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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal of Pest Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.669
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4766 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4758
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Residual effects and foliar persistence of pesticides used in irrigated
           rice on the parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

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      Abstract: Abstract We evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam on Telenomus podisi after spraying rice plants in a greenhouse, as well as the degradation kinetics of these compounds over time. Pesticides were sprayed at 50 and 100% of the maximum field recommended concentration for the crop (MFRC). At 0, 5, 10, and 20 days after application of the treatments (DAAT), T. podisi was exposed to leaves containing dry pesticide residues. On these same dates, rice leaves from each treatment were collected for determination of pesticide residues by UHPLC–MS/MS. Based on the results for mortality, parasitism, emergence, and sex ratio of T. podisi, the effects were grouped using a reduction coefficient (Ex) and classified according to the scale of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC). The fungicide azoxystrobin (at 50 and 100% MFRC) was the only one classified as harmless (Class 1). The herbicide cyhalofop-butyl was classified as slightly harmful (Class 2) to T. podisi until 5 DAAT. The insecticide thiamethoxam (50 and 100% MFRC), up to 5 DAAT, was classified as harmful (Class 4) on T. podisi. Regarding residue, the initial concentrations (0 DAAT) of azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam at 100% MFRC in rice leaves were 102.14, 210.09, and 36.93 mg kg−1, respectively. At 50% MFRC, initial waste was approximately half that extracted at 100% MFRC. The estimated half-lives (DT50) were approximately 17, 4, and 5 days for azoxystrobin, cyhalofop-butyl, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between effects and residues.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Seasonal parasitism of native egg parasitoids of brown marmorated stink
           bug (Halyomorpha halys) in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract The invasive, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic insect pest native to East Asia. A strong effort has been made to identify natural egg parasitoids of H. halys in invaded regions, but parasitism rates reported from these studies have been inconsequentially low. To determine the species composition, phenology, and efficiency of egg parasitoids in the native region of H. halys, we deployed fresh and frozen sentinel H. halys egg masses from March through December in Kyoto, Japan. Our findings provide valuable insights on the abundance and parasitism rates of native H. halys parasitoids in Japan. A total of seven parasitoid species emerged from the sentinel egg masses, but Trissolcus japonicus had the highest parasitism rate of all parasitoids recovered (84% on fresh egg masses) and maintained the largest portion of the total parasitoid species composition (60% on fresh egg masses). The early season parasitoid community in Kyoto, Japan, is dominated by T. japonicus, with the first parasitism activity occurring in March. Throughout the course of the field study, T. japonicus also sustained a significantly higher parasitism rate on fresh H. halys eggs than frozen. The results from this research help expand the understanding of parasitoids in the native region of H. halys and hold importance for the future development of biological control programs against this invasive pest.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Red imported fire ants cover the insecticide-treated surfaces with
           particles to reduce contact toxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract Surface treatment is commonly used in controlling the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In the present study, the behavioral responses of S. invicta workers to surfaces treated with insecticides were investigated. Toxicological tests showed that beta-cypermethrin had the highest contact toxicity (with the lowest LC50 value) among nine tested insecticides, followed by thiamethoxam, fipronil, indoxacarb, chlorfenapyr, spinetoram, rotenone, avermectin, and chlorantraniliprole. In the laboratory, surfaces treated with beta-cypermethrin or rotenone significantly reduced the number of foraging ants. In addition, S. invicta workers transported significantly more particles (measured in weight and/or covered area) onto surfaces treated with fipronil (50, 500, and 5000 µg/mL), rotenone (5000 µg/mL), or avermectin (5000 µg/mL) compared with the controls. Similarly, these insecticides significantly triggered the particle-covering behavior of ants in the field. We hypothesized that such behaviors would reduce the contact toxicity of insecticides against S. invicta. When the surfaces treated with fipronil or rotenone (500 or 5000 µg/mL) were artificiality covered with particles, S. invicta had significantly higher LT50 values compared with insecticide-treated surfaces without particles. This study provides the first evidence that S. invicta workers can perform particle-covering behavior to reduce the toxicity of certain insecticides, which constitutes a unique insecticide-resistance strategy in ants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A first inference of the phylogeography of the worldwide invader
           Xylosandrus compactus

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      Abstract: Abstract Native to Southeastern Asia, the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus is invasive worldwide. Its invasion is favoured by its cryptic lifestyle, symbiosis with a fungus that facilitates a broad range of host plants, and predominant sib-mating reproduction. X. compactus invaded Africa more than a century ago and the Americas and Pacific Islands in the middle of the twentieth century. It was not detected in Europe before 2011, when it was first reported in Italy before quickly spreading to France, Greece and Spain. Despite the negative environmental, agricultural and economic consequences of the invasion of X. compactus, its invasion history and main pathways remain poorly documented. We used COI and RAD sequencing to (i) characterise the worldwide genetic structure of the species, (ii) disentangle the origin(s) of the non-native populations on the three invaded continents and (iii) analyse the genetic diversity and pathways within each invaded region. Three mitochondrial lineages were identified in the native range. Populations invading Europe and the American-Pacific region originated from the first lineage and were only slightly genetically differentiated at nuclear SNP markers, suggesting independent introductions from close sources in or near Shanghai, ca. 60 years apart. Populations invading Africa originated from the second lineage, likely from India or Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Priming of rice defense against a sap-sucking insect pest brown
           planthopper by silicon

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      Abstract: Abstract Silicon (Si) enhances rice resistance to various insect herbivores. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Whereas the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway plays a vital role in plant defense responses to sucking insects, its role in Si-enhanced rice resistance has not been investigated. Si transporter mutant OsLsi1 and mutants with antisense expression of ICS (as-ics) and NPR1 (as-npr1) in the SA pathway and their corresponding wild types (WT) were treated with and without Si to determine Si effects on rice resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), as well as on SA accumulation, defense-related enzyme activity and gene expression. Si application significantly affected host preference of BPH, significantly reduced honeydew secretion and inhibited oviposition and hatch rate. Upon BPH infestation, SA content, transcript levels of BPH3, ICS1 and PAL4, and activities of POD, SOD, PPO and PAL were significantly higher in Si-treated than untreated plants. The defense responses were also faster. However, OsLsi1 mutant plants displayed higher susceptibility to BPH and minimal defense responses. Furthermore, simultaneous application of SA and Si in WT plants showed the highest resistance to BPH, but had no obvious effect on OsLsi1, antisense as-ics and as-npr1 plants. Our results suggest that Si enhances rice defense against the sucking insect BPH by defense priming and the Si-mediated priming involves SA signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Transgenic plants expressing immunosuppressive dsRNA improve
           entomopathogen efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

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      Abstract: Abstract Transgenic plants that express double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting vital insect genes have recently emerged as a valuable new tool for pest control. In this study, tobacco plants were transformed to produce dsRNA targeting Sl 102 gene that is involved in the immune response of Spodoptera littoralis larvae, a serious lepidopteran pest of several crops. Experimental larvae reared on transgenic tobacco lines showed (1) a strongly reduced level of Sl 102 transcripts, which was positively associated with food consumption; (2) a substantial impairment of the encapsulation response mediated by hemocytes; and (3) a marked increase in the susceptibility to Xentari™, a Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticide. Importantly, this approach may allow a reduction in the doses of B. thuringiensis used for field applications and enhance its killing activity on mature larvae. The results obtained thus support the use of immunosuppressive RNAi plants to enhance the performance of microbial insecticides on lepidopteran larvae.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ecological niche complexity of invasive and native cryptic species of the
           Bemisia tabaci species complex in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Bemisia tabaci is an important pest affecting agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide and comprises a complex of cryptic species. In China, the introduction of the two invasive cryptic species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), has considerably affected the ecological niche of the native cryptic species. Based on occurrence records obtained through field surveys and high-resolution environmental data, using maximum entropy modelling, we established ecological niche models to predict the distribution of invasive and native cryptic species of B. tabaci in China and identified the differences in ecological niches. The results showed that the distribution range and niche breadth of the invasive cryptic species exceed that of the native cryptic species in the order of MED > MEAM1 > China1 > Asia1. There are different degrees of niche overlap and range overlap between cryptic species. Moreover, the important environmental variables affecting their distribution were different, as well as their response and adaptation to most environmental variables. Our results suggest that the B. tabaci species complex occupies a complex ecological niche in China. The findings improve our understanding of the ecological characteristics of B. tabaci species complex, which will be useful in the development of prevention and control strategies for this pest in China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Barley yellow dwarf virus-infected wheat plant modulated selection
           behavior of vector aphids

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      Abstract: Abstract Evolution of the spread strategies of plant pathogens may be described using the vector manipulation hypothesis (VMH), which posits that pathogens can enhance their transmission to new host plants through their effects on mobile vectors. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) transmitted by aphid vectors in wheat has become increasingly important as a model pathosystem. However, the role of alate aphids in virus spread has attracted little attention although the migratory morph is a key vector for the long-distance dispersal of plant pathogens. Herein, we first examined the selection preferences of alate or aptera morphs of the vector Schizaphis graminum for healthy/mock-inoculated/BYDV-infected wheat plants and then identified possible volatile components that influenced alate S. graminum selection behavior. The results showed that noninfective S. graminum (either alate or aptera) mainly tended to select BYDV-infected wheat while infective S. graminum (only aptera) preferentially selected noninfected wheat. In addition, we found that the BYDV-infected plants showed significant differences in the content and quantity of volatiles compared with healthy or mock-inoculated wheat plants and that the increased volatiles (trans-2-hexen-1-al or decanal) released by BYDV-infected plants may play a critical role in attracting noninfective alate aphids in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings describe a novel mechanism by which the volatile profiles released by virus-infected plants may influence alate aphid colonization preference, providing further or new evidences for the VMH. This study extends our knowledge base on plant virus transmission to new host plants with potential ramifications for the integrated management of both the vector and disease.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Subterranean termite colony elimination can be achieved even when only a
           small proportion of foragers feed upon a CSI bait

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      Abstract: Abstract Termite bait products that contain chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) protect structures from subterranean termites via colony elimination. A hallmark of CSI baits is their dose-independent lethal time, as workers exposed to a CSI do not die until they initiate the molting process. Due to this mode of action and termite behaviors such as trophallaxis and cannibalism, a relatively small quantity of ingested CSI can spread throughout an entire colony before secondary repellency or avoidance behaviors occur, ultimately resulting in total colony elimination. In the field, only a portion of a subterranean termite colony actively forages upon a CSI bait at any given time, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of workers may need to feed upon a CSI bait for a colony to be eliminated. In the present study, we used varying proportions of workers from whole four-year-old laboratory-reared Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) colonies (~ 62,500 termites/colony on average) to determine what proportion of workers need to feed upon a CSI bait in order to achieve colony elimination. A range of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% of the total worker population of colonies was allowed to feed on a formulated 0.5% noviflumuron bait for five days before being returned to their colonies. Colony elimination was observed for all 5%-fed and four out of six 2.5%-fed colonies by 107 days after CSI exposure. Our results confirm that only a small subset of the worker population of a colony must feed upon a CSI bait to achieve subterranean termite colony elimination.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Searching for bioactive compounds from Solanaceae: lethal and sublethal
           toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda and untargeted metabolomics approaches

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      Abstract: Abstract The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of maize crops and others row crops on the American continent, and this pest has spread to Africa and Asia. Such lepidopteran pest presents resistant populations to synthetic insecticides and to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and, consequently, new (bio) insecticides with distinct modes of action are required. In order to search for derivatives from Solanaceae as a potential source of bioactive compounds, a screening of 38 ethanolic extracts were prepared from 25 Solanaceae species. Using dietary exposure assessment, the ethanolic extracts from leaves of Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. and Datura stramonium L. were the most promising derivatives. A bioguided fractionation was performed with both plant species. The A. arborescens dichloromethane fraction was the most active, causing sublethal (growth inhibition) and lethal toxicity. Thus, this fraction was submitted to another fractionation procedure resulting in three subfractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) that were tested against S. frugiperda caterpillars. All subfractions lead to significant sublethal effects, however, without significant mortality. The chemical diversity in the subfractions of A. arborescens was assessed through untargeted approaches, such as molecular networking and the in silico annotation tool NAP, by which two withanolides glycosides were annotated: (22R)-1-Oxo-3beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-14,20,22,27-tetrahydroxyergosta-5,24-diene-26-oic acid delta-lactone and withanoside XI. Therefore, derivatives of Solanaceae present promising compounds that may be useful in the framework of S. frugiperda integrated pest management. In addition, metabolomics is an innovative alternative and powerful approach to facilitate the putative identification of compounds in studies of natural products.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Plant growth and defense traits in Sorghum bicolor’s response to Chilo
           partellus in the tropics

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to meet the increasing demands from an exploding human population, sustainable agriculture relies on the availability of crop varieties with high yields and optimal defenses to pests. However, ample work has suggested that domesticated plants could have reduced defenses at the expense of increased biomass or yield, and these potential trade-offs can vary among plant species and genotypes. Herbivory coping mechanisms such as tolerance and resistance can be expressed differently among plant genotypes, with variable relationships and inherent fitness costs. Knowledge of the connection between growth and defense mechanisms in cultivated plants is still limited, especially in tropical crops and is needed to guide theories on plant defenses and crop improvement efforts. Using twenty Sorghum bicolor landraces from the tropics, we evaluated genetic variation in growth and defense measures in response to herbivory from Chilo partellus, a major pest of S. bicolor. Specifically, we tested for trade-offs among tolerance and resistance and their association to growth traits. We found significant genetic differences among landraces in terms of their growth, tolerance, and constitutive resistance to herbivory. There was no apparent trade-off between tolerance and resistance, suggesting that it is possible to enhance both defense strategies in S. bicolor. There were contradictory results in terms of potential growth costs associated with constitutive and induced resistance, and tolerance to C. partellus. Landraces with higher resistance and tolerance had lower biomass, but at the same time had a higher number of stems. Future efforts should be directed at understanding the genetic source of resistance and tolerance, and their inclusion for crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Significant suppression of invasive emerald ash borer by introduced
           parasitoids: potential for North American ash recovery

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      Abstract: Abstract Successful management of invasive forest pests with sustainable approaches, such as biological control, is critical to the restoration of the affected or damaged forest ecosystems. Several parasitoids introduced from Northeast Asia were released between 2015 and 2017 in several northeastern states of the USA for biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Using life tables to estimate the pest population growth rate, we evaluated the impact of two introduced parasitoids (Spathius galinae and Tetrastichus planipennisi) on EAB population dynamics in five ash-dominated hardwood forests in three Northeastern U.S states. We observed ~ 76% decrease in average densities of live EAB larvae to a low density (< 7 live larvae per m2 of tree phloem) from 2015 to 2020. This reduction in pest density was driven primarily by the significant increase in parasitism rates (from 35 to 78%) by S. galinae, along with low-to-moderate levels of mortality from local generalist natural enemies, such as woodpeckers. Spathius galinae alone caused a 31–57% reduction in the net pest population growth rate from 2018 to 2020. These findings demonstrate that in the recently invaded ash forests in the Northeastern USA, timely introduction of specialized natural enemies, such as S. galinae, along with local generalist natural enemies, may significantly suppress the invasive pest populations to low densities, allowing surviving trees to recover.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Validamycin reduces the transmission of Tomato chlorotic virus by Bemisia
           tabaci

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      Abstract: Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), commonly known as whitefly or sweet potato whitefly, causes feeding-related injuries to plants, and transmits more than 200 different plant viruses, including Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). Control of B. tabaci is therefore one of the key measures in the comprehensive prevention and control of ToCV outbreak in tomato fields. Many insects rely on the hydrolysis of trehalose, broken down by the enzyme trehalase, to power their flight and other life-sustaining activities. B. tabaci encodes just one trehalase, making it an attractive target. In this study, the mechanism underlying the involvement of trehalase in the transmission of ToCV by B. tabaci was investigated. Also, the effect of the trehalase inhibitor, validamycin, on ToCV transmission was assessed. Our results showed that trehalase activity was upregulated in B. tabaci fed on ToCV-infected tomato plants. Treating B. tabaci with validamycin decreased the trehalase activity, and significantly reduced its transmission of ToCV. Validamycin treatment also inhibited the flight and feeding ability of B. tabaci. These results indicate that proper function of trehalase is required by whitefly to transmit ToCV with high efficiency. These provides an important theoretical basis for targeting whitefly trehalase as one way to control ToCV transmission.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Cultivar-mediated effects on apple–Dysaphis plantaginea interaction

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      Abstract: Abstract The question of whether food webs are resource or predation controlled is crucial for the development of sustainable IPM strategies in agriculture. Many IPM studies focus on top–down control, while little is known about bottom–up effects. Here, we unravelled the bottom–up interactions between rosy apple aphid (RAA) Dysaphis plantaginea and 13 apple cultivars in north-eastern Belgium. Population dynamics, apple leaf damage, preference and performance measurements were used to determine the interactions between RAA and apple cultivars. Seasonal abundances and RAA-infested shoots were significantly affected by the cultivar. The cultivars Fuji, Granny Smith, Jonagold and Cripps Pink harboured clearly higher numbers of aphids compared to other cultivars, especially Red Delicious. Regarding leaf damage degree, Fuji was significantly the most impacted, while the lowest damage was recorded on Red Delicious. The potential apparent competition among apple cultivars was evaluated using RAA overlap diagrams. By acting as a potential source of RAA, a particular cultivar can considerably affect other nearby cultivars. In host selection bioassays, significant differences in the choice behaviour of RAA were found in the laboratory for different apple cultivars. Other important findings from the reproduction–offspring performance bioassays revealed that while Fuji stimulated high production of nymphs, their development remained retarded on Fuji, compared to especially Boskoop on which significantly lower numbers of nymphs occurred. Our study provides a promising insight into the importance of studying apple–RAA interactions within an eco-friendly RAA management tactic.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Bottom-up effects of breeding tomato genotypes on behavioural responses
           and performance of Tetranychus evansi population

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      Abstract: Abstract The tomato red spider mite, TRSM, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an invasive tomato pest in several countries, with potential to reduce yield by up to 90% in Africa. Solanum habrochaites, access PI 134417 is a wild tomato genotype resistant to several arthropod pests, including TRSM. There is an interest in increasing the resistance of a tomato genotype (Solanum lycopersicum cv. TLCV15) widely cultivated by smallholder western African farmers to TRSM, through interspecific crossings with that wild genotype. For this purpose, after obtaining the F1 progeny and as well as F2 (SPJ-10–2017) and BC1 back-crossed (SPJ-05–2018) genotypes selected for high glandular trichome densities, we characterized their resistance level to TRSM. We quantified the types and densities of trichomes on the abaxial surface of their leaflets, and examined the subsequent bottom-up effects of these progeny plants attributes on behaviour and demographic parameters of the mite. Our results showed that the densities of glandular trichomes inherited from the resistant genotype (PI 134417) by the progenies were highly variable, with types I, IV and VI being the most prevalent. The progeny SPJ-10–2017 was classified as resistant, while the progenies F1 and SPJ-05–2018 were classified as partially resistant. These findings constitute one of the first steps towards advancing breeding programs in African countries to obtain tomato genotypes resistant to TRSM, targeting more sustainable production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus induces production of plant
           volatiles that attract a specialist predator

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      Abstract: Abstract It has become clear that omnivorous predators can induce plant defences that affect the performance and host plant choice of herbivores. They are also known to induce the production of plant volatiles that can affect the behaviour of herbivores searching for plants. These volatiles may also affect the searching behaviour of other predators, which was investigated here. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis preferred plants previously exposed to the omnivorous mirid Macrolophus pygmaeus over clean plants. The mites were equally attracted to plants previously exposed to the omnivore and subsequently infested by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae, prey of the predatory mite and the omnivore) and plants infested with spider mites alone. Moreover, the mites were more attracted to plants infested with prey and subsequently exposed to the omnivore than plants infested with prey but not exposed to the omnivore. The predatory mites were also significantly more attracted to plants on which the omnivores were still present. Experience of the predatory mites with volatiles from plants previously exposed to the omnivore and without prey resulted in a loss of the preference for volatiles emitted by plants exposed to the omnivore. Analysis of the volatiles showed that plant exposure to omnivores induced qualitative and quantitative changes in the volatile blend. Together, these results suggest that omnivorous predators induce the production of plant volatiles that can interfere with the searching behaviour of other predators. The consequences of such interference for biological pest control remain to be investigated.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization of priming, induced resistance, and tolerance to
           Spodoptera frugiperda by silicon fertilization in maize genotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract Fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda is considered the main defoliating insect pest of maize in many countries. Silicon (Si) applied to plants has been shown to increase the resistance to insects, especially in grasses such as maize. This study characterized the effects of Si fertilization regarding priming, induced resistance, and tolerance to FAW in a landrace variety and hybrid of maize. Si was applied in soil of potted-plants as H4SiO4 at 2 t ha−1 when maize plants were at V2 stage, and when they reached V3 two FAW neonates were placed in the plant’s whorls to cause herbivory. FAW performance was evaluated on excised leaf sections in the laboratory and on plants with larvae infesting V4-stage plants in the greenhouse. Concentrations of H2O2, malondialdehyde, and Si, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded and correlated to Si-based responses on plant growth, and FAW injury and performance. As main results, there was reduced FAW injury and larval weight gain in Si-treated plants subjected to herbivory. Greater root dry mass was observed in the landrace variety with Si and without herbivory. Landrace plants showed higher shoot weights than the hybrid under FAW infestation. Si-fertilized plants showed higher H2O2 concentrations. The highest peroxidase activities occurred in Si-treated plants without herbivory, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were highest in Si-treated plants without herbivory or herbivory-injured plants without Si. In conclusion, Si-based defense in maize to FAW involve mixed effects of priming and tolerance, and were more pronounced in the landrace variety.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Silicon promotes the control of Meloidogyne incognita in lettuce by
           increasing ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds

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      Abstract: Silicon (Si) has a physical barrier effect on plant tissues, decreasing nematode infection in different crops. Notwithstanding, research on lettuce is lacking, especially regarding the chemical mechanisms of action of this beneficial element. This study evaluated the effect of Si supply on lettuce plants infested with 0, 6000, and 12,000 eggs and second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita, both in the absence and in the presence of Si (2 mM) in the nutrient solution. Silicon increased phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, reducing M. incognita population and decreasing oxidative stress. The element also increased chlorophyll content and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM), favoring lettuce growth and production. The use of Si decreased the number of nematodes and affected their reproduction, decreasing the number of eggs and galls on lettuce roots. This indicates that Si may serve as a sustainable alternative for the control of M. incognita. The benefit of using Si appears to be due to the combined effect chemical action from the increase in phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in plant tissues, improving plant physiology. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Correction to: Host preference of Thrips hawaiiensis for different
           ornamental plants

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      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01486-4
       
  • Large-arena field cage releases of a candidate classical biological
           control agent for spotted wing drosophila suggest low risk to non-target
           species

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      Abstract: Abstract Classical biological control, i.e., the introduction of natural enemies from an invasive pest’s area of origin, has been proposed repeatedly to control the spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii in the Americas and in Europe. Results from surveys in Asia and laboratory experiments suggest the parasitoid G1 Ganaspis cf. brasiliensis as a suitable biological control agent. To study the host specificity of the parasitoid under semi-field conditions, we conducted large-arena field cage releases. Parasitoids were released into cages at three dates in August 2021 in two regions of Switzerland. Released parasitoids had the choice to parasitize either D. suzukii larvae in fresh fruits (blueberries or elderberries) or the non-target native species D. melanogaster in decomposing fruits. The results were unequivocal in that apparent parasitism of D. suzukii larvae feeding in fresh fruits was on average 15%, whereas only one parasitoid emerged from D. melanogaster feeding on decomposing fruits (0.02% parasitism). Thus, the results support findings from previous laboratory experiments that G1 G. cf. brasiliensis is highly specific to D. suzukii larvae feeding in fresh fruits and parasitism of the closely related D. melanogaster feeding on decomposing fruits is very rare. Because in its invaded range, D. suzukii is the only Drosophila species that can attack and develop in undamaged fresh fruits, we conclude that open field releases of the parasitoid G1 G. cf. brasiliensis should not pose significant risks to non-targets.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-022-01487-3
       
 
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