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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Journal of Pest Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.669
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4766 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4758
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • A real-time remote surveillance system for fruit flies of economic
           importance: sensitivity and image analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Timely detection of an invasion event, or a pest outbreak, is an extremely challenging operation of major importance for implementing management action toward eradication and/or containment. Fruit flies—FF—(Diptera: Tephritidae) comprise important invasive and quarantine species that threaten the world fruit and vegetables production. The current manuscript introduces a recently developed McPhail-type electronic trap (e-trap) and provides data on its field performance to surveil three major invasive FF (Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. zonata). Using FF male lures, the e-trap attracts the flies and retains them on a sticky surface placed in the internal part of the trap. The e-trap captures frames of the trapped adults and automatically uploads the images to the remote server for identification conducted on a novel algorithm involving deep learning. Both the e-trap and the developed code were tested in the field in Greece, Austria, Italy, South Africa and Israel. The FF classification code was initially trained using a machine-learning algorithm and FF images derived from laboratory colonies of two of the species (C. capitata and B. zonata). Field tests were then conducted to investigate the electronic, communication and attractive performance of the e-trap, and the model accuracy to classify FFs. Our results demonstrated a relatively good communication, electronic performance and trapping efficacy of the e-trap. The classification model provided average precision results (93–95%) for the three target FFs from images uploaded remotely from e-traps deployed in field conditions. The developed and field tested e-trap system complies with the suggested attributes required for an advanced camera-based smart-trap.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • More persistent bacterial than fungal associations in the microbiota of a
           pest insect

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      Abstract: Abstract The invasive fly Drosophila suzukii is a pest that can infest a diverse range of intact, ripening fruits, using its serrated ovipositor. This constitutes a different niche compared to the rotting fruits its ancestors use, especially because these intact fruits have limited quantities of microbes and soluble nutrients for the developing larvae. To investigate the potential role of microbial associations in the niche expansion of this invasive fly, we characterized the bacterial and fungal communities of D. suzukii and various wild fruits from which they developed. To assess cross-generational microbial associations, we also lab-reared fly populations and characterized their microbial communities. Diversity metrics of microbial communities differed significantly between flies and fruits. Different fruit types varied substantially in microbial composition, while flies showed relatively uniform bacterial communities, irrespective of the fruit source they developed on. After approximately ten generations of lab-rearing, bacterial communities still showed considerable overlap with those of wild flies. Fungal communities of flies and fruits showed larger resemblance, with a substantial overlap between wild flies and the fruits on which they had developed. Our study thus reports that the fungal community structure in these pests largely reflects those on the breeding substrates, while these flies might have formed more persistent associations with some bacteria and transmit these across generations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Rising temperatures affect the interspecific interference competition
           between Harmonia axyridis and Propylea japonica, and their predation rate
           on Myzus persicae

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      Abstract: Abstract Rising temperatures can enhance foraging activity and accelerate the encounter rate of different predators, which may increase their interference competition strengths. However, limited information is available on such effects of temperature, and on the consequences for their predation rates. We used a functional response approach to experimentally quantify the interspecific interference competition strength of two species of ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis and Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), toward their prey Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at 23 and 33 °C, respectively. The results indicated that high temperature could cause P. japonica to be more active and interfere with H. axyridis more often, and strengthened the interference competition between these two predators. The functional response of H. axyridis was changed from type II in single H. axyridis treatment to type III in paired predator assays at 23 and 33 °C. Moreover, single H. axyridis consumed more aphids than H. axyridis in heterospecific predator trials at aphid densities below 50 and 35 at 23 and 33 °C treatments, respectively. For P. japonica, type II functional responses were detected in all assays. Additionally, when competing with H. axyridis, the predation rate of P. japonica at 23 °C was almost unchanged compared to that of single P. japonica, but fewer aphids were eaten compared with single P. japonica across all aphid densities at 33 °C. Thus, with interference competition, two predator species respond differently to temperature changes in terms of foraging efficiency, which may further affect the population adaptability and control efficiency of these two focal species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Geranium macrorrhizum, a potential novel companion plant affecting
           preference and performance of Myzus persicae on sweet pepper

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      Abstract: Abstract The combination of a companion plant with a cultivated plant is considered an interesting strategy to reduce pest pressure and, hence, the use of pesticides. Although several plants from the Alliaceae and Lamiaceae families are known to be efficient companion plants against aphid pests, only a few plants of the Geraniaceae family have been studied so far. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effects of Geranium macrorrhizum as a companion plant on the colonization of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Aphid’s orientation behavior, probing behavior and life history traits were assessed on sweet pepper using a host choice preference setup, Electrical Penetration Graph technique and clip-cage laboratory bioassays, respectively. The potential disturbance through mechanical stimulation of geranium leaves was also assessed. The composition of VOCs from G. macrorrhizum leaves was analyzed using SPME technic followed by GC–MS. This study revealed that G. macrorrhizum as a companion plant was intrinsically repellent but not enough to completely mask the attractive odor of the sweet pepper host plant. Moreover, G. macrorrhizum negatively impacted the probing behavior, fecundity and survival rate of M. persicae on sweet pepper. The effects were exacerbated when G. macrorrhizum leaves were mechanically stimulated. This could be due to the greater amount of the main VOCs germacrone and β-elemenone emitted by G. macrorrhizum following mechanical stimulation. Our results bring new insights into the use of novel companion plants to regulate aphid pest populations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Evaluation of Paecilomyces tenuis producing Huperzine A for the management
           of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are notorious plant-parasitic nematodes that affect agricultural crops. These obligate soil-dwelling parasites typically maneuver the host plant physiology by forming specialized feeding cells resulting in heavy yield losses. Scant management tools are available to effectively combat this pest. In an exploratory attempt of identifying new fungal biocontrol agent(s) for M. incognita from India, a Paecilomyces tenuis isolate from rhizosphere soil was found to incur > 90% mortality of the infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) at 24 h post-exposure to the fungal filtrate with about 87% parasitization. The fungal filtrate also significantly reduced the egg hatching and host-root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro and in vivo conditions revealing its effectiveness in curbing nematode pathogenicity with positive effects on plant growth. Chromatographic analyses revealed the presence of Huperzine A (433.56 mg L−1) in the P. tenuis isolate. Besides, the isolate possessed acetylcholinesterase inhibition attribute with an IC50 of 2.85 ± 0.12 mg mL−1 of the fungal filtrate. Further, GC-MS analysis revealed the production of other nematicidal compounds by the fungus including acetic acid. To conceptualize the mode of nematicidal action, RNA-Seq was done post-treatment of the M. incognita J2s and model worm Caenorhabditis elegans with fungal filtrate and pure Huperzine A. The transcriptomic profile unraveled the molecular intricacies underlying the nematicidal action affecting several biological pathways and developmental checkpoints of the nematode. Thus, the P. tenuis isolate offers significant potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against M. incognita along with its commercial use for Huperzine A production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
       
  • Current knowledge and implementations of Bemisia tabaci genomic
           technologies for sustainable control

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      Abstract: Abstract Bemisia tabaci species complex (whitefly) is one of the most dangerous pests that destroy many important crops worldwide. It causes damage to the host plant by feeding on phloem sap as well as transmitting a wide range of devastating plant viruses (especially begomoviruses) that cause severe epidemics on crops. To fend off the menace, modern genomic-based strategies have been adapted to minimize the crop losses due to this destructive pest. Genetic engineering techniques, e.g., transgenics and RNA interference (RNAi) have shown promising results in controlling B. tabaci in plants; however, these techniques often face challenges due to the concerns about GMOs in food crops. With the enhanced knowledge about B. tabaci genomics, new technologies, e.g., manipulation of microbiota or CRISPR-based genome editing have shown promising results in several insect pests and could have an instrumental role in controlling agricultural pests including whitefly. Genome editing is an eco-friendly approach that can be employed to suppress or even destroy the target species. In this review, we have discussed B. tabaci as a pest and advancement in control strategies of B. tabaci. Various potential targets for genome editing have also been discussed that could be used in gene-editing technologies for the efficient management of B. tabaci and the viruses it transmits. Finally, we also outlined the future perspective and effective use of genome editing technology in developing CRISPR-based gene drive for whitefly population modification, suppression, and eradication.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Arbovirus vectors insects: are botanical insecticides an alternative for
           its management'

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      Abstract: Abstract Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are insect vectors of epidemiologically important arboviruses owing to their behavior, physiology, morphology, and proximity to humans, which require incisive strategies to contain their spread. The failure of current arbovirus management plans and lack of fully effective treatments suggest that vector control by botanical insecticides could be an effective and safe strategy. Botanical insecticides are obtained from renewable sources and have complex chemical compositions, different modes of action, and selective toxicity for target organisms. In this review, we present the main control strategies for insects belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles and discuss the possibility of using botanical insecticides in the integrated management of vectors. Numerous botanical insecticide formulations are presented, and their potential modes of action during the immature stages include damage to the egg exocorionic network and abnormal disruption of embryos, which result from deficiencies in egg chitinization, impairment of larval morphology, and inhibition or differential expression of enzymes, promoting changes in the digestive tract epithelium and reduced larval mobility, and impairment of external surfaces or the respiratory system of pupae, altering pupal swimming patterns. In adult insects, botanical insecticides can promote incomplete ecdysis, in addition to dysfunction of olfactory receptors, food traffic, and reproductive function. Thus, broad-spectrum botanical insecticides can be used to control the different stages of insect development. The contributions of nanotechnology to vector control should be further explored to enhance the insecticidal activity and stability of botanical insecticides under different conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Cold storage effects on biological parameters of Telenomus remus, a
           promising egg parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda, reared on Spodoptera
           litura eggs

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      Abstract: Abstract Telenomus remus (Nixon) is a promising egg parasitoid for the management of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). This species has been successfully reared on alternative hosts under laboratory conditions. However, the production of biocontrol agents is often out of sync with the demands in the field. Appropriate cold storage techniques can drastically prolong their shelf-life to synchronize the release schedule with field needs and reduce production costs. Past studies on the cold storage of T. remus only focused on certain developmental stages, but not all stages. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the impacts of storage temperature (8, 11, and 14 °C) and duration (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days) on the maternal emergence and offspring fitness of T. remus stored at different developmental stages (first instar larvae, second instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae) using Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) eggs as alternative hosts. For each developmental stage, emergence percentage and parasitism capacity of parents all decreased with increased storage duration and decreased storage temperature. Maternal female longevity, offspring emergence percentage and percentage of females were barely affected by cold storage. We concluded that storage of the first instar larvae at 14 °C for 21 days was the optimum storage scheme for T. remus. Our findings can be directly used as guidance in mass production and storage of this parasitoid.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Intraspecific variability in herbivore response to elemental defences is
           caused by the metal itself

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      Abstract: Abstract Some plants are able to accumulate on their leaves metals taken from the soil, using this as a defence against herbivorous arthropods. However, herbivore response to metal accumulation in plants is known to be variable. While some species and taxonomic groups are less affected than others, hormetic effects have also been observed in spider mites, herbivorous crop pests. Still, knowledge on the range and causes of intraspecific variation in the response of herbivores to metal accumulation is lacking. Here, using two species of spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, we tested the variation in 17 populations in response to cadmium-accumulating tomato plants and the drivers of such variation. We observed a nonlinear, hormetic response of mites to plants with cadmium in some, but not all, populations. The same pattern was recaptured in artificial diets with different concentrations of cadmium but not in artificial diets with sugars, which change in the plant in response to cadmium. This indicates that herbivores on metal-accumulating plants respond to metals, not to the variations in leaf carbohydrates. Therefore, metals exert different effects on herbivores according to the amount accumulated, but independently of other studied plant traits. This knowledge is key to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying herbivore responses to metal-based plant defences and to pesticides containing heavy metals. Additionally, our findings draw attention to the need of considering intraspecific variation and nonlinearities when studying the effects of metals and other contaminants on herbivorous arthropods.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Knockout of the LW opsin gene interferes with oviposition selection of
           nocturnal moth, Helicoverpa armigera

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      Abstract: Abstract Diurnal insects can select suitable oviposition sites by discriminating plant coloration. The long wavelength sensitive opsin (LW) gene is mainly for discriminating long wavelengths of colors in diurnal insects. However, the affection of coloration on oviposition selection and the roles of LW gene in nocturnal insects are unclear. Here, the questions were explored in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology and experiments of oviposition selection under different coloration backgrounds. To different brightness (achromatic white, grey, black), wild moths preferred to oviposit on higher-brightness background, while the LW mutant had no preference. To different colors, wild moths had no oviposition preference, while the LW mutant significantly reduced oviposition on long-wavelengths of colors (red, orange, yellow, and green) compared to blue and violet. When both brightness (white) and color (orange and green) cues were presented for oviposition, wild moths were more attracted to brightness than color, while LW mutant had no significant preference. For the coloration of young and old leaves, wild moths preferred to oviposit on coloration of young leaves that had a brighter light green, while LW mutant had no preference. Electroretinogram recordings showed that the responses of moths to different bright light or different color light were significantly decreased after knockout of LW, especially to the long-wavelengths. These results suggest that brightness is a more reliable cue rather than color for oviposition selection of nocturnal moth H. armigera in changing microhabitats and LW mediates the recognition of different brightness and long wavelengths.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Assessing the risk of establishment and transient populations of
           Spodoptera frugiperda in Europe

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      Abstract: Abstract The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is an invasive pest threatening crop production and food security worldwide. High concerns are linked to the potential establishment of the species in Europe. The high migratory capacity of S. frugiperda causes concerns about the potential impacts of transient populations invading new areas from suitable hotspots. In the present work, we developed and used a physiologically-based demographic model to quantitatively assess the risks of S. frugiperda in Europe. The risks were assessed considering a best-, a median-, and a worst-case scenario. The Mediterranean coastal areas of Southern Europe resulted particularly suitable for the establishment of the species, with suitable areas reaching even higher latitudes, in the worst-case scenario. In Europe, up to four generations per year were predicted. The predicted yearly average number of moths per trap per week (± standard deviation) was 5 (± 4), 17 (± 5), and 139 (± 22) in the best, median-, and worst-case assessment scenarios, respectively. Model results showed that Southern and Central Europe up to the 48th parallel north might be exposed to the risk of transient populations. Depending on the latitude and on the period of arrival of the propagule, 1–2 transient generations per year might be expected. The model can be used to define strategies for reducing the risks of establishment of the pest at the country level. Predictions on the dynamics and phenology of the pest can also be used to support its management at the local level.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Residual effects and foliar persistence of pesticides used in irrigated
           rice on the parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

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      Abstract: Abstract We evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam on Telenomus podisi after spraying rice plants in a greenhouse, as well as the degradation kinetics of these compounds over time. Pesticides were sprayed at 50 and 100% of the maximum field recommended concentration for the crop (MFRC). At 0, 5, 10, and 20 days after application of the treatments (DAAT), T. podisi was exposed to leaves containing dry pesticide residues. On these same dates, rice leaves from each treatment were collected for determination of pesticide residues by UHPLC–MS/MS. Based on the results for mortality, parasitism, emergence, and sex ratio of T. podisi, the effects were grouped using a reduction coefficient (Ex) and classified according to the scale of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC). The fungicide azoxystrobin (at 50 and 100% MFRC) was the only one classified as harmless (Class 1). The herbicide cyhalofop-butyl was classified as slightly harmful (Class 2) to T. podisi until 5 DAAT. The insecticide thiamethoxam (50 and 100% MFRC), up to 5 DAAT, was classified as harmful (Class 4) on T. podisi. Regarding residue, the initial concentrations (0 DAAT) of azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam at 100% MFRC in rice leaves were 102.14, 210.09, and 36.93 mg kg−1, respectively. At 50% MFRC, initial waste was approximately half that extracted at 100% MFRC. The estimated half-lives (DT50) were approximately 17, 4, and 5 days for azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between effects and residues.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Seasonal parasitism of native egg parasitoids of brown marmorated stink
           bug (Halyomorpha halys) in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract The invasive, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic insect pest native to East Asia. A strong effort has been made to identify natural egg parasitoids of H. halys in invaded regions, but parasitism rates reported from these studies have been inconsequentially low. To determine the species composition, phenology, and efficiency of egg parasitoids in the native region of H. halys, we deployed fresh and frozen sentinel H. halys egg masses from March through December in Kyoto, Japan. Our findings provide valuable insights on the abundance and parasitism rates of native H. halys parasitoids in Japan. A total of seven parasitoid species emerged from the sentinel egg masses, but Trissolcus japonicus had the highest parasitism rate of all parasitoids recovered (84% on fresh egg masses) and maintained the largest portion of the total parasitoid species composition (60% on fresh egg masses). The early season parasitoid community in Kyoto, Japan, is dominated by T. japonicus, with the first parasitism activity occurring in March. Throughout the course of the field study, T. japonicus also sustained a significantly higher parasitism rate on fresh H. halys eggs than frozen. The results from this research help expand the understanding of parasitoids in the native region of H. halys and hold importance for the future development of biological control programs against this invasive pest.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Red imported fire ants cover the insecticide-treated surfaces with
           particles to reduce contact toxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract Surface treatment is commonly used in controlling the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In the present study, the behavioral responses of S. invicta workers to surfaces treated with insecticides were investigated. Toxicological tests showed that beta-cypermethrin had the highest contact toxicity (with the lowest LC50 value) among nine tested insecticides, followed by thiamethoxam, fipronil, indoxacarb, chlorfenapyr, spinetoram, rotenone, avermectin, and chlorantraniliprole. In the laboratory, surfaces treated with beta-cypermethrin or rotenone significantly reduced the number of foraging ants. In addition, S. invicta workers transported significantly more particles (measured in weight and/or covered area) onto surfaces treated with fipronil (50, 500, and 5000 µg/mL), rotenone (5000 µg/mL), or avermectin (5000 µg/mL) compared with the controls. Similarly, these insecticides significantly triggered the particle-covering behavior of ants in the field. We hypothesized that such behaviors would reduce the contact toxicity of insecticides against S. invicta. When the surfaces treated with fipronil or rotenone (500 or 5000 µg/mL) were artificiality covered with particles, S. invicta had significantly higher LT50 values compared with insecticide-treated surfaces without particles. This study provides the first evidence that S. invicta workers can perform particle-covering behavior to reduce the toxicity of certain insecticides, which constitutes a unique insecticide-resistance strategy in ants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A first inference of the phylogeography of the worldwide invader
           Xylosandrus compactus

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      Abstract: Abstract Native to Southeastern Asia, the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus is invasive worldwide. Its invasion is favoured by its cryptic lifestyle, symbiosis with a fungus that facilitates a broad range of host plants, and predominant sib-mating reproduction. X. compactus invaded Africa more than a century ago and the Americas and Pacific Islands in the middle of the twentieth century. It was not detected in Europe before 2011, when it was first reported in Italy before quickly spreading to France, Greece and Spain. Despite the negative environmental, agricultural and economic consequences of the invasion of X. compactus, its invasion history and main pathways remain poorly documented. We used COI and RAD sequencing to (i) characterise the worldwide genetic structure of the species, (ii) disentangle the origin(s) of the non-native populations on the three invaded continents and (iii) analyse the genetic diversity and pathways within each invaded region. Three mitochondrial lineages were identified in the native range. Populations invading Europe and the American-Pacific region originated from the first lineage and were only slightly genetically differentiated at nuclear SNP markers, suggesting independent introductions from close sources in or near Shanghai, ca. 60 years apart. Populations invading Africa originated from the second lineage, likely from India or Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Priming of rice defense against a sap-sucking insect pest brown
           planthopper by silicon

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      Abstract: Abstract Silicon (Si) enhances rice resistance to various insect herbivores. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Whereas the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway plays a vital role in plant defense responses to sucking insects, its role in Si-enhanced rice resistance has not been investigated. Si transporter mutant OsLsi1 and mutants with antisense expression of ICS (as-ics) and NPR1 (as-npr1) in the SA pathway and their corresponding wild types (WT) were treated with and without Si to determine Si effects on rice resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), as well as on SA accumulation, defense-related enzyme activity and gene expression. Si application significantly affected host preference of BPH, significantly reduced honeydew secretion and inhibited oviposition and hatch rate. Upon BPH infestation, SA content, transcript levels of BPH3, ICS1 and PAL4, and activities of POD, SOD, PPO and PAL were significantly higher in Si-treated than untreated plants. The defense responses were also faster. However, OsLsi1 mutant plants displayed higher susceptibility to BPH and minimal defense responses. Furthermore, simultaneous application of SA and Si in WT plants showed the highest resistance to BPH, but had no obvious effect on OsLsi1, antisense as-ics and as-npr1 plants. Our results suggest that Si enhances rice defense against the sucking insect BPH by defense priming and the Si-mediated priming involves SA signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Transgenic plants expressing immunosuppressive dsRNA improve
           entomopathogen efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

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      Abstract: Abstract Transgenic plants that express double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting vital insect genes have recently emerged as a valuable new tool for pest control. In this study, tobacco plants were transformed to produce dsRNA targeting Sl 102 gene that is involved in the immune response of Spodoptera littoralis larvae, a serious lepidopteran pest of several crops. Experimental larvae reared on transgenic tobacco lines showed (1) a strongly reduced level of Sl 102 transcripts, which was positively associated with food consumption; (2) a substantial impairment of the encapsulation response mediated by hemocytes; and (3) a marked increase in the susceptibility to Xentari™, a Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticide. Importantly, this approach may allow a reduction in the doses of B. thuringiensis used for field applications and enhance its killing activity on mature larvae. The results obtained thus support the use of immunosuppressive RNAi plants to enhance the performance of microbial insecticides on lepidopteran larvae.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ecological niche complexity of invasive and native cryptic species of the
           Bemisia tabaci species complex in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Bemisia tabaci is an important pest affecting agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide and comprises a complex of cryptic species. In China, the introduction of the two invasive cryptic species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), has considerably affected the ecological niche of the native cryptic species. Based on occurrence records obtained through field surveys and high-resolution environmental data, using maximum entropy modelling, we established ecological niche models to predict the distribution of invasive and native cryptic species of B. tabaci in China and identified the differences in ecological niches. The results showed that the distribution range and niche breadth of the invasive cryptic species exceed that of the native cryptic species in the order of MED > MEAM1 > China1 > Asia1. There are different degrees of niche overlap and range overlap between cryptic species. Moreover, the important environmental variables affecting their distribution were different, as well as their response and adaptation to most environmental variables. Our results suggest that the B. tabaci species complex occupies a complex ecological niche in China. The findings improve our understanding of the ecological characteristics of B. tabaci species complex, which will be useful in the development of prevention and control strategies for this pest in China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Barley yellow dwarf virus-infected wheat plant modulated selection
           behavior of vector aphids

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      Abstract: Abstract Evolution of the spread strategies of plant pathogens may be described using the vector manipulation hypothesis (VMH), which posits that pathogens can enhance their transmission to new host plants through their effects on mobile vectors. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) transmitted by aphid vectors in wheat has become increasingly important as a model pathosystem. However, the role of alate aphids in virus spread has attracted little attention although the migratory morph is a key vector for the long-distance dispersal of plant pathogens. Herein, we first examined the selection preferences of alate or aptera morphs of the vector Schizaphis graminum for healthy/mock-inoculated/BYDV-infected wheat plants and then identified possible volatile components that influenced alate S. graminum selection behavior. The results showed that noninfective S. graminum (either alate or aptera) mainly tended to select BYDV-infected wheat while infective S. graminum (only aptera) preferentially selected noninfected wheat. In addition, we found that the BYDV-infected plants showed significant differences in the content and quantity of volatiles compared with healthy or mock-inoculated wheat plants and that the increased volatiles (trans-2-hexen-1-al or decanal) released by BYDV-infected plants may play a critical role in attracting noninfective alate aphids in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings describe a novel mechanism by which the volatile profiles released by virus-infected plants may influence alate aphid colonization preference, providing further or new evidences for the VMH. This study extends our knowledge base on plant virus transmission to new host plants with potential ramifications for the integrated management of both the vector and disease.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Correction to: Host preference of Thrips hawaiiensis for different
           ornamental plants

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      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01486-4
       
 
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