Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Achiote.com - Revista Eletrônica de Moda     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Textile     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autex Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Fashion and Textiles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Fashion Practice : The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fibers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fibre Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geosynthetics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research (IJFTR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Textiles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Fibers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Design Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Textiles and Fibrous Materials     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Textile Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Text and Performance Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Textile History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Textile Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Textile Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Third Text     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wearables     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Textile Research Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0040-5175 - ISSN (Online) 1746-7748
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Production-based solution for interactive healthcare apparels: biomedical
           applications for topical wound healing

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      Authors: Tin Wai Cheung, Ying Fu, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Chitosan, which is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is known to be a promising component with effective antimicrobial and interactive wound healing properties. However, limitations in the conventional spinning process have restricted the production of chitosan textiles for the development of wound repairing apparels, bedsheets and other textile-based wound care products. Therefore, in scholarly circles, the study of wound healing has mainly focused on nonwoven fabrics and limited attention has been paid to the alleviation of wound conditions on a daily basis by applying chitosan knitted textiles.This study serves as a pilot study associating chitosan knitted fabrics with an interactive wound healing function. Chitosan/cotton blended yarns with different chitosan ratios (5/95 chitosan/cotton and 10/90 chitosan/cotton) were initially spun using the anti-static spinning process and knitted fabrics were made with these yarns. Biological studies, which include an in vitro cell study of dermal repair and animal study of wound healing, were conducted. Significant wound healing ability could be shown even when the yarns consisted of low chitosan ratios. It is believed that the study could provide a new production-based solution for the development of interactive wound healing materials as well as realize the concept of manufacturing topical wound repairing apparel.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T05:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106228
       
  • A study on the unwinding tension control of an elastic yarn

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      Authors: Ronggen Zhang, Pei Feng, Chongchang Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      During the processing of covered yarn, the stability of the tension of the yarn unwinding from the package directly affects the quality of the covered yarn. In this work, a mathematical model of the yarn unwinding balloon was established, and the influence of Coriolis force and air resistance on the balloon was considered. Further, the balloon shape of the yarn at different unwinding linear speeds was studied. An experimental observation platform for the yarn balloon morphology was built. The comparative analysis of the balloon shape obtained using the experimental observation and the theoretical research results showed that the mathematical model of the yarn unwinding balloon is correct. The phenomenon of scratching the upper edge of the package during the unwinding of spandex should be avoided. Finally, in order to maximize the diameter of the spandex package, the taper of the core yarn bobbin and the minimum yarn guide distance was determined based on the guidance of the theoretical simulations and experimental analysis. The research results provide a design base for the layout and structural dimensions of the follow-up elastic fiber passive precision tension control device.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106229
       
  • Water conservation in garment bleaching using aerosol technology

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      Authors: Abdul Wahab, Tanveer Hussain, Munir Ashraf
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Bleaching is one of the most highly polluting textile wet processes. High water and chemical consumption, and high volume of the resulting effluent, have huge implications for the environment. In this study, an aerosol process has been compared with the conventional process for bleaching of textile socks. In the conventional bleaching process, socks are immersed into a rotating drum filled with water to ensure uniform application of chemicals, while in the aerosol bleaching process, compressed air was mixed with the chemical solution to generate a cloud of bleaching reagents inside the rotating drum of the exhaust processing machine, using the minimum amount of water. The results show comparable whiteness results of the bleached socks, with up to 75% water saved in the aerosol beaching process as compared to the conventional bleaching process. Due to lower water consumption, the overall chemical consumption is also significantly reduced. Citric acid and silicone softener consumption of the process were reduced by 28% and 60%, respectively. The aerosol technology can be retrofitted on existing conventional machines with minimal initial investment and shows immense potential for reduction in water and chemical consumption and harmful impacts on the environment. This study aimed to align developments in the textile and apparel industry with sustainable development goals #6, 12, and 14, which are clean water and sanitation, responsible consumption and production, and life below water, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106230
       
  • Novel inkjet direct printing technology based on thermosensitive
           sol–gel transition inks

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      Authors: Yan Li, Xiaoshi Sun, Guangtao Chang, Ruoxin Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) triblock copolymer was developed to prepare thermosensitive inks for digital fiber printing applications. The thermosensitive inks can be printed on any textile or fiber that does not need to go through the pretreatment and soaping procedure like traditional inks. This copolymer aqueous solution has a reversible sol–gel transition property, which can be used to prepare thermosensitive sol–gel inks. PCLA-PEG-PCLA had little effect on the physical properties of the inks, including the average particle size, conductivity, and surface tension at room temperature. However, the viscosity of the thermosensitive inks can increase dramatically under high temperature. This was due to the inks undergoing a sol–gel transition with an increase of temperature. The inks were in the sol state in the printer cartridge at room temperature and when the ink drops fell on the heated fiber or textile, a sol–gel transition occurred and turned them into a gel immediately. The high viscosity prevented the ink from spreading around on the fabrics, thus giving a sharp edge. The study indicated that the line width printed by thermosensitive inks was reduced to 266.35 μm from 464.08 μm in the weft direction (reduced by 43%), and the line width in the warp direction was reduced to 264.35 μm from 385.76 μm (reduced by 32%). The polyester fabric printed by thermosensitive ink has a higher color strength (K/S) at 47–50°C with excellent colorfastness. Thermosensitive ink is a type of innovative ink, in line with the concept of green ecological textile manufacturing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:52:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106233
       
  • Improvement in dyeing and physical properties of wool fabrics through
           pretreatment based on the bacterial culture of Stenotrophomonas
           maltophilia DHHJ

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      Authors: Zhang-Jun Cao, Ao Tang, Juan Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Guang Yang, Xing-Qun Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wool fiber is a valuable natural material in the textile industry, but keratin cuticles on its surface can deteriorate product quality. Wool fabric finishing has a long-standing problem in meeting the goal of environmental sustainability. In this study, we developed an eco-friendly simple method of wool fabric treatment based on direct incubation with the whole culture of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DHHJ, a keratinase-producing bacterial strain. This processing method effectively reduced roughness for the surface of wool fiber and wool fabric samples by removing the cuticle scales. The keratinolytic treatment altered many physical properties of the wool fabrics, such as felting shrink, bursting strength, elongation at break, and diameter. The dyeability of wool fabric was substantially improved due to the pretreatment. The surface modification accelerated the rate of dyeing-bath exhaustion for wool fabric samples under a mild processing condition and the dyeing equilibrium was achieved within 10 min at a relatively low dyebath temperature (below 70°C). The pretreatment with the keratinase-secreting bacterial culture was beneficial for dyeing uniformity and rubbing color fastness. Besides, the fuzzing and pilling properties of wool fabrics were ameliorated in the fabric samples incubated with the bacterial culture.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106231
       
  • Physical relationship between resonant frequency and structure parameters
           of a normal mode helix dipole antenna for an ultra-high frequency radio
           frequency identification tag thread

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      Authors: Yong Zhang, Fenye Meng, Jiyong Hu, Xiong Yan, Xudong Yang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The thread-based ultra-high frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID) tag with a normal mode helix dipole antenna (NMHDA) shows great potential in anti-theft and implant wireless sensors; for the engineered and digitized design of the high-performance tag, it is necessary to know the physical relationship between the resonant frequency and structure parameters of the NMHDA. Previous work for the design of the NMHDA structure is based on the self-resonant principle, that is, zero port reactance, while the port impedance of the NMHDA in the UHF RFID tag thread at resonant frequency is ideally conjugate matching to the chip. Under the requirement of conjugate matching, this study built the physical relationship between the resonant frequency and structural parameters of the NMHDA (helical radius, helical pitch, and single arm length) by linking the chip impedance with the NMHDA impedance. Meanwhile, the reported equivalent impedance model of the NMHDA, consisted of a lumped inductor and a linear dipole antenna, was utilized and modified by considering the distributed capacitance deviation from the NMHDA geometry simplification as part of the lumped inductor. Finally, the physical relationship was put into practice for the design of an UHF RFID tag thread with expected resonant frequency, and the long reading range of the prototype (over 14 m) demonstrated the rationality of the modification. In addition, the discussion on the structure parameter of the NMHDA clarified the efficiency of our proposed method. Generally, the built physical relationship explicitly gives the physical effects of the structural parameters and provides a parametric method for the structure design of a NMHDA for the UHF RFID tag thread.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T05:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221107159
       
  • Novel composite yarn with a wavy-network structure produced by various
           delivery speed ratios and untwisting factors

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      Authors: Xu Duo, Ge Can, Gao Chong, Liu Yingcun, Su Ziyi, Ke Changjin, Liu Keshuai, Fang Jian, Xu Weilin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Yarn structure variation and property improvement have been widely investigated for applications in fancy fabric production. Thus, a novel composite yarn was fabricated by dynamically forcing strand migrations around filaments with varied tension control, regulating the geometric configuration between the filaments and staple fibers. The geometrical principle of wavy-network structure variations of novel composite yarns caused by tension interference and helical migrations between filaments and staple fibers was theoretically analyzed. Subsequently, the coordination of delivery speed ratios and untwisting factors was applied on a ring frame with a delivery roller to control the tensile difference and spiral trajectory, which oscillated the helical convergence between filaments and strands to conduct confirmatory tests.The online observations of the convergent formation in the spinning-triangle zone were technically applied to evaluate the dynamic helical migrations between strands and filaments, and the spiral structural variations of the yarn were caused by various tension difference interference and twist tracks. Experimental results revealed that the novel composite yarn had a network structure with wavy-dense wrapping, and the yarn hairiness, irregularity, tensile, and snarling properties were successively measured to compare the yarn property improvements with other composite yarns.Generally, the systematic tensile oscillation between strands and filaments in the yarn formation zone, which are produced by various delivery speed ratios and untwisting factors, are promising as a novel method for controlling the helical configurations and inter-stress between filaments and staple strands.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T06:52:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221107163
       
  • The predicted heat strain model considering wet and dynamic thermal
           insulation for thermal protective clothing: Modification and validation
           analysis

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      Authors: Wenhuan Zhang, Qianqian Huang, Yunyi Wang, Jun Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      For guiding the setting of working time, it is necessary to develop a realistic clothing model with accurate thermal physical properties including the effects of human body activities and environments in the predicted heat strain model, especially for the high thermal insulation clothing ensembles and high-temperature conditions. In this study, realistic clothing models, including clothing wet thermal insulation (Icl_w), dynamic thermal insulation (Icl_vw), and convective heat transfer coefficient considering the temperature difference and walking speed (hc_vw), were established. Then, we validated the modified predicted heat strain models combined with realistic clothing parameters. The results revealed that the core temperature of the predicted heat strain model combined with Icl_w, Icl_vw, and hc_vw (deviation of 0.1°C) was significantly more accurate than the original predicted heat strain model (variation of 1.5°C) in the environment of 40°C within 65 min of heat exposure. Our study emphasizes the necessity of ensuring the accuracy of clothing thermal physical properties in the predicted heat strain model to improve validity for the specific conditions investigated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T06:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221106227
       
  • Development of three-dimensional printed cultural fashion products using
           symbols of longevity

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      Authors: Sung Kyu Lee, Sumin Koo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the tourism industry, which makes it necessary to consider a variety of ways to overcome these challenges. The continuous effort to develop unique cultural fashion products and their original designs is necessary. This study aimed to develop cultural fashion products that people want to wear and purchase to revive the traditional symbols of longevity, called “shipjangsaeng,” with three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Modernizing the symbols and the 3D printing technology can create new values of the convergence of tradition and technologies while providing customized benefits without inventory concerns. To achieve this, firstly, the preferred traditional symbols were extracted through a preference survey. Secondly, designs were virtually three-dimensionally simulated and surveyed to investigate the preferred designs. Thirdly, the selected designs were three-dimensionally modeled and printed, their flexural strength was tested, and they were fabricated into wearable products. The major results were as follows: (a) the most preferred patterns of longevity symbols were the sun and water/a wave; (b) the preferred item types were dresses and T-shirts using new technology such as 3D printing in achromic colors; (c) eight designs were proposed and the most preferred designs were designs 4 (a mini dress with water/wave patterns), 6 (a dress with a sun pattern), 7 (a T-shirt with a sun pattern), and 8 (a dress with a sun pattern); and (d) the four designs were fabricated into wearable cultural fashion products. The results of this study can provide insights to fashion designers and product developers when developing cultural fashion products by modernizing and reviving traditional symbols, enabling new values.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T06:41:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221105237
       
  • Dynamic behaviors of water droplets on superhydrophobic polyester films
           and woven and knitted fabrics

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      Authors: Ji Min Lee, Suhyun Lee, Chung Hee Park
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the behaviors of water droplets on superhydrophobic polyester (PET) films as well as on woven and knitted fabrics with different surface microstructures were analyzed. The water droplet volume, height of release (h), and surface inclination were modified to study the dynamic behavior of water droplets using a pressure balance and the Weber number (We). The droplet volume did not affect the static contact angle. However, the shedding and sliding angles decreased with an increase in droplet volume. The water droplets rebounded on the surface of the superhydrophobic PET films with nano-roughness regardless of the surface inclination angle or h. However, the water droplets with h = 10 cm were pinned on the horizontal surfaces of the woven and knitted fabrics with micro-sized pores, where the dynamic pressure (Pd) exceeded the capillary pressure. On an inclined surface, the water droplets rebounded on the surface of the woven fabric, owing to a decrease in Pd and an increase in the surface inclination angle. However, on the surface of the knitted fabric, pinning was observed even when the surface was tilted, regardless of the inclination angle. The sliding velocity of the droplets after rebound decreased in the following order: film, knitted fabric, woven fabric. With an increase in the inclination angle of the surface and the droplet volume, the sliding velocity increased, which was accompanied by a decrease in vertical impact velocity (V) and an increase in the gravitational force. In terms of We, the droplets with a low We rebounded on all superhydrophobic surfaces, whereas the droplets with a high We were pinned on the surface of the woven and knitted fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T04:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221102639
       
  • Wool fabric image retrieval based on soft similarity and listwise learning

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      Authors: Jun Xiang, Ning Zhang, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As a special case in content-based image retrieval, fabric retrieval has high potential application value in many fields. However, fabric retrieval has higher requirements for results, which makes it difficult for common retrieval methods to be directly applied to fabric retrieval. It is also a challenging issue with several obstacles: variety and complexity of fabric appearance, and high requirements for retrieval accuracy. To address this issue, this paper presents a novel method for fabric image retrieval based on soft similarity and pairwise learning. First, a soft similarity between two fabric images is defined to describe their relationship. Then, a convolutional neural network with compact structure and cross-domain connections is designed to learn the fabric image representation. Finally, listwise learning is introduced to train the convolutional neural network model and hash function. The generated hash codes are used to index the fabric image. The experiments are conducted on a wool fabric dataset. The experimental results show that the newly proposed method has a greater improvement than our previous work.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T04:38:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221102636
       
  • Optimization of the preparation process of electrostatic-solution blow
           spinning nanofiber yarn using response surface methodology

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      Authors: Lei Shi, Yun Wang, Yi Zhang, Xupin Zhuang, Hao Liu, Yanli Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There are several methods of preparing nanofiber yarns, but little work has been reported using a combination of electrospinning and solution blowing methods (i.e., electrostatic-solution blow spinning) to prepare nanofiber yarns. In this study, a response surface method (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design was used to investigate the relationship between the yarn parameters and yarn diameter, and the process was optimized. The yarn diameter was simulated by electrostatic voltage, air pressure, winding speed and funnel velocity. The correlation coefficients before and after adjustment were 0.97 and 0.95, respectively, through variance analysis, which verified the accuracy of the yarn diameter model. The results showed that the influence of each experimental factor on the yarn diameter was in descending order of winding speed, electrostatic voltage, airflow and funnel velocity, and there were interactions among the factors. The BDD response model was used to obtain the best experimental conditions, which provided a good theoretical reference for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. In addition, the effects of voltage and air pressure on the diameter of the nanofiber and yarn and the effects of the twist coefficient on the shape and mechanical properties of the yarn were studied. The results showed that with the increase of voltage and air pressure, the diameter of the nanofiber decreased, and the yarn diameter decreased first and then increased. When the twist factor was 100, the twist angle of the yarn was 49.91°, the breaking strength was 12.92 MPa and the elongation at break was 81.34%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101179
       
  • Analysis of grasping deformation of textile fabric based on fluid
           structure coupling

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      Authors: Xiaowei Zhang, Xinfu Chi, Chengchang Ji, Yize Sun
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The grasping transfer deformation of textile fabrics is the primary problem faced by textile production automation. During the automatic transfer process of textile fabrics, due to its own flexibility, large deformations are brought about, which leads to the problem of overlapping folds before the fabric is formed. In this paper, the end gripper composed of non-contact Bernoulli suction cups is used to adsorb and transfer the textile fabric, and the fluid structure coupling analysis method is used to calculate the adsorption force under different inlet pressures by using the macroscopic continuous model of the end effector adsorbing the fabric. The fluid structure coupling adsorption model is established, and the effects of the number and layout of suction cups and different inlet pressure on the deformation of flexible fabric during clamping are analyzed and studied. The deformation effect of the end effector in the process of transferring fabric is verified by simulation and visual experiment. The results show that the optimal working parameters of the end effector obtained by fluid structure coupling simulation are consistent with the test. When the end effector adopts five suction cups and the air inlet pressure is 0.3 MPa, the deformation is the smallest. This study provides a new method to solve the problem of automatic grasping and transfer of textile fabrics, and provides technical support for improving the automation level of garment industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T07:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221105234
       
  • Analysis of polymer jet motion in the non-isothermal melt-blown process

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      Authors: Fangdong Zou, Lin Meng, Yifei Li, Xiaoxia Sun, Zhimin Li, Changjie Chen, Wanli Han, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The motion characteristic of the polymer jet in a non-isothermal airflow field during melt blowing plays a crucial role in the process of fiber formation and has always been difficult to measure in situ. Many numerical models have been established to simulate the motion of the polymer jet during melt blowing. However, the complex interplay between the airflow field and the polymer jet in these models was usually missed. Here, a coupled air–polymer two-phase flow model in the non-isothermal airflow field was developed by the level-set method, and the temperature dependence of viscosity and density for the polymer jet were also taken into account in our model. Based on the model, the motion of the polymer jet in the melt-blowing process was simulated considering the coupled effect between the air and the polymer jet. The velocities of the polymer jet along x-direction ([math]) and y-direction ([math]), the whipping amplitude of the polymer jet motion, and the final diameter were discussed and verified. In addition, the effects of critical parameters, such as the inlet airflow velocity, inlet polymer flow velocity, inlet air temperature, and polymer viscosity, on the motion characteristics and temperature of the polymer jet were analyzed numerically.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T07:32:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221104263
       
  • Image recoloring of printed fabric based on the salient map and local
           color transfer

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      Authors: Qun Hu, Ning Zhang, Tingting Fang, Weidong Gao, Ruru Pan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Factories must proof different colors on fabric in order to verify the feasibility of the color scheme. This proofing process is time-consuming and laborious. To recolor printed fabric images, a novel image recoloring method was proposed in this paper. This method can provide convenience for printed fabric designers and can be used to simulate printed fabric proofing. The relative total variation model was implemented to remove the fabric image texture and noise. Next, in the CIE1976 L*a*b* color space, the mean-shift clustering algorithm was utilized to segment the reference image and the target image to obtain the separated color regions. Then, the color regions of the reference image and the target image were matched based on the salient map and the values of the L*a*b* channels. Finally, local color transfer was performed between the matched color regions based on the matching results. Experiments were conducted on 100 printed fabrics with different color schemes. Results indicated that the proposed method can transfer the color appearance of the reference printed fabric image to the target printed fabric image and realize printed fabric image recoloring.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T07:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221103616
       
  • Development of customizable conductive thermal woven textile for
           ready-to-wear functional collections

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      Authors: Yuanfang Zhao, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the emergence of conductive materials and the development of textile technologies, various wearable smart textiles have been created and their application has been greatly expanded. Among them, thermal textiles using thermal woven technology have been the subject of limited research but offer promising application potential. Unlike the traditional development procedure, the integrated design-driven strategy of thermal woven textiles mainly contains a yarn phase, fabric phase and apparel phase. This article introduces a design-driven approach to develop thermal functional garments for ready-to-wear collections applying thermal woven textiles. The fabric development procedure includes design, test, evaluation, simulation model setup and modification. The apparel development procedure aims to guide commercial production. Since there is almost no systematic guidance for thermal woven product development so far, this study will fill the gap and provide practical instruction.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T05:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221099946
       
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene fiber fabrication from the continuous
           melt-spinning process and its properties

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      Authors: Taehwan Lim, Dokun Kim, Uie Hyeon Lee, In-Woo Nam, Young-Je Kwak, Byeong Jin Yeang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has high thermal stability and chemical resistance, and hence is gaining great attention in the industrial field of high-performance filters, membranes, and medical applications. However, since PTFE possesses a narrow gap between melting (330°C) and decomposition temperatures (350°C), the melt-spinning process that is required to satisfy industrial needs for mass production has been limited. Here, perfluoro(propyl vinyl ether) (PPVE) was introduced to decrease the melting point of PTFE then fiber fabrication was performed with the melt-spinning process using a single-screw extruder, enabling the PTFE fiber to fabricate continuously. We selected an optimal melt-spinning condition and obtained PTFE fiber from the melt-processable PTFE/PPVE copolymer. The as-spun PTFE fiber showed low mechanical strength (0.90 g/denier or 89.1 MPa of tenacity). A post-thermal drawing process was performed to increase the mechanical strength of the PTFE as-spun. It demonstrated that the thermally drawn PTFE fiber showed higher mechanical strength (1.84 g/denier or 220.0 MPa of tenacity) due to the increased degree of crystallinity. Also, the other trial, thermal stabilization under N2, suggested as a future modification method to increase mechanical strength further, preventing thermal constriction of the PTFE fiber. The melt-spun and thermally drawn PTFE fibers were knitted and it was confirmed that the fiber has high chemical resistance and similar surface chemistry to conventional PTFE fibers. This study developed a method to enable a melt-processable PTFE fiber fabrication and opens up opportunities for mass production that is crucial in the industrial aspect.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T04:24:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101656
       
  • Study of superhydrophobicity according to surface structure of knitted
           fabrics

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      Authors: Suhyun Lee
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study seeks to analyze the effect of geometric structures of weft-knitted fabrics on superhydrophobicity and the dynamic behavior of water droplets. A flat knitting machine with different stitch patterns was used to prepare 100% polyester knitted fabrics. For the superhydrophobic surface, nano-roughness through alkaline treatment and a hydrophobic coating were introduced on prepared knitted fabrics. To analyze micro-roughness, pore size, cover factor, surface roughness, and air permeability were measured. Surface wettability was evaluated by contact and shedding angle measurements, and the dynamic behavior of droplets.Micro-roughness was greater in the order of tuck, purl, and plain jersey stitch patterns with a small cover factor and large pore size. In addition, tuck and purl stitches showed differences in surface roughness according to the wale and course directions. Nano-roughness was discernible as the alkaline treatment time increased. Following an evaluation of the wettability, the purl stitches exhibited a contact angle of 150° or more with only the hydrophobic coating. After imparting nano-roughness by alkaline treatment, the contact angle was more than 150° in all the samples. In the case of shedding angle, the tuck and purl stitches showed differences according to the course and wale directions. The shedding angle was lower when the roughness was high and the ridge and the droplet sliding directions were parallel. This difference decreased as the nano-roughness increased according to the alkaline treatment time. An evaluation of the dynamic behavior of water droplets on the superhydrophobic knitted fabric showed that rebound behavior appeared in all the samples on the horizontal surface, when the water droplet was small. However, with large droplets, the rebound behavior appeared only in purl stitches. Meanwhile, on the surface inclined at 15°, rebound behavior was observed in the tuck and purl stitches, with the tuck stitches rebounding faster in the wale direction and the purl stitches in the course direction regardless of the droplet volume. The plain jersey stitches showed pinning behavior after water droplets fell on the surface. Therefore, it is important not only to introduce nano-roughness but also properly to form geometrical micro-roughness of knitted fabric with pores and loops to induce rebound behavior of water droplets.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:08:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221104264
       
  • Comfort properties of fabrics knitted from a two-ply yarn derived from
           abacá and cotton

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      Authors: Yuki Karasawa, Hideaki Mizuhashi, Mayumi Uemae, Hiroaki Yoshida, Masayoshi Kamijo
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, the comfort properties of knitted fabrics made from a two-ply yarn comprising a paper yarn and a cotton yarn were investigated. The objective was to elucidate the characteristics of paper yarn in comparison with cotton in terms of the design and development of comfortable and ecofriendly textiles that directly contact the skin. A two-ply yarn comprising a paper yarn made from abacá and a cotton yarn was prepared. Five fabrics with different proportions of paper were prepared by changing the knitting ratio of the two-ply yarn to a 100% cotton yarn. The mechanical properties (tensile, shearing, bending, compression, surface, contact area, and air permeability properties) and various thermal and moisture-transport properties of the fabric samples were determined. Those investigations revealed that the surface roughness increased, the friction coefficient decreased, the contact area decreased (in both the dry and wet state), the air permeability increased, the thermal conductivity increased, and the moisture diffusivity increased as the proportion of paper yarn increased. The fabric consisting of only the two-ply yarn was noticeably stiffer than the fabrics that also contained a pure cotton yarn. The results suggest the possibility of developing clothes that feel comfortable next to the skin, even when wet (e.g. underwear and socks) by knitting the two-ply yarn in a well-balanced ratio with cotton yarns.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T04:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221102638
       
  • Effects of ambient temperature step changes on the heat storage and
           release in thermal protective clothing

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      Authors: Qianqian Huang, Meng Deng, Jun Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ambient temperature steps between typical non-work and hot work environments will lead to clothing heat storage and release, which is crucial for human health and thermal comfort. In this study, the influence of five types of ambient temperature steps (from 0ºC/5ºC/10ºC/15ºC/20ºC to 40ºC to 0ºC/5ºC/10ºC/15ºC/20ºC) on the heat storage and release in clothing was investigated using a thermal manikin. A moving and temperature-controlled refrigerated incubator was constructed to realize the temperature step conditions. Results showed that ambient temperature step magnitude was positively related to heat storage and release. Some 80% of the amount of heat storage would be completed in around 10 min after the temperature steps. Increasing the inner clothing layer weight and specific heat capacity for local clothing at the chest, thigh and calf improved their heat storage against the large temperature step conditions. As for the abdomen, its heat storage was the largest. However, the clothing layer configuration impacted its heat release, so it was necessary to guide the heat transfer to the skin. The heat storage in the outer layer was increased by 2% to 39% due to adding the inner layer of the garment. The stored heat discharged completely until the temperature step magnitude exceeded 32.5°C. A multiple linear regression formula was proposed to obtain the clothing average heat storage by considering ambient temperature step magnitude and clothing insulation. The results of this study could contribute to the optimization of thermal protective clothing and improvement of the research on human thermal comfort.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T04:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101012
       
  • Sustainable profiled poly(lactic acid) multifilaments with high moisture
           management performance for textiles

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      Authors: Yadie Yang, Zixin Ju, Po Ying Tam, Tao Hua, Hong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Sustainable poly(lactic acid) multifilaments are a new type of biodegradable fibers that have gained increasing attention in textile product development. However, low moisture management performance has hindered their application in high added-value textile products such as functional garments and sportswear. In this work, profiled poly(lactic acid) multifilaments with “+” cross-section and “Y” cross-section were developed by the melt spinning process in order to improve their moisture management properties. The cross-sectional and longitudinal morphologies of the produced profiled poly(lactic acid) multifilaments were first examined and their non-circularity degrees were calculated. The moisture-absorbing and fast-drying properties of both the poly(lactic acid) multifilaments and knitted fabrics, including vertical wicking, in-plane wicking, water absorption and evaporation, and water vapor transmission were then evaluated, and the effects of fiber cross-section shape and yarn texturing were analyzed. The results show that the moisture management performances of the knitted fabrics made with profiled poly(lactic acid) multifilaments are significantly improved when compared with those of the fabric made with circular cross-section poly(lactic acid) multifilaments. The results also show that moisture management performances of the knitted fabrics made with profiled poly(lactic acid) multifilaments are comparable or even better than those of the fabrics made of polyester multifilaments. The study suggests that poly(lactic acid) fibers can be applied for the development of textile products with high added value and substitute the large amounts of petroleum-based PET fiber in apparel end-use.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T07:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221102637
       
  • Thermal degradation behavior of flame-resistant fabrics exposed to fires:
           effect of air gap type and thickness

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      Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Miao Tian, Qi Wang, Yun Su, Jun Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The thermal degradation of flame-resistant fabrics reduces the protective ability of clothing and affects firefighters’ safety. Making clear the influence factors of fabric thermal degradation is important for predicting and prolonging the service life of fire-protection clothing. Experiments were conducted for open and sealed air gaps with different thicknesses under flame exposure. The degradation the of outer shell fabric was evaluated by observing the variation in fabric morphology, mass loss and tensile strength of specimens after heat exposure. The influence mechanism of the type and thickness of the air gap on thermal degradation was analyzed by the surface temperature curve and thermal stability of the fabric, as well as the microstructure of the fiber. The results indicated that the type and thickness of the air gap have a significant effect on thermal degradation, and a more serious negative effect was observed under the condition of an open air gap. After being exposed to heat fluxes of 30 and 50 kW/m2 for 40 s, the mass loss rates were 1.8% and 3.3% higher than those of the sealed air gap, and the tensile strength retention rates were 9.1% and 10.1% lower on average, respectively. Air gap type and thickness affected the heat storage and heat transfer efficiency in the fabric system by changing the heat transfer mode. The decomposition and fracture of the fabric were affected, which made the flame-resistant fabrics show different degrees of thermal degradation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221104262
       
  • Analysis of electromagnetic transmission characteristics of square loop
           frequency selective fabrics with different layers

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      Authors: Fuwang Guan, Dan Li, Jiashuang Li, Zhuli Yang, Yutian Lei, Zhichang You, Zhaole Li, Yuan Tao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Nine square loop frequency selective fabrics (FSFs) with different layers were designed, prepared, and tested in this paper. Then the electromagnetic transmission characteristics were analyzed in detail. The test results reveal that the transmission characteristics of single-layer FSFs are basically identical in two electromagnetic wave polarization modes and keep good frequency selective characteristics as the incidence angle increases. For FSFs with the same frequency selective surface (FSS) layers, the increase of FSS layer number may exert influence on the electromagnetic transmission characteristics, but the influence mode and extent are inconsistent for two kinds of FSFs. For FSFs with complementary FSS layers, the transmission coefficient curves of the double-layer sample are the combination of two single-layer FSFs, with three resonance phenomena at 7.63, 10.75, and 12.38 GHz. However, three-layer FSFs with complementary FSS layers show poor frequency selective characteristics, mainly presenting full shielding characteristics. An equivalent circuit model of multi-layer FSF is built to explore the electromagnetic transmission mechanism; many factors, such as the fabric type, structure, conductive unit type, and size, would nonlinearly affect the electromagnetic transmission characteristics. The work can provide reference value for the study of diverse multi-layer FSFs and variant electromagnetic characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:02:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101178
       
  • Study of low-temperature interconnection techniques for instant assembly
           of electronics on stretchable e-textile ribbons

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      Authors: Martin Hirman, Jiri Navratil, Frantisek Steiner, Jan Reboun, Radek Soukup, Ales Hamacek
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article addresses the research and development of a reliable interconnection technique for mounting surface mounted device components onto newly developed conductive stretchable textile ribbons. The alternative nonconductive adhesive bonding in which electrical contact is realized only by mechanical pressure and fixed by an adhesive and the conventional soldering technique were selected for examination. Assessment of the performance of these techniques and their usability for interconnecting components on conductive textile ribbons was also our research goal. Reliability tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of realized interconnections (dry heat, damp heat, washing, electrical current load, jerk, and stretch tests) were realized. The results show that the nonconductive adhesive technique results in good mechanical properties and acceptable median electrical resistance of less than 2 Ω even after 90 washing cycles. It is also very gentle and fully compatible with textile production due to the maximal processing temperature lower than 70°C, without the risk of short circuit occurrence. This technique is suitable for sensors, illumination or data transfer applications. While soldering results in excellent median electrical resistance of less than 20 mΩ, it is more complex and costly. Moreover, there is a risk of short circuits as well as of textile damage by the high thermal load over 150°C. Soldering is more suitable for power supply applications or heating.The above-mentioned results were also confirmed in a decision analysis with pairwise comparisons, involving company representatives considering introducing the above-mentioned interconnection techniques into their production. The nonconductive adhesive technique was evaluated as 15% better in overall decision analysis than the low-temperature soldering.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T05:19:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084737
       
  • Jet diameter of the first coil in the electrospinning whipping region: the
           role of fluid viscosity

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      Authors: Sailing Lei, Liming Wang, Zhenzhen Quan, Xiaohong Qin, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In solution electrospinning, the ultrafine fiber is derived from the dramatic stretching of the whipping fluid jet. The first coil of the whipping fluid jet with the highest stretch rate plays a vital role in determining the microstructure and physical property of electrospun submicron/micron fibers. However, it still remains challenging to control precisely the stretching and jet diameter of the first coil of the whipping fluid jet. Herein, a comprehensive model for the jet diameter of the first coil of the whipping fluid jet is established, indicating that the jet diameter is a consequence of the balance between viscous and electrostatic forces, and is a function of the fluid viscosity, electric current, and flow rate. Furthermore, the stretch rate of the first coil of the whipping fluid jet is predicted, which decays as a scaling law with an exponent −1/2 along the axial direction. The theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental results. This work compensates for the deficiency of previous diameter models and enriches the mechanism of jet stretching, which can provide a valuable theoretical guide for the structural and functional design of submicron/micron fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T05:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080699
       
  • Effect of co-electrospinning system on morphology and oil adsorption of
           helical nanofibers

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      Authors: Defang Teng, Yongchun Zeng
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, inspired by cucumber tendrils, nanofibers with helical morphology are fabricated in co-electrospinning systems with different spinneret configurations. Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex) and thermoplastic polyurethane are chosen as the two components in co-electrospinning. Using simulation and experimental methods, the electric field distribution and the morphology of nanofibers from the three co-electrospinning systems are analyzed. The helical nanofibers generated from the off-centered spinneret co-electrospinning system possess a helical shape with larger curvature and show higher tensile strain. In addition, the helical nanofibers show an oil adsorption capacity up to 79.3 g g−1 and high oil retention (91%). This study may help control helical fiber morphology and extend the applications of helical materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T04:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095576
       
  • Justification of an approach to cellulase application in enzymatic
           softening of linen fabrics and clothing

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      Authors: Sergey A Koksharov, Albina A Bikbulatova, Nadezhda L Kornilova, Svetlana V Aleeva, Olga V Lepilova, Elena N Nikiforova
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We propose the final softening finishing of textile products based on a complex of modifying effects on a highly ordered cellulose backbone of the secondary cell wall G-layer or on a mesh corset of microfibrillar cellulose in the primary cell wall. We suggest using polypeptide molecule sizes and the strength of polypeptide molecule adsorption binding on a model solid-phase substrate as parameters of the structurally regulated action of cellulase preparations. The article presents an analysis of 11 cellulase preparations as groups of weakly, tightly and medium adsorption enzymes, and also groups of volumetric, peripheral or combined activity manifested in the fiber structure. We show the regularities of enzyme property influence on the fiber pore structure development, changes in the parameters of the fabric bending stiffness and breaking load and technological shrinkage for two modification modes: liquid treatment with flax fiber swelling or low-modulus application solution. For the liquid method of treatment (with a bath module of at least 10) it is recommended to apply highly adsorbable cellulases (A > 50%), in which the content of molecules with a globule size less than 30 nm does not exceed 15%. For the low-modulus method of treatment it is recommended to use enzymes with the adsorption capacity of at least 40% and a low content of small-sized fractions (no more than 25%). The recommended treatment variants ensure a three to four-fold bending stiffness decrease at the mechanical strength loss of not more than 15% and shrinkage of linen fabrics not more than 0.5%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T05:07:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101018
       
  • Research of textile logarithmic-aperiodic antennas with a matching circuit
           for textronics applications

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      Authors: Michal Pawel Frydrysiak
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The antenna is the basic element of radio communication systems. Its proper design allows for a sufficiently wide transmission range and quality of data transmission. Most known communication systems operate in a certain frequency range and dipole antennas only work at one frequency of resonance, therefore log-aperiodic antennas are built for covering a wide bandwidth. In a typical configuration, such antennas are made of metal rods; however, in textronics garment applications a flat structure integrated with the textiles is necessary. This article presents the construction and research of a flat antenna entirely made with textile materials and with the use of technologies. Embroidery technology was proposed for the prototyping of antennas for all three communication technologies. Polyester multifilament yarns with a silver top layer were used in the research. A textile impedance matching circuit for the antenna was also built with the use of textile technology. The antennas were designed for the Global System for Mobile Communications, Global Positioning System and WiFi systems, because such wireless technologies have been used in the prototype system for transmitting measurement data of human physiological signals in textronics clothing. Wearable antennas are a part of a device that ensures continuous health monitoring of an elderly person or a patient without hindering his day-to-day activities. The construction of this system was the subject of a project financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.The design stage was presented along with the method of connecting the antenna with the transmitter. The repeatability of the antenna parameters was also analyzed and a textile impedance matching circuit was presented. In this article, the author focused on checking the quality and repeatability of electrical and geometric parameters of textile antennas for various types of transmission, including connections in constant environmental conditions.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T05:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084278
       
  • Investigation of flexible warp-knitted metal meshes for electromagnetic
           interference shielding

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      Authors: Jianna Li, Shuo Zheng, Huiqi Shao, Guangwei Shao, Chuanli Su, Xinghua Hong, Nanliang Chen, Jinhua Jiang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper develops four novel warp-knitted structures with two bars of the one-in one-out threading mode and describes the investigation of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding metal meshes composed of contiguous ultra-fine metal wires fabricated using warp-knitting technology. The mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) of the flexible meshes are assessed in terms of the mesh structure, mesh material, and warp run-in parameter. The results reveal that the metal mesh has a flexible and stable mechanical property, good electrical conductivity, and optimal EMI performance when the mesh structure is open lap atlas. The gold-coated molybdenum mesh exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity (5.18 × 10−5 ohm/sq) and optimal average EMI SE (–21.04 dB), making it a candidate for EMI shields for intelligent wearable electronic devices. The warp run-in can adjust the EMI SE, and the optimum average EMI SE (–25.52 dB) can be obtained when the warp run-in is set at the 2580 rack. Moreover, the warp-knitted metal meshes show desirable EMI shielding efficiency persisting at>70% even at large strain deformations and under cyclic bending and twisting deformations. Conductive warp-knitted meshes with a millimeter period and micron-scale wire diameter exhibit an adequately large scale, satisfactory mechanical stability, excellent flexibility, permanent conductivity, and strong microwave reflection, simultaneously. Moreover, the EMI SE of warp-knitted metal mesh reaches the protection level (–20 dB) prescribed by standard electronic devices. Therefore, the warp-knitted metal meshes show great potential in flexible and wearable EMI shielding devices.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T04:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221102640
       
  • Hand value optimization of printable interlining technique design on
           woolen fabric via orthogonal analysis

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      Authors: Qian Zhang, Chi-Wai Kan, Hong-lei Zhou
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional fusible interlining utilizes an adhesive on the fabric surface to improve garment hand despite the cost. Recent research led to the development of printable interlining that bypasses the fusion process. Printable interlining prints the adhesive directly onto the garment parts at a suitable density, achieving the support and control equivalent to a fusion process only at a fraction of the cost. However, hurdles for applications exist in that the efficiency of the printing technique calls for improvement. One governing key performance factor, the hand value has not been evaluated. In this work, we used an efficient interlining printing technique on woolen fabrics of various weights, and optimized the hand value performance through modulation of manufacturing effective factors, including squeegee frequency, screen mesh, and agent viscosity, using an orthogonal testing strategy. The results showed that for lightweight woolen fabrics screen mesh was an important factor for hand value performance; for light and medium weight woolen fabrics, the squeegee frequency had significant impact on hand value performance; for medium and heavyweight fabrics agent viscosity was an influential factor. We also explored possible correlations between primary hand value parameters that may simplify research and manufacturing processes by reducing the number of primary hand values measured. The results revealed significant correlations between any combination of primary hand values, with stronger correlations as the fabric weight increased. These results may have implications in hand value-oriented garment manufacturing of printable interlinings to woolen fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T06:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221094047
       
  • Interconnecting embroidered hybrid conductive yarns by ultrasonic plastic
           welding for e-textiles

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      Authors: Christian Dils, David Kalas, Jan Reboun, Stanislav Suchy, Radek Soukup, Daniela Moravcova, Malte von Krshiwoblozki, Martin Schneider-Ramelow
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a novel approach for the electrical interconnection of embroidered conductive yarns with each other at defined cross-points using ultrasonic spot welding. The electrically conductive yarns are made of silver-coated copper microwires plied with polyester filament fibers into a hybrid embroidery yarn. In this study we evaluated the influence of different material properties (number of microwires of conductive yarn, fabric substrate, and adhesive film), the embroidery designs of contact pads, and the main parameters of the welding process (energy, force, amplitude, and tools) on the welded interconnection. The results were evaluated by the process yield and the contact resistance of the welded contacts. The electrical contacts were then tested for long-term reliability (elevated temperature and humidity, temperature shock change, bending, washing and drying) and analyzed. In addition, the contacts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography and in the form of cross-sections with optical and SEM techniques to discuss interconnection and failure mechanisms. The results show that ultrasonic spot welding can enable the production of highly reliable interconnections of textile-integrated conductive yarns with contact resistances of a few milliohms that are resistant to mechanical, environmental, and washing conditions, leading to potential new manufacturing processes of e-textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T06:49:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101015
       
  • Effects of the moisture barrier and thermal liner components on the heat
           strain and thermal protective performance of firefighter turnout systems

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      Authors: Huipu Gao, A Shawn Deaton, Roger Barker, Xiaomeng Fang, Kyle Watson
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      An ideal firefighter turnout system should be capable of releasing body heat to prevent heat stress, indicated by THL (total heat loss) and Ref (evaporative resistance) indexes, while maintaining high thermal protective performance (TPP). Our study found no correlations between THL and Ref, or between Ref and TPP. The results showed that, when tested in the mild condition as in the standard THL test method, turnout systems with bi-component moisture barriers exhibited an advantage in THL that did not translate to more thermally stressful hot environments. A physiological manikin was used to understand the effect of turnout clothing systems on heat strain in different environmental conditions and the value of utilizing Ref or THL to predict heat strain performance. We found no difference in heat strain performance between composites with one-layer and two-layer spunlace thermal liners in mild or hot conditions. It showed that both THL and Ref had their limitations: THL only predicted thermal burden in mild environments, while Ref was only correlated in hot conditions. Thus, the exclusive reliance on either index could increase the risk of heat stress, and we recommend incorporating the Ref heat strain index, along with THL, as dual metrics for certifying the heat strain performance of turnout suits in the NFPA 1971 standard.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T04:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221099947
       
  • Enhancement of fiber attenuation and filtration quality via
           electrostatic-induction-assisted melt blowing

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      Authors: Fangdong Zou, Yifei Li, Lin Meng, Mingjing Chen, Xiaoxia Sun, Zhimin Li, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Melt-blown nonwovens with smaller fiber diameters and fewer roping defects are good candidates for air filtration. However, there have been few publications of experimental work reducing the fiber diameter and improving the roping defects of melt-blown nonwovens at the same time. Here, we reported an electrostatic-induction-assisted melt-blowing (EIMB) process by introducing an induced electrostatic field to the conventional MB process. The EIMB process is based on a commercial process without interfering or charging the polymer jet before spinning. Therefore, the production efficiency of the EIMB process is the same as the conventional MB process. The numerical simulation method was employed to investigate the effects of the electrode width on the melt-blown airflow field since the electrode width is a critical parameter that affects the stability of the MB airflow field. Benefiting from the introduction of the electrostatic field, melt-blown nonwovens with smaller fiber diameters and fewer roping defects were obtained using the EIMB technology. Compared to the conventional MB process, the EIMB process dramatically improved the filtration performance and reduced the energy consumption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T05:20:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084279
       
  • Development of new mathematical models and their comparison with existing
           models for the prediction of compression pressure using the cut-strip
           method

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      Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Zdenek Kus, Jiří Militký, Antonin Havelka, Adnan Ahmad Mazri, Hes Lubos
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Compression socks are a highly acclaimed textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of the leg (ankle). This part of the research explains the theoretical investigation of compression pressure by the modelization technique that helped to develop two new mathematical models by incorporating a few missing parameters for the measurement of compression pressure (kPa) and compared with existing models simultaneously. These new parameters including deformed width (wf), true stress (σT), logarithmic strain (εT), true modulus (ET), and engineering stress (σE)/strain (εE)/modulus (EE) were incorporated and compared with Hook’s law (k = fx) used for elastic materials at the ankle position. Various brands of compression socks composed of similar fibrous combinations as well as the knit type were purchased. Initially they were hand-washed, put on the leg for marking, a square was marked, circular cut-strips were detached from the ankle portion of the compression socks, and they were then cut to a linear shape for all 13 sock samples. For this, all linear cut-strips were installed on a Testometric tensile testing machine and were extended to a fixed elongation of 65% of gauge length five times simultaneously, and were then extracted for different extension (mm) values considering the requisite practical elongation values (circumferential difference between leg and socks at the ankle portion). The models developed were compared with Hook’s law and Laplace’s law. The developed models were compared with compression pressure values measured using existing models statistically.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T07:38:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221088747
       
  • Improvement of mechanical properties of cashmere fibers during microwave
           vacuum drying

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      Authors: Liuxiang Zhan, Ni Wang, Ming Xie, Feng Ji, Yuling Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To study the mechanical property changes of cashmere fibers during the microwave vacuum drying (MVD) process, as well as the mechanism and key factors for the improvement of the mechanical properties, cashmere fibers were dried under different conditions. The mechanical and friction properties of cashmere fibers with different drying end points were tracked, and the structure−property relationship of cashmere was also analyzed at multiple scales. The amide I band infrared spectrum of the cashmere fiber was peak-fitted, and thermal analysis of the cashmere was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that there was a certain critical point of optimum fiber mechanics in the MVD process, and when the fibers were dried to the official regain of cashmere (15%), the fibers had the optimal value of the mechanical properties. MVD relieved the accumulated stress in the fibers, so that their strength and elongation were restored and the hydrogen bonds in the amide I band of cashmere fibers were not changed. The transformation of the secondary structure of cashmere and the denaturation of the ortho- and para-cortical cells were the fundamental reasons for the improvement of the mechanical properties of cashmere during the MVD.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221101010
       
  • An insight into enhancing the physical properties of poly(lactic acid)
           (D600) fibers

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      Authors: Afaf M. Ali, Ali H Amin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The most applicable polymer in different applications is poly(lactic acid) (PLA) due its merits. This polymer attracts great interest as an environmentally friendly bioplastic polymer. The main goal of this work is to enhance the different physical properties of PLA. The melt-spun process was used to produce a continuous multifilament yarns of PLA textile fibers. The mechanical properties (tensile properties) of PLA(D600) filaments were studied. The tensile modulus and the maximum tensile strength were 3 and 0.4 GPa, respectively. The effect of the cold-drawing process on some physical properties, such as the melting temperature, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, birefringence, and orientation factor, were measured. The crystallinity values changed as the draw ratio increased, confirming the reorientations and chain packing. From the obtained results of the different physical properties, it was concluded that the drawing process has a great effect on performance of PLA fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:19:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221100841
       
  • Characterizing and predicting the self-folding behavior of weft-knit
           fabrics

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      Authors: Chelsea Amanatides, Oana Ghita, Ken E Evans, Genevieve Dion
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Self-folding behavior is an exciting property of weft-knit fabrics that can be created using just front and back stitches. This behavior is easy to create, but not easy to anticipate and currently cannot be predicted by the existing computer-aided design software that controls industrial knitting machines. This work identifies the edge deformation behaviors that lead to self-folding in weft knits, and methods to characterize the mechanical forces driving these behaviors with regard to chosen manufacturing parameters. With this data and analysis of the fabric deformations, the self-folding behavior was purposely controlled using calculated scaling factors. Furthermore, theoretical equations were developed to mathematically predict these scaling factors, minimizing the trial and error required to design with self-folding behavior and create textiles with novel engineered properties. By understanding the mechanisms responsible for creating these three-dimensional self-folding textiles, they can then be designed in a programmable manner for use in technical applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221099670
       
  • The progress and prospect for sustainable development of waste wool
           resources

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      Authors: Yanli Sun, Bo Li, Yao Zhang, Hao Dou, Wei Fan, Shujuan Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the growth of the world population and the improvement of living standards, the demand for global textiles has been increasing rapidly. Although natural fibers are affected by the development of synthetic fibers, wool still occupies a certain share in the textile industry and is one of the most indispensable materials. However, many postindustrial and post-consumer waste wool textiles will be produced. The conventional treatment method is landfill or incineration, which is not conducive to economic, environmental, and social development. To counter this problem, many measures and methods have been adapted for the reuse of waste resources. This article provides a review on waste wool recycling and summarizes two main directions for reuse. Waste wool can be used for thermal and sound insulation materials, reinforced composite materials, or adsorbent materials to purify contaminated water which rely on fiber properties. Keratin extracted from waste wool can be applied for the production of high-value products such as functional finishing agents, organic fertilizers, regenerated protein films/fibers, or smart wearable electronic devices. Meanwhile, future development trends and the demand of waste wool recycling are also discussed. Continuous research and exploration are still needed for effective management of waste wool resources and to turn them into useful and valuable materials or products.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:11:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221098572
       
  • Influence of hemp roving twist and fiber apparent parameters on the
           mechanical properties and water absorption of quasi-unidirectional
           composites

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      Authors: Chao Lu, Chunhong Wang, Kushairi Mohd Salleh, Sarani Zakaria, Yasong Chen, Jianfeng Tong, Nanping Deng, Qi Zuo, Yuhuan Yan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The finite length of natural fibers makes them frail and unable to perform and be engineered as excellent composite reinforcements. Hence, roving formations and weaving techniques have been employed to overcome these weaknesses and have been used as an alternative reinforcement in continuous quasi-unidirectional hemp composites (QUDHCs). Tensile, flexural, and water absorption tests were conducted on nine QUDHCs. It was concluded that adopting the warp consolidation weaving technique significantly improved the mechanical stability of the QUDHCs and negatively affected the water absorption properties. Nevertheless, adverse effects of a roving twist on the mechanical properties of QUDHCs were found when a 40 turn/m roving was used as the weft. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of QUDHCs were strongly dependent on the fiber quality produced after roving twists. The roving twists numbers affected the water absorption of QUDHCs in different ways when there is/no warp yarn interweaving with the roving in the preform. In contrast, the moisture rate gain increased with the increment of roving twists in the case of the warp yarn and weft roving interweaving in the preform. The results in this study highlight the feasibility of improving the mechanical and water absorption properties by hemp roving fiber formations and weaving techniques, which is beneficial for the textile-structure composite industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T05:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095584
       
  • Mechanism and experimental simulation of non-isothermal melt formation
           induced by voltage change under auxiliary heating

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      Authors: Kai Liu, Yuansheng Zheng, Cheng Ge, Binjie Xin, Xiaoqi Mu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past few decades, it has been universally acknowledged that melt-electrospinning is an attractive solvent-free production process with the aim of alleviating the solvent-related problems generated by traditional electrospinning techniques. Up to now, the temperature and applied voltage have been considered as the two most important factors affecting the melt-electrospinning process and electrospun fibers. In this paper, an auxiliary heating setup was applied to the melt electrospinning system to deeply understand the effect of heat distribution on the melt-electrospun fibers. Jet motions, morphologies, mechanical properties and inner structures of the fibers obtained under different applied voltage conditions with and without auxiliary heating were investigated. The temperature distribution in melt-electrospinning system was simulated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The experimental results showed that a higher applied voltage results in a smaller fiber diameter, more disordered fiber mat and lower degree of strength with auxiliary heating. The simulation results of the temperature distribution in the spinneret-collector region are in good agreement with the measured values of the infrared images, which proves the feasibility and accuracy of the model.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T04:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221094229
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of polyester composite yarn with
           PVB/ZrC/Al2O3 coating

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      Authors: Guizhen Ke, Xinya Jin, Wenbin Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As a functional textile, photothermal textile materials are receiving more and more attention. A composite yarn was prepared by coating polyvinyl butyral/zirconium carbide/alumina oxide on the surface of polyester yarn through a sizing coating method with the aim to provide a textile substrate with controlled photothermal efficiency. The Box–Behnken design combined with response surface analysis and regression method was used to study the effects of input variables (polyvinyl butyral, zirconium carbide and alumina oxide concentration) on the temperature of the fabric made of polyester/polyvinyl butyral/zirconium carbide/alumina oxide composite yarn under infrared light irradiation. It was found that the effect of polyvinyl butyral and zirconium carbide content on the fabric surface temperature was more significant than that of alumina oxide content. The established regression model could predict the response value (fabric temperature) precisely. The optimal conditions for preparing the polyester/polyvinyl butyral/zirconium carbide/alumina oxide composite yarn were obtained by response surface analysis: 5.9% polyvinyl butyral, 5% zirconium carbide and 0.5% alumina oxide. The structure and properties of the yarn prepared under the optimal conditions were characterized. The results showed zirconium carbide and alumina oxide deposited on surface coating without obvious deterioration of thermal stability and tensile strength. The near-infrared light absorption rate of the composite yarn reached 96.71% and its surface temperature reached 104.0°C after 180 s irradiation under an infrared lamp. The photothermal temperature can still reach 101.5°C after 20 cyclings. The excellent photothermal conversion capacity indicates the polyester/polyvinyl butyral/zirconium carbide/alumina oxide yarn can realize solar energy utilization and be applied in heat management textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T04:54:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221093084
       
  • Natural jute fiber treated with silane coupling agent KH570 reinforced
           polylactic acid composites: mechanical and thermal properties

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      Authors: Cui-cui Fang, Xueyang Song, Ting Zou, Yuan-yuan Li, Ping Wang, Yan Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the progress of society, fiber reinforced composites have become the subject of research in the field of composite materials, in which natural fibers are widely used in the enhancement and modification of thermoplastics due to their low density, biodegradation and most wide origins. However, the hydrophilicity of special fiber is the main factor that hinders its bonding with hydrophobic polymer matrix which leads to poor interface compatibility between the fiber/matrix interface. The coupling agent can increase the nonpolarity of the natural fiber and the compatibility between the fiber and the resin. In this study, the composites were fabricated by the film stacking method, and the surface of jute fiber was treated with silane coupling agent so as to prepare jute/polylactic acid composites with good mechanical and thermal properties. The mechanical and thermomechanical results show that the combination of the coupling agent can significantly improve the interfacial bond of the jute/polylactic acid composites, leading to an efficient enhancement of comprehensive performance.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T04:52:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221097101
       
  • Influence of woven fabric construction parameters on electromagnetic
           shielding effectiveness: Part I – weave influence

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      Authors: Brigita Kolcavová Sirková, Veronika Tunáková, Maros Tunák, Karol Jezik
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The development of textiles with the ability to shield an electromagnetic field is still of great interest, and the influences of the construction parameters of woven fabric (weave, input fibrous material composition, three-dimensional (3D) construction) on the resulting electromagnetic shielding efficiency have still not been sufficiently investigated. The main goal of this study is therefore to analyze the weaves of special electrically conductive woven fabrics and evaluate their impact on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) using statistical methods. Here, the interlacing structure cells of woven fabric are newly used to describe the weave. The results confirmed that the proposed theory of the interlacing of woven fabric is satisfactory for evaluating and, especially, for prediction of the SE of electromagnetic shielding woven fabrics. For this study, the input yarn (made from a mixture of traditional and extremely thin discrete stainless steel fibers) is used for the production of 21 types of dobby woven fabrics with different weaves and its SE was analyzed using the coaxial transmission-line technique. This contribution can be used as theoretical guidance for the construction, design, and production of special woven fabrics (dobby and jacquard pattern) with controlled SE.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T04:52:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221100390
       
  • Influence of microscopic features on the self-cleaning ability of textile
           fabrics

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      Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah, Muhammad A Khan
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the presented review, the past investigations have been complied and critically analyzed to highlight the influence of microscopic features on self-cleaning ability. In addition, challenges and research gaps that currently exist are discussed. This review concludes the current methods and processes to obtain self-cleaning ability using the surface features of textile fabrics manipulated with the help of the coatings and nanoparticles. However, no research was conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:45:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069881
       
  • Analysis of the properties of alkaline-treated rape straw and stalk
           polyvinyl chloride composites

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      Authors: Abdulmalik Hamza Bichi, Keping Zhang, Junqian Yang, Dongsheng Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wood-plastic composites are being widely used more and more, and the bonding strength between fillers and matrix is an important factor affecting the properties of wood-plastic composites. In this study, rapeseed straw and rapeseed stalk were pretreated with sodium hydroxide and then filled with polyvinyl chloride matrix to prepare composites. The chemical composition, thermal stability, microstructure, physical properties, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance of the composites were characterized, and the effects of different concentrations of alkaline treatment on rapeseed straw composite and rapeseed stalk composite were revealed. The results show that alkaline treatment has no significant effect on the chemical composition of the composites but has an obvious effect on other properties. Among them, after 1% alkaline treatment, rapeseed straw composite has the highest hardness, thermal stability, and impact strength, rapeseed stalk composite has the highest impact strength and bending strength. After 3% alkaline treatment, rapeseed straw composite has more wear resistance, rapeseed stalk composite has the highest density, the highest tensile strength, and more wear resistance. The rapeseed straw composite with 5% alkaline treatment has the highest density, and the rapeseed stalk composite with 7% alkaline treatment has the highest thermal stability. The hardness of rapeseed stalk composite and the tensile strength and bending strength of rapeseed straw composite decreased with the increase of alkaline treatment concentration.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T08:28:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221098586
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of braided auxetic yarns based on a
           high-speed braiding machine

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      Authors: Zhuoran Liu, Gui Liu, Qiaoli Xu, Junli Chen, Yonggui Li, Taohai Yan, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, three kinds of auxetic yarns have mainly been developed, namely helical auxetic yarns based on the ring spinning system and the hollow spindle system and braided auxetic yarns based on the braiding system. However, these auxetic yarns have some drawbacks, such as an unstable structure or no obvious auxetic effect. In this paper, auxetic yarns were successfully braided by wrap filaments and a core filament based on a braiding system, which overcame the slippage problem in the traditional helical yarn structure. Yarns were spun by different structural parameters of the core filament, the wrap filaments and braiding filament, including the diameter ratio, braiding speed and different numbers of wrap filaments. The results showed that all parameters have an impact on the Poisson’s ratio of auxetic yarns and, in addition, the braided auxetic yarns can cause the yarns to be in the pre-stretching state; once the stretching effect occurs, the Poisson's ratio will directly change from a negative value. Since the new auxetic yarns were produced using a high-speed braiding machine and filaments, this would pave the way for their mass production. This provides a certain research basis for mass production of the stable auxetic yarn structure, and based on the realization of the pre-stretching state, it also provides more possibilities for future research.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T06:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221098587
       
  • Numerical analysis of heat transfer in ring spinning

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      Authors: Xi Wu, Christopher Hurren, Wenbin Li, Xungai Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Improving ring spinning efficiency and yarn quality is still challenging due to the sliding friction heat generated by the ring/traveler system, which limits the traveler speed and the yarn production rate. In this study, a finite element model based on the external heat source method was first used to explore the heat transfer process of the ring/traveler system. The reliability of the model was verified empirically. Subsequently, the validated model was used to analyze the effect of the model parameters on the temperature of the ring/traveler system. The results confirm that the high-temperature region of the ring and the traveler was concentrated on their contact area. More specifically the maximum temperature of the traveler was 159.2°C, which was almost three times the maximum temperature of the ring (62.6°C). In addition, smaller frictional coefficient and yarn tension, larger contact area and heat absorption rate, and better thermal conductivity can reduce the high local temperature of the ring/traveler system. Among them, yarn tension, friction coefficient, and heat absorption rate have a significant influence on the system temperature, especially for the small traveler. The developed model is also available for different fiber types and yarn counts which can be used for a comprehensive investigation of the heat transfer in ring spinning processes. The model and results of this study offer a theoretical basis for further optimizing the ring/traveler system and improving the productivity of ring spinning.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T05:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221098576
       
  • Traditional handwoven textiles: a case study of thermal comfort of
           Thailand’s traditional fusible and nonfusible linings

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      Authors: Su Kyoung An, Pimpawan Kumphai, AKM Mashud Alam, Rachel J Eike
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Many Asian countries have made and worn their own traditional textiles; however, due to the rapidly changing influence of western culture, today’s young people prefer to wear modern clothes rather than clothes made using handwoven fabrics. In order to protect and support traditional textile communities/artisans, governments are making great efforts to preserve traditional textile communities. The purpose of this study was to measure the thermal comfort properties of selected handwoven textiles made in Thailand. The results showed no significant difference in terms of thermal comfort between handwoven fabrics combined with linings (fusible and nonfusible). The advantages of the fusible lining include giving support to the handwoven fabric structure, particularly along the seams, and assistance against fabric fraying along cut edges. The results yielded recommendations to weavers of traditional fabrics to optimize the comfort function of the fabrics when worn in traditional Thai garments.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:08:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221097105
       
  • Identification of human hair wigs and animal hair wigs by the method of
           near infrared spectroscopy modeling

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      Authors: Yang Qiao, Wenjuan Chen, Xiaoxia Sun, Weidong Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The near infrared spectrogram of human hair wigs and animal hair wigs was measured with a Fourier near infrared spectrometer. In addition, a qualitative model for the identification of human hair wigs and animal hair wigs with their near infrared spectrogram has been established. The effectiveness of spectral preprocessing with chemometric techniques including standard normal variable, second derivative and Norris smoothing has been analyzed through principal component analysis. The results showed that the accuracy of the discriminant model could reach 100%, indicating that the near infrared spectroscopy method is highly applicable and effective for the identification of human hair wigs and animal hair wigs.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T06:05:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095577
       
  • Pomelo-inspired sandwich composites: manufacturing and cushioning property

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      Authors: Ting-Ting Li, Chenwei Zhang, Hongyang Wang, Bing-Chiuan Shiu, Haitao Ren, Junli Huo, Ching-Wen Lou, Jia-Horng Lin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Inspired by pomelo peel, this study designs an effective cushioning composite with a novel sandwich structure using a columnar lattice mold and two-step foaming technique. This sandwich composite consists of a polyamide nonwoven fabric (i.e. nonwoven surface) as the surface reinforcement layer and a double-layered spacer fabric as the bottom layer for energy absorbing. The static-compression resistance and dynamic cushioning efficacy of composites are investigated, examining the influences of three parameters (i.e. the areal density of the nonwoven surface and laminating angle and the mesh size of the double-layered spacer fabric). The experimental results show that the static-compression resistance and dynamic cushioning efficacy of the composites decrease when increasing the laminating angle of the spacer fabric and the areal density of the polyamide nonwoven fabric. By contrast, with an increment in mesh size, the compression resistance and cushioning efficacy of the composites first decrease and then increase. N200PUH/L(S5) consists of a 200 g/m2 nonwoven surface and a 0° laminated angle, 5 mm mesh size double-layered spacer fabric, which exhibits a higher cushioning efficacy than the pomelo peel. The acceleration of N200PUH/L (S5) was 39 g at 15 ms, and the acceleration of pomelo peel was 72 g at 7 ms, which were 60.7% and 28.5% lower than that of the blank group, respectively. The sandwich-structured composites are proven to have promising applications for low-velocity cushioning behavior, and this study combines the textile structure and foam technique, offering a perspective of designing cushioning composite sandwiches for future studies.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:57:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095095
       
  • Recent developments in preparation, properties, and applications of
           superhydrophobic textiles

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      Authors: Lili Xing, Qingqing Zhou, Guoqiang Chen, Gang Sun, Tieling Xing
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the development of the material engineering and textile industry, superhydrophobic textiles have been an important category of superhydrophobic materials and have increasingly attracted the attentions of researchers. In recent years, many potential applications of these products have been explored by researchers. However, industrial production of the superhydrophobic textiles is still challenging to textile scientists and engineers, especially with increased environmental and human safety regulations. In this article, recent progress in the research and development of superhydrophobic textiles is reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods of superhydrophobic textiles are generalized. Potential applications of superhydrophobic textiles in industrial, medical, and civilian fields are summarized. The challenges faced in research on superhydrophobic textiles are analyzed, mainly including restrictions on the use of environmentally hazardous fluorocarbons and organic solvents, demand for durable functional stability, economic and technical limitations of textile wet processing industry. This article will provide some reference and inspiration for the design, optimization and application of superhydrophobic textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221097716
       
  • Curvature control of weft-knitted spacer fabric through elastic inlay

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      Authors: Annie Yu, Sachiko Sukigara, Kit-Lun Yick
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable cushioning products that accommodate the body contours are challenging to fabricate. A method that controls the curvature of spacer fabric thus facilitating a high degree of conformity to the body is proposed here. Elastic yarn is inlaid into one of the surface layers and the feeding rate is controlled. The physical properties, curvature and compression properties of five samples with the same knitted structure but different feeding rate of the elastic yarn are evaluated. The results show a linear relationship between fabric curvature and feeding rate. Curved spacer fabric with a lower feeding rate has a greater degree of curvature and is thicker, but with a smaller fabric width, and lower weight and density. The compression stiffness and work of compression increase with curvature, which allows strategic cushioning in areas that are relatively more curved, such as the kneecaps. The proposed method can contribute to the development of protective garments.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221097098
       
  • Effect of doping ratio and amount of polyaniline, cobalt ferrite, and
           carbon fiber powder on the electromagnetic properties of coated
           polyester-cotton fabrics

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      Authors: Yi Wang, Yuanjun Liu, Zhenheng Cao, Xiaoming Zhao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this project, polyaniline powder was firstly prepared by in situ polymerization using aniline as the monomer, ammonium persulfate as the oxidant, and camphor sulfonic acid as the dopant. Next, polyester-cotton fabrics were used as the base fabrics, polyaniline, cobalt ferrite, and carbon fiber powder as the functional particles, and PU-2540 type polyurethane as the base, and single-layer coated polyester-cotton fabrics were prepared by the textile coating process. Finally, the effects of the polyaniline, cobalt ferrite, and carbon fiber powder doping ratio and functional particle content on the shielding effectiveness, reflection loss, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, and loss angle tangent of single-layer coated polyester-cotton fabrics were focused on using the controlled variable method. The results show that in the frequency range of 0.01–3 GHz, when the doping ratio of polyaniline, cobalt ferrite, and carbon fiber powder is 1:0:3, and when the content of functional particles is 40%, the minimum reflection loss of single-layer coated polyester-cotton fabrics is –22.1 dB at 1.6 GHz, and the effective absorption bandwidth is 1.14 GHz.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T06:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095738
       
  • Design, preparation and characterization of three-dimensional auxetic warp
           and weft backed weave fabrics based on origami tessellation structures

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      Authors: Qiaoli Xu, Longxin Gu, Zhuoran Liu, Lei Zhang, Jie Yuan, Chunhong Lu, Kaiqiang Lei, Zhaoqun Du
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Materials with a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) are also called auxetic materials, which as a branch of mechanical metamaterials have drawn a great deal of attention in many areas. Origami tessellation structures (OTSs) exhibit an in-plane NPR; meanwhile, they may also show an out-of-plane NPR, which may be called three-dimensional (3D) auxetic structures. In the crease pattern of OTSs, there are folding lines in perpendicular directions. Contractions in the warp direction need warp backed weave structures. Herein, warp and weft backed weaves are used together and three OTS Jacquard fabrics are designed. From the physical map, we can see that the elastic warp yarns and elastic weft yarns can form floats in the warp and weft directions, and the flat fabrics can be folded in to 3D OTSs according to the crease patterns designed. The in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of OTSs have been predicted and, subsequently, compared with the experimental results. All OTS fabrics can show an in-plane NPR, two fabrics show out-of-plane NPRs and one shows an out-of-plane positive Poisson’s ratio. A parametric analysis about the interior angle has revealed the interplay between the geometrical parameters of OTSs and the Poisson’s ratio. In various design fields, elastic yarns combined with warp and weft backed weave textile technology can pave the way for realizing new crease pattern fabrics focused on 3D auxetic materials. Theoretical results can provide methodological guidance and technical support for the design and manufacture of OTS fabrics with optimum functional performance or desired aesthetics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T09:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221094044
       
  • Effect of silk yarn parameters on the liquid transport considering yarn
           interlacing

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      Authors: Jiawei Yan, Chunhong Zhu, Jian Shi, Hideaki Morikawa
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wetting and wicking are among the essential behaviors of fabric. Woven fabric is interwoven by the warp and weft yarn, and it can be considered as a yarn network. To clarify the wicking phenomenon of woven fabric and simulate its water transport, the wicking behaviors in the vertical and horizontal directions of six yarn samples were examined. The moisture movement of these interlacing silk yarns was clarified. The wicking behaviors of the silk yarn were found to increase at the first initial stage, and decrease with time until the yarn is saturated. The wicking length of the vertical direction revealed that the fiber and void areas in the silk yarn have an essential effect on water transport. Further, the wicking relationship between single and interlaced yarns was also discussed. The good relationship between the wicking length of single and interlaced yarns shows the possibility of predicting the wicking ability of the textile through the initial wicking ability of the single yarn in the future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T06:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095575
       
  • A sustainable strategy for preparation of flame-retardant cotton fabric by
           phosphorylation of recycled cotton

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      Authors: Xinke Zhou, Yansong Liu, Yuanlin Ren, Xiaohui Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The recycling and reutilization of cotton waste are in line with the sustainable development of society. Therefore, in this work, an environmentally friendly cellulose phosphate ammonium salt was synthesized by phosphorylation of cotton waste. Then the cotton fabrics were modified with cellulose phosphate ammonium salt by using the dip–dry–cure technique to obtain flame-retardant cotton fabric. The surface morphology, characteristic functional groups, and elemental components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the cellulose phosphate ammonium salt was immobilized onto the cotton fabric through a P–O–C chemical bond. Vertical combustion tests before and after washing showed that the treated cotton fabric had durable flame-retardant properties. Thermogravimetry demonstrated that the treated cotton fabric retained a large amount of residual char and the pyrolysis temperature was significantly earlier than that of the control sample. Compared with the blank sample, the peak of heat release rate and total heat release of the modified fabric was reduced by 90.8% and 84.1%, respectively. Thermogravimetric infrared of flame-retardant cotton fabric proved that cellulose phosphate ammonium salt acted both in the gas and condensed phase during the decomposition of the treated fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T10:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211068783
       
  • Effect of weave structure and yarn fineness on the coolness and
           thermal-wet comfort properties of woven fabric

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      Authors: Juan Qian, Yi Li, Zhonglin Xiang, Hongmei Cai, Peihua Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      It is difficult to meet the needs of multi-functional comfortable fabric through the single functional fibers on the market. The aim of this work was to develop a kind of summer comfortable woven fabric with coolness through the combination of different functional fibers. Blended yarn of bamboo and polyester with grooves was chosen as the warp yarn, which was responsible for moisture absorption and transportation. Nylon filament with a cross-section and fine-denier polyester filament was chosen to twist reversely as a composite weft yarn to provide the coolness function and moisture conduction for fabric. As a comparative weft yarn, polyethylene was chosen as another type of weft yarn. Twelve samples were prepared containing three structures. The effects of fabric structure, weft yarn composition and fineness on the coolness and thermal-wet comfort were evaluated and investigated, including thermal-physiological comfort properties, moisture management properties, the wicking effect and the drying performance. The result showed that the weave structure, weft yarn composition and fineness had a significant influence on the coolness and thermal-wet comfort properties. Fabric woven with plain weave structure contributed to heat dissipation and dynamic coolness. The float yarn in the 2/1 twill and mesh structure was beneficial to promote water transportation vertically. The results also suggested that polyethylene yarn was preferred for coolness fabric, but the liquid moisture management and drying performance of polyethylene fabric should be further improved.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T10:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221095891
       
  • Prediction of clothing comfort sensation with different activities based
           on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of variable weight

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      Authors: Rongfan Jiang, Yunyi Wang, Jian Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There is no universal model for evaluating the clothing comfort sensation under various conditions due to the different effects of the sensory factors for different activities or environments. The current study aimed to develop a prediction method of the clothing comfort sensation for different activities. Two models were built using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation based on the constant weight (FCE-CW) and variable weight (FCE-VW). Firstly, four sensory factors (wetness, stickiness, hotness, roughness) were selected as input data. Subsequently, grey relation analysis was introduced to obtain the constant weight during the complete experimental process and variable weight for different activities. Finally, the FCE-CW and FCE-VW models were built. A psychological wearing evaluation experiment with different activities was conducted to examine the validity of the model. The results showed that the determination coefficient (R2) of the FCE-VW model was above 85%, which was superior to that of the FCE-CW model, especially in the running and recovery phases. The high accuracy of the FCE-VW model indicated that grey relation analysis was a practical algorithm for determining the weight of sensory factors. The roughness and hotness sensations demonstrated higher weights during the resting and walking phases, respectively, whereas the wetness and stickiness sensations had a high weight during the running and recovery phases. Moreover, the associations between the physiological parameters and weights of the sensory factors were also explored. In the future, a more comprehensive model based on physiological and psychological parameters can be developed using this method.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T10:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086885
       
  • Design of a multi-sensor information acquisition system for mannequin
           reconstruction and human body size measurement under clothes

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      Authors: Xihang Li, Guiqin Li, Tiancai Li, Jianpin Lv, Peter Mitrouchev
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Although the measurement of human sizes and the reconstruction of mannequins have been extensively studied, there has been little research on systems applicable for measurement and reconstruction under clothes. This work presents a method for three-dimensional (3D) mannequin reconstruction and human body size measurement based on information fusion of multiple sensors. For this purpose, a multi-sensor information acquisition system (MIAS) is developed allowing one to acquire 11 key size data of the human body under clothes. The MIAS is based on the proposed parametric mannequin method and the Laplace mesh deformation technique, thus allowing one to reconstruct the mannequin conforming to the MIAS measurements. All mannequins reconstructed by this method have the same topology, which will greatly facilitate subsequent processing, such as garment design, customization and virtual fitting. The results of the reconstruction experiments show that our system can reconstruct a mannequin that matches the size of the feature parts very well. In addition, performed comparison experiments with manual and laser measurements shows that the measurement results of our system are close to those of manual and laser measurements. This provides a viable method for measuring key body sizes under clothes and reconstructing the corresponding 3D mannequin.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T04:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221093663
       
  • Study on color ink diffusion in fabrics and color reproduction of digital
           inkjet printing

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      Authors: Yujia Li, Ye Huang, Liu Yang, Xin Zhang, Ruiyun Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The accuracy of color reproduction of digital printed fabric is affected by fabric structural characteristics and treatment, and the adjustment of color management is required for reducing the color difference. To study the mechanism of color presenting, the interaction of ink droplets diffusing on polyester knitted fabric with different structures and treatment was investigated. The result showed that the smaller the porosity, the larger the diffusion area. Besides that, the pretreatment alleviated the edge blurring of color blocks on fabric, and the diffusion area of hydrophilic finished fabric was larger due to the hydrophilic film. In terms of color presenting, the smaller the porosity, the smaller the K/S and C* values are, and the pretreatment could have a better effect on color presenting, while the color appeared more pastel on the finished fabric. Due to errors in the process of color transfer, the adjustment of color management in fabric digital inkjet printing was also studied. The manuscript correction method and the ink volume control method were proposed for color management in comparison with the original color management. Through the analysis of color differences, the optimized methods were able to provide an improved color reproduction effect, in which the ink volume control method had the best reproduction effect among the three. The improved color reproduction effect of the ink volume control method on finished fabric was also verified, and the difference of effects between finished fabric and ordinary fabric was explained with the diffusion law of ink droplets.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T09:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221094046
       
  • Structure and characterization of carbonized cotton knitted fabric

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      Authors: Jing Zhang, Hairu Long, Peihua Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Carbonized cotton fabrics have been used in the preparation of wearable sensors. However, there are few studies on the carbonization structure and properties of carbonized cotton fabric. This work provided a practical and effective method for the preparation of carbonized cotton knitted fabrics. The effects of impregnating agents and pre-oxidation on the carbonization structure and performances of the cotton knitted fabric were investigated systematically for the first time. Thermal gravimetry analysis revealed that cotton knitted fabric impregnated with 10% (NH4)2HPO4 had a higher carbonized yield of cotton knitted fabric than that with 5%, which was followed by 10% NH4H2PO4, and the worst was 10% (NH4)2SO4. The results also showed that the carbonized yield of cotton knitted fabric was enhanced considerably at 900°C for 120 min after impregnation with 10% (NH4)2HPO4 and pre-oxidation at 240°C for 60 min. The integrity of the cotton knitted fabric was maintained after carbonization. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the natural turn of carbonized cotton fiber was deepened after being impregnated with 10% (NH4)2HPO4 and pre-oxidized at 240°C for 60 min. With the increase of carbonization temperature, C-O and C-H were destroyed, and C=C bonds were formed. The amorphous carbon interlayer was created after carbonization. The structural order of these carbonized cotton fibers was improved with the enhancement of temperature. Pre-impregnation agent treatment and pre-oxidation greatly heightened the carbonized yield of cotton knitted fabric, maintained the integrity of the carbonized cotton fiber, and then increased the electrical conductivity of the carbonized cotton knitted fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221093659
       
  • Modeling of filament level plain woven Kevlar 49 fabric for accurate
           prediction of yarn pull-out behavior

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      Authors: Ying Ma, Zhifei He, Xiang Chen, Congying Deng, Yang Zhao, Sheng Lu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes two numerical and one analytical yarn pull-out models to investigate pull-out behavior and its energy transfer mechanism. First, the microgeometry of a two-dimensional woven fabric is generated with 112 fibers per yarn mesh implementing the digital element approach. In this approach, one yarn consists of a bundle of fibers and one fiber is made of a chain of rod elements. As such, the realistic yarn surface and yarn cross-section shapes are derived from fiber alignment. Meanwhile, a yarn-level fabric model with constant yarn cross-sectional shape is built on commercial textile modeling software TexGen. Then, both numerical and analytical yarn pull-out models are proposed to investigate the fabric performance. Results show the pull-out force and transferred energy of the digital element approach model is higher than the other two models and closer to the experimental data. This indicates that the realistic yarn surface introduces more contact points and the period of the pull-out force is determined by material properties rather than detailed fabric geometric configuration. Second, a detailed parametric study is carried out with a broad range of friction coefficient and tensile preload. The simulation results find out, when the tensile pre-load is between 50 N and 300 N, the transverse force drops immediately after the pull-out process begins. When the tensile pre-load reaches 400 N, the transverse force increases instead. This phenomenon indicates that the transverse force is sensitive to tensile pre-load and can be used as an indicator to detect residual stress in fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T08:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221093087
       
  • Effect of acetylation modification on the structure and properties of
           windmill palm fiber

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      Authors: Changjie Chen, Jing Tan, Zhong Wang, Weiguo Zhang, Guohe Wang, Xinhou Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Windmill palm fiber, a high-quality cellulose resource, can be extracted from discarded palm sheath. However, the application of this abundant biomass in composite reinforcement is limited due to its hydrophilicity. In this study, the effects of chemical modifications, such as treatment with alkali, acetyl chloride, and acetic anhydride, on the micro-morphology, water repellence, sound absorption, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability of windmill palm fiber have been investigated. The results showed the surface of windmill palm fiber treated with alkali to be relatively long, thick, and smooth. In comparison, acetylation treatment destroyed the cell walls, leaving micro-holes in the surface. Acetylation modification significantly improved the water repellence of the fibers, increasing the water static contact angle to more than 145°. Acetylation treatment also improved the sound absorption performance of a fiber mat, giving an average sound absorption coefficient of 0.47, maintained a low thermal conductivity of under 0.050 W/m/K, and improved the thermal stability, raising the initial decomposition temperature to above 350°C.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221091882
       
  • A study on the shaping efficacy grading model of underbust corsets based
           on three-dimensional body scanning

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      Authors: Kaiyue Zuo, Yongrong Wang, Haixia Li, Chanhui Wu, Huihua Wen, Wenhui Zhu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The aim is to establish a shaping efficacy grading model for underbust corsets by exploring the pressure and shaping efficacy. Nine Chinese female college students aged 20–25 years old were employed in the pressure test and shaping efficacy experiment. In the pressure test, the pressures were measured at 31 points before and after wearing underbust corsets. In the shaping efficacy experiment, participants underwent three-dimensional body scanning before and after wearing underbust corsets. By analyzing the relationship between the pressure and shaping efficacy of underbust corsets, a shaping efficacy grading model characterized by pressure was established using the indirect grading method: when the comprehensive pressure values of the underbust circumference (UBC), waist circumference (WC) and abdominal circumference (AC) are 0–1.8, 1.8–2.4 and 2.4–3.4 kPa, the shaping efficacy of underbust corsets should be Grades I, II and III, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the grading model obtained is discussed, and the optimized model of underbust corsets based on the average pressure values is established: when the average pressure values of the UBC, WC and AC are 0–1.4, 1.4–2.1 and 2.1–3.4 kPa, the shaping efficacy of underbust corsets should be Grades I, II and III, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221091577
       
  • A feasible weave color scope inspection by using primary yarn colors to
           improve Jacquard reproduction quality

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      Authors: Lei Zeng, Ken Ri Kim, John H Xin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Producing a wide scope of weave colors is challenging in modern Jacquard weaving with limited weft color variety. The subtractive primary color yarns (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) are used to replicate varied Jacquard designs, but there is potential to improve the color reproduction quality by expanding a feasible weave color scope. Therefore, this research examined weave colors that are created by combining two sets of primary colors from different color systems. In color printing, six color pigments (i.e., cyan [C], magenta [M], yellow [Y], red [R], green [G] and blue [B]) are popularly used as primary colors for color reproduction. Therefore, weft yarn colors are selected in line with the six colors and a feasible weave color scope is inspected. The group of yarns is paired, and 225 weave color samples are produced to examine the color effects. The weave color samples are measured by a spectrophotometer and described by the CIELAB color space. The results show that the CIELAB color space was expanded by adding [R], [G] and [B] colored yarns. The hue and chroma ranges of the fabric samples were expanded compared with the fabrics produced by only [C], [M] and [Y] yarn colors. In this research, the possibilities in color reproduction are explored and the findings suggest great potential in producing a wide scope of weave colors by using primary yarn colors.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221090966
       
  • A new parametric 3D human body modeling approach by using key position
           labeling and body parts segmentation

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      Authors: Cheng Chi, Xianyi Zeng, Pascal Bruniaux, Guillaume Tartare, Hongshu Jin
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The current three-dimensional human models used in the apparel industry are mostly rigid and lack semantic information on body positions and body parts. Therefore, it is difficult for designers to make accurate, fast and effective designs from these models. This paper proposes a new parametric three-dimensional human body model based on key position labeling and optimized body parts segmentation. First, by using experts’ professional knowledge, we manually realize accurate human body data measurements as well as their interpretation and classification, and extract relevant human body features. After deep analysis, measured data irrelevant to body shape have been excluded by designers. Furthermore, the relation between body shapes and body features have been modeled. Second, based on this relational model, we label key positions on the corresponding three-dimensional body model obtained by scanning and segmenting the whole three-dimensional human body into semantically interpretable body parts. In this way, two databases have been created, enabling us to identify features of all segmented body parts, whose combination corresponds to the whole body shape. Third, for a specific consumer, his/her personalized three-dimensional human model can be obtained by taking a very few number of body measurements on himself/herself, making an appropriate combination of the identified body parts, and adjusting parameters of all involved body parts. By comparing the proposed labeled and segmented three-dimensional human model and the existing human models through a number of experiments, the proposed model leads to more relevant results with high accuracy and high visual quality related to real human body shapes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:29:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221089688
       
  • The effect of the heat transfer mechanism on the psychophysical assessment
           of moisture sensation in fabrics

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      Authors: Zhaohua Zhang, Cenwenjie Sun, Xianghui Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Perceived moisture in fabrics is a crucial factor affecting wearing comfort. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the conductive, evaporative and mechanical cues on moisture sensation. Thirteen participants assessed fabric wetness perception in both hot and neutral environments, and the difference threshold and the sensory magnitude of moisture were determined. Three types of knitted fabric were covered with or without an impermeable polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and were used to simulate either the water evaporation or not. The results showed that the influence of conduction on moisture sensitivity was greater than that of evaporation, as proved by the 0.1 units of increase in the Webber fraction by conduction, compared with only 0.03 units of increase by evaporation. In addition, the relationship between the moisture sensation and the stimulus intensity demonstrated a psychophysical power function. The exponents of the power functions were found to be between 0.15 and 0.45, depending on the stimulus conditions, and the cold-wet stimulus triggered significantly greater moisture sensation than the warm-wet stimulus. Fabrics restrained from evaporation by PVC film resulted in a greater moisture sensation as the supplied water was held as free liquid, which either increased cooling cues in the cold-wet stimulus or increased mechanical cues in the warm-wet stimulus. The results suggest that factors such as clothing fitness, fabric property and environmental conditions might interactively affect human moisture sensation, and future researches are necessary to understand how these initial results would relate to an overall garment.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080095
       
  • Evaluating the fit-effectiveness of fabric-based reusable face masks on 3D
           printed NIOSH headforms

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      Authors: Casey Stannard, Charles Freeman, Lesley Strawderman, Meagan Moore, Wayne Newhauser, Reuben Burch, Catherine Black, David Saucier
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Poor-fitting face masks can allow particles, including the coronavirus disease 2019 virus, to spread. Reproducible methods for fit testing face masks are scarce and many require sophisticated testing equipment. The purpose of this experimental research was twofold: (a) to develop a simple and reproducible method for assessing face mask fit at key facial areas; and (b) to utilize the method to examine the fit of various commercially available fabric-based face masks on different head shapes at key facial areas. The mask fit test method was developed to assess face mask fit in six key face mask/head correspondence areas: bridge of nose; cheek/area below the eyes (including the nasolabial fold); chin; ear loops; sides of mask near the ears; and sides of nose. Proper fit was indicated when no excessive tightness or gaping occurred. The mask fit test method was used to assess the fit of eight types of commercially available face masks on five three-dimensional printed headforms. The five headforms were created from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standards for head shapes and sizes. Six evaluators utilized the mask fit test method to score the eight face masks on each headform. Overall, only two face masks had proper fit for the majority of the headforms. All other face masks exhibited loose or gaping fit. General trends included superior fit for larger headforms and poor fit for all face masks evaluated on the smaller phantom. Facial areas that commonly produced large gaps were the bridge of nose, cheeks, and sides of nose. Thus, this study recommends improved design and sizing of face masks to properly fit a larger segment of the population.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T04:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221089287
       
  • A dynamic modeling approach to the moving filament during high-speed
           winding by absolute nodal coordinate formulation

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      Authors: Shujia Li, Xunxun Ma, Xi Hou, Shengze Wang, Yongxing Wang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      During the winding process, the filament moves at a high speed with multiple configurations and large deformations, and is acted upon by winding tension, contact force, transverse force, air resistance, and so on. Accurately predicting the trajectory and tension fluctuation of the filament under the high-speed running condition is the basis for regulating winding parameters and ensuring high-quality winding. This paper proposed a novel dynamic approach for modeling the polyester filament winding system. The filament element was established by absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The nonlinear spring and viscous damper elements were used to establish the contact model between the filament and the mechanical parts, and the mechanical model of the influence of the airflow on the filament was established. Through considering the moving filament and all the force factors, the dynamic model of the multi-body coupling system of the filament winding and the corresponding nonlinear dynamic equation were established, and the dynamic equations were solved using MATLAB. An example of the high-speed winding system was simulated and further analyzed, and the simulated trajectory of the moving filament was highly consistent with the experimental image record.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T05:12:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086044
       
  • Study on alcoholysis recovery and performance of luminous materials in
           waste luminous fibers

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      Authors: Zenghui Rao, Yunzhen Liao, Yanan Zhu, Xuefeng Guo, Mengjuan Li, Mingqiao Ge, Dekang Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To alleviate the wastage of resources and environmental pollution caused by waste luminous polyester fibers, glycolysis was found rapidly to degrade luminescent polyester fibers and assist in recovering luminescent materials from the fibers. However, the luminescent performance of recycled luminescent materials is poor. To improve the performance of recovered luminescent materials, this study employs the recovery rate of luminescent materials, initial brightness, and recovery rate of Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate as performance indexes. The present study aims at optimizing the alcoholysis process by influencing factors such as the amount of catalyst, amount of ethylene glycol added, and reaction temperature to improve the luminous performance, and explores the mechanism of alcoholysis reaction in the recovery process of luminescent materials. The results showed that, when the catalyst content is 0.1 g, the mass ratio of polyethylene terephthalate:ethylene glycol is 1:10, the reaction temperature is 170°C for 4 hours, the Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate conversion rate reaches 61.92%, the recovery rate of luminescent materials reaches 92.53%, and the initial brightness is as high as 5.607 cd/m2.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T09:04:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221088748
       
  • The review of fiber-based sound-absorbing structures

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      Authors: Chunchun Zhang, Huiqin Li, Jixian Gong, Jiahao Chen, Zheng Li, Qiujin Li, Meilin Cheng, Xin Li, Jianfei Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      According to the World Health Organization, noise pollution is second only to air pollution in its impact on health and the environment. Fiber-based sound-absorbing structures have great application potential in the field of sound absorption and noise reduction because they can provide a wider sound absorption range than traditional porous fiber materials, and at the same time have the advantages of light weight, low cost and strong processability. Consequently, significant research interest in the field of noise control has been directed into the study of composite sound-absorbing materials based on porous fiber materials. In this review, we have summarized manifold theoretical structures based on fiber materials, such as multilayer structure, porous micro/nano structure, membrane sound-absorbing structure and perforated resonance structure of fiber-based sound-absorbing structures, aiming to illustrate that the structure must affect the sound absorption performance of the material. The focus is on the research and development of the design concepts, and preparation methods of fiber-based acoustic structures are reviewed. Finally, this review concludes with the prospects and outlook for fiber-based acoustic structures. We hope that this article which reviews the structure design principle and preparation method of fiber-based sound-absorbing structures can give inspirations for readers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T08:49:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084736
       
  • Performance improvement of an ultra-wideband antenna using textile
           material with a PIN diode

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      Authors: S Kannadhasan, R Nagarajan, R Banupriya
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable antennas are critical in on-body wireless communications and have piqued scientists’ curiosity. Because wearable antennas work so near to the human body, the loading effect caused by body tissue breakdown, along with their high dielectric constants and conductivity, makes developing a high-radiation output antenna challenging. The demand that these antennas be lightweight, low-cost, maintenance-free, and require no setup adds to the problem. In recent years, the demand for wearable devices has skyrocketed. Wearable antennas are utilized in a variety of applications, including wireless body area networks (WBANs), in many circumstances. The patch antenna is one of the primary research goals of wearable antennas for WBAN applications due to the extensive ground plane employed in its construction and its relatively high directionality. In addition to directivity, microstrip patch antennas provide other benefits for on-body wearable applications. The wearable textile ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna’s frequency of changes versus gain is set. The maximum gain is about 17.2 dB at 16 GHz. The gain of the frequency of 14 GHz is obtained at 16.8 dB, with a high performance rate. The design in the present paper has low power consumption as a result of achieving gain results of less than 5 dB in most frequency bands from 2 to 16 GHz. While the reflector is present, the size of the reflector is chosen to make the antenna resistant to frequency detuning. When the distance between the monopole and the reflector is lowered, the antenna’s frequency decreases. The greater power, the closer the reflector is to the inductive near zone. However, the reflector was chosen to boost the front-to-back ratio of the proposed monopole. The reflection coefficient is derived by varying different resonating frequencies between −19.45 and −16.45 dB. The highest directivity is 11.5 dB and the lowest is 9.8 dB while varying different resonant frequencies. Gain is achieved by varying different resonant frequencies, with a maximum of 17.2 dB and a minimum of 16.2 dB. The effectiveness of varying different resonant frequencies is 45% maximum and 40% minimum. The suggested UWB antenna was found to have an acceptable agreement between models and tests, demonstrating its potential for microwave applications. The directivity, gain, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and radiation pattern are all performance metrics that are measured.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221089690
       
  • One-step extraction of ramie cellulose fibers and reutilization of
           degumming solution

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      Authors: Guyu Lin, Qi Tang, He Huang, Chongwen Yu, Jianyong Yu, Zhaoling Li, Bin Ding
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Ramie cellulose fibers are common natural fibers with high strength and outstanding biodegradability. However, there are interconnected gummy components covering raw ramie, which need to be removed to extract separated fibers. Here, an effective and environmentally friendly extraction approach using deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed. The whole degumming technique can be completed in a one-step boiling process at 160°C for 2.5 h. This new method exhibited the capability to remove most non-cellulosic contents without sacrificing the physical properties or chemical structures of cellulose in comparison with the traditional alkaline method. Besides, the DES can be reutilized many times while still maintaining sufficient degumming efficiency. Some by-products in the degumming solution, such as lignin and polysaccharides, can be successfully separated, beneficially realizing recycling economy and sustainable development. The DES degumming method provides an alternative and practical method for ramie fiber extraction.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T07:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086886
       
  • Green synthesis of nanosilver using Fomes fomentarius mushroom extract
           over aramid fabrics with improved coloration effects

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      Authors: K M Faridul Hasan, Zsófia Kóczán, Péter György Horváth, Miklós Bak, Adrienn Horváth, László Bejó, Tibor Alpár
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were greenly synthesized over aramid fabrics from wild mushroom (Fomes fomentarius) to develop colorful products. The localized surface plasmon resonance characteristics of AgNPs provided versatile coloration effects on fabrics, with improved color strength (K/S) and other colorimetric values (L*, a*, and b*). The stability of the colored materials was also investigated in terms of color fastness to wash and rubbing (both wet and dry states). The characteristics of deposited AgNPs over aramid materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy testing of solid fabric samples. Morphological properties of the aramid substrates were investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing to check the surfaces both for nanosilver-treated and untreated materials. Moreover, the developed nanoparticles were also confirmed further using SEM-deployed energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping analysis. The chemical bonding between the aramid fiber and deposited AgNPs was tested using Fourier infrared spectroscopy analysis. The thermal stability of the aramid fabrics was examined in order to investigate their behavior when exposed to heat in terms of thermogravimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetry analysis. The K/S values and darkness values were increasing with the increased loading of the nanosilver precursor. Moreover, statistical analysis was also conducted in terms of the coefficient of variation (R2) to understand the significance of the connection between the nanosilver loading and coloration characteristics, and found a significant relationship. Overall, a novel, sustainable, and facile biosynthesis route of AgNPs is reported in this current research.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T07:05:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086892
       
  • Sound absorption coefficient analysis and verification of weft-knitted
           spacer fabrics for noise reduction application

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      Authors: Shaoju Fu, Pei Zeng, Linghui Zhou, Xiaoning Tang, Yanping Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Weft-knitted spacer fabrics with robust sound absorption ability had great application prospects in noise control engineering, but the relationship between structural parameters and sound absorption still required to be investigated further. In this work, a series of wet knit spacer fabrics with different structural parameters were fabricated, and the measured and predicted sound absorption coefficients were also compared. The results showed that the airflow resistivity was mainly determined by their density, thickness, porosity, and yarn arrangement. The sound absorption coefficient of samples can be enhanced with the increasing thickness and airflow resistivity, and the absorption tendency of double layer spacer fabrics assembled by samples with more yarns is coincident to those, and the coefficients were higher than 0.5 above 1000 Hz and higher than 0.8 above 2000 Hz. Sample numbers 6/4, 6/7, 12/10 exhibited the best sound-absorption ability among these samples in the high frequency bandwidth. In sum, the prepared weft-knitted spacer structure (consisting of top and bottom plain-knitted layers) with covered elastomeric yarns, has shown great potential in the application of noise reduction and control engineering.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T06:57:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084277
       
  • Research on the virtual display of a weft-knitted seamless kneepad based
           on the free-form deformation model

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      Authors: Honglian Cong, Yingle Shen, Jing Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a virtual display method suitable for a weft-knitted seamless kneepad. The purpose of this study is to realize the virtual display of complete weft-knitted products, and it has the advantage of speed to display the virtual display results online in real-time. The basic loop of the model is controlled by up to eight characteristic points and the yarn path is fitted by a three-dimensional spline curve. First, the characteristic point coordinates of the seamless weft-knitted kneepad in the plane state were calculated, and then the corresponding spatial coordinate transformation matrix was selected according to the corresponding mesh of each loop to calculate the characteristic point coordinates in the wearing state. Finally, the virtual display model of the seamless weft-knitted kneepad was rendered by tubeline geometry. The virtual display of the weft-knitted kneepad is realized by the joint programming of Visual Studio and WebGL. The results show that the structure model can achieve the virtual display of the kneepad with high efficiency. This method has strong real-time performance and practicability.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T06:53:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221081444
       
  • Influence of core yarn structure and yarn count on yarn elastic properties

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      Authors: Samah M M E Elrys, Fawkia Faheem El- Habiby, Ahmed S Eldeeb, Abdellatif M El-Hossiny, Rehab Abd Elkhalek
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This work aims to compare the effects of different yarn structures on the elastic properties. A new type of elastic core-spun yarn which is called tri-core (elastane/T400/elastane) yarn is introduced and tested for elastic properties after cyclic loading. The other yarn structures used are single-core/T400, single-core/lycra, dual-core (elastane/T400) yarn, and yarn without a core component (conventional). The five types of yarn structure were produced at three levels of yarn counts (10, 14, and 18 Ne). Elastic properties after cyclic loading including stress decay, permanent deformation, elastic recovery, and relaxation rate were calculated and statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance. The scanning electron microscopy images of the five structures used were produced to illustrate the structure of these yarns. The results determined that elastane/T400/elastane core-spun and single-core/T400 yarns have higher values for most of the elastic properties. It was found that yarn count and yarn structure significantly affect stress decay, while the yarn structure significantly affects permanent deformation and elastic recovery. On the other hand, yarn count significantly affects the relaxation rate. Data showed that the number of cyclic tests significantly influences yarn elastic recovery.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T06:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221084734
       
  • Application of chitosan in the form of textile: production and sourcing

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      Authors: Xue Luo, Mei Yu Yao, Li Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Chitosan material has multiple functions that attract attention from the textile industry, while textile structures make the biocompatible, osteo-conductive and resorbable material promising in a wide range of applications. When the material becomes fibers, the resulting length, strength, fineness and softness would grant the material functions such as structure capacity and a layering system. However, the expected win-win situation is not seen in reality. Special properties of the chitosan material may burden its way of application. In addition, market recognition of chitosan, differences between chitosan, chitin and seaweed fibers, differences in antibacterial post-treatment, testing standards of chitosan, antimicrobial and antibacterial treatment in downstream production and fuzzy concepts of users are also concerns and challenges related to chitosan. Gaps and misunderstandings between the supplier, manufacturer, consumer and researchers are clarified. Testing standards are compared by their purpose, mechanism and scope, while in this article, more attention is given to the application side. Existing forms of semi or final textile chitosan products, fabrication process and evaluation methods are reviewed and discussed for their feasibility towards application. In the end, a product development process flow is given marking concerns in each step of production to guide production and sourcing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080694
       
  • Textile-based directionally antagonistic sound absorber with double
           gradient structure

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      Authors: Chunchun Zhang, Huiqin Li, Jixian Gong, Jiahao Chen, Zheng Li, Qiujin Li, Meilin Cheng, Jianfei Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In the structural design of sound-absorbing materials, how to combine the merits of porous materials with acoustic functional fillers with special structures to improve the sound-absorbing performance of porous materials at low-medium frequencies is a challenging problem. Herein, a directionally antagonistic acoustic textile is proposed as a sound absorber fabricated via single-sided coating. It is found that the sound absorber presents a double gradient structure by controlling the distribution of filler on the porous material frame. Considering the incident plane of acoustic waves, two different paths are defined, namely A–B and B–A (A, coated side; B, uncoated side), under which the sound absorber shows remarkable anisotropic sound absorption. The peak frequency is from 5559 Hz of bare fabric to 3455 Hz of the A–B NWIII (coated nonwoven when sound waves propagate along A–B) sound absorber, showing a significant tendency to move to the lower frequencies. The peak value of sound absorption coefficient of the A–B NWIII is 0.94, indicating a high sound absorptivity. In addition, by adjusting the acoustic functional filler and weaving structure and thickness of the base fabric, the sound absorber exhibits the expected anisotropic sound absorption. The novel sound absorber can be fit for lightweight sound-absorbing applications because of the characteristics of light, soft, high efficiency and broadband sound absorption.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T06:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073776
       
  • Non-linear finite element model established on pectoralis major muscle to
           investigate large breast motions of senior women for bra design

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      Authors: Jun Zhang, Newman ML Lau, Yue Sun, Joanne Yip, Kit-Lun Yick, Winnie Yu, Jianming Chen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a three-dimensional nonlinear biomechanical finite element model to simulate elderly breast deformation under arm abduction. The finite element model was constructed based on complex anatomical structures that consist of the soft tissues including torso, breast, pectoralis major muscle, and rigid bones including humerus, sternum, clavicle and ribs. The elderly breast was defined as material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity. The computational model can simulate and illustrate the deformation of soft tissues during arm abduction from 30° to 90°. The finite element model was validated by motion data. The Young’s modulus for the clavicular portion and the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major muscle was characterized as 0.1 MPa and 0.08 MPa, respectively. Besides this, the finite element model presented here features the musculoskeletal system for breast deformation and reveals the synergistic relationship between the breast and the pectoralis major muscle. A questionnaire was conducted to analyze the importance of purchasing factors and the discomfort positions in a sports bra from the perspective of senior women. Combined with the finite element model results, this study provides a promising basis for the design of sports bras in an ergonomic way.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T07:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075049
       
  • Fabricated leg mannequin for the pressure measurement of compression
           stockings

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      Authors: Qing Li, Guangwu Sun, Yu Chen, Xiaona Chen, Yunping Shen, Hong Xie, Yanmei Li
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Different lower limbs and devices used for the contact pressure measurement of the compression stocking make a significant difference to the precise contact pressure value. This study aimed to fabricate a novel soft leg mannequin based on the standard-sized wooden leg mannequin, but closer to the human leg with soft tissue and bones and to evaluate further the performance of the fabricated leg mannequin. The contact pressure exerted by the graduated compression stocking was measured by the fabricated leg mannequin at four different locations along six different cross-sections. Comparing the contact pressure measured by the fabricated leg mannequin, the standard-sized wooden leg mannequin and human legs, the fabricated leg mannequin has a similar pattern to human legs, and contact pressure exerted by the wooden leg mannequin was far higher than that of human legs. In addition, the local contact pressure measured by the fabricated leg mannequin also has a remarkable agreement with that of human legs. Moreover, there was a significant Spearman rank correlation between the contact pressure measured by the fabricated leg mannequin and the human leg. Therefore, the performance of the fabricated leg mannequin can be consistent with the human leg, which enables the fabricated leg mannequin to replace the standard-sized wooden leg mannequin for standard tests.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T05:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221083216
       
  • Color segmentation of multicolor porous printed fabrics by conjugating SOM
           and EDSC clustering algorithms

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      Authors: Miao Qian, Zhenfei Wang, Xuantao Huang, Zhong Xiang, Pengli Wei, Xudong Hu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to achieve accurate color segmentation of printed fabrics, the color segmentation algorithm combining the self-organizing maps neural network and the efficient dense subspace clustering was proposed in this paper. After pre-processing of the fabric image, the primary clustering was implemented by the self-organizing maps algorithm, then the secondary clustering was done by the efficient dense subspace clustering algorithm. The optimal silhouette coefficient is introduced into the clustering process of the efficient dense subspace clustering algorithm to determine the number of clustering centers automatically. Finally, by the post-processing including gray-scale transformation, binarization and open operation, the mis-segmentation of edge color was eliminated, making the algorithm more suitable for industrial application. Experiments were carried out and results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can recognize the color of small areas accurately and segment the color of complex printed fabric images. The color segmented results of 20 printed fabrics show that the accuracy of the algorithm proposed in this paper reaches 88.3%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T05:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221083214
       
  • Numerical analyses of axial tension mechanisms of 3D orthogonal woven
           E-glass/epoxy composites with drilled holes

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      Authors: lvtao Zhu, Fujun xu, wei Shen
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As an auspicious composite material, three-dimensional orthogonal woven E-glass/epoxy composites (3DOWC) are associated with drilling processes to assemble the parts for obtaining the desired shape and for the improvement of the component’s quality. This study investigated the axial tensile properties of 3DOWC with 6 mm drilled holes (DH). For comparison, two-dimensional woven E-glass/epoxy laminated composites (2DWC) with the same drilled hole size were also tested. To analyze the effects of holes on the microstructure properties, the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS/Standard was employed to simulate the tensile properties of composites. Hashin damage criteria were used to predict the failure modes of the composite. The stress and strain curves were obtained to compare the numerical and experimental results at the same load condition. The comparisons illustrated the existence of a good agreement between the experimental and finite element method (FEM) results. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to analyze failure modes and fracture mechanisms. Various degradation phenomena were observed especially fiber fracture, matrix cracking, and tow debonding also less delamination was noticed in 3DOWC than 2DWC.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075057
       
  • Textile defect detection using multilevel and attentional deep learning
           network (MLMA-Net)

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      Authors: Bing Wei, Bailing Xu, Kuangrong Hao, Lei Gao
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      For the sake of recognizing and classifying textile defects, deep learning-based methods have been proposed and have achieved remarkable success in single-label textile images. However, detecting multilabel defects in a textile image remains challenging due to the coexistence of multiple defects and small-size defects. To address these challenges, a multilevel, multi-attentional deep learning network was proposed and built to: (a) increase the feature representation ability to detect small-size defects; and (b) generate discriminative representation that maximizes the capability of attending the defect status, which leverages higher-resolution feature maps for multiple defects. Moreover, a multilabel object detection dataset in textile defect images was built to verify the performance of the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the network extracts more distinctive features and has better performance than the state-of-the-art approaches on the real-world industrial dataset.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073773
       
  • Facile fabrication of polydopamine nanosphere-decorated fabric for solar
           steam generation

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      Authors: Mantang He, Hongyu Dai, Liming Wang, Xiaohong Qin, Jianyong Yu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Solar steam generation has been regarded as a promising technology to obtain clean water from wastewater or seawater through converting incident sunlight to heat. Fabrics can be easily combined with many photothermal materials by various methods and possess a unique porous structure for efficient water transport and vapor diffusion. Herein, a solar steam generator with a rough surface based on novel polydopamine nanospheres grown onto fabric (PDANSs@fabric) is designed and fabricated by a one-step method. Consequently, the developed evaporator could achieve a water evaporation rate of 1.48 kg m−2 h−1 under 1 sun illumination. Moreover, the as-prepared PDANSs@fabric-based solar steam generator keeps a close level of water evaporation performance after washing for 30 min, exhibiting good stability and washability in steam generation. In addition, the designed evaporator can be applied in various water conditions, including seawater, dye wastewater and heavy metal ion wastewater, offering great inspiration in the fields of seawater desalination, wastewater treatment and energy collection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T11:24:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221077045
       
  • The fabrication and properties of a flexible sensor based on
           polyvinylidene fluoride fiber

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      Authors: Liyun Xu, Keyuan Du, Yuegang Liu, Kaifang Xie, Hong Tang, Chengjiao Zhang
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Smart textiles have a wide range of applications in all walks of life. Wearable sensors have become the main research hotspot due to their excellent performance in both perception and response. In this paper, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the raw material to fabricate continuous fiber via melt spinning method, and β-phase crystal PVDF fiber was obtained at a melting temperature of 230°C and draft ratio of 5. The plain weave fabric of PVDF fiber was dipped into hot dimethyl silicone oil for thermal polarization treatment. When the plate was at a distance of 4 mm, the polarization temperature was 90°C and the polarization voltage was 9 kV, the PVDF had the best polarization property. After polarization, the PVDF fabric showed a good piezoelectric response and a PVDF flexible sensor could be applied to chemical fiber and natural fibers fabrics, in human health monitoring equipment in contact with close-fitting clothing or in home textile products for intelligent alarm systems.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T07:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076034
       
  • Investigation into novel drafting systems on ring spinning frame for
           improving yarn properties

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      Authors: Jing Quan, Qing He, Longdi Cheng, Jianyong Yu, Wenliang Xue
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      During the spinning process, the drafting process plays an important role because it is closely linked with yarn properties. In this study, two different bottom pins (N–A and N–B) based on a novel drafting device were designed. The simulation results of drafting forces between N–A and N–B demonstrate that N–B shows higher drafting force than N–A at the same draft ratio. Specifically, the drafting forces of both devices show an increasing trend as the front draft ratio increased. In experiments, 14.7 tex and 18.5 tex yarns were spun by N–A and N–B, respectively. The experimental results reveal that N–B produces yarns with better properties, including yarn evenness, imperfections and tenacity, compared to N–A. Notably, the evenness and imperfections of yarns spun by N–B achieve advanced levels and the characteristics of yarn tenacity are close to advanced levels. The experimental results verify that different drafting forces between N–A and N–B devices have an important impact on the yarn evenness, imperfections and tenacity, but not on the hairiness.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T06:31:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073824
       
  • Synthesis of a phosphorus- and nitrogen-containing flame retardant and the
           fabrication of flame retardant cotton

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      Authors: Yansong Liu, Jiayue Zhang, Yuanlin Ren, Guoli Zhang, Xiaohui Liu
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A novel phosphorus- and nitrogen-containing flame retardant (APNTHE) was synthesized through the reaction of N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine, phosphoric acid and urea. Then, the APNTHE solution with a concentration of 120 g/L was used for the preparation of flame retardant cotton (FR-cotton). The elemental compositions, surface morphology, thermal stability and combustion behavior of the cotton before and after modification were investigated. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis showed that the char residue of the treated fabric at 800°C was as high as 35.09% under a nitrogen atmosphere. Flammability tests after different LCs indicated that FR-cotton had durable flame retardancy. Compared to the blank sample, the peak of heat release rate and total heat release of the FR-cotton decreased by 91.89% and 90.53%, respectively. The char residual and TG-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis illustrated that APNTHE played a flame retardant role both in the gas phase and the condensed phase. All the results demonstrated that APNTHE can be regarded as a prospective flame retardant for cotton.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T06:01:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221074069
       
  • Recently developed electrospinning methods: a review

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      Authors: Seyed Abdolkarim Hosseini Ravandi, Mehdi Sadrjahani, Afsaneh Valipouri, Farzad Dabirian, Frank K Ko
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Conventional electrospinning is an effective and versatile method employed for fabricating nanofibers. However, the relatively low production rate is the major challenge of electrospinning as an economic and scalable method. Recently, several approaches have been developed to ensure the high production rate of nanofibers. This paper has reviewed the latest developed electrospinning methods, such as multi-jet, needleless, bubble, centrifuge and electro-centrifuge systems. Furthermore, the jet formation in centrifugal spinning, as well as electro-centrifuge systems, was investigated through experimental and numerical analysis.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T10:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069880
       
  • Nanoparticle/biopolymer-based coatings for functionalization of textiles:
           recent developments (a minireview)

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      Authors: Narcisa Vrinceanu, Stefan Bucur, Cristina Mihaela Rimbu, Sabina Neculai-Valeanu, Santiago Ferrandiz Bou, Mirela Petruta Suchea
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This minireview presents recent developments in surface nano-structured textiles and their biomedical applications by up-to-date achievements, summarizing the coatings made of biopolymer films and nanoparticles on different textile substrates for enhanced medical applications, diminishing the incidence of the multiple range of hospital-acquired infections in the past 10 years. The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with biopolymers is an efficient technique to generate enhanced antibacterial, virucidal and antifungal properties to textiles. Only a few review articles offer a comprehensive insight into the surface tailoring of textiles by nanoparticles–biopolymers use as an alternative for surface modification of textiles, granting them biocidal performance. The overview points out the compelling reasons for scientists and experts to enhance the already existing results in the biomedical textiles domain, with an emphasis on antimicrobial responsivity, highlighting: (a) the benefit of the simultaneous nanoparticles–biopolymers deposition on textiles by various deposition techniques, meaning the wash fastness of the antibacterial attributes and the biocompatibility of the material in comparison with only nanoparticle coating; (b) the use of biopolymers to stabilize colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles, granting the nanoparticles functionalities for covalent immobilization on textiles with long-lasting antibacterial effect; (c) the most usual metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and biopolymers for antibacterial textile applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T08:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211070613
       
  • Novel germanium-polyamide6 fibers with negative air ions release and
           far-infrared radiation as well as antibacterial property

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      Authors: Zhi Chen, Huizhen Ke, Jian Wang, Yonggui Li, Hao Jia, Qufu Wei
      First page: 1739
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      There has been much concern about germanium because of its special atomic nuclear structure to generate negative electrons and far-infrared ray. In this study, novel germanium-polyamide6 fibers were prepared by using micro–nano structured germanium particles as a functional component via melt spinning. The effects of germanium concentration on the morphology, mechanical, negative air ion-releasing, and far-infrared radiation properties of the germanium-polyamide6 fibers were systematically investigated. Besides, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of the fibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also discussed. Even though the added germanium particles negatively affected the mechanical performance of the fiber, they were distributed well in the polyamide6 substrate when the concentration was increased from 2% to 6%. Increasing the temperature and pressure induced the germanium-polyamide6 fibers to produce more negative air ions and high far-infrared emissivity. The negative air ion-releasing property of the fiber led to antibacterial performance against S. aureus with more than 99% antibacterial rate. The results confirmed the great application potential of germanium in healthcare, medical, home, and apparel textiles.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T11:55:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211068369
       
  • Design of electronic cam for lower hook mechanism of fishing net-weaving
           machine based on polynomial fitting

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      Authors: Cankun Ming, Xinfu Chi, Zhijun Sun, Yize Sun
      First page: 1748
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The working efficiency and stability of the double hook-based fishing net-weaving machine is mainly determined by the lower hook mechanism. In this work, a new kind of lower hook mechanism, which is driven by four servo motors, is presented, and the electronic cam curve of the lower hook mechanism is introduced. First, cubic B-spline interpolation is used to get the basic motion path of the lower hook plate, and then the piecewise quintic polynomial fitting method is used to fit the motion path. Finally, self-adaptive mutation-based particle swarm optimization is put forward and used to obtain the optimal parameters of the quintic polynomial, which performs better compared with the other two particle swarm optimization algorithms in this study. Experiments suggest that the electronic cam curve generated by the piecewise quintic polynomial fitting has got 55.91% (horizontal motors) and 60.96% (vertical motors) optimization in maximum motor torque compared with curves generated by cubic B-spline interpolations. In addition, the new lower hook mechanism and its moving curve described in this paper improved the theoretical weaving speed of the fishing net-weaving machine, providing a basis for digital improvement of the knotted net-weaving industry.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T11:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211068784
       
  • Flexible carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites with
           outstanding electric heating and pressure sensing performance

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      Authors: Haisu Ni, Shu Fang, Tanyu Wang, Yitao Liu, Hao Liu, Li Liu, Rui Wanga
      First page: 1760
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Although flexible wearable conductive textiles for various applications have attracted great attention from researchers in recent years, it is still a great challenge to fabricate conductive textiles with the advantages of a simple fabrication process, excellent flexibility, environmental friendliness, and superior performance. Carbonized cellulose materials are gradually emerging in flexible electronics due to their flexibility, low cost, abundant raw materials, and electrical conductivity. Herein, carbonized cotton fabrics were fabricated from cotton fabrics via a simple carbonization process. Then carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites, with excellent electric heating performance and pressure sensing performance, were fabricated through a dip-and-dry method. Carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites show satisfactory electrical conductivity, electric heating temperature rising performance, heating stability, and resistance stability. The surface temperature of carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites can reach ≈53°C within 1.5 min at 5 V. Besides this, the fabricated flexible pressure sensor based on carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites exhibits the combined superiority of a wide working range (0–16 kPa), high sensitivity (98.77 kPa−1), and excellent durability (>4000 cycles). Moreover, the finger motions and wrist pulse can be monitored in real time. These results demonstrate the potential application value and broad developmental prospects of carbonized cotton/thermoplastic polyurethane composites in flexible wearable electronics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T11:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069888
       
  • A modified resistance to compression (RtC) test for evaluation of natural
           fiber softness

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      Authors: Hao Yu, Christopher Hurren, Xin Liu, Stuart Gordon, Xungai Wang
      First page: 1771
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Comfort is a key feature of any clothing that relates significantly to softness of the fiber, yarn and fabric from which is it constructed. A known softness assessment method for fibers is the resistance to compression test. This traditional test only provides a single force value for the resistance of a loose fiber sample using a fixed mass under compression. In this research, a modified resistance to compression test was introduced to show the effects of repeated compression, providing more information about the softness and resilience of selected fibers. Three different natural fiber types, including wool, cotton and alpaca were compared using this new approach. The results showed compression profiles were quite different for different fiber types as well as for the same fibers with different diameters. While the diameters of the wool and alpaca samples were similar (18.5 μm), the modified resistance to compression values were significantly higher for wool (with a peak value at 9.5 kPa compared to 2.1 kPa for alpaca). Cotton was different from wool and alpaca but showed a similar modified resistance to compression value (10.4 kPa) to wool. During cycles of compression, modified resistance to compression peak values decreased slightly and then tended to be constant. Even though the structures of wool, cotton and alpaca were quite different, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of decline in modified resistance to compression peak values. This means that the modified resistance to compression test is able to provide additional information on the resilience characteristics of different natural fibers, and can reveal the resistance behavior of fiber samples during cyclic compression.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T01:08:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069445
       
  • Investigation of ballistic performance on 3D compound structure fabric by
           finite element analysis

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      Authors: Dan Yang, Qingsong Wei, Xiaogang Chen, Jinchun Li
      First page: 1782
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      AbstractBallistic performance and moldability are two important properties for 3D curved-surface ballistic applications. However, these two properties are contradictory to each other and impossible to improve at the same time, which is a technical issue that needs to be solved urgently in the research for ballistic materials for 3D curved-surface ballistic applications. In order to solve this issue, a new 3D compound structure fabric has been developed as part of our former research and has been shown to provide better ballistic performance with equivalent moldability compared to 3D angle-interlock fabric—a well-known 3D material for 3D curved-surface ballistic applications. Nevertheless, the ballistic performance of this new fabric itself is not clear, and further research is necessary. In this study, the ballistic performance of this new 3D compound structure fabric was investigated via the finite element analysis (FEA) model to examine energy absorption and penetration resistance. A ballistic test was also carried out to verify the results of the FEA model, and this demonstrated that the theoretical model was consistent with the experimental results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T12:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211060085
       
  • The relevance of false-twist addition on ring spun yarns by means of
           rotary threaded surfaces

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      Authors: Duo Xu, Chong Gao, Hang Fan, Wangwang Yang, Jian Fang, Keshuai Liu, Weilin Xu
      First page: 1796
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A novel concept of producing false-twist yarns by cyclical stress fluctuation was developed. The forming principle was introduced to analyze the formation process of false twists on rotary threaded contact surfaces. Geometric analysis indicates that cyclical stress variations produce extra rotations (false twists) on fiber strands in the yarn formation area, causing twist redistribution and fiber arrangement remodeling with the appearance of local fiber reversion. Theoretical analysis reveals that more false twists are produced when the spun yarn is in contact with surfaces of high traverse speeds. Then, a motion simulation model using different traverse speeds of the threaded contact surface was established to compare the yarn internal stress variation, verifying the false-twist efficiency at different traverse speeds. Finally, a systematic comparison was conducted between the yarns spun at different traverse speeds. It was shown that the yarn properties improved with higher traverse speeds of the threaded contact surface, achieving less hairiness, high yarn strength, and low residual torque.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T11:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211063908
       
  • A flexible, lightweight and stretchable all-solid-state supercapacitor
           based on warp-knitted stainless-steel mesh for wearable electronics

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      Authors: Chuanli Su, Guangwei Shao, Qinghua Yu, Yaoli Huang, Jinhua Jiang, Huiqi Shao, Nanliang Chen
      First page: 1807
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Highly conductive, flexible, stretchable and lightweight electrode substrates are essential to meet the future demand on supercapacitors for wearable electronics. However, it is difficult to achieve the above characteristics simultaneously. In this study, ultrafine stainless-steel fibers (with a diameter of ≈30 μm) are knitted into stainless-steel meshes (SSMs) with a diamond structure for the fabrication of textile stretchable electrodes and current collectors. The electrodes are fabricated by utilizing an electrodeposited three-dimensional network graphene framework and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating on the SSM substrates via a two-step electrodeposition process, which show a specific capacitance of 77.09 F g−1 (0.14 A g−1) and superb cycling stability (91% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled flexible stretchable supercapacitor based on the PEDOT/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)@SSM electrodes exhibits an areal capacitance (53 mF cm−2 at 0.1 mA cm−2), a good cycling stability (≈73% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles), rate capability (36 mF cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2), stretchable stability (≈78% capacitance retention at 10% strain for 500 stretching cycles) and outstanding flexibility and stability under various bending deformations. The assembled supercapacitors can illuminate a thermometer and a light-emitting diode, demonstrating their potential application as stretchable supercapacitors. This simple and low-cost method developed for fabricating lightweight, stretchable and stable high-performance supercapacitors offers new opportunities for future stretchable electronic devices.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T07:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069883
       
  • Enhanced mechanical performance of cellulose nanocrystal doped
           eco-friendly calcium-alginate based bio-composite fiber with superior
           flame retardancy

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      Authors: Xiaolin Zhang, Jin Yang, Lin Weng, Wei Fan, Yanyan Xu
      First page: 1820
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Petroleum-based polymer fire-resistant fabric is not considered as eco-friendly, and has other problems like heavy weight and irritating tickling. On the other hand, even though Ca–alginate fiber is a natural fire-resistant polysaccharide derivative, its low tensile strength prevents the fiber from being a potential fire-resistant material. To enhance its mechanical performance, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) functioned as reinforced nanofiller, assisted by a small amount of propanol to improve CNC dispersion in solution. CNC-doped alginate fiber (pC–Alg) was fabricated by the microfluidic spinning technique, and the effects of CNC content and the drawing ratio on the fibrous mechanical performance were investigated. Comparative studies indicated that a combination of 0.50 wt.% CNC, 6.00 v.% propanol, and 1.6 draft ratio helped pC–Alg fiber to achieve outstanding breaking strength of around 2.00 cN/dtex. It was shown that the use of propanol solvent and the incorporation of CNC can effectively eliminate CNC aggregation and reach a three-fold better tensile performance than the control. Limiting oxygen index test also showed that the resultant hybrid pC–Alg fiber still displayed good flame retardancy, making it an ideal candidate for fire-protection clothing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T10:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073351
       
  • Scale-up fabrication of PVDF-HFP nanofibrous membrane with unique surface
           properties for efficient separation of oil from water

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      Authors: Zhi Liu, Bing Gao, Xiaohai Huang, Huizhen Ke, Jin Xu
      First page: 1830
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, the unique wrinkled surface of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene nanofibrous membrane was well developed by a one-step fabrication method just by adjusting the ratio of binary solvent and humidity. The well-tailored process was proposed complying with the evolutionary mechanism that a different volatilization temperature of binary solvent provides buffer time for the formation of a polymer/solvent-rich phase, subsequently water vapor solidifies the polymer jet, forming the unique surface on the resultant nanofiber. The intrinsic wrinkled surface structure enhances the roughness and endows the membrane with robust superhydrophobic characteristics. Meanwhile, the excellent mechanical property (stress at break 6.79 MPa, strain at break 136.8%) widens its applicability in industrial employment. Furthermore, the synthesized membrane exhibits stable results in oil–water separation in terms of good separation efficiency (>99.6%) and flux (>1100 l/m2h). This is a general approach for the synthesis of many other materials at lower cost and holds a great potential to be employed in practical engineering applications beyond the oil–water separation.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T12:40:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073349
       
  • Motion comfort analysis of tight-fitting sportswear from multi-dimensions
           using intelligence systems

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      Authors: Pengpeng Cheng, Jianping Wang, Xianyi Zeng, Pascal Bruniaux, Xuyuan Tao
      First page: 1843
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Focusing on the “human–sport-clothing” system, this paper analyzed the influence of combinations of different tights and sport states on human body parts and overall body comfort from multiple dimensions. However, the motion state and some fabric parameters are non-numerical parameters, which could not be used for model analysis directly. In addition, there are too many numerical fabric parameters whose relationships are complicated, and it is difficult for general models to deal with these relationships, resulting in low accuracy of the comfort prediction model. Moreover, when using the artificial neural network to study comfort, it has some difficulties in expressing comfort and low prediction accuracy. To solve these problems, One-Hot was used to encode non-numerical parameters, and then intelligent algorithms were adopted to deal with these complex fabric parameters. Finally, a comfort prediction model was established in combination with an adaptive fuzzy reasoning system. The results showed that different fabric combinations and motion states had significant effects on local comfort (comfort of specific human body parts) and global comfort (whole body comfort). Moreover, the prediction model with non-numerical parameters has higher accuracy than the model without non-numerical parameters, which indicated that the prediction accuracy of the model had been improved after the introduction of One-Hot coding, so the non-numerical parameters cannot be ignored. The particle swarm optimization algorithm-cuckoo search algorithm-adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system hybrid model was superior to the particle swarm optimization algorithm-adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system and cuckoo search algorithm-adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system model in predicting local comfort and global comfort.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T04:39:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211070611
       
  • A thermal latent imidazole complex containing copper (II) as the curing
           agent for an epoxy-based glass fiber composite

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      Authors: Bo Yang, Yi Wei, Yanbo Liu, Yiping Qiu
      First page: 1867
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Epoxy-based glass fiber composites are widely used in various fields, such as automotive, marine, and aircraft, owing to their high strength and light weight compared to traditional metal materials. However, the epoxy-based resins or prepregs cannot be stored for a long time at room temperature owing to their high reactivity. In this study, 1-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (CEMI) is a complex with copper chloride to improve its thermal latency towards epoxy resins, and the epoxy-based glass fiber composite is made by prepreg processing. The composition of the imidazole–copper (II) complex (Complex-S) is characterized by elemental analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Thermal dissociation of Complex-S is conducted by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. With Complex-S as a latent curing agent, the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resins are studied. The epoxy systems show distinctly prolonged shelf life at room temperature. Moreover, the composite with Complex-S has a higher flexure strength and modulus comparable to that with CEMI.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T08:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069870
       
  • A three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm of nonwoven fabric based on
           an anthill model

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      Authors: Chengzu Li, Gaige Dong, Rongwu Wang
      First page: 1876
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The structure of nonwoven fabric has a great influence on the fabric properties, and the filtration performance of the fabric is determined by its pore structures and key parameters such as pore size, distribution and porosity, which should be described accurately and appropriately. However, at present problems exist in the methods of describing the three-dimensional structure of nonwovens, such as the high cost, slow speed and inaccurate model. This paper proposes a new method of reconstruction algorithm, inspired by the criss-cross internal structure of nonwovens. This nonwoven structure with a certain depth presents some implication of the processing information, which is similar to the formation of an anthill. The reconstructing processes are as follows. First, the multi-focused images of fibers are captured by the microscope and the images are then fused into a two-dimensional image. Second, the three-dimensional coordinate of the source point is calculated by the fiber segmentation and One-to-Many projection. Finally, the fiber axis is generated by connecting the source point according to the prescribed conditions, and then the closed three-dimensional surface is the three-dimensional path of a dynamic-radius sphere rolling along the fiber axis. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can reconstruct the accurate structure of the nonwoven fabric and retain its vertical connection information, which is of great significance to the interception of harmful substances, the production and preparation of filter medium and the follow-up study of the filtration mechanism.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T09:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073354
       
  • Diffusion coefficient for diffusion of time-varying surface concentration
           by the film-roll method

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      Authors: Geon Yong Park
      First page: 1891
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This research on the sublimation diffusion of disperse dye in print paste to polyethylene terephthalate film was performed at 170–190°C for various times using a film-roll method. It was found that the second layer surface concentrations obtained from the concentration–distance curves were proportional to the square root of time. To determine the diffusion coefficient for the diffusion of the time-varying surface concentrations, the solution of the diffusion equation for the boundary condition of the surface concentration varying with the square root of time was deduced by applying the Laplace transform. Assuming that the time taken for a dye in paste to pass through the first layer is the delay time and the second layer surface is the starting point for diffusion, the diffusion coefficient and the delay time were determined by the proportional constant obtained from the plot of the second layer surface concentrations against the square root of the total time and by the total amount which is the amount that has passed through the second layer surface and is a primary function of time. The diffusion coefficients for the total time were similar to those for the diffusion time excluding the delay time, and their reliability was identified by Arrhenius plots. The activation energy for the diffusion coefficients obtained from the equation deduced by the complementary error function in this study was similar to that for the diffusion coefficients obtained by the complementary error function in three recent studies by about 27 kcal · mol−1.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T09:24:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073350
       
  • Effects of Outer Shell Fabric Color, Smoke Contamination, and Washing on
           Heat Loss through Turnout Suit Systems

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      Authors: Huipu Gao, A. Shawn Deaton, Xiaomeng Fang, Roger L. Barker, Emiel DenHartog, Kyle Watson
      First page: 1909
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Firefighters frequently have to work in direct solar radiant heat. To reduce firefighter heat stress, the influence of turnout garment properties on heat gain from solar radiation must be understood. This research studied the effects of color, texture, washing, and contamination of outer shell fabrics on heat loss through firefighter turnout fabric materials in simulated solar exposures. It showed that solar radiation could be a major factor in heat loss through turnout suits. Solar radiation equivalent to a sunny day completely reversed heat exchange through the turnout fabric systems, converting a heat loss of about 240 W/m2 to a heat gain exceeding 100 W/m2. Solar radiation caused turnout fabric systems to dry out and this decreased the performance of turnout systems that incorporated bi-component moisture barriers. Most significantly, the color of the outer shell had a major influence on lowering turnout heat loss in solar exposures. Composites with a black-dyed outer shell absorbed more solar energy than composites with lighter colored shell materials. Soot and fire-ground contaminants present on turnout outer shell fabrics also reduced heat loss under solar exposure. The findings of this study answered long-standing questions about the importance of turnout fabric color on heat exchange with the environment. The results provide additional motivation for efficient turnout cleaning practices, not only to reduce potentially toxic exposure to smoke contaminants, but to reduce turnout-gear-related heat strain on firefighters.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T09:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073353
       
  • Time-temperature-dependent mechanical durability analysis of short (glass)
           fiber-reinforced polyethylene terephthalate injection molding composites
           with weld line

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      Authors: Md Sohag Miah, Jianyong Yu, Yang Yang, You Pang, Xianchen Wang, Lichao Yu, Yuqiu Yang
      First page: 1923
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanical property and long-term durable life of short fiber composites are inevitably subjected to internal and external influences during molding and afterwards, such as weld, temperature, stress type, and so on. This study was concerned with the influence of weld on mechanical properties of short glass fiber reinforced polyethylene terephthalate injection molding composites and the investigation of their tensile properties at different temperatures and tensile speeds with varying fiber contents. The weld strength was about 50–60% less than the tensile strength at different temperatures and tensile speeds. As the fiber content increased from 15 wt% to 30 wt%, the weld strength was reduced by 10%. The tensile and weld strength were in general inversely proportional to the temperature and linearly proportional to the tensile speed. Tensile modulus showed an inverse association with temperature and a mostly non-linear relation with the tensile speed. The weld line integrity in tensile strength was independent of tensile speed and temperature below the glass transition temperature level. Morphology evaluation testified that the higher test speed emanated better fracture surface fiber–resin adhesion properties with comparatively brittle fracture tensile behavior. The time-temperature superposition principle was applied to find the scope of long-term durability, lifetime prediction and to describe the viscoelastic properties of the welded glass fiber reinforced polyethylene terephthalate composites. An Arrhenius type of shift factor was obtained to fit the tensile strength data which was independent of the fiber contents of the welds. The experimental results can provide a valuable reference for the design and manufacture of short fiber-reinforced composites in long-term durability applications.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T08:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069877
       
  • Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of a multi-principle
           drafting system in ring spinning

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      Authors: Jing Quan, Longdi Cheng, Jianyong Yu, Wenliang Xue
      First page: 1940
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The multi-principle drafting device is investigated to improve the comprehensive properties of ring spun yarns. In this study, the front gathering area on the multi-principle drafting device was mathematically modeled to analyze the effects of inlet width, outlet width and path length of the grooved collector on friction forces. The numerical analysis results demonstrate that the outlet width and path length play important roles in frictional forces, while the variation of the inlet widths has little effect on the friction forces. The experiment results also reveal that for 18.4 tex yarns, different outlet widths of the grooved collector have considerable influence on yarn tenacity and hairiness, whereas they show an insignificant effect on yarn evenness and imperfections. Moreover, the effects of process parameters (different roller gauges and break draft ratios) on the novel drafting device with an optimized grooved collector to spin 18.4 tex yarns were investigated by response surface methodology. The results indicate that although the break draft ratio and front roller gauge create significant effects on yarn unevenness, the back roller gauge has no apparent influence on it. In addition, response surface methodology predicted the minimum yarn unevenness of 10.71% under optimal conditions of 1.2 break draft ratio, 32.5 mm back roller gauge and 17.5 mm front roller gauge, which is very close to the experimental result of 10.57%, reaching an advanced level compared to Uster Statistics 2018 of 5%.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T06:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073825
       
  • Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by modified waste silk

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      Authors: Md Shipan Mia, Ping Yao, Xiaowei Zhu, Jun Zhang, Tieling Xing, Guoqiang Chen
      First page: 1952
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to reuse the waste fabric and develop a novel textile-based adsorbent for heavy metal removal, the waste silk fabric was modified by tannic acid (TA) and the prepared adsorbents were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated using the modified silk fabric (TA-SF) under various conditions and the adsorption behavior of heavy metal ions was compared with the original silk fabric. The results showed that the maximum metal adsorption amounts reached 100% in 10 min. The adsorption isotherm models were demonstrated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models, and the adsorption of TA-SF to Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich and Temkin isotherm model. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics was well fitted with to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and adsorption kinetics indicated that the former model was better suited than the latter. For 60 mg/L initial concentrations of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) at pH 9.0, the adsorbents' maximum adsorption capacity was 8.03 mg g−1, 7.42 mg g−1, and 7.47 mg g−1, respectively. Within 5 min, the absorbed metal ions on TA-SF could mostly be desorbed. Moreover, TA-SF can adsorb heavy metal ions from dyeing aqueous solution, showing its capability of simultaneous removal of heavy metal and waste dyes. The results suggest that the lower-cost TA-SF could be an effective adsorbent for removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T06:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076026
       
  • Design, preparation and electromagnetic characteristics analysis of
           single, double and three-layer cross-shaped frequency selective fabrics

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      Authors: Fuwang Guan, Kun Xue, Dan Li, Jiashuang Li, Zhuli Yang, Zhichang You, Zhaole Li, Yutian Lei
      First page: 1966
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the research basis of single-layer cross-shaped frequency selective fabrics, the electromagnetic transmission characteristics of double-layer and three-layer cross-shaped frequency selective fabrics were explored in this paper. The frequency selective fabrics with different multilayer structures and specific-sized conductive units were designed, and then prepared by the computer engraving method and tested using the free-space method. The results show that the single-layer sample is less affected by the polarization mode of the electromagnetic wave, while the effect of the incidence angle is slightly larger. For the frequency selective fabric samples with the same frequency selective surface layers, the frequency selective characteristics of the double-layer samples are more ideal than those of the single-layer samples, while the electromagnetic loss of the three-layer samples is large and the narrow-band transmission characteristic is weakened. For the frequency selective fabric samples with the complementary frequency selective surface layers, the double-layer sample mainly shows band-pass characteristics and the narrow-band transmission characteristics are better than the single-layer sample. The three-layer sample of ‘patch + aperture + patch’ presents band-pass characteristics, and the ‘aperture + patch + aperture’ sample generates resonance at multiple frequency points, but the resonance peaks are all less than –10.00 dB, meaning that the sample presents full shielding characteristics in the test frequency band. The equivalent circuit model was built to explore the electromagnetic transmission mechanism, revealing the fabric type and structure, and the conductive unit type and size will affect the equivalent impedance of the frequency selective fabrics, thus further influencing the electromagnetic transmission characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T04:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073775
       
  • Automated Textile Circuit Generation using Machine Vision and Embroidery
           Technique

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      Authors: Jiseon Ahn, Sungmin Kim
      First page: 1977
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      An automated textile circuit generation method was developed using machine vision and embroidery technique. For this, an image acquisition device was designed to capture the physical layout image of electronic devices on the fabric. A series of image analysis algorithms were developed to calibrate the image and recognize the type, location, and orientation of each device from the image. Dedicated computer-aided design software was developed that can design a circuit and modify it according to the actual device layout on the fabric. It can also convert the circuit elements such as conductive path and insulation layer into data for a computerized embroidery machine. An example circuit consisting of seven electronic devices was designed and repeatedly produced to verify the developed method. The method has shown promising results.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T11:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075062
       
  • Design optimization and flow field analysis of the nozzle structure of a
           foreign fiber sorter

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      Authors: Weijia Ren, Yuhong Du, Xueliang Li, Ruwang Yuan
      First page: 1987
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      With the purpose of solving the problems of uneven velocity and energy loss of the foreign fiber sorters, this paper has analyzed the nozzle distribution and structure in the foreign fiber sorting system, and presented the design of a nozzle with the circular distribution contraction–expansion structure. The turbulent kinetic energy was optimized through a circular distribution of the nozzle to improve nozzle velocity uniformity, according to the effect of air flow on wall surface distance. Meanwhile, the nozzle was optimized with the contraction–expansion structure based on the relationship between the Mach number and the nozzle’s cross-sectional area. The stepped cross-section of the nozzle was replaced by a transition curve cross-section to restrain the sudden change of the air flow velocity in the nozzle. The optimized nozzle structure was discussed in terms of the velocity, the pressure, and the energy loss. It was found that the velocity increases by 9.2%, the required pressure decreases, and the energy loss decreases. So the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method were illustrated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T12:25:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076046
       
  • MXene-containing pressure sensor based on nanofiber film and spacer fabric
           with ultrahigh sensitivity and Joule heating effect

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      Authors: Han Li, Jiqiang Cao, Junli Chen, Yonggui Li, Jinkang Liu, Zhaoqun Du
      First page: 1999
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      As an important branch of wearable electronics, pressure sensors have the properties of stability, accurate signal transmission and strong durability, and can quickly respond to the compression deformation of the human body, which is essential to intelligent wearable textiles. Here, we fabricated a smart wearable textile called the MXene-containing pressure sensor with both sensing and electrothermal properties, in which the MXene nanofiber film is used as the electric heating layer, and the spacer fabric coated with MXene is used as the pressure layer. After electrospinning, MXene was successfully adhered to the surface of the pressure layer by polyacrylonitrile as a nanofiber film, which shows excellent Joule heating properties. The novel structure enables high sensitivity (508.79 kPa−1, from 1 to 5 kPa; 29,397.97 kPa−1, from 12 to 35 kPa), good electric heating (over 70°C under 18 V), high breathability (mesh structure) and shock absorption because of the reticulated spacer fabric. There are many potential applications, such as smart insoles, cushions and mattresses, and in this work smart insoles were fabricated for monitoring human motions whether in walking or running. Another applied device is a numeric keyboard, which can recognize finger presses as different numbers. Overall, we provide a new strategy for the fabrication of a multifunctional MXene/spacer fabric-based pressure sensor, and may encourage the innovation of intelligent tactile textiles, which have potential applications in modern medicine and robot protection.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T12:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211066621
       
  • Preparation of ring-shaped frequency selective fabrics and analysis of
           electromagnetic transmission characteristics

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      Authors: Fuwang Guan, Kun Xue, Jiashuang Li, Dan Li, Zhuli Yang, Zhichang You, Zhaole Li, Yutian Lei
      First page: 2010
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to explore the feasibility of preparing frequency selective fabrics by computer embroidery technology, two complementary ring-shaped structures were selected for design in this paper. Several samples with different size parameters were prepared by the computer embroidery process, and the electromagnetic transmission characteristics were systematically tested using the free-space method. The effects of unit type, electromagnetic wave polarization mode, incident angle, unit size parameters and processing methods on different samples were analyzed in depth. The results show the aperture-type and patch-type samples have obvious band-pass and band-stop characteristics in the test frequency range, respectively, but there are some differences in the resonance frequency and peak of the complementary structure samples of the same size. Different parameters have dissimilar influences on the electromagnetic transmission characteristics. With the increase in incident angle, the frequency selective characteristics of two complementary structures are gradually weakened, and the aperture structure has higher angular stability. Under the conditions of different electromagnetic wave polarization modes and incident angles, the computer embroidery samples have good frequency selective characteristics, which demonstrates the effectiveness of computer embroidery processing technology. However, compared with the ideal computer-based carving sample, there is a certain gap in the resonance peak, and the electromagnetic loss is large. The processing accuracy of the computer embroidery technology needs to be explored further.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:26:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075061
       
  • Structure and performance changes of high-modulus and low-shrinkage poly
           (ethylene terephthalate) industrial fibers under different heat treatment
           conditions

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      Authors: Jinchao Yu, Peng Ji, Kang Chen, Hong Ji, Fangming Tang, Rui Chen
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      For different heat treatments, the changes in overall performance features such as tenacity, modulus, load at 5% strain and elongation at a load of 4.0 cN/dtex of high modulus low shrinkage poly (ethylene terephthalate) industrial fibers were compared. The variations in the mechanical behavior were linked to adjustments in the microstructure, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering. The results confirmed that the tenacity of the fibers is less dependent on the heat treatment conditions, whereas the modulus, load at 5% strain and elongation at a load of 4.0 cN/dtex differ significantly, which could reflect the stability of the fibers in use. The intact crystal structure and the constrained conformation adjustment of molecular chains in amorphous after heat treatment are responsible for the excellent tenacity retention of high modulus low shrinkage poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers. With a low pre-tension and a higher heating temperature, the molecular chains in the amorphous region relax and disorient, resulting in a lower modulus and load at 5% strain. Instead, in the case of high pre-tension, heat treatment prolongation or temperature increase helps to rearrange the amorphous region into an ordered structure, which can improve the initial modulus and load at 5% strain of the fibers.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T11:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075055
       
  • Structural modeling and simulation of industrial flat and cylindrical
           axial weft-knitted fabrics

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      Authors: Peixiao Zheng, Gaoming Jiang, Honglian Cong, Mengmeng Zhou
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this research is to create a new computer-aided design method based on layered stitches that can be used in the geometric structure simulation of various axial weft-knitted fabrics, including flat and cylindrical structures. Based on the analysis of structural characteristics, fabric mesh models were constructed. Layered loop spatial geometry models were established and a method of layered transparent graphic mapping was developed to represent fabrics. Structures were stratified according to the stitch graphic units, and coordinates in the fabric coordinate system were calculated by establishing the loop translation matrix and the rotation matrix. By comparing the simulation effect and time of different layers, yarn counts and fabric sizes, the simulation results showed that the simulation efficiency was affected by layers and sizes. This approach realized the three-dimensional structural simulation of flat and cylindrical axial weft-knitted fabrics with multiple layers distinctly, which reveals the intermesh relationship between different layers and provides a modeling basis for the production, processing and even performance research of industrial axial fabrics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:32:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211067282
       
  • Symmetrical circulation gradient color system construction and gradient
           color yarn spun by a three-channel numerical control spinning system

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      Authors: Wenshuo Zhu, Yuan Xue, Zhiwu Xu, Peng Cui
      First page: 2046
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Aiming at the technical drawback that traditional spinning technology cannot accurately control the color distribution of yarn and spin gradient color yarn, a three-channel numerical control spinning mechanism that regulates yarn color gradient online is put forward, and gradient color yarn is successfully produced. The coupling-combination color mixing mode of ternary color fibers is innovatively designed, and the mixing ratio matrix, mixing chromatography matrix and mixing chromatography, including all mixing samples, are constructed. Three kinds of gradient paths, namely the row gradient, column gradient and diagonal gradient, are planned based on the mixing ratio matrix, and the corresponding gradient chromatography matrix and gradient chromatography are given. Taking green, magenta and yellow rovings as an example, a three-channel numerical control spinning process was designed and three types of 16 kinds of gradient color yarns were spun. The results show that the knitted fabric of the gradient yarn spun by digitally adjusting the yarn blending ratio shows a periodic natural and soft gradient color. The mechanical properties and appearance quality of the gradient color yarn are close to the corresponding indexes of color-spun yarn, but there is still room for improvement.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:45:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221075359
       
  • Hybrid sol-gel-derived method for the synthesis of silicon rubber
           composites with hBN for characteristic applications in elastomeric thermal
           pads

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      Authors: Warga Chegeno Meraje, Chang-Chiun Huang, Naveed Ahmad, Garuda Raka Satria Dewangga, Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo
      First page: 2061
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The thermal conductivity of silicone rubber is very low and does not meet the required thermal conductive applications, so inorganic fillers are added to increase heat transfer which ultimately improves the thermally conductive path. In this study, silicone rubber/hexagonal boron nitride composite was synthesized by the hydrolysis-polycondensation method to enhance the thermal conductivity of the material while retaining acceptable flexibility properties. The introduction of MQ resin reduced crosslink density, thermal stability, tensile strength, and hardness of the silicone resin composite and improved elongation. The addition of vinyl-based MQT and aluminum-based MQT resins improved the properties of the silicone rubber, while the addition of vinyl-based MQT resin reduced the crosslink density, tensile strength and hardness, and improved its elongation and thermal stability properties. While aluminum-based MQT resin did not have a significant effect on crosslink density, tensile strength, or hardness, it also improved elongation and reduced thermal stability. The high filler concentration of hexagonal boron nitride in the composite enhanced thermal conductivity up to 3.253 Wm−1 K−1, while it reduced tensile strength to 1.248 MPa and elongation to 22% but increased hardness up to 75 shore A. The addition of silicone resin improved the thermal conductivity of all MQ, vinyl-based MQT3 and aluminum-based MQT3 resin composites up to 3.661, 3.962 and 4.817 Wm−1 K−1, respectively. For the same three resins, tensile strength was increased up to 1.274, 1.290, and 1.312 MPa, elongation at break was raised to 125%, 188%, and 150%, and hardness was reduced to 69, 71, and 72 shore A, respectively. The addition of silicone resin also showed an effect on density, volatile content, flame resistance, and volume resistivity.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T11:43:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211069867
       
  • Obtaining colored patterns on polyamide fabric with laser pretreatment and
           pomegranate peel dyeing

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      Authors: Yue Tian, Qianqian Liu, Yu Zhang, Xiuliang Hou, Yi Zhang
      First page: 2080
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Increasing environmental and sustainability considerations have led to the revival of natural dyes. Even though the application of natural dyes on natural substrates has been extensively investigated, research regarding simultaneous dyeing, patterning and functional finishing of polyamide fabrics is reported to a limited extent. This paper aims at obtaining colored patterns on polyamide fabrics by laser pretreatment and dyeing with pomegranate peel dye. The most notable color difference can be obtained by using a 12 W laser and 2% (on weight of the fabric) pomegranate peel dye. The significant color difference between laser pretreated and untreated areas showed the pattern. It was then used for the further pattern design of polyamide fabrics combined with computer-aided design software. The dyed fabric had good color fastness, and no mordant was used in the dyeing process. In addition, the dyed fabrics were endowed with various functional properties by pomegranate peel dye.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T03:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076038
       
  • Dyeing of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with CI Reactive Red 2 enabled by
           the introduction of polyethyleneimine

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      Authors: Jinyu Wang, Xiangshun Li, Liming Wang, Xiaohong Qin, Yunhua Cui
      First page: 2090
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The color of textiles plays a crucial role in meeting humans’ aesthetics needs and pleasure. Nanofiber has potential application prospects in textile and apparel due to its superior properties, such as the high specific surface area and porosity. Simultaneously, the coloring property has attracted widespread attention. However, the dyeing of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with reactive dyes remains a challenge due to the lack of reactive groups. Herein, an efficient strategy is proposed to successfully color electrospun PAN nanofibers with CI Reactive Red 2, enabled by introducing polyethyleneimine (PEI). Firstly, through entangling the molecular chain of PEI in solution, PAN is endowed with abundant cationic groups. Then, PAN/PEI nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning technology and further dyed using the reactive dye. More specifically, the different dyeing parameters, such as dyeing time, temperature, concentration and PEI concentration, were optimized. Compared to pure PAN nanofiber, PAN/PEI nanofiber achieved a higher dye uptake (96%) and better color fastness. This work offers an energy-saving and simple manner for improving the dyeing performance of PAN nanofibers using reactive dye.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T07:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211064246
       
  • Numerical and experimental analysis on anisotropic thermal conductivity of
           carding quartz fiber web based on the reconstruction model

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      Authors: Peijian Du, Xiang Ding, Qixin Liang, Xiaoming Chen, Yifan Zhang, Li Chen
      First page: 2100
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In order to analyze the thermal and mechanical properties of the carding quartz fiber web and the needle-punched quartz fiber preform containing the carding quartz fiber web, we propose a ‘three-step’ method to establish a three-dimensional quartz carding fiber web model containing large slenderness ratio fibers. First, the thickness and areal density of the carding quartz fiber web were measured and statistical analysis of fiber length and orientation distribution was carried out, which provided data support for establishing the three-dimensional carding fiber web model. Based on the wide application of Python language in finite element software, then spatial layered fibers of the beam element were generated by running Python scripts in finite element software; second, the three-dimensional carding fiber web model of beam element was established through a deposition and compression process by the explicit method of the finite element software; finally, the three-dimensional carding fiber web model of the beam element was converted into the solid element model for heat transferring analysis by Python. The converted process is the reconstruction process. Furthermore, anisotropic heat transmission of the three-dimensional carding fiber web model that includes temperature distribution and heat flux distribution were analyzed. Meanwhile, anisotropic thermal conductivity of the three-dimensional carding fiber web model was predicted in finite element software. A hot-disk thermal analyzer was used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the three-dimensional carding quartz fiber web. Experimental anisotropic thermal conductivity showed an excellent agreement with anisotropic thermal conductivity predicted by the finite element method. Moreover, the method in this paper is not only suitable for any other fibrous materials with randomly distributed fibers and large slenderness ratio fibers, but also is more efficient and low cost to obtain detailed heat conductions and anisotropic thermal conductivity.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T08:21:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076036
       
  • Modified anti-mosquito and self-cleaning fabrics utilizing clove
           oil–CuO/TiO2 composites

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      Authors: Muhammad Ibadurrohman, David Kristianto, Slamet
      First page: 2112
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      We report on the synthesis of CuO/TiO2 composites via a photo-assisted deposition method. The encapsulated clove oil was synthesized using oil-in-water emulsification. The optimum mass ratio of CuO:TiO2 was combined with encapsulated clove oil and then coated on fabric. The obtained CuO/TiO2 composites were examined using scanning electron microscopy to scrutinize their morphology and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra to identify the composites’ absorption range and bandgap energy. The modified fabrics were then characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that CuO/TiO2 samples possess spheroidal shapes, while the absorption spectra of CuO/TiO2 samples were red-shifted to the visible region as the CuO content increased. Photocatalytic activities of TiO2 and CuO/TiO2 were examined by degrading methylene blue under ultraviolet light, which shows that CuO-doped TiO2 exhibits higher activity than TiO2. The self-cleaning functionality of the modified fabrics was examined using sludge solution, revealing that the modified fabrics with CuO/TiO2 composites and encapsulated clove oil (CLO-CuO/TiO2) exhibit cleaner surfaces than blank fabric. The optimum capacity of the fabrics as repellents was obtained in a sample with the smallest average mosquitoes landing of four.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T11:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211071001
       
  • Effect of cotton fabric properties on fiber release and marine
           biodegradation

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      Authors: Seoyoun Kim, Yoonkyung Cho, Chung Hee Park
      First page: 2121
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of cotton fabric structure and finishing on fiber emissions during washing and degradation were studied. Fabrics with different combinations of yarn count, weave structure, or weave density, and the fabrics dyed, water-repellent or peach skin finished were prepared. Significant fabric structural factors and resultant physical properties influencing the fiber release were statistically driven. The results showed that, on average, 16 wt% of the fibers was filtered through a washing machine, and the filtration rate increased when the discharged fibers were on average longer. It was found that the cotton fabric with a higher yarn count or weave density and more compact weave structure released a lesser amount of fibers and that their average length tended to be shorter. Compared to the untreated fabric, the fabric with peach skin finish released more fibers and the average fiber length was longer, whereas the fabric with water-repellent finish released fewer fibers that had a shorter length. It was demonstrated that cotton fiber emission could be reduced when the fabric had a larger weave parameter, low fuzziness, high abrasion resistance, and low water absorbency. Cotton fibers submerged in seawater exhibited a lower primary degradation than that of fibers buried in soil. In addition, the cotton fibers submerged in seawater maintained at 7°C exhibited a lower biodegradability than that of fibers submerged in seawater at 20°C. Moreover, in seawater, water-repellent fabric was biodegraded less than untreated fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T10:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211068781
       
  • Fast detection of cotton content in silk/cotton textiles by handheld
           near-infrared spectroscopy: a performance comparison of four different
           instruments

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      Authors: Shuo Yang, Zi-niu Zhao, Hui Yan, Heinz W. Siesler
      First page: 2239
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Its extraordinary chemical and physical properties have made silk one of the most versatile and comfortable fiber fabrics for a multiplicity of customers and industrial applications. However, this development has led to fraud and adulteration attempts for a multitude of consumer goods. In these respects, the potential and increasing affordability of handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers makes them an attractive tool for customers to fight these evils efficiently. In this work, the rapid quantitative analysis of the purity level of silk adulterated with cotton by four different handheld NIR instruments, the NeoSpectra Scanner, Viavi MicroNIR 1700, Spectral Engines NR 2.0-W, and SenoCorder Solid, and their detection performances were compared with a benchtop NIR instrument (Thermo Antaris II). With these instruments, samples with 0–100% (w/w) cotton content were measured, spectral pretreatment methods were performed, and partial least squares calibration models were developed. The results showed that while the root mean square error values of approximately 1.9%(w/w) cotton were obtained with the benchtop instrument, the corresponding values for the handheld instruments varied in the range from 2.5% to 4.0%(w/w) cotton. Generally, a large signal-to-noise ratio and an extended available wavelength/wavenumber range had a beneficial effect on the prediction performance of the developed calibration model. Notwithstanding the diversity of instrumental parameters of the tested instruments, it can be concluded that all handheld spectrometers under investigation qualified as suitable tools for the detection of cotton adulterations in silk materials.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T08:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221082324
       
  • Finite element modeling effects of fiber performance on pilling of
           polyester–cotton woven fabrics

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      Authors: Qi Xiao, Rui Wang, Xin Lu, Shujie Zhang, Sun Hongyu
      First page: 2247
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to numerically establish the effects of polyester fiber performance on the pilling of polyester–cotton woven fabrics, including pilling grades, overall energy absorption and the forms of energy absorption. Geometric models of fabric and hairiness are established using the Python programming language based on the length and density distribution of hairiness on the fabric surface. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the pilling process of polyester–cotton woven fabrics with different polyester fiber performance parameters. The simulated pilling grades of fabrics are fairly close to the practical pilling grades, whose relative error is 7.3%. With the increase of fiber diameter, pilling grades decrease. Increasing the fiber friction coefficient also affects pilling grades, which firstly decrease and then increase. Pilling grades reduce with the increased fiber elastic modulus. Friction dissipation energy during pilling becomes the dominant form of energy. When the fiber diameter is less than 14 μm, the fiber friction coefficient is between 0.3 and 0.4 and the fiber elastic modulus is greater than 4.55 GPa, fabrics start pilling.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T10:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080098
       
  • Fragmented fiber pollution from common textile materials and structures
           during laundry

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      Authors: Alma V Palacios-Marín, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tausif
      First page: 2265
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The fiber damage during manufacture, use, and service of textiles leads to fragmented fiber generation. All textiles (natural, regenerated, and synthetic polymer sources) release fiber fragments. Several textile structural parameters have been studied in association with fragmented fiber release; however, there is a paucity of work on the effect of different fiber types and yarn structures on fragmented fiber release. This study elucidates the impact of key fiber types and yarn structures (rudimentary elements of textiles) on fragmented fiber release during laundry. Five different bespoke textile samples from three primary yarn structures (flat filament, textured filament, and staple yarn) from the two most employed fibers (polyethylene terephthalate and cotton) were subjected to repeated simulated washing processes to quantify shed fragmented fiber and length distribution of the collected fragmented fiber. The results show that yarn structure impacts the quantity of fragmented fiber shed and the length distribution profile. The release of fragmented fiber decreases during repeated washing of fabrics from staple and textured filament yarns, except for fabrics from flat filament yarns. The mean fragmented fiber length for all samples increases on repeated laundering. The quantity of fragmented fiber shed per gram of textile, and the length distribution profile of fragmented fiber from the woven fabrics made of the five types of yarns after the first and fifth washing cycles were estimated.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T05:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221090971
       
  • Standardized tensile testing of electrospun PA6 membranes via the use of a
           3D printed clamping system

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      Authors: Ales Hrouda, Radek Jirkovec, Jiri Safka, Maarten Vanierschot, Kathleen Denis, Lukas Capek
      First page: 2298
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a new design for the jaws used in the uniaxial tensile testing of PA6 electrospun membranes. The aims of the new design are both to accelerate the clamping process and additionally reduce the paper waste created by paper frames. In order to validate the efficiency of the new design, the newly developed jaws were compared both with currently used paper frames and the direct positioning of samples in metal jaws. It was demonstrated that the new jaws reduced the clamping time by half. Moreover, the maximal stress and strain values were observed to be higher than those of the metal jaws and the paper frames. Finally, it was determined that the new design enables the testing of wetted samples, which is problematic using paper frames.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T11:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221077046
       
  • Facile flame-retardant finishing for cotton in supercritical CO2

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      Authors: Huizhen Ke, Qin Fang, Yitong Han, Huanda Zheng, Laijiu Zheng, Yuanyuan Dong
      First page: 2306
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional water-based flame-retardant finishing causes serious pollution due to the use of a large number of chemicals, and color change is easily generated since the flame-retardant finishing takes place after the cotton dyeing. An eco-friendly flame-retardant finishing of dyed cotton was explored using 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO), 2,2′-oxybis-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2,-dioxaphosphorinane-2,2′-disulfide) (5060), SiO2, DOPO/SiO2 (1:1), 5060/SiO2 (1:1) and DOPO/5060 (1:1) in supercritical CO2. The effects of finishing time and pressure as well as temperature on the flame-retarding properties of the cotton were discussed. As expected, samples with the higher weight gain rates exhibit a lower after-flame time as well as after-glow time. In different flame-retardant systems, cotton fabric finished with DOPO presents the lowest after-flame time of 20.6 s and after-glow time of 0 s at 130°C, 22 MPa and 120 min due to its biphenyl ring and O=P-O bond. Moreover, tiny fluctuations of L*, a*, b* and K/S values occurred from 32.10 to 34.24, 5.78 to 6.05, –37.89 to –37.64 and 10.59 to 10.81 when the cotton samples were treated with DOPO, 5060, SiO2, DOPO/SiO2 (1:1), 5060/SiO2 (1:1) and DOPO/5060 (1:1), proving that no significant negative role in the color property of the samples occurs after supercritical CO2 finishing.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221074068
       
  • Temperature and density distribution in an industrial stenter frame based
           on three-dimensional numerical simulation

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      Authors: Mesud Ramić, Ejub Džaferović, Džana Kadrić, Sađit Metović, Amra Hasečić
      First page: 2317
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Drying of textiles in industrial facilities represents an energy-intensive process where a large number of measures for energy and production cost savings can be introduced. Typical measures include the introduction of energy management, waste-heat recovery, process optimization and so on. Drying is a complex process with coupled heat and mass transfer between the heated air and humid textile, where parameters such as the air flow rate, air velocity and its flow regime and textile velocity and water content represent significant influential factors. The distribution of air temperature and density inside the drying section of an industrial stenter frame is analyzed in detail using three-dimensional numerical simulation, where the textile is modeled as a porous medium to analyze moisture diffusion within the textile. Heated air is introduced into a chamber by inlet nozzles and removed by exit nozzles, the distribution of which is based on actual machine configuration. A humid textile is introduced into a section, where temperature and density distribution within the textile are calculated for selected time periods. During the simulation in the Fluent program, models of specific component transport, multiphase air flow, turbulent flow, porosity and evaporation were used. The results represent a valuable data set that provides an in-depth insight into the drying process in the industrial stenter machine.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:30:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073770
       
  • Analysis of thermal and wet comfort properties of hygroscopic and
           exothermic knitted fabrics

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      Authors: Shuyi Gao, Yi Cui, Wenli Yao, Miaolei Jing, Liu Liu, Ruiyun Zhang
      First page: 2327
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Clothing thermal and wet comfort relates to the heat and moisture transport properties of clothing as one of the most important factors in determining whether or not a garment is desirable to customers. It is important to develop winter textiles by optimally combined technology of hygroscopic heat generation and moisture management to maintain warm dry skin for the active wearer. In this work, six multilayer hygroscopic and exothermic fabrics made up of different functional yarn compositions were designed and fabricated based on ergonomic principles. Their thermal wet comfort properties were investigated compared with seven plain knitted fabrics. Air permeability, moisture management characteristics, thermal physiological properties, and hygroscopic heat generation performances were used to assess thermal and wet comfort properties. Their correlations with yarn composition were explored. Multilayer knitted fabrics with a designed knitted structure and wettability gradient demonstrated evenly hygroscopic exothermic properties and excellent directional moisture transport performances. This has the potential to reduce the phenomena of high temperature and heat concentration following moisture absorption The fabric made up of profiled polyester and a low proportion of cotton blend as an inner layer and a high proportion of modified polyacrylate and viscose blend as a middle layer was verified to have superior moisture management characteristics and evenly hygroscopic exothermic properties.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T11:17:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221076030
       
  • Necessary conditions of the length and correct way of wearing of a
           nonmedical mask for younger Japanese women

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      Authors: Mika Morishima, Akari Yoneda
      First page: 2340
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Textile masks used in industrial, medical and daily settings cover the wearer’s nose and closed and open mouth. Masks have been made by different mask manufacturers as a result of the sudden shortage of masks due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there has been no clear standard design of a mask for daily use. Therefore, this study obtained the necessary conditions of the shape and length of the mask sheet and the correct way of wearing for 99.7% of a target population.The examination was based on newly acquired data for Japanese young women (20–27 years of age) under an open-mouth condition. In the anthropometry, the three-dimensional facial shape was measured for 68 women through three-dimensional motion capture. Using the three-dimensional coordinates, sheet patterns of four sizes constructed from triangles were analyzed. The third and fourth largest patterns were shown to have higher fitting performance in a t-test. Moreover, the numbers of people suited to the patterns calculated using a cumulative distribution function reveal that the third largest pattern had a proper length of the sheet that was not oversized. The necessary lengths of the sheet for 99.7% of the target population under open-mouth conditions were 130.4 mm and 148.5 mm in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. The present study thus provided the necessary conditions and correct way of wearing for the sheet design. The masks should be further studied in terms of their wearability, filtration and comfort in the near future.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221077044
       
  • CMYK channel modification to optimize optical yarn color mixing effects
           for multicolored Jacquard artwork reproduction

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      Authors: Ken Ri Kim, John H Xin, Lei Zeng
      First page: 2357
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Multicolored Jacquard artwork reproduction has been limited by the current setting of weaving machinery. Novel weaving applications have been introduced to overcome these current restrictions. The subtractive cyan, magenta, yellow and black system used for color printing has been important in optical yarn color mixing of Jacquard color production, because a wide scope of weave color production is possible with a small number of weft yarns. Previously, cyan, magenta, and yellow channels have been modified to resolve current restrictions in reproducing saturated black and secondary colors, but these experiments have not been successful. However, the generation of secondary color ranges is possible by mixing a pair of cyan, magenta, and yellow color yarns. In addition, it is feasible to control chroma levels of primary and secondary colors by mixing with a black yarn. Therefore, the potential of using four weft yarn colors is re-examined for the reproduction of multicolored artworks in relation to cost and production efficiency. Based on a mathematical morphology theory, cyan, magenta, and yellow color channels are altered in the use of image processing tools offered by Adobe Photoshop. A pair of the three color channels is combined under mathematical functions and they are modified through four steps. As a result, new cyan, magenta, and yellow color channels are created to optimize optical yarn color mixing effects. This study introduces details of the cyan, magenta, and yellow channel modification process and experiment results that examine the significance of the newly developed cyan, magenta, and yellow color channels.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T06:06:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221079655
       
  • Numerical simulation and experiment verified for heat transfer processes
           of high-property inorganic fiber woven fabrics

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      Authors: Tianjiao Liu, Meiyu Chen, Jie Dong, Runjun Sun, Mu Yao
      First page: 2368
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Numerical simulation is an effective method to study the heat transfer of fabric. However, the interlaced structure of the woven fabric deforms warp yarns and weft yarns to varying degrees, so it is not easy to obtain an effective model of the fabric and the effective thermophysical parameters of the yarns. In addition, at a high temperature, the anisotropy and temperature-dependent property of the thermal conductivity of the yarn also need to be considered. Therefore, this work established a transient heat transfer simulation model based on the effective woven fabric structure and the effective thermophysical parameters of yarns to study the heat transfer processes of three kinds of high-temperature-resistant inorganic fiber (quartz fiber, high-silica glass fiber and basalt fiber) fabrics at different temperatures (especially high temperature). The fabrics were embedded in epoxy resin and made into slices, and then cross-sectional slices of the woven fabrics were observed through a three-dimensional microscope to construct the fabric geometric models. Taking into account the influence of warp yarn and weft yarn deformations in the fabric structure on the fiber volume fractions and the anisotropic and temperature-dependent property of thermal conductivities of the yarns, the thermophysical parameters of warp yarns and weft yarns in the woven fabrics were optimized. Then the fabrics were simulated for transient heat transfer at different temperatures (373.15, 573.15 and 773.15 K). The simulation results were verified through experiments. The good correlation between the two results proved the effectiveness of the simulation method.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:15:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073787
       
  • Study on color representation model and computer simulation of colored
           spun fabrics based on image translation model

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      Authors: Li Yuan, Da Huo, Qian Gu, Ying Xiong, Danshu Wang
      First page: 2379
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the design and development efficiency of colored spun products, this paper puts forward a computer simulation scheme based on an image translation model, focusing on the ‘fancy’ coloration characteristics of colored spun fabrics. First, the Pix2PixHD image translation model was used to train and extract the fabric color texture information of colored spun fabrics, so as to construct a color texture characterization model; meanwhile, the texture fusion and color filling algorithm was constructed for the blending process of two-component dyed fibers, so as to realize the computer simulation of the two-component colored spun fabric ‘fancy’ color effect. On this basis, a texture and coloration characteristic evaluation index for colored spun fabric was established, which was applied to the quantitative analysis of computer simulation results for the first time. Meanwhile, the difference significance test was performed on the quantitative analysis results. It turned out that the computer simulation scheme established in this paper can effectively simulate the various ‘fancy’ color effects. Compared with the existing algorithms, it not only has obvious advantages in visual subjective feeling, but also has a notable improvement in objective and quantitative analysis data. The texture similarity and color similarity are increased by 5.78% and 19.17%, respectively, the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity index measure are increased by 15.72 db and 0.168, respectively. Therefore, the computer simulation scheme has ideal realistic and generalization characteristics.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073784
       
  • Axial-compression performance and finite element analysis of
           special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites with different
           thicknesses and shapes

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      Authors: Lihua Lyu, Ao Liu, Ying Wang, Yongping Liao, Jingjing Wang, Yuan Gao, Xinghai Zhou
      First page: 2391
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, the self-reinforced structures tube preforms, which are the special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven preforms, had been manufactured on semi-automatic looms. To prepare special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites with different wall thicknesses and shapes, the vacuum-assisted resin transfer method was used by performing the prepared preform and resin as the reinforcement and matrix. Then, the axial compression performance was tested on a universal material testing machine. The results revealed that both the wall thicknesses and the shape had remarkable effects on the composites’ axial-compression properties. The performance of special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites and normal tubular three-dimensional woven composites were compared and special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites were better. Finally, finite element analysis was adopted in this research. The initial damage, stress evolution, and final failure of special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites had been shown by the analysis. The stress concentration and failure mechanism of the composite materials after axial compression was revealed and the finite element model was correct and can predict the mechanical properties of special-shaped tubular three-dimensional woven composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T06:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175211073352
       
  • Printing performances of a new nitrogen-free urea substitute in silk
           printing of reactive dyes

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      Authors: Hongmei Wang, Yongfang Xian, Minghua Wu, Lili Wang
      First page: 2402
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      A new printing additive, GBPA, which is composed of glycerol and 1,4-butanediol, was used in silk printing with reactive dyes. The printing performance of GBPA in the reactive printing of silk fabrics was studied and compared with those of urea. The results showed that in deep printing of Reactive Turquoise K-GL on silk satin, GBPA obtained as stable a color performance as urea at dosages ranging from 8 wt% to 10 wt% in the printing paste. Using a range of thickeners, GBPA exhibited the same color level as urea when using sodium alginate as thickener. Using reactive blue dyes of various structures and reactive dyes of different colors, the color performance of GBPA was close or even superior to that of urea. Furthermore, GBPA achieved good printing performances on different silk fabrics. By using GBPA in reactive printing, the nitrogen content in the printing wastewater greatly reduced. GBPA has great application potential as an alternative to urea in silk printing with reactive dyes.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T06:54:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080094
       
  • Estimating the elastic modulus of unidirectional over-braided multilayer
           composites

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      Authors: Donghang Liu, Jiazhi Su, Ping Chen, Lin Wang, Chunliang Qiu, Yanyan Yu, Jianyong Yu, Jianhua Yan
      First page: 2410
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Unidirectional over-braiding was developed based on two-dimensional over-braiding. Unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites have excellent mechanical properties and broad application prospects. It is necessary to estimate accurately the elastic modulus of unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites. In this study, the representative unit cell geometry model of unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites was established. As the braid angle increased from the first to the last layer, two model analytical methods were proposed to predict the elastic modulus of unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites. The prediction results of the two methods had good correlation with the experimental results. The smaller the increment of the braid angle from the first to the last layer, the smaller the difference between the results of the two methods. As a result of the increase in undulation amplitude, the longitudinal modulus of two-dimensional over-braided multilayer composites showed a decrease (7.94%) in comparison to the unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites. In over-braided multilayer composites, the outer layer compacted the inner layer due to the braid tension. In unidirectional over-braided multilayer composites, the interaction between layers could be ignored. In two-dimensional over-braided multilayer composites, the inner layer was obviously compacted by the outer layer. However, as the amplitude and length of the undulation repeat unit of the braided yarn were not affected by the compaction, the reduction in the longitudinal modulus of two-dimensional over-braided multilayer composites caused by compaction was very slight.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T05:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080702
       
  • Heald frame motion trajectory based on minimum warp friction in the
           shedding process of three-dimensional woven fabrics

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      Authors: Zhuang Leng, Wensuo Ma, Zhaohua Huang, Chenhui Jia, Xianqing Lei, Yin Jianjun
      First page: 2424
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The partial fiber breaking in the warp yarn of three-dimensional (3D) woven fabrics needs to be urgently reduced considering the large shedding displacement and repeated yarn frictions in the fabricating process. A kinematical model of the heald frame was established in order to analyze the impact and wear of the warp yarn in the shedding process of 3D weaving. The variation tendency of the friction force between the yarn and heddle eye was obtained and the variable acceleration trajectory of the heald frame based on minimizing the friction and impact load on the yarn was derived. The experimental results showed that the fiber breakage rate in one warp yarn using the derived curve trajectory reduced drastically. The research results are beneficial to the theoretical design of the shedding system of weaving machines for 3D woven fabric.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T06:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086884
       
  • Correlation analysis between fabric structure and color rendering of
           polyester colored spun woven fabric based on the improved relative
           discrimination criterion

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      Authors: Ying Xiong, Li Yuan, Qian Gu, Danshu Wang, Da Huo, Junping Liu
      First page: 2433
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      To clarify the color variation and influencing factors between colored spun yarn and its fabrics with different weave structures, a multi-dimensional spectral feature extraction model integrating distance and shape features is established in this paper. Considering the spectral reflectance of colored spun yarn and its fabric fluctuates randomly, a relative discrimination criterion based on the category separable ratio model is proposed; in addition, the principal component analysis algorithm is applied to the correlation analysis of the colored spun product’s color change. The results show that the established multi-dimensional spectral feature extraction model and relative discrimination criteria can effectively characterize the spectral features of colored spun yarns and fabrics. The difference of spectral features between the plain fabric samples and colored spun yarn samples is the largest, the twill structure is the second, and the difference of satin structure is the smallest. For colored spun fabric samples, the spectral feature fluctuation of the satin structure is the highest; the plain weave is the second, while the twill is the lowest. In addition, the increase in twist coefficient leads to a decrease in the difference of spectral features, but the color variation remains the same. Besides, there is no significant difference in spectral features between yarn and fabric samples using the principal component analysis algorithm. In the visible light range, the high-dimensional spectral features are more suitable for the characterization and analysis of the colored textiles’ color information.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T09:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221079654
       
  • Modeling of the cyclic visco-elasto-plastic one-dimensional behavior of
           polyamide-based woven straps

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      Authors: A Blaise, G Bles, W Dib, M. Shash, A Tourabi
      First page: 2446
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on modeling the mechanical behavior of threadlike woven materials or those shaped in uniaxial form, such as wires, ropes, woven lines, cables, straps, slings, etc. The proposed one-dimensional model is based on the superimposition of two stress contributions: a non-Newtonian visco-elastic stress and a time-independent stress. The time-independent stress represents a particular irreversible behavior, linked to the loading history. This model neglects the thickness of the time-independent hysteresis loops during the unloading–reloading processes while preserving the irreversible character of elasto-plastic-type behavior. The model's predictions are compared to a set of experimental results, carried out on polyamide 6-6 straps, available from previous experimental studies in the literature. The model describes the shape of the stress–strain hysteresis loops very well and predicts perfectly the direction of the strain and stress evolutions during the creep and relaxation periods, regardless of their position in the first load or in the load–unload branches.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221078533
       
  • Thermo-physical evaluation of firefighter outer garment in high flux
           environments

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      Authors: Rumeel A Bhutta, Sengkwan Choi
      First page: 2461
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal protective performance tests have been conducted and improved over the years to assess the safety provided by firefighters’ outer thermal garments. Existing evaluation criteria based on empirical relations require an iterative process to estimate skin burn injuries. In this work, the concept of critical time – maximum exposure time before physical failure, is proposed, and utilized to abate this iterative process. The critical time relation to the fabric performance is investigated at an incident heat flux of 41, 84 and 126 kW/m2. Furthermore, parametric studies are performed to characterize the fabric thermo-physical behavior and associated burn degree. The tested specimens consist of an outer shell, a moisture barrier and a thermal liner. The methodology of visual assessment as per ISO 6942 is implemented to approximate the critical time. The critical time relation to increasing incident heat flux displayed a nonlinear performance reduction in the garment. An increase in the second degree burn time was observed for a vertically oriented bench-scale test. The firefighter’s current outer garment failed at a high flux of 126 kW/m2. The concept of relating the critical time to cumulative incident flux will aid the education of firefighters on fluctuating fire environments. This research opens a new domain to analyse the protective garments utilising the critical time.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T07:07:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086043
       
  • A study on the dynamic motion of floating fibers in the double apron
           drafting process

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      Authors: Yuanying Shen, Xixi Qian, Chongwen Yu
      First page: 2476
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Double apron drafting is an important unit in yarn spinning; the motion of fibers during the double apron drafting zone directly determines the quality of the final yarn. In this research, we sought to study how the motion of the fibers and the irregularities introduced during the double apron drafting process were affected by the processing settings and fiber properties. The fiber acceleration point under different drafting conditions was investigated using the tracer fiber technique. The results showed that both the drafting parameters as well as the input sliver properties have a certain influence on the fluctuation of fiber acceleration points, but the difference is small. In addition, the irregularity caused by the fluctuation of the fiber acceleration point during the drafting process (CVFAP) was also calculated under the same drafting conditions based on the irregularity of the input sliver and that of the spun yarn. By comparing the relationship between the CVFAP and fiber acceleration point fluctuation, it was found that the trend of the change between the two is in fairly good agreement. This is consistent with theoretical research and practical experience, and it can prove the accuracy of the fiber acceleration point test results from another aspect as well. Studying the dynamic motion of floating fibers during the double apron drafting process sheds light on the correlation between spinning conditions and yarn quality, which can provide a reference for process optimization.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T04:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086046
       
  • Mechanism of sodium-hypochlorite-induced degradation of cellulose acetate
           and the enhancement of its degradation resistance by chemical modification
           

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      Authors: Tomohiro Hashizume, Yusuke Okamoto, Kanji Nagai, Shu Shimamoto
      First page: 2487
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cellulose acetate, when used in the form of hollow fibers in the ultrafiltration stage of water treatment, is occasionally treated with sodium hypochlorite to remove organic particles such as humic acids. However, prolonged use of sodium hypochlorite reduces the strength of the membrane and facilitates its breakage.The present study was designed to reveal the degradation mechanism of cellulose acetate caused by aqueous sodium hypochlorite and to improve its resistance to this chemical. Filaments of cellulose acetate, prepared using a nonsolvent-induced phase separation method, were exposed to 2000 ppm aqueous sodium hypochlorite at 25°C for 13 days to allow for evaluation of the changes in their tensile strength, elongation at break, molecular weight, degree of substitution, and chemical structure. The tensile strength, elongation at break, and molecular weight decreased as the duration of exposure to sodium hypochlorite increased. No significant changes in the degree of substitution were observed by one-dimensional hydrogen 1 nuclear magnetic resonance, and cleavages of both glycoside bonds and carbon–carbon bonds were detected by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, revealing that base-catalyzed hydrolysis of ester groups did not play an important role in degradation. The chemical modifications of the cellulose esters, such as the introduction of pentanoyl, stearoyl, and benzoyl groups, were studied in accordance with the degradation mechanism, and cellulose esters with bulky substituents such as benzoyl groups were found to exhibit improved chlorine resistance. Perbenzoylated cellulose, which exhibited high resistance to sodium hypochlorite, is considered to be a potential membrane material for the filtration of foulant-rich raw water.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221080093
       
  • Influences of spacer monofilament distributions on mechanical properties
           of warp-knitted spacer fabric/resin composites

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      Authors: Lele Liu, Haitao Lin, Pibo Ma
      First page: 2501
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Warp-knitted spacer fabrics have a unique three-dimensional structure and excellent compressive properties. They can also be used as reinforcement and compounded with base material to obtain composites. In this paper, warp-knitted spacer fabrics with single-sided hexagonal mesh structure were prepared, and the spacer monofilaments were removed in a set ratio to analyze the effects of distribution patterns of them on the tensile and compressive properties of warp-knitted spacer fabrics. Warp-knitted spacer fabric-reinforced epoxy resin-based composites with various structures were prepared to investigate the compressive and bending properties. The results showed that the tensile properties of warp-knitted spacer fabrics were not significantly related to the distribution, but compression performance was correlated with the spacer monofilaments ratio (n). Fabric-reinforced epoxy resin-based composites of sample no. 1 have the best compression performance, and the best performance in bending is sample no. 5. A different type of warp-knitted spacer fabric could be chosen for achieving the optimal configuration in specific application scenarios. This paper can provide theoretical implications for the application of warp-knitted spacer fabrics and fabric-reinforced epoxy resin-based composites.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T10:55:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086041
       
  • Probabilistic model for cattail and canola fibers: effect of environmental
           conditions, structural parameters, fiber length, and estimators

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      Authors: Md Shadhin, Danny Mann, Mashiur Rahman
      First page: 2513
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Biomass fibers are being widely investigated for industrial applications as an alternative to synthetic fibers using a standard humidity condition. In this study, the mechanical properties of two waste biomass fibers – canola and cattail – have been investigated when subjected to different environmental conditions, fiber length, and type of estimators used during analysis. The effect of different environmental conditions and structural variations were investigated by measuring the tensile properties after exposing them to eight different relative humidity conditions using a fixed fiber length of 25 mm. Further investigation was conducted using fiber lengths of 25, 35 and 45 mm using the most conservative relative humidity condition. The data were analyzed by a Weibull distribution model using four different estimators. The results revealed that Weibull strength (σavg) and modulus (Eavg) closely followed experimental values for cattail and canola fibers. The different relative humidity conditions and fiber lengths resulted in different Weibull parameters with 11% relative humidity and the mean rank estimator predicted the most conservative tensile strength for both waste biomass fibers. The experimental and characteristic Weibull strength decreased when fiber gauge length increased from 25 to 45 mm. The tensile strength and modulus of both waste biomass fibers at 50% reliability lie within the range of average experimental values. However, these values are reduced to 155 MPa (strength) and 20 GPa (modulus) for cattail fiber at 90% reliability. The survival probability of the tensile strength and modulus were found to be the highest at 75% and 100% relative humidity for cattail and canola fibers, respectively.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T10:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086891
       
  • Supine dynamic simulation and latex pillow design for Chinese women based
           on finite element method

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      Authors: Shunwei Chen, Xueqin Wang, Mengqing Sun, Qiannan Deng
      First page: 2529
      Abstract: Textile Research Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The ergonomics on body pressure distribution of latex product design is the future trend in bedding product design. The numerical simulation of latex pillow compression performance is critical for the optimal design of bedding products. This paper reports the use of the finite element method to simulate the compression performance of latex foam and the design of latex pillows based on the pressure distribution and displacement changes of the human pillow system. The compression performance, shear performance and tensile performance of the latex foam are tested, and the stress and strain images of three mechanical experiments are obtained. Combined with the experimental results, three methods of ‘hyper foam test data, hyper foam model parameter method and low-density foam method’ were used to perform uniaxial compression simulation on bedding latex foam using the finite element software ABAQUS. The simulation results and experimental values were fitted and analyzed. The analysis found that the low-density foam simulation method has the largest R2, which is 0.9871, and the simulation result is the most accurate. The optimal simulation method was selected to simulate the dynamic pressure changes and cervical displacement of the human head and latex pillow models, as well as the simulation experiments with latex pillows of different heights. The curve is fitted to obtain the second-order polynomial equations of pressure and cervical socket displacement. In contrast, it can be concluded that latex pillow products with a neck height of 100 mm are better for the supine position of younger adult women in China.
      Citation: Textile Research Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T09:00:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00405175221086896
       
 
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