/PPC [Picks per Centimeters]) thread density, and 710 CN/TEX (Cent-newton per Tex) with warp tension was produced by air-jet loom. The findings of this study revealed that the surface roughness values of all the fabrics increased regularly on moving from plain 1/1 weave to sateen 8/3 weave. But, the surface roughness of fabric in the weft direction is higher than in the warp direction. The weave type is statistically significant at a confidence interval of 95% and can effectively be used to describe the surface roughness for both warp and weft direction of woven fabrics. The pairwise comparison reveals that it is statistically significant for weave types in the warp and weft direction of the fabrics. This investigation and analysis of weave types on surface roughness of cotton woven fabrics help textile technologies and manufacturers to consider the weave types during the production of fabrics for different end applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T06:31:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211010683
       
  • Properties of silver chloride and carbon screen printed patterns on
           different textiles

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      Authors: Victor Toral, Andreas Albrecht, Encarnación Castillo, Antonio García, Markus Becherer, Almudena Rivadeneyra
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Smart textiles, known also as e-textiles, are of great interest for the development of healthcare and wellness applications that require the embedding of electronic devices into the fabrics. Although many prototype proposals may be found in the literature, the generalization and commercialization of e-textiles is limited by the lack of cost-effective, standard fabrication processes that can be applied to a large variety of fabrics. In this contribution, we analyze the deposition of silver and carbon pastes by screen printing methods on a wide selection of daily-use textiles, to gain insight into the main features to be considered when developing cost-effective smart textiles. Results show the prospects offered by screen printing to create conductive patterns over textile and flexible materials with sheet resistances lower than 1 Ω/sq and a good repeatability in the dimensions of the patterns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:51:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005039
       
  • Evaluating farmer's satisfaction of different agrotextile bunch covers
           using desirability function

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      Authors: Wafa Guedri, Mounir Jaoudi, Slah Msahli
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper deals with an evaluation of farmer's satisfaction of agrotextile as a date bunch cover using global quality index. Referring to literature studies, desirability function remains an appropriate method that allows a level of flexibility over graphical tool in defining and evaluating quality. The application of desirability function is discussed and investigated. Using a statistical survey based on Tunisian farmers, it was concluded that ideal bagging product depends on date bunch requirements, weight and goal of each individual agrotextile cover's property. Based on a comparative analysis, the desirability function remains sufficient to objectively classify different bags for protection of date palm. Useful index values have been found and can be used by farmers or industries to accurately predict the quality of date bunch cover and to select the best supplier to launch the needed order. In this work, the fabrics that have been considered are woven, knitted and nonwoven fabrics. Nonwoven products are used for the first time in the palm field and have been evaluated in this paper. The results show that nonwoven products were closer to the desired performance compared to knitted and woven fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T01:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006945
       
  • Green biosynthesis and physicochemical characterization of Fe3O4
           nanoparticles using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract for
           optoelectronic applications

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      Authors: Abderrhmane Bouafia, Salah Eddine Laouini, Mohammed Laid Tedjani, Gomaa AM Ali, Ahmed Barhoum
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Green biosynthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) using plant extract is desired, as the plant extract is safe for humans and the environment. In this study, magnetite Fe3O4 NPs were greenly prepared using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract as a reducing and capping agent. The effect of iron precursor contraction (0.01–0.1 M, FeCl3) was studied. The Fe3O4 crystalline with an average crystallite size range from 21 to 23 nm was proven by X-ray powder diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the synthesized Fe3O4 NPs were mostly cubical. Ultraviolet-visible spectra showed that the prepared Fe3O4 NPs exhibit absorption at 270 nm related to the Fe3O4 NPs with a direct bandgap ranging from 1.87 to 2.26 eV and indirect bandgap of 2.16–2.48 eV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed two characteristic absorption bands at 515 and 567 cm−1, which proved the successful formation of Fe3O4. The proposed method using Punica granatum L. fruit peel extract offers an economical and environmentally friendly route for synthesizing many other types of metal oxides.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006671
       
  • Laccase-catalyzed enzymatic dyeing of cotton fabrics

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      Authors: Rıza Atav, Bürhan Buğdaycı, Ömer Bozkurt, Aylin Yıldız, Elçin Güneş, İsmail Yakın
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As some synthetic dyes are regarded to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, the search for eco-friendly alternatives for the synthesis of dyes and coloration has gained importance. For this reason, this study focused on finding new eco-friendly alternatives for coloring cotton. 100% cotton knitted fabrics were subjected to enzymatic coloration using a commercial laccase enzyme and various precursors. After determining the colors, the effect of pH on the enzymatic dyeing process was investigated. Then the optimization of reaction conditions was also realized statistically for the precursors giving the best results in terms of color. With the aim of obtaining further improvements in color-yield values obtained in enzymatic dyeings, the effect of the pretreatment process and the use of ultrasound were also investigated. Furthermore, the reaction pathways in enzymatic coloration were explained and results were confirmed by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared analysis. As a result of experimental studies, red and lilac colors could be successfully obtained on cotton for the first time in the literature. In this way, the theoretical basis of enzymatic dye synthesis and dyeing of cotton was clarified comprehensively. Furthermore, technical (color reproducibility; washing, rubbing, light and perspiration-fastness values; and UV protection factor), economical (chemical, energy and water consumption required for dyeing (including aftertreatments) of 1 kg fabric) and ecological aspects of enzymatic dyeings were compared with reactive dyeing. According to the experimental results it was found that biological treatment alone was enough for wastewater of enzymatic coloring, while chemical treatment will also be needed in reactive dyeing wastewater. Furthermore, color reproducibility, evenness and UV protection properties of dyed samples were comparable with that of reactive dyeings. However, in terms of the fastness levels achieved, the enzymatic coloring was far behind the reactive dyeing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006937
       
  • Influences of compression cycling skinsuit on energy consumption of
           amateur male cyclists

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      Authors: Gaby QQ Shi, Kristina Shin, Daniel HK Chow, Jiao Jiao, BCL So, Newman Lau, Claire Chung, Kaoru Leung
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Energy consumption differences of two cycling garments during short-term cycling were studied. Eleven amateur male cyclists participated in two cycling sessions over two days while wearing a newly designed compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) with stripes simulating kinesio tape, and a conventional compression garment (CG) (control garment). In each session, the participants performed a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences with either the CCS or the CG. Each combination lasted for 30 s. Garment pressure values at the thigh, oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were collected and analyzed. The CCS provided significantly different pressure values (P 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T08:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006940
       
  • Geometrical analysis of auxetic woven fabrics based on foldable geometry

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      Authors: Hasan Kamrul, Adeel Zulifqar, Yadie Yang, Shuaiquan Zhao, Minglonghai Zhang, Hong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports a geometrical analysis of auxetic woven fabrics based on foldable geometry. Two fabrics having different geometrical parameters were first designed and fabricated and then subjected to tensile tests in two principal directions. Based on the experimental observations of the geometry of one fabric structural unit cell at different tensile strains, a geometrical model was first proposed and a relationship between the Poisson’s ratio and tensile strain was then established for each principal direction. Two semi-empirical equations are subsequently obtained for both principal directions by fitting the established relationships with experimental results. After validation by the experimental results of the other fabric, the obtained semi-empirical equations were finally used to predict the auxetic behavior of the fabric with a given geometrical parameter. The calculated and experimental results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other. Therefore, the semi-empirical equations obtained in this study could be useful in the design and prediction of the auxetic behavior of auxetic woven fabrics made with the same type of materials and foldable geometry but with different values of geometrical parameters.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211008663
       
  • Digital imaging of the oil permeation mechanism in an oleophobic textile

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      Authors: Gannian Zhang, Qinfa Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Resistance of military clothing to oil permeation is important for effective protection against chemical warfare. In this paper, while a military textile is rendered oleophobic (oil contact angle ≈ 120°) through plasma-assisted deposition of perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFAC8), permeation of the textile by silicon oil is observed. Using high-definition digital imaging, we study the oil permeation dynamics, rationalize the permeation with a plausible mechanism and identify the threshold textile pore size for prevention of the permeation. We find that oil permeates defects of PFAC8 textiles. Our data suggests a linear variation for oil permeation volume ΔV with time t and implies a gravity-driving permeation mechanism. The mechanism comprises three stages involving merging and propagation of oil–yarn contact lines. The threshold pore size dm scales with σ/P, where σ is the oil surface tension and P is the hydrostatic head exerted by the oil drop. The paper indicates the importance of an undamaged textile structure to ‘robust’ oil resistance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006944
       
  • Thermal and moisture behavior of a multi-layered assembly in a pneumatic
           compression device

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      Authors: Nimesh Kankariya, Cheryl A Wilson, Raechel M Laing
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to determine the effect of multiple layers of materials typical of those used in air pneumatic compression devices (which require air impermeable layers to function) on thermal and water vapor resistance. The experimental set-up included: (a) single layers of two next-to-skin knit fabrics in both relaxed and extended conditions, (b) two layers of silicone, and (c) a multi-layered assembly comprised of a next-to-skin fabric and two layers of silicone. Structural properties (thickness, mass) dominated thermal resistance of the multi-layered assembly, and the silicone layers rendered this assembly impermeable to water vapor as expected. Results confirmed the need for some form of 'ventilation' to facilitate water vapor transfer from a potential user’s skin to the environment. By creating 18 circular vents across the silicone layers (each vent 314 mm2), which formed ventilation of ∼2% of total surface area, the water vapor resistance of the multi-layered assembly dropped significantly from very high (but non-measurable) to below ∼300 m2 Pa/W, although ventilation did not improve the thermal resistance of the multi-layer arrangements. Results of this research will enable manufacturers of pneumatic compression devices to develop devices comprised of a multiple layer arrangements i.e. a knit fabric next-to-skin layer and silicone layers with optimized vents across the silicone layers, so that the user can continue the compression treatment with an acceptable microenvironment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T07:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006942
       
  • Characterization of a natural surfactant from an essential oil from neem
           (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) for textile industry applications

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      Authors: Christiane Siqueira de Azevedo Sá, Rasiah Ladchumananandasivam, Cátia GFT Rossi, Rita K da Silva, Wilka da Silva Camboim, Andrea Zille, Jorge Padrão, Késia K de Oliveira Souto Silva
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Surfactants are multipurpose active compounds and are ubiquitously present in detergents. Detergent demand spiked due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, further alerting to the need to replace petrochemical synthetic surfactants with natural and renewable surfactants to mitigate further environmental damage. The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a fast-growing tree that provides a multitude of commodities, namely neem oil. Neem oil possesses insecticidal and medicinal activity. This work reports the extraction and characterization of a surfactant from neem oil (SNO), displaying a yield of approximately 100%. SNO exhibited suitable detergent characteristics with a high potential to be used as a cleansing agent for textile applications, such as high pH value (10.1), suitable foaming of 1.5 cm and a critical micelle concentration of nearly 0.12 g mL−1. In addition, SNO showed a moderate bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, both common nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, SNO has a good potential to be used in medical textile applications due to its detergent and bactericidal properties. Finally, an economical overview of the SNO production process was assessed, underscoring its viability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211007518
       
  • Evaluation of physiological and psychophysical strain of security guards
           wearing stab-resistant body armor under a simulated patrol condition

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      Authors: Jie Yang, Qiqi An, Yuchen Wei, Mengqi Yuan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to determine the effects of stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) on the physiological and psychophysical strain of security guards. Ten volunteers performed a 50-min treadmill walk at 7.0 km/h in a climate chamber where the ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled to 40 °C and 40%, respectively. All the participants performed the walk under two experimental conditions: wearing a uniform without (CON) and with armor (SRBA). Several physiological responses (core temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, and oxygen consumption) and psychophysical parameters (thermal sensation vote, thermal comfort vote, ratings of perceived exertion, and clothing and skin wetness) were recorded during the trials. Furthermore, the sweat loss, body heat storage, and physiological strain index (PSI) were calculated based on the measurements. The results indicated no significant difference between the SRBA and CON groups in terms of core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, body heat storage, or PSI over time. However, a significant difference (p 
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006674
       
  • Electroactive composites based on chitosan fibers coated with polypyrrole

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      Authors: Elena N Dresvyanina, Elena Y Rosova, Natalia V Smirnova, Elena M Ivan’kova, Olga A Moskalyuk, Irina P Dobrovolskaya, Andrei N Aleshin, Vladimir E Yudin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Chitosan fibers were prepared by coagulation from 4% chitosan solutions in 2% acetic acid solution. The synthesis method for polypyrrole (PPy) involving in situ oxidative polymerization of gaseous pyrrole on the surface of chitosan fibers was developed. Structure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity and mechanical characteristics of the obtained composite systems were determined. It was shown that formation of PPy layers on chitosan fibers leads to appearance of electrical conductivity. Conductivity of these layers, as well as their mechanical characteristics, depends on polymerization conditions. The MTT test (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) showed good biocompatibility of chitosan–PPy composite films; these films contain higher amounts of viable cells than the films cast from solutions of pure chitosan.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T07:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211006217
       
  • Oriented PAN/PVDF/PAN laminated nanofiber separator for lithium-ion
           batteries

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      Authors: Yixiao Zheng, Rongxin Zhou, Huanhuan Zhao, Feng Ye, Xiangwu Zhang, Yeqian Ge
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Electrospun nanofiber separators have excellent properties in terms of large surface area and high porosity, which benefits the rate capability, electrochemical stability, and safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a 0°PAN/PVDF/90°PAN-oriented composite nanofiber separator is prepared, which is prepared layer by layer by electrospinning technology and drum orientation collector. The results show that when the rotating speed of the drum is 600 r min−1, the 0°PAN/PVDF/90°PAN-oriented composite nanofiber separator has high porosity (about 85%), improved transverse and longitudinal tensile properties (10.33 MPa and 11.03 MPa, respectively), good dimensional stability at 160°C, and good electrochemical performance (specific charge capacity of 165 mAh g−1 at 0.5C and 142.7 mAh g−1 at 1C, capacity retention of 90% after 100 cycles).
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005027
       
  • Electromagnetic performance of three-dimensional woven spacer microstrip
           antenna with various conductive fibers in extreme temperatures

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      Authors: Li Wuzhou, Zhang Kun, Zheng Liangang, Xu Fujun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Due to its excellent light-weight, mechanical, and electromagnetic performance, the three-dimensional woven spacer microstrip antenna (3DWS-MA) has become a promising communication device to be applied in aerospace or high-speed vehicles. To explore the electromagnetic performance of 3DWS-MA in extreme environments, microstrip antennas based on three-dimensional woven glass fiber/epoxy spacer composites (3DWSC) with different conductive yarn (copper wire, nickel-coated carbon yarn and carbon nanotube yarn) were manufactured and tested at various temperatures (from –196°C to 150°C). The results showed that the 3DWSC exhibited superb dielectric properties ([math]) with a low volume density of 0.5 g[math]cm−3, rendering good electromagnetic performance of the prepared antenna (S11 value of –23 dB and gain of 7 dB). When the temperature increased from –196°C to 150°C, the dielectric constant of 3DWSC increased from 1.57 to 1.67, resulting in the decrease of resonance frequency of 3DWS-MAs (maximum offset is 60 MHz). In addition, the resistance changing ratios of the conductive fibers also reached 105% with the temperature increase, resulting in degradations of S11 values (maximum 17 dB). Furthermore, among the three types of 3DWS-MAs, the 3DWS-MA (carbon nanotube yarn) exhibited the most stable S11 value at low temperatures (from –196°C to 0°C), while the 3DWS-MA (copper) showed low return loss and stable resonance frequency at high temperatures (from 20°C to 150°C).
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T10:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211005015
       
  • Development of a flexible wearable thermal textile accessory for winter
           sports

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      Authors: Chenxiao Yang, Mei Yu Yao, Li LI
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In pursuit of a healthy lifestyle, people are paying more attention to sports activities, even in winter. They are thus seeking high function and maximum comfort to improve their performance. However, cold weather may result in a higher risk of injuries. It is of prime importance to perform warm-up, which can increase body temperature to relieve muscle stiffness and allow improvement of performance. Unfortunately, the traditional approach of wearing multiple thick layers of clothing to keep warm can prevent the easy movement of the body. Therefore, the integration of flexible textile and wearable thermal technology has become a major research initiative in both sports and textile fields. Current attempts by high-tech start-ups and wearable textile enterprises are not able to overcome the hurdle of transforming wearable technology into a fashionable and marketable product. Hence, this paper introduces a design-driven method to develop a flexible wearable thermal textile accessory for winter sports usage. The relationships between thermal textiles, electrical resistance, thermal performance, stretchability, energy consumption, and function stability were evaluated to optimize the thermal textile fabrication. Then, a prototype was produced and its specification was defined. These enable the realization of mass production and provide a blueprint for the future development of wearable textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T09:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211001803
       
  • A clean and efficient processing system to improve the fluffiness of down
           fibers based on multi-enzymes

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      Authors: Taotao Qiang, Yadong Pu, Qi Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Down fiber – a natural and environmentally recyclable insulation material – is applied mainly in the area of natural-filled products. However, owing to its natural deficiencies of low fluffiness and thermal stability, large-scale application is limited. In our work, an enzyme preparation (transglutaminase (TGase)) was used as a fluffy agent to improve the fluffy degree of down. With fluffy as the main index, the single factor condition of only using TGase enzyme was optimized, and fluffiness was increased by 22%. On the basis of this optimum condition, the compound dosage of papain and TGase was further optimized. The fluffy degree of down was improved by hydrolysis of papain and crosslinking of TGase. Amino group content, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), moisture absorption, tensile strength, and elongation at break of down treated with different enzyme reagents were tested. The results showed that the thermal stability of down fiber treated with the multi enzyme increased significantly, the denaturation temperature was increased from 53.7°C to 77.4°C, and the moisture absorption was also improved. The elastic property also exhibited a great enhancement; elongation at break increased from 12.4% to 37.7%, nearly three times higher than the original property, and the tensile strength increased from 180 MPa to 370 MPa, almost 2.1 times as much as before, increased by 105.6%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T10:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521997470
       
  • Research on intelligent clustering of male upper body

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      Authors: Pengpeng Cheng, Xianyi Zeng, Pascal Bruniaux, Jianping Wang, Daoling Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To study the upper body characteristics of young men, the body circumference, length, width, thickness, and angle of young men aged 18–25 and 26–35 years were collected to comprehensively characterize the concave and convex features of the front, back, and side of the human body. The Cuckoo Search-Density Peak intelligent algorithm was used to extract the feature factors of the upper body of men, and to cluster them. To verify the effectiveness of the intelligent algorithm, the clustering results of Cuckoo Search-Density Peak, Density Peak, Particle Swarm Optimization-Density Peak algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization-Density Peak algorithm, Genetic Algorithm-Density Peak algorithm, and Artificial Bee Colony-Density Peak algorithm were evaluated by Silouette and F-measures, respectively. The results show that the Cuckoo Search-Density Peak algorithm has the best clustering results and is superior to other algorithms. There are some differences in somatotype characteristics and somatotype indexes between young men aged 18–25 and 26–35 years.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T09:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211000125
       
  • Plasma-exposed TiO2 nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate matrix
           surface and its effects on the durable hydrophobic coating

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      Authors: Eshraga AA Siddig, Yu Zhang, Baojing Yang, Tianshu Wang, Jianjun Shi, Ying Guo, Yu Xu, Jing Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Commercial dull polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric treated by radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma and further coated with perfluoroalkyl methacrylate copolymer C6 displays much highly durable hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The as-prepared fabric exhibited a water contact angle above 170°, a water spray rating of 80 (ISO 3), and oil resistance ratings of B and C separately for different oil composition grades after 10 washing cycles, which were two levels higher than the untreated and C6-coated PET[TiO2] fabric. The organic component PET was more prone to etching than TiO2, which created a waviness structure and exposed prominent TiO2 nanoparticles on the PET fiber surface. The relative atom ratio O and Ti increased through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. This result indicates that the exposure of TiO2 and the introduction of reactive polar groups such as O=C-O on the fiber surface contributed to react with C6 and improved the washing durability. In general, such coating technology may provide a simple benign technique for constructing materials with physicochemical properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T06:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521990904
       
  • Development of novel segmented-pie microfibers from copper-carbon
           nanoparticles and polyamide composite for antimicrobial textiles
           application

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      Authors: Longsheng Jin, Fang Zhou, Shaohua Wu, Congjing Cui, Shibin Sun, Guanglu Li, Shaojuan Chen, Jianwei Ma
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Development of novel antibacterial fibers with mass production is urgently required in the technical textiles industry. In this paper, a series of segmented-pie composite microfibers based on polyamide 6 (PA6) and different amounts of copper–carbon nanoparticles (CuCNPs) were fabricated by utilizing a melt-spinning apparatus with twin-screw extruders. The encapsulation of CuCNPs and the formation of segmented-pie structure of as-prepared PA6/CuCNP microfibers were confirmed. The CuCNPs or their agglomeration with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm exhibited a uniform distribution in PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers. Compared with the pure PA6 microfibers, the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers showed obviously enhanced crystallinity, thermal stability as well as UV resistance. As the CuCNP content increased to 1.0 wt%, the tensile strength and initial modulus increased to 3.79 cN/dtex and 22.4 cN/dtex, respectively. Importantly, the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers presented excellent antimicrobial activities to both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (antimicrobial efficiency around 99%) and great antifungal activity to Candida albicans (antimicrobial efficiency around 82%). Taken together, our present study demonstrated that the PA6/CuCNP segmented-pie microfibers show great prospects in the fabrication of technical textiles for healthcare applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993484
       
  • Influence of re-entrant hexagonal structure and helical auxetic yarn on
           the tensile and auxetic behavior of parametric fabrics

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      Authors: Junli Chen, Yonggui Li, Taohai Yan, Xiang Liu, Jiqiang Cao, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on systematically analyzing the influence of macro fabric structure and yarn architecture on the mechanical and auxetic performance of parametric auxetic fabrics. Re-entrant hexagonal (REH) and helical auxetic yarn (HAY) were adopted as a macro fabric structure and weft yarn to produce three kinds of auxetic fabrics: REH fabric with HAY as weft yarn (REH-HAY); REH fabric with elastic yarn as weft yarn (REH-1, REH-2, REH-3); and plain fabric with HAY as weft yarn (NREH-HAY). By controlling the existence of the HAY and REH structure, the influence of the REH structure and HAY on the mechanical and auxetic properties was thoroughly analyzed. It is demonstrated that both the REH macrostructure and HAY micro configuration can contribute to the performance of the auxetic fabric. Specifically, in the presence of the REH structure and HAY, the auxeticity was found to a 77% increase compared with NREH-HAY and the breaking strain and load rises by about 37.50% and 90.42%, respectively. Notably, the variation of the polyurethane (PU) weft yarn per unit length influenced the tensile and auxetic performance to a lesser extent, while by changing PU to HAY, a significant increase of negative Poisson’s ratio value from –1.155 to –1.492 was noticed without greatly jeopardizing the stretchability. Furthermore, the cyclic tensile results demonstrate the stability and elasticity of the fabric. The comparative analysis can give guidance to optimize fabric design and inspire the innovative design of the auxetic textiles, all of which will pave the way for a quantitative and optimizing design for auxetic textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0040517521993490
       
  • An integrated framework for supplier selection and performance evaluation
           for apparel retail industry

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