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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animal Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.389
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1435-9456 - ISSN (Online) 1435-9448
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Horses form cross-modal representations of adults and children

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, research on domestic mammals’ sociocognitive skills toward humans has been prolific, allowing us to better understand the human–animal relationship. For example, horses have been shown to distinguish human beings on the basis of photographs and voices and to have cross-modal mental representations of individual humans and human emotions. This leads to questions such as the extent to which horses can differentiate human attributes such as age. Here, we tested whether horses discriminate human adults from children. In a cross-modal paradigm, we presented 31 female horses with two simultaneous muted videos of a child and an adult saying the same neutral sentence, accompanied by the sound of an adult’s or child’s voice speaking the sentence. The horses looked significantly longer at the videos that were incongruent with the heard voice than at the congruent videos. We conclude that horses can match adults’ and children’s faces and voices cross-modally. Moreover, their heart rates increased during children’s vocalizations but not during adults’. This suggests that in addition to having mental representations of adults and children, horses have a stronger emotional response to children’s voices than adults’ voices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
       
  • Playing it by ear: gregarious sparrows recognize and respond to isolated
           wingbeat sounds and predator-based cues

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      Abstract: Abstract The ability to detect an incoming attack provides a final opportunity for an animal to avoid predation. In birds, vision is the main sensory mode in detecting attacks, but auditory cues likely play an important role. The role of auditory cues from predators themselves remains largely unstudied. We evaluated the ability of free-living, gregarious sparrows (Passerellidae) to recognize attacks based on the non-vocal sounds made by predators or indirect auditory cues of ongoing attacks, mainly in the form of brief wingbeat sequences from predatory and non-predatory birds. Behavioral responses to playbacks were video-recorded and expressed in terms of a flock’s propensity to respond, either by flushing to cover, becoming vigilant, or both. Sparrows responded equally to hawk wingbeats and those of small passerines. Both predator and non-predator wingbeat sequences induced anti-predator responses, especially when played loudly. Loud control sounds, such as hammering, induced few responses. Birds also responded to the sounds of a walking and running terrestrial predator (a dog), but reactions to the walking predator often involved birds jumping onto objects for a better view of their surroundings rather than immediate flight to cover. In an additional experiment, we examined how characteristics of wingbeat sequences (i.e., the number and cadence of hawk wingbeats) affected passerine responses. It indicated that only two consecutive hawk wingbeats, presented at a natural cadence, are necessary to elicit a strong response to a playback. Single hawk wingbeats induced only weak escape responses, as did artificially slowed cadences. Birds in general likely possess the ability to recognize non-vocal, auditory cues of incoming attacks, which may be produced by approaching threats or departing congeners.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • A comparison of personality traits of gifted word learner and typical
           border collies

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      Abstract: Abstract While personality and cognition are distinct domains, some personality traits may affect the capacity for problem-solving. It was suggested that there is a positive association between the Playfulness trait and problem-solving performance in humans. Studies on giftedness (extremely good capacity in the case of a specific skill), typically aimed to reveal the genetic, experiential, and mental origins of such extreme inter-individual variation. We exploited recent findings on giftedness in a specific cognitive skill, object label learning, in dogs to explore the potential association between this exceptional skill and personality traits. We administered the Dog Personality Questionnaire to 21 gifted dog owners and compared the personality traits of their dogs to those of matched samples of 43 Hungarian and 101 Austrian typical dogs, i.e., dogs lacking this exceptional capacity. Since most Gifted Word Learner dogs are Border collies, we restricted our analysis to dogs of this breed. We hypothesized that the Gifted Word Learner dogs may show higher levels of Playfulness. As expected, we found that the gifted Border collies were rated as more playful than both the Hungarian and Austrian typical ones. Our results suggest that an extremely high level of Playfulness is associated with giftedness in a specific cognitive trait in dogs: the capacity to learn object verbal labels, thus opening new possibilities for comparative research on the relationship between giftedness and personality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Social factors influence solo and rat dyads exploration of an unfamiliar
           open field

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      Abstract: Abstract Exploring new and unfamiliar environments is critical for survival, providing information on food, shelter, mates, and sources of danger. The open field paradigm is commonly used to study exploration and anxiety-like behaviors in the lab. Many social animals, like humans and rats, may explore their environments in social groups; however, relatively few studies have investigated the influence of conspecifics on open field activity. Here, we provide a comparison of individual (solo) or pairs of male rats (dyads) exploring and interacting across repeated exposures to an unfamiliar (Day 1) or more familiar (Day 2) open field. Both solo rats and dyads explored a larger area, traveled further, and spent less time near the maze walls on the second maze exposure. Solo rats explored a larger area and spent less time near the maze walls than dyads on both days because dyads spent more time socializing rather than exploring the environment. Furthermore, we compared familiar dyads that were co-housed for seven days versus stranger dyads that met for the first time in the open field. While familiar and stranger dyads did not differ in maze exploration, strangers spent more time interacting nose to nose than nose to anogenital. These results indicate that the degree of familiarity with the environment does not interact with the tendency of dyads to socialize rather than explore the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Both sheep and goats can solve inferential by exclusion tasks

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite the domestication of sheep and goats by humans for several millennia, we still lack comparative data on their cognitive capacity. Comparing the cognitive skills of farm animals can help understand the evolution of cognition. In this study, we compared the performances of sheep and goats in inference by exclusion tasks. We implemented two tasks, namely a cup task and a tube task, to identify whether success in solving the task could be attributed to either low-level mechanisms (avoiding the empty location strategy) or to deductive reasoning (if two possibilities A and B, but not A, then it must be B). In contrast to a previous study comparing goats and sheep in a cup task, we showed that both species solved the inferential condition with high success rates. In the tube task, performances could not be explained by alternative strategies such as avoiding the empty tube or preferring the bent tube. When applying a strict set of criteria concerning responses in all conditions and controlling for the potential effects of experience, we demonstrate that two individuals, a goat and a sheep, fulfil these criteria. This suggests that sheep and goats are able to make inferences based on deductive reasoning.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Disturbance cues function as a background risk cue but not as an
           associative learning cue in tadpoles

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      Abstract: Abstract Chemical information has an important role in the sensory ecology of aquatic species. For aquatic prey, chemical cues are a vital source of information related to predator avoidance and risk assessment. For instance, alarm cues are released by prey that have been injured by predators. In addition to providing accurate information about current risk, repeated exposure to alarm cues can elicit a fear response to novel stimuli (neophobia) in prey. Another source of chemical information is disturbance cues, released by prey that have been disturbed or harassed (but not injured) by a predator. While disturbance cues have received much less attention than alarm cues, they appear to be useful as an early warning signal of predation risk and have the potential to be used as a priming cue for learning. In this study, we used wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles to test whether repeated exposure to disturbance cues during the embryonic stage can induce neophobic behaviour. Three weeks following repeated exposure to disturbance cues, tadpoles showed reduced activity when exposed to a novel odour, but they no longer displayed an antipredator response to disturbance cues. In a second experiment, we found that tadpoles failed to learn that a novel odour was dangerous following a pairing with disturbance cues, whereas alarm cues facilitated such learning. Our results add to the growing body of information about disturbance cues and provide evidence of their function as an embryonic risk cue but not as an associative learning cue.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Individuality, species-specific features, and female discrimination of
           male southern white rhinoceros courtship calls

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      Abstract: Abstract Male vocalizations associated with courtship can play a key role in mate selection. They may help females obtain information about males’ quality and identity and/or may contain species-specific properties that help prevent interspecies breeding. Despite vocalizations being a prominent part of the courtship of white rhinos, the role that they play in white rhino breeding behaviour has not been extensively studied. Both southern (SWR) and critically endangered northern white rhino (NWR) males intensively vocalize during courtship with hic calls. We examined these calls and found that call properties differed between NWR and SWR males. In addition, we found that individual SWR males could be identified with a high degree of accuracy using their hic calls and that the signature information capacity in hic calls would allow females to individually recognize about 11 adult males living in or moving through their home-ranges, which may help with mate selection. Then, we conducted playback experiments with wild anoestrus SWR females. The females discriminated between the NWR and SWR hic calls and between the SWR hic and SWR pant calls. However, we only found differences in the latency of observed behaviours, not in their duration or in the intensity of females’ reaction. This might suggest that females which are not in oestrus are not highly responsive to a male’s motivation (i.e., seeking contact or mating), but are more interested in assessing his dominance status or familiarity. Ultimately, our results indicate that courtship hic calls encode information which might help females choose mating partners.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • A promising novel judgement bias test to evaluate affective states in dogs
           (Canis familiaris)

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      Abstract: Abstract The judgement bias test represents one of the most applied tools to evaluate animals’ optimistic/pessimistic attitude and to infer their emotional and welfare state accordingly. The judgement bias test (JBT) has been used several times with dogs (Canis familiaris), in most cases using a spatial test that evaluates the dog’s attitude towards a bowl placed in ambiguous positions (located between two unambiguous trained positions associated with opposite outcomes). Results are contrasting and methodological and statistical caveats emerged: dogs struggled to learn the association between unambiguous positions and their outcomes, they hardly discriminated between adjacent locations and they might be influenced by researchers. Therefore, we propose a novel paradigm, aimed at easing the learning process and at achieving more reliable measures. Improvements of the novel paradigm are the increased difference between payoffs of trained locations, the reduction of the number of trials and of their length and the removal of the potential influence of researchers. Results showed that 98% of dogs reached the learning criterion and that their learning appeared more stable: dogs behaved differently between the two trained stimuli and the variability of responses towards these stimuli was lower than the one towards ambiguous stimuli. Behavioural analyses confirmed that dogs fully learned outcomes associated with trained stimuli and that they were hesitant towards ambiguous stimuli. Furthermore, dogs managed to successfully discriminate between each pair of adjacent locations. These results suggest that this protocol is a promising tool to assess judgement biases in dogs and to evaluate their affective state.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Bold and bright: shy and supple' The effect of habitat type on
           personality–cognition covariance in the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis
           erhardii)

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      Abstract: Abstract Animals exhibit considerable and consistent among-individual variation in cognitive abilities, even within a population. Recent studies have attempted to address this variation using insights from the field of animal personality. Generally, it is predicted that animals with “faster” personalities (bolder, explorative, and neophilic) should exhibit faster but less flexible learning. However, the empirical evidence for a link between cognitive style and personality is mixed. One possible reason for such conflicting results may be that personality–cognition covariance changes along ecological conditions, a hypothesis that has rarely been investigated so far. In this study, we tested the effect of habitat complexity on multiple aspects of animal personality and cognition, and how this influenced their relationship, in five populations of the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii). Overall, lizards from both habitat types did not differ in average levels of personality or cognition, with the exception that lizards from more complex habitats performed better on a spatial learning task. Nevertheless, we found an intricate interplay between ecology, cognition, and personality, as behavioral associations were often habitat- but also year-dependent. In general, behavioral covariance was either independent of habitat, or found exclusively in the simple, open environments. Our results highlight that valuable insights may be gained by taking ecological variation into account while studying the link between personality and cognition.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The acoustic bases of human voice identity processing in dogs

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      Abstract: Abstract Speech carries identity-diagnostic acoustic cues that help individuals recognize each other during vocal–social interactions. In humans, fundamental frequency, formant dispersion and harmonics-to-noise ratio serve as characteristics along which speakers can be reliably separated. The ability to infer a speaker’s identity is also adaptive for members of other species (like companion animals) for whom humans (as owners) are relevant. The acoustic bases of speaker recognition in non-humans are unknown. Here, we tested whether dogs can recognize their owner’s voice and whether they rely on the same acoustic parameters for such recognition as humans use to discriminate speakers. Stimuli were pre-recorded sentences spoken by the owner and control persons, played through loudspeakers placed behind two non-transparent screens (with each screen hiding a person). We investigated the association between acoustic distance of speakers (examined along several dimensions relevant in intraspecific voice identification) and dogs’ behavior. Dogs chose their owner’s voice more often than that of control persons’, suggesting that they can identify it. Choosing success and time spent looking in the direction of the owner’s voice were positively associated, showing that looking time is an index of the ease of choice. Acoustic distance of speakers in mean fundamental frequency and jitter were positively associated with looking time, indicating that the shorter the acoustic distance between speakers with regard to these parameters, the harder the decision. So, dogs use these cues to discriminate their owner’s voice from unfamiliar voices. These findings reveal that dogs use some but probably not all acoustic parameters that humans use to identify speakers. Although dogs can detect fine changes in speech, their perceptual system may not be fully attuned to identity-diagnostic cues in the human voice.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Sexual differences in responses of meadow voles to environmental cues in
           the presence of mink odor

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      Abstract: Abstract In rodents, defensive behaviors increase the chances of survival during a predator encounter. Observable rodent defensive behaviors have been shown to be influenced by the presence of predator odors and nearby environmental cues such as cover, odors from conspecifics and food availability. Our experiment tested whether a predator scent cue influenced refuge preference in meadow voles within a laboratory setting. We placed voles in an experimental apparatus with bedding soaked in mink scent versus olive oil as a control across from four tubes that either contained (a) a dark plastic covering, (b) opposite-sex conspecific odor, (c) a food pellet, or (d) an empty, unscented space. A three-way interaction of tube contents, subject sex, and the presence of mink or olive oil on the preference of meadow voles to spend time in each area of the experimental apparatus and their latency to enter each area of the apparatus revealed sex differences in the environmental preference of meadow voles facing the risk of predation. The environmental preference of female, but not male, meadow voles was altered by the presence of mink urine or olive oil. A similar trend was found in the latency of males and females to enter each area of the experimental apparatus. These differences suggest that each sex utilizes different methods to increase their fitness when experiencing a predation risk. The observed sex differences may be explained by the natural history of voles owing to the differences in territorial range and the dynamics of evasion of terrestrial predators.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Digital embryos: a novel technical approach to investigate perceptual
           categorization in pigeons (Columba livia) using machine learning

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      Abstract: Abstract Pigeons are classic model animals to study perceptual category learning. To achieve a deeper understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of categorization, a careful consideration of the employed stimulus material and a thorough analysis of the choice behavior is mandatory. In the present study, we combined the use of “virtual phylogenesis”, an evolutionary algorithm to generate artificial yet naturalistic stimuli termed digital embryos and a machine learning approach on the pigeons’ pecking responses to gain insight into the underlying categorization strategies of the animals. In a forced-choice procedure, pigeons learned to categorize these stimuli and transferred their knowledge successfully to novel exemplars. We used peck tracking to identify where on the stimulus the animals pecked and further investigated whether this behavior was indicative of the pigeon’s choice. Going beyond the classical analysis of the binary choice, we were able to predict the presented stimulus class based on pecking location using a k-nearest neighbor classifier, indicating that pecks are related to features of interest. By analyzing error trials with this approach, we further identified potential strategies of the pigeons to discriminate between stimulus classes. These strategies remained stable during category transfer, but differed between individuals indicating that categorization learning is not limited to a single learning strategy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • An intentional cohesion call in male chimpanzees of Budongo Forest

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      Abstract: Abstract Many social animals travel in cohesive groups but some species, including chimpanzees, form flexible fission–fusion systems where individuals have some control over group cohesion and proximity to others. Here, we explored how male chimpanzees of the Sonso community of Budongo Forest, Uganda, use communication signals during resting, a context where the likelihood of group fission is high due to forthcoming travel. We focused on a context-specific vocalisation, the ‘rest hoo’, to investigate its function and determine whether it is produced intentionally. We found that this call was typically given towards the end of typical silent resting bouts, i.e., the period when individuals need to decide whether to continue travelling after a brief stop-over or to start a prolonged resting bout. Subjects rested longer after producing ‘rest hoos’ and their resting time increased with the number of calls produced. They also rested longer if their calls were answered. Furthermore, focal subjects’ resting time was prolonged after hearing others’ ‘rest hoos’. Subjects called more when with top proximity partners and in small parties and rested longer if a top proximity partner called. We also found an interaction effect between rank and grooming activity, with high-ranking males with a high grooming index calling less frequently than other males, suggesting that vocal communication may serve as a cohesion strategy alternative to tactile-based bonding. We discuss these different patterns and conclude that chimpanzee ‘rest hoos’ meet key criteria for intentional signalling. We suggest that ‘rest hoos’ are produced to prolong resting bouts with desired partners, which may function to increase social cohesion.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Detecting surface changes in a familiar tune: exploring pitch, tempo and
           timbre

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      Abstract: Abstract Humans recognize a melody independently of whether it is played on a piano or a violin, faster or slower, or at higher or lower frequencies. Much of the way in which we engage with music relies in our ability to normalize across these surface changes. Despite the uniqueness of our music faculty, there is the possibility that key aspects in music processing emerge from general sensitivities already present in other species. Here we explore whether other animals react to surface changes in a tune. We familiarized the animals (Long–Evans rats) with the “Happy Birthday” tune on a piano. We then presented novel test items that included changes in pitch (higher and lower octave transpositions), tempo (double and half the speed) and timbre (violin and piccolo). While the rats responded differently to the familiar and the novel version of the tune when it was played on novel instruments, they did not respond differently to the original song and its novel versions that included octave transpositions and changes in tempo.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Mirror self-recognition in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a review
           and evaluation of mark test replications and variants

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      Abstract: Abstract Mirror self-recognition (MSR), widely regarded as an indicator of self-awareness, has not been demonstrated consistently in gorillas. We aimed to examine this issue by setting out a method to evaluate gorilla self-recognition studies that is objective, quantifiable, and easy to replicate. Using Suarez and Gallup’s (J Hum Evol 10:175–183, 1981) study as a reference point, we drew up a list of 15 methodological criteria and assigned scores to all published studies of gorilla MSR for both methodology and outcomes. Key features of studies finding both mark-directed and spontaneous self-directed responses included visually inaccessible marks, controls for tactile and olfactory cues, subjects who were at least 5 years old, and clearly distinguishing between responses in front of versus away from the mirror. Additional important criteria include videotaping the tests, having more than one subject, subjects with adequate social rearing, reporting post-marking observations with mirror absent, and giving mirror exposure in a social versus individual setting. Our prediction that MSR studies would obtain progressively higher scores as procedures and behavioural coding practices improved over time was supported for methods, but not for outcomes. These findings illustrate that methodological rigour does not guarantee stronger evidence of self-recognition in gorillas; methodological differences alone do not explain the inconsistent evidence for MSR in gorillas. By implication, it might be suggested that, in general, gorillas do not show compelling evidence of MSR. We advocate that future MSR studies incorporate the same criteria to optimize the quality of attempts to clarify the self-recognition abilities of gorillas as well as other species.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Zebrafish excel in number discrimination under an operant conditioning
           paradigm

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      Abstract: Abstract Numerical discrimination is widespread in vertebrates, but this capacity varies enormously between the different species examined. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), the only teleost examined following procedures that allow a comparison with the other vertebrates, outperforms amphibians, reptiles and many warm-blooded vertebrates, but it is unclear whether this is a feature shared with the other teleosts or represents a peculiarity of this species. We trained zebrafish (Danio rerio) to discriminate between numbers differing by one unit, varying task difficulty from 2 versus 3 to 5 versus 6 items. Non-numerical variables that covary with number, such as density or area, did not affect performance. Most fish reached learning criterion on all tasks up to 4 versus 5 discrimination with no sex difference in accuracy. Although no individual reached learning criterion in the 5 versus 6 task, performance was significant at the group level, suggesting that this may represent the discrimination threshold for zebrafish. Numerosity discrimination abilities of zebrafish compare to those of guppy, being higher than in some warm-blooded vertebrates, such as dogs, horses and domestic fowl, though lower than in parrots, corvids and primates. Learning rate was similar in a control group trained to discriminate between different-sized shapes, but zebrafish were slightly more accurate when discriminating areas than numbers and males were more accurate than females. At the end of the experiment, fish trained on numbers and controls trained on areas generalized to the reciprocal set of stimuli, indicating they had used a relational strategy to solve these tasks.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Disentangling help-seeking and giving up: differential human-directed
           gazing by dogs in a modified unsolvable task paradigm

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      Abstract: Abstract Dogs are renowned for ‘looking back’ at humans when confronted with a problem, but it has been questioned whether this implies help-seeking or giving up. We tested 56 pet dogs from two breed groups (herding dogs and terriers) in a modified unsolvable task paradigm. One reward type (food or toy) was enclosed in a box, while the respective other reward was accessible. With both reward types, human-directed gazing in relation to the box was significantly positively correlated with interaction with the box, as long as an alternative was available. This suggests that both behaviours served to attain the unavailable reward and reflected individual motivation for the inaccessible vs the accessible reward. Furthermore, we varied whether the owner or the experimenter was responsible for handling the rewards. In the owner-responsible group, dogs rarely gazed at the experimenter. In the experimenter-responsible group, dogs preferentially directed box-related gazing (prior to or after looking at or interacting with the box) at the owner. Still, they gazed at the experimenter significantly longer than the owner-responsible group. Conversely, toy-related gazing was directed significantly more at the experimenter. Thus, dogs adjust their gazing behaviour according to the people’s responsibility and their current goal (help-seeking vs play). Gaze duration did not differ between herding dogs and terriers. We conclude that dogs use gazing at humans’ faces as a social problem-solving strategy, but not all gazing can be classified as such. Dogs’ human-directed gazing is influenced by the social relationships with the persons, situational associations, and context (unsolvable problem vs play).
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Cognitive bias in animal behavior science: a philosophical perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Emotional states of animals influence their cognitive processes as well as their behavior. Assessing emotional states is important for animal welfare science as well as for many fields of neuroscience, behavior science, and biomedicine. This can be done in different ways, e.g. through assessing animals’ physiological states or interpreting their behaviors. This paper focuses on the so-called cognitive judgment bias test, which has gained special attention in the last 2 decades and has become a highly important tool for measuring emotional states in non-human animals. However, less attention has been given to the epistemology of the cognitive judgment bias test and to disentangling the relevance of different steps in the underlying cognitive mechanisms. This paper sheds some light on both the epistemology of the methods and the architecture of the underlying cognitive abilities of the tested animals. Based on this reconstruction, we propose a scheme for classifying and assessing different cognitive abilities involved in cognitive judgment bias tests.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • Correction to: If horses had toes: demonstrating mirror self recognition
           at group level in Equus caballus

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      PubDate: 2022-06-30
       
  • Getting rid of blinkers: the case of mirror self-recognition in horses
           (Equus caballus)

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      Abstract: Abstract The commentary by Gallup and Anderson (Anim Cogn https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-021-01538-9, 2021) on the original article by Baragli, Scopa, Maglieri, and Palagi (Anim Cogn https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-021-01502-7, 2021) raised some concerns about the methodological approach used by the authors to demonstrate Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) in horses. The commentary does not take into account horse physiology and psychology, leading Gallup and Anderson to inappropriately discredit the findings obtained by Baragli et al. Anim Cogn 2021. In this reply, we underlined the importance of a blinker-free approach to understand the evolutionary processes at the basis of animal cognition.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
 
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