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Journal of Pest Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.669
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4766 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4758
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Refuge areas favor the presence of predators and herbivores in Bt soybean:
           a landscape perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Soybean plants that express various insecticidal proteins of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis have been widely adopted globally in many crop systems. This technology effectively controls the main defoliating pest species in most countries and reduces insecticide spray requirements. However, widespread use of Bt crops also generates high selection pressure against pest populations, leading to resistance concerns. Refuge areas are established to delay this phenomenon, but little is known about their other ecological functions. We evaluated the role of non-Bt soybean refuge areas regarding the abundance and richness of predator species in Bt soybean and non-Bt fields. For 2 years, herbivore and predatory arthropods were sampled in 28 soybean fields (RR/Bt) and their non-Bt soybean refuge areas (RR/noBt) in Uruguay, throughout the whole crop cycle. Landscape crop diversity (1 km radius) was characterized by its richness and evenness. Arthropod abundance and richness were analyzed using general linear mixed models. The abundance and richness of predators (Araneae, Coccinellidae, Heteroptera and Chrysopidae) found in Bt soybean were positively associated with the values recorded in refuge areas, independently of the diversity of the surrounding landscape. This relationship was not affected by changes in the distance between sampling points (within 800 m). The abundance of stink bugs and leaf-feeding caterpillars in Bt soybean was positively associated with refuge area values. Our results reinforce the importance of refuge areas, not only due to their role in resistance management, but also as preservation areas of beneficial fauna within a landscape approach to Integrated Pest Management in agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Impact of host plants on biological characteristics and Vg/VgR expression
           of Spodoptera frugiperda

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      Abstract: Abstract Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a worldwide migratory invasive and polyphagous pest. S. frugiperda posed a severe threat to food security and agricultural production. In this study, we examined the biological parameters of S. frugiperda on five host plants: maize, wheat, rice, honeysuckle, and Chinese yam. Furthermore, the effect of different host plants on SfVg/SfVgR expression was investigated, and then, the correlations between SfVg/SfVgR expression and key population proliferation parameters of S. frugiperda were clarified. The results showed that the larval stage of S. frugiperda was shortest on wheat, and longest on Chinese yam. Pupal weight was highest on honeysuckle and lowest on rice. Fecundity on honeysuckle, maize, and wheat was significantly higher than that on rice and Chinese yam. The SfVg/SfVgR expression levels of S. frugiperda fed on honeysuckle, maize, and wheat were also significantly higher than that on rice and Chinese yam. Meanwhile, significant linear regression correlations existed between SfVg/SfVgR expression level with key parameters (pupal weight and oviposition number per female) of S. frugiperda. Our results confirmed that S. frugiperda had a potentially harmful risk to two Chinese herbs (honeysuckle and Chinese yam). The expression level of Vg/VgR could be used as a molecular marker of S. frugiperda reproductive potential and forecasting the outbreak potential of S. frugiperda on different host plants. This study provided the foundation for further assessment of S. frugiperda risk to crops in China and formulating management strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Cyclosporin A acts as an insecticide candidate: providing sustainable
           biocontrol potential for managing Mythimna separata

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      Abstract: Abstract As a fungal metabolite, cyclosporin A (CsA) is widely used by patients to avoid immune rejection; however, little is known about its insecticidal activity. In this study, Mythimna separata was employed as a model to investigate the insecticidal activity of CsA as a biocontrol factor. The results showed that CsA had strong insecticide activity (LC50 = 19.23 μg/g for newly hatched larvae) and significantly sublethal effects (especially reproduction suppression) against M. separate. The combined toxicities of CsA with spinosad, azadirachtin, abamectin, and Cry1Ac against M. separata showed independent or synergistic toxicity, suggesting that CsA could be used alone or in a synergistic manner with current insecticides as a pest management strategy and/or to address pest resistance. Subsequent exploration of its insecticidal mechanism indicated that CsA has a unique ability to suppress the activity of calcineurin. An investigation of the use of CsA during indoor breeding of Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (a natural enemy of M. separata) suggested that this metabolite can facilitate the occurrence and reproduction of C. chlorideae. Overall, our study provides information concerning the potential for sustainable biocontrol of M. separata through novel bioinsecticide development; it also provides important clues for improving sustainable management of M. separata and other lepidopterous pest insects.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • First detection of resistance to deltamethrin in Spanish populations of
           the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

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      Abstract: Abstract The control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata, in citrus orchards in Spain is mainly based in three insecticides (spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) and the liberation of sterile males. However, Medfly control is compromised by the development of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and the detection of spinosad-resistant alleles in field populations. We report here, for the first time, resistance to deltamethrin in populations collected in fields under different management strategies, including MagnetMed™ traps coated with this insecticide and/or spinosad and lambda-cyhalothrin used as bait sprays, and even in populations obtained from non-treated fields. Two deltamethrin-resistant strains (BP-delta and Rfg-delta) were generated from the descendants of some of the field populations that showed lower susceptibility to deltamethrin. Both strains showed low susceptibility to MagnetMed™ traps, moderate susceptibility to Ceratipack traps, and lacked cross-resistance to spinosad and lambda cyhalothrin. Our data suggest that deltamethrin resistance was mediated by P450 enzymes, since bioassays with synergists showed that PBO reverted resistance in a field population and the laboratory strains, whereas the effect of DEF and DEM was minor and no mutations were found in the VGSC gene. The inheritance of resistance for both strains was completely recessive, autosomic and did not fit the mortality expected for a recessive character under a monogenic or digenic model. We also found that deltamethrin resistance presented a fitness cost in terms of males’ weight, males’ and females’ longevity and lifetime fecundity, with a more pronounced effect in the BP-strain than in the Rfg-delta strain. Our results highlight the need to implement insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent control failures.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • Providing aged parasitoids can enhance the mass-rearing efficiency of
           Telenomus remus, a dominant egg parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda, on
           Spodoptera litura eggs

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      Abstract: Abstract Telenomus remus (Nixon) is an egg parasitoid of several Spodoptera spp. insects, especially the destructive agricultural pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Studies showed that this parasitoid can be efficiently reared on Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) eggs. Understanding the relationship among parasitoid age, host egg age, and parasitism efficiency is an important part of mass-rearing biological control agents. To this end, we measured the impacts of female T. remus age (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old), S. litura egg age (1-, 2-, and 3-day-old), and their interactions on parasitism capacity, developmental time, offspring fitness, and oviposition behavior. The results indicated that the 3-day-old and 4-day-old parasitoids had higher parasitism performance on all age eggs than 1-day-old and 2-day-old parasitoids, especially on 3-day-old eggs. The number of parasitized eggs decreased as egg age increased, and the developmental time of the progeny increased. The emergence rate and percentage of females were hardly affected. For oviposition behavior, 4-day-old parasitoids showed the same drumming and oviposition time on different age eggs, while for others the drumming, drilling, oviposition, and total time increased with increasing S. litura egg age. In summary, the optimal combinations were 3-day-old or 4-day-old female parasitoids and 1-day-old or 2-day-old S. litura eggs. The findings presented in this study can be employed to enhance T. remus mass-rearing efficiency and availability.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
       
  • Companion plants and alternative prey improve biological control by Orius
           laevigatus on strawberry

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      Abstract: Abstract Macrosiphum euphorbiae (aphid) is an important economic pest because it causes significant damage to several crops, notably on strawberry. The use of natural enemies, especially predators, is an alternative that is being explored to protect strawberry crops against this pest, notably the species Orius laevigatus is a promising predator for biological control. However, the lack of suitable habitats and/or food is a constraint to the growth and/or the establishment of the predator populations, reducing their effectiveness as control agent against M. euphorbiae. Using additional food resources such as companion plants or alternative food sources may support predator population and associated biocontrol services they provide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of O. laevigatus as biological control agent against M. euphorbiae, mediated by the presence of companion plants and alternative prey. We evaluated under greenhouse conditions the effect of Lobularia maritima (alyssum) as possible companion plant, as well as Ephestia kuehniella eggs as alternative prey, on O. laevigatus populations and biocontrol service in strawberry cropping system. Predators were placed in the presence or absence of alyssum and/or E. kuehniella eggs on strawberry plants previously infested with aphids. We showed that the presence of alyssum and/or E. kuehniella eggs enhanced O. laevigatus population growth (when compared to a control group). Furthermore, we observed a steady reduction of M. euphorbiae populations when the companion plant was present alone or when it was associated with the alternative prey. Finally, the treatment with the combination of alyssum and alternative prey resulted in the highest yield (number of fruits per plant). Our study demonstrated that combining alyssum, as a companion plant, and E. kuehniella eggs, as an alternative prey, could be an effective option for establishing O. laevigatus populations and for controlling aphids in strawberry cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Control of root-knot nematodes on tomato by eliciting resistance through
           Aspergillus niger-derived oxalic acid

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      Abstract: Abstract Aspergillus niger F22, which produces oxalic acid (OA) as a nematicidal component, can be used to control root-knot nematodes (RKNs). OA or OA-producing microorganisms are known to induce resistance against plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses, but their effects on RKNs have not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the ability of an A. niger F22 formulation (Nemafree, 20% SC) and OA to induce tomato resistance against Meloidogyne incognita. Foliar-spray and soil-drench treatments of Nemafree and OA effectively controlled M. incognita in laboratory experiments. When Nemafree (4000-fold dilution) and OA (0.22 mM) were applied 4 days before inoculation with M. incognita eggs, they reduced root gall formation by more than 50%. In field experiments, the Nemafree soil drench also effectively reduced root galling. Moreover, the Nemafree and OA treatments enhanced the transcriptional expression of pathogenesis-related 1, proteinase inhibitor-II, and polyphenol oxidase genes and improved the production of total phenols, flavonoids, and lignins in tomato plants infested with M. incognita. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of A. niger F22 formulation (Nemafree, 20% SC) or OA can induce resistance in tomato plants and effectively control RKNs. Accordingly, our study demonstrates that microbial nematicides producing OA as an active component can sustainably control RKNs through both induced resistance and direct nematicidal activity, thereby providing alternatives to chemical treatments and their negative environmental impacts.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • No adverse effects of symbiotic control on the parasitism of Halyomorpha
           halys by egg parasitoids

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      Abstract: Abstract The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys is a polyphagous insect, which has a devastating impact on agricultural production in many countries. The alteration of symbiont vertical transmission, by removing symbionts from stink bug eggs (symbiotic control), has been recently introduced in control programmes against this insect. A major advantage of this strategy is the compatibility with natural enemies, since it allows an insecticide-free approach that is not harmful to other agroecosystem components. However, the effect of anti-symbiont products on parasitism by egg parasitoids is still unexplored. Here, we investigated the impact on parasitism by native (Anastatus bifasciatus, Ooencyrtus telenomicida and Trissolcus kozlovi) and exotic (Trissolcus japonicus and Trissolcus mitsukurii) parasitoids that attack H. halys eggs, after treatment with the micronutrient biocomplex Dentamet®, used for symbiotic control. The native wasp species were tested in no-choice bioassays, showing that treatment of the egg masses did not affect emergence percentages, but the non-reproductive effects were often reduced by the biocomplex. The exotic species T. japonicus and T. mitsukurii were used in no-choice and paired choice bioassays, showing an opposite influence of Dentamet® on emergence percentage and preference in the two species. No-choice tests indicated the highest successful parasitoid emergence on biocomplex-treated egg masses for T. japonicus, while no preference in the paired comparison with eggs treated with water or untreated. In contrast, T. mitsukurii displayed the lowest parasitism after Dentamet® treatment in no-choice tests, and preferred egg masses without Dentamet® in paired choice tests. We did not record any natural symbiont acquisition by the parasitoids emerged from H. halys egg masses, indicating that the wasp fitness is very unlikely to be altered by dysbiotic effects resulting from treatments. Therefore, our results support a further implementation of symbiotic control in different crops in combination with biological control, as sustainable options for H. halys integrated pest management.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01
       
  • Climate warming exacerbates plant disease through enhancing commensal
           interaction of co-infested insect vectors

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      Abstract: Abstract Pathosystems often involve two or more insect vector species; their positive or negative interactions may play key roles in plant pathogen transmission. Although climate warming likely causes changes in interactions among insect vectors by altering their demographics and behaviors, the mechanistic links between climate warming, insect vectors’ interactions, and epidemic dynamics remain largely unknown. To determine these links, we conducted a factorial experiment to determine how climate warming impacts the interactions between two coexisting insect vectors [Drosophila melanogaster (common) and Drosophila suzukii (invasive)] in relation to the development of the economically important grape sour rot disease by testing their demographic performance and pathogen transmission efficacy. To determine underlying mechanisms, we hypothesized that the wound-making behavior of D. suzukii, which breaks the skin of grapes when ovipositing (zigzag movement), is a temperature-dependent process and can be improved under warming. We found that D. suzukii promoted population growth of D. melanogaster but not vice versa, showing a commensal interaction. The co-occurrence of the two vector species accelerated pathogen transmission. Under warmer temperatures, D. suzukii made more wounds in grapes, resulting in more oviposition sites for D. melanogaster, which increased population density of D. melanogaster, and a more extensive occurrence of the plant disease. Our findings highlight a novel impact of climate warming on a pathosystem, wherein stimulation of the behavior of the invasive species facilitated the vectoring capacity of the common species, which exacerbated the occurrence of the native plant disease. This novel climate-driven process in agroecosystem provides guidance for future pest and disease prediction.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • Cannibalism and intraguild predation involved in the intra- and
           inter-specific interactions of the invasive fall armyworm, Spodoptera
           frugiperda, and lepidopteran maize stemborers

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      Abstract: Abstract Cannibalism and intraguild predation can play important roles in determining spread and survival or death of organisms which share the same resource. However, the relationship between cannibalism and intraguild predation, and the costs and benefits of such behaviours, is difficult to establish within insect communities, and little is known about how such behaviours are affected by invasive species. The present study was aimed at assessing the interactions between larvae of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and maize stemborers (native to Africa, Busseola fusca, and Sesamia calamistis and native to India, Chilo partellus) in relation to cannibalism and intraguild predation when they utilize the same resource. Experiments involving treatments with either single species of S. frugiperda or any of the stemborers or pairwise species combinations with S. frugiperda were conducted under laboratory conditions. The experimental insect larvae were reared on maize leaves and monitored until the last developmental stage where cannibalism and/or intraguild predation, larval survival, and relative growth rate were recorded. Results of the intraspecific interaction indicated that S. frugiperda exhibited cannibalism to a larger degree than the stemborers species, especially at the late instars. The higher cannibalism trait in S. frugiperda turned, however, to competitive advantage as it led to a higher degree of intraguild predation when they cohabit with stemborer species and allowed FAW to gain a greater relative growth rate. Overall, interactions with FAW are detrimental for stemborer species and may be an important factor to explain the invasive success of S. frugiperda. Such knowledge is essential to understand the mechanisms behind ecological interactions between pests with overlapping niches in the field and in designing successful integrated pest management strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-10-16
       
  • Genetic architecture and insecticide resistance in Chinese populations of
           Spodoptera frugiperda

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      Abstract: Abstract The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda invaded China in December 2018 and has since spread quickly countrywide. Two sympatric biotype strains of FAW, rice-strain and corn-strain, have been classified and showed to have different susceptibilities to chemical insecticides. Present FAW control has primarily relied on insecticides, which resulted in a rapid evolution of the resistance to insecticides in FAW. Herein, sixteen geographical populations of FAW were collected annually from maize fields in China between 2019 and 2021, both Tpi genotyping (n = 3079) and feeding preference bioassay (n = 2892) showed Chinese FAW were predominantly the corn-strain. Resistance monitoring revealed that FAW had not evolved resistance to chlorantraniliprole since it invaded China with RRs of 0.32–2.32 and a very low mutation frequency RyR of 0.14%. Most FAW populations were susceptible to emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and acephate. However, low resistance levels (5 < RR < 10) were detected in some populations, suggesting rotational or mixed applications of insecticides and further resistance monitoring must be strengthened to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance. The mutation frequency of ace-1 at the locus A201S and F290V was 21.27% and 84.51%, respectively. The mutation frequency of VGSC at the locus T929I and L1014F was 0.11% and 0.15%, respectively. The detoxification enzyme activities of P450s, ESTs and GSTs were relatively consistent among different populations. Our study provides a systematical understanding of the current genetic architecture and resistance status of FAW in China and will contribute to the region-wide chemical control and the development of resistance management strategies for FAW in China.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
       
  • Downy mildew (Peronospora aestivalis) infection of alfalfa alters the
           feeding behavior of the aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) and the chemical
           characteristics of alfalfa

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      Abstract: Abstract Tripartite plant–pathogen–phytophagous insect interactions have been widely studied. However, the effect of pathogens on phytophagous insects remains uncertain. Although alfalfa is a widely cultivated forage legume, Peronospora aestivalis and Therioaphis trifolii often co-occur in alfalfa, reducing quality and yields. To explore the relationships between alfalfa Zhongcao No. 3, P. aestivalis, and T. trifolii, an electrical penetration graph and four-arm olfactometer were used to determine T. trifolii behavior on infected and uninfected alfalfa. The physicochemical properties of infected alfalfa leaves were determined. The effects of volatiles on the selection behavior of T. trifolii were analyzed, and the effect of substance content on host selection behavior was determined. Peronospora aestivalis altered the nutrient composition of alfalfa, and T. trifolii preferentially fed on moderately infected alfalfa (P2) rather than severely infected alfalfa (P3). The E1 and E2 waveform durations were the shortest (11.87 min) and the longest in P2 (122.82 min), respectively. Therioaphis trifolii mostly chose moderately (25.71%) and severely (37.14%) infected alfalfa plants via olfaction. The analysis of volatile components revealed 53 substances in 8 categories. Among them, decanal (1×) and naphthalene (1000× and 10,000×) had a strong repellent effect on T. trifolii, whereas naphthalene (1×), cedrol (100×), 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23- (1000× and 10,000×) attracted T. trifolii. Our results provide new insights into plant disease and insect pest control and prevention.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Sequestration of cucurbitacins from cucumber plants by Diabrotica balteata
           larvae provides little protection against biological control agents

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      Abstract: Abstract Cucurbitaceae plants produce cucurbitacins, bitter triterpenoids, to protect themselves against various insects and pathogens. Adult banded cucumber beetles (Diabrotica balteata), a common pest of maize and cucurbits, sequester cucurbitacins, presumably as a defensive mechanism against their natural enemies, which might reduce the efficacy of biological control agents. Whether the larvae also sequester and are protected by cucurbitacins is unclear. We profiled cucurbitacin levels in four varieties of cucumber, Cucumis sativus, and in larvae fed on these varieties. Then, we evaluated larval growth and resistance against common biocontrol organisms including insect predators, entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi and bacteria. We found considerable qualitative and quantitative differences in the cucurbitacin levels of the four cucumber varieties. While two varieties were fully impaired in their production, the other two accumulated high levels of cucurbitacins. We also observed that D. balteata larvae sequester and metabolize cucurbitacins, and although the larvae fed extensively on both belowground and aboveground tissues, the sequestered cucurbitacins were mainly derived from belowground tissues. Cucurbitacins had no detrimental effects on larval performance and, surprisingly, did not provide protection against any of the natural enemies evaluated. Our results show that D. balteata larvae can indeed sequester and transform cucurbitacins, but sequestered cucurbitacins do not impact the biocontrol potential of common natural enemies used in biocontrol. Hence, this plant trait should be conserved in plant breeding programs, as it has been demonstrated in previous studies that it can provide protection against plant pathogens and generalist insects.
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
       
  • Can laboratory-reared aphid populations reflect the thermal performance of
           field populations in studies on pest science and climate change
           biology'

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      Abstract: Abstract Laboratory insect rearing provides well-developed tested insects for research in general biology, pest science and development of pest management technology and products. The effects of environmental conditions on various traits in laboratory populations are often extrapolated to field populations; for example, the thermal performances of laboratory populations are used to predict the phenology and abundance of wild pest populations. However, these studies generally do not consider the potential rapid evolution of the laboratory populations. Therefore, it is not certain whether laboratory populations reflect the performance of field populations in natural fluctuating and sometimes extreme conditions. Here, we used a global insect pest, the English grain aphid [Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] as the model system, to compare the demography of field and laboratory populations experimentally under constant and ecologically relevant fluctuating temperatures. Our results indicated that the field population adapted better to fluctuating temperatures and high temperatures. By contrast, the laboratory population adapted better to mild constant temperatures but reduced ability to withstand extremely high temperatures under diurnal fluctuations and chronic high temperatures. Therefore, caution is needed when extending the ecological effects of temperature from laboratory populations to wild populations, especially in environments with extreme events. Laboratory populations require regular replenishing or rearing under fluctuating temperature conditions to maintain the genetic diversity and prevent rapid adaptation to rearing environments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • Control of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in sweet cherry
           and raspberry using bait sprays

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      Abstract: Abstract Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) is a major pest of fruit crops with global significance. Effective control is reliant on uniformly spraying insecticides on all crop foliage. To encourage pest attraction and ingestion of insecticides, phagostimulant baits can be employed in ‘attract and kill’ strategies. In semi-field trials, we compared (1) full-field foliar sprays of two insecticides spinosad and cyantraniliprole, with (2) reduced [40%] and (3) low [4%] rates of the insecticides to control D. suzukii and reduce insecticide residues in fruit in sweet cherry and raspberry. The low rates of the insecticides were also combined with baits, (4) Combi-protec, a proprietary mixture of plant extracts, proteins and sugars and (5) molasses; treatment (6) was an untreated control. In both crops, when combined with baits, low rates of insecticides gave comparable control of D. suzukii in fruits compared with the full-rate sprays in most cases, and D. suzukii was significantly lower in these treatments compared with the untreated controls. Crop spray coverage was eight and thirty times higher in the full-rate applications compared with the bait and low-rate sprays, in raspberry and cherry, respectively. The reduction in applied insecticide was achieved by lower concentrations and volumes and a narrower band spray applied across the middle of the crop canopy. Spinosad and cyantraniliprole residues were detected in cherries taken from trees sprayed with full-rate applications but not in fruit from trees given the low rates of insecticides with bait. This study demonstrates that bait sprays can be effectively employed on crops with complex canopies for D. suzukii control.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • Determination of specific lethal heat treatment parameters for pests
           associated with wood products using the Humble water bath

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      Abstract: Abstract Heat treatment is an effective sanitization method used for over half a century to reduce the risk of transporting pests associated with wood products. The determination of precise lethal heat treatment parameters for pests is critical for the development of globally harmonized plant protection regulatory treatment policies. Separation of heat treatment dose (time and temperature) from the factors associated with the method of heat application (delivery) and variables associated with wood characteristics allows for universal agreement on lethal dose and promotes efficient development of treatment schedule guidance. The Humble water bath is an effective and carefully calibrated heat treatment apparatus designed to test the effects of heat and determine lethal temperature doses. Specifications for building this apparatus and experimental treatment parameters are described. To demonstrate the capacities of the water bath apparatus, the effect of heat on a non-indigenous wood-boring beetle, Anisandrus dispar, is reported using heat-ramp schedules similar to industrial kiln heating applications. Adult A. dispar tested in vitro, did not survive 50 °C treatment temperature for 15 min time duration.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
       
  • Potential of substrate-borne vibration to control greenhouse whitefly
           Trialeurodes vaporariorum and increase pollination efficiencies in tomato
           Solanum lycopersicum

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      Abstract: Abstract The effects of substrate-borne vibration with frequencies of 30 and 300 Hz on the number of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the number of fruit sets in greenhouse tomatoes were investigated. When tomatoes were intermittently subjected to 300-Hz vibration generated from vibrational exciters installed in a greenhouse, the number of adult and larval T. vaporariorum was significantly reduced compared with non-vibration plots. The substrate-borne 30-Hz vibration generated from different vibrational exciters did not affect the number of T. vaporariorum when smaller acceleration was applied to tomato plants; however, it showed a suppressive effect when greater acceleration was applied. Regarding pollination, the number of fruit sets in tomatoes subjected to 300-Hz vibration was the same as that in non-vibration plots, which was lower than that in plant growth regulation treatment plots. The number of fruit sets in tomatoes subjected to 30-Hz vibration significantly increased compared with that in non-vibration plots, which was comparable to that in plant growth regulation treatment plots. Our findings suggest that applying substrate vibration to tomatoes is effective in suppressing the plant infestation by T. vaporariorum and promoting tomato pollination. Vibrations could disrupt various behaviors associated with infestation and cause repellency in T. vaporariorum. This study focused on the effectiveness of vibrational conditions, including frequency, acceleration, and temporal characteristics, in detail, aiming to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs in greenhouse tomato cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
       
  • Investigating dispersal abilities of Aphrophoridae in European temperate
           regions to assess the threat of potential Xylella fastidiosa-based
           pathosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Modeling the potential spread of Xylella fastidiosa can document contingency plans in northern Europe, so far uncolonized by the bacterium. Through mark–release–recapture (MRR) and flight-mill experiments, the flight capacity of two potential vectors for temperate Europe was studied: Philaenus spumarius, the reported southern European vector, and Aphrophora salicina, a xylem-specialist feeding on potential host plants of X. fastidiosa. Aphrophora salicina displayed significantly better flight performances than P. spumarius. In flight-mills, the average distance flown was, respectively, 623 m vs. 102 m and the maximal distance flown was 6.16 km vs. 1.54 km in 2.5 h. In MRRs, A. salicina travelled more than 30 m in a single flight, with a maximal interception distance of 80 m after two days, highlighting that dispersal is driven by connectivity and host plant quality. Philaenus spumarius mainly jumped, with 1 m movements in length and a maximal interception distance of 32 m in 27 days. Models estimated P. spumarius' daily mean dispersal at 1.5 m and A. salicina's at 3.5 m. Although only a small part of the population moves over very long distances, this pool of efficient insects could already be sufficient to effectively spread an epidemic. As Salicaceae have been reported as host plants of the bacterium, the association of Aphrophoridae and Salicaceae in riparian areas could create bacterium reservoirs in corridors allowing for transportation over medium to long distances.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01562-9
       
  • Special issue on recent advances in zoophytophagous arthropods for
           agroecosystems sustainability

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      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01563-8
       
  • Prevalence and drivers of a tree-killing bark beetle, Ips typographus
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The unintentional transport of insects beyond their native ranges has greatly increased with globalization over the past century, leading to higher propagule pressure in non-native ranges of many species. Knowledge about the prevalence of a species in international invasion pathways is important for predicting invasions and taking appropriate biosecurity measures. We investigated the spatiotemporal patterns and drivers of interceptions—detections of at least one individual with imported goods that potentially serve as a proxy for arrival rates—for a tree-killing bark beetle, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in the USA from 1914 to 2008. Across the study period, there were 505 interceptions of I. typographus with shipments originating from > 25 countries at ports in 22 US states. Interceptions first occurred in 1938, peaked at 33 and 25 in 1984 and 1996, respectively, and declined after the mid-1990s. Interceptions of I. typographus did not have a statistically detectable relationship with outbreak levels in the native range, were inversely related to annual import volume (an artifact likely driven by changes in inspection policies), and were more frequent during the winter. Thus, while interceptions of I. typographus are challenging to predict, we found evidence that (i) biosecurity practices against this beetle could be increased during winter but not in response to outbreaks in source regions and (ii) the overall abundance of this beetle in invasion pathways has recently decreased, probably because strengthened phytosanitary protocols have reduced contamination levels and/or decreased the perceived need for inspections.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01559-4
       
 
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