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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Welfare     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-5636
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 648-664: The Evolution of Zoos as Conservation
           Institutions: A Summary of the Transition from Menageries to Zoological
           Gardens and Parallel Improvement of Mammalian Welfare Management

    • Authors: Haley N. Beer, Trenton C. Shrader, Ty B. Schmidt, Dustin T. Yates
      First page: 648
      Abstract: Zoological institutions, which were once exclusively for entertainment, are now leaders of wildlife conservation. This centuries-long transition was punctuated by key milestones that reformed wild animal exploitation into a mission of protection. Modern zoos perform ex situ activities to preserve natural resources, which are enabled by the housing of wild species. Zoo-managed animals facilitate new scientific knowledge, public education, and strategic breeding to maintain genetic diversity. Prioritizing animal welfare management is a key advancement for modern zoos, as it lessens stress and improves quality of life. Environments enriched with sensory stimuli promote naturalistic behaviors and provide opportunities for instinctual activities like foraging and hunting. This increases resiliency by reducing stress and boredom. However, such approaches only benefit welfare when appropriately matched to the animal. Behavioral responses to environmental cues reflect how animals experience their environment, and properly documenting them informs management decisions. Other modern advancements include enclosure designs, research initiatives, public education programs, species-specific staff training, and collaborative population management among zoos. This review chronicles the milestones that shaped the role of modern zoological institutions in species and habitat preservation. It also discusses opportunities for the continued evolution of welfare management practices, which is fundamental information for zoo employees and stakeholders.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040046
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 665-679: Twenty Years of Managed Epilepsy for a
           Stranded Male Guadalupe Fur Seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) Secondary to
           Suspect Domoic Acid Toxicosis

    • Authors: Todd L. Schmitt, Judy St. Leger, Ben A. Inglis, Isabella Michal, Nancy Stedman, Hendrik H. Nollens, Sophie Dennison-Gibby, Kelsey Herrick, Elsburgh O. Clarke, Alexandra Mena, Peter F. Cook
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Many wild otariids (sea lions and fur seals) strand along the California coast annually with seizures following presumed exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs). This is a long-term case study of a stranded subadult male Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) that stranded in 2001 and within days after admission began demonstrating seizure activity. The epilepsy was stabilized with antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy and advanced imaging was performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) scans showed signs of encephalopathy consistent with domoic acid (DA) toxicosis. This fur seal was deemed “non-releasable” and over the following 19 years, he received supportive veterinary care and AED treatment at a permitted facility. In the summer of 2020, the fur seal showed progressive behavioral and functional deterioration whereupon humane euthanasia was performed. Post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired. A volumetric comparison with historic scans showed evidence of severe progressive unilateral right hippocampal atrophy. Histopathology confirmed severe chronic right and mild left hippocampal atrophy. The progressive degenerative brain changes demonstrate how adaptive brain function can be with neuronal atrophy secondary to DA exposure. This case highlights some considerations and decision-making processes needed for the rehabilitation and placement of wild stranded otariids with acquired epilepsy secondary to DA toxicity.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040047
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 680-691: Identifying Offspring Sex Ratio Skews in
           Zoological Facilities Using Large Historical Datasets

    • Authors: Julia M. Machado, Lance J. Miller
      First page: 680
      Abstract: The Fisher principle states that species should produce offspring at a ratio of 1:1 unless there are sex-specific differences in rearing costs. Research conducted across taxa has found that animals will vary the sex ratio of their offspring so as to maximize personal fitness in response to various ecological and biological variables. This phenomenon has been especially well studied within the Avian class. Professionally managed populations provide a useful framework within which to study the impacts of numerous variables on sex allocation strategies. Zoological facilities may be especially motivated to investigate this phenomenon due to corresponding conservation and welfare implications. We analyzed a large dataset containing the demographic data of over 1 million zoo-housed birds for species-specific offspring sex ratio biases. The offspring sex ratios of 19,867 zoo-hatched dams were calculated, and the median offspring sex ratio of 277 species from 25 orders was calculated across two 20-year time periods. We used a Wilcoxon signed rank tests with a Holm Bonferroni alpha criterion in order to determine if species medians differed from parity. Only one species in one time period displayed a significant species median offspring sex ratio. The limits of our dataset are discussed. We propose that future research should further explore the determinants of sex allocation strategies for species held within zoological facilities.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040048
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 692-710: A Bibliometric Analysis of Studies on Plant
           Endemism during the Period of 1991–2022

    • Authors: Zishan Ahmad Wani, Fareeda Akhter, Qamer Ridwan, Yashwant S. Rawat, Zeeshan Ahmad, Shreekar Pant
      First page: 692
      Abstract: A bibliometric analysis of 349 scholarly documents published on the topic plant nativity and endemism from 1991–2022 was carried out using the ‘bibliometrix’ tool, developed through the R programming language. The results revealed a significant increase in the number of publications on plant nativity and endemism research since 1991. Of the total of 349 documents that were analyzed, 38 are single authored documents, and the average number of documents per author is 0.278. Each document has received an average of 33.67 citations, with 3.18 citations per year per document. The relationship between the number of authors and the number of articles that they have published follows a power-law distribution. Based on Bradford’s law, only eight were found to be the core sources. Mexico, followed by the USA, has produced the highest number of documents on plant nativity and endemism. The present study suggests that it is necessary to categorize data on endemism by floristic provinces, not by political subdivisions. Synecological studies are also needed, since endemic plants exist within communities. Models that accurately predict levels of endemism on the basis of easily measurable environmental variables should be useful for the rapid identification of endemic-rich areas. Recognition of the importance of plant endemism and the implementation of conservation measures is crucial for preserving biodiversity hotspots. Both in situ and ex situ conservation efforts are essential for protecting endemic species and preventing their extinction. By integrating these approaches, we can contribute to the long-term conservation and management of endemic plant species.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040049
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 711-727: Vocal Cues to Assess Arousal State of
           Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops spp.) Involved in Public Presentations

    • Authors: Rachel Probert, Bridget S. James, Simon H. Elwen, Tess Gridley
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Emotions in animals may be expressed by arousal and understanding this often relies upon the monitoring of their behaviour. Under human care, animals’ arousal states may be linked to husbandry decisions, whereby animals may display arousal responses to scheduled events such as feeding and human interaction. Here, we investigate vocal correlates of arousal associated with public presentations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) in human care by comparing vocal production rates and characteristics between high and low arousal contexts. Elevated arousal during the day compared with overnight was characterised by increased signature and non-signature whistle production. High intensity broadband crack vocalisations were produced less than whistles during the day and did not correlate with increased arousal around presentation times. Three of ten dolphins increased signature whistle production before and/or after presentation sessions, indicating elevated arousal and variation in individual responses. Many individuals elevated minimum frequency and suppressed maximum frequency of signature whistles in a way that correlated with higher arousal contexts, indicating that these may therefore be good indicators of changes in arousal state. Overall, our study demonstrates that passive acoustic monitoring can provide a useful indication of arousal linked to husbandry decisions, and that individual variation in vocal responses, likely linked to personality, is important to consider.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040050
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 728-737: Severe Parasite Co-Infection in a Captive
           Bactrian Camel: Case Report

    • Authors: Mariana Panayotova-Pencheva, Francisco Ponce-Gordo
      First page: 728
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to document a case of parasite co-infection in a captive Bactrian camel and to supply morphometric data of the found pathogens. It concerned a 20-year-old male animal inhabiting Sofia Zoo, Bulgaria. A decreased appetite and gastrointestinal disorders were observed in it during the summer of 2022. Improvement in the animal’s condition was achieved after the administration of antibiotics, sulfonamides, and other symptomatic medicines. However, two weeks after treatment, clinical symptoms reappeared. Then, a diarrheal fecal sample from the animal was subjected to parasitological examination by direct smear and flotation and sedimentation techniques. Multiple infections by helminths (Trichostrongylus sp., Haemonchus sp., Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris sp., and Dicrocoelium sp.), ciliates (Buxtonella cameli), and protozoa (Eimeria cameli) were found, with E. cameli being reported for the first time in zoo conditions. Deworming led to the recovery of the general condition and appearance of the animal’s feces, but two weeks later, it died suddenly. We considered that the parasitic infection was not the direct cause of the fatal outcome, and its presence, other health disorders, and the advanced age of the animal were among the contributing factors. This case reveals the need to combine planned preventive deworming with routine parasitological diagnostics to take timely and targeted actions to protect the health of animals inhabiting zoo facilities.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4040051
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 507-526: Science Education in Primary Students in
           Ireland: Examining the Use of Zoological Specimens for Learning

    • Authors: Kayleigh Byrne, Courtney Collins, Mary Kate Bolger, Fidelma Butler
      First page: 507
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced many educators out of their traditional settings and into web-based learning environments. Zoos were no different, and throughout the pandemic they strived to reach their supporters using different approaches. By adapting quickly and using outreach activities and online learning, zoos continued to serve society through the pandemic. This study examined whether an in-person educational interaction with zoological specimens can enhance cognitive learning and increase primary-level students’ attitudes towards animals and science. Additionally, attention was drawn to the effectiveness of online learning methods for young pupils. A total of 165 paired questionnaires from primary-level students in three schools were analysed. Findings indicate significant positive increases in attitude but not in learning achievements. Thus, zoological specimens can be utilised for enhancing scientific attitudes in primary-level students. The effect of a face-to-face lesson on learning compared with online methods was positive but the difference was not statistically significant. This, taken together with a significant positive effect of a face-to-face lesson on attitude improvements, is sufficient to determine the importance of a traditional learning environment for students of this educational level. Additionally, gender differences relating to scientific attitudes and understanding are not apparent at primary level but this may become more apparent at secondary level. This research may be used for further investigations into the relationship between age, gender, and scientific learning. It may also be used to support studies examining the effectiveness of zoo outreach programs in schools versus zoo visits.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 527-548: Centers of Endemism and The Potential of Zoos
           and Botanical Gardens in Conservation of Endemics

    • Authors: Carsten Hobohm, Nigel Barker
      First page: 527
      Abstract: Knowledge about ecological conditions and processes in centers of endemism (CoEs) is still limited with respect to various systematic groups of organisms, ecosystem types, ecological conditions, and ecosystem services. We review the characterization, identification, and meaning of CoEs. Endemics play an increasing and prominent role in nature conservation monitoring and management and in the organization of zoos, aquaria, and botanical gardens. We examine the importance of different groups of organisms and indicators for the characterization of endemic-rich regions, e.g., with regard to the richness of endemics per region and degree of endemism, the importance of heterogeneity in space, continuity in time, isolation, and ex situ management for the survival of endemic species. Currently, conversion of land cover and land use change are the most important causes of biodiversity decline and extinction risk of endemic and endangered species. These are followed by climate change, including severe weather, and then natural processes such as volcanism, landslides, or tsunamis. For conservation purposes, the management of regional land use, zoos, aquaria, botanical gardens, and social aspects of the diversity of endemics and CoEs have to be taken into account as well. We find that the ex situ representation of endemics in general is limited, and conservation networks in this regard can be improved. We need better answers to questions about the relationship between ecoregions, CoEs and regional awareness of endemism, which is linked with human culture including aesthetics, well-being, health, and trade.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 549-566: Identifying Essential Elements of Good
           Giraffe Welfare—Can We Use Knowledge of a Species’ Fundamental
           Needs to Develop Welfare-Focussed Husbandry'

    • Authors: Paul Rose
      First page: 549
      Abstract: Measurement of zoo animal welfare states enables improvement to husbandry and management to be evidence-based and implemented according to species’ needs. Theoretical welfare concepts are often discussed, and whilst it is helpful to ensure wide consensus across all stakeholders on what welfare comprises, practical application of such evidence-based information is as equally important. All species housed in zoos will have specific needs that must be met by their housing, husbandry, and care to enable them to thrive. Therefore, this paper examined how to identify key animal care needs and an animal’s responses to them to form a basis for species-specific welfare assessment approaches. There are examples of familiar-to-the-zoo species that still pose challenges regarding delivery of optimal husbandry and management. As such, the identification and evaluation of core concepts of the biology, behaviour, “needs and wants” of these species is required to support validation and refinement of physical, behavioural, and psychological welfare measures. This article evaluated the use of evidence to build capacity in welfare measurement for a familiar zoo-housed species, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis, Linnaeus 1758), by outlining seven key needs and requirements that must be provided in the zoo (“giraffe W-E-L-F-A-R-E” = Warmth, Enrichment, Leaves, Feeding, Alfalfa, Rumination, Exercise). Provision of these inputs, and opportunities for all giraffes in a herd to engage with them, provides the foundation for further welfare assessment to be implemented. Specifically, the validation and measurement of mental states that are more likely to be positive if key behavioural and ecological needs have already been met. This paper advocated for this evidence-based approach to “welfare-focussed husbandry”, with distillation of key information that supports species-relevant care, to be developed for other zoo-housed species as support for their welfare assessment protocols. Such welfare-focussed husbandry is layered on top of the basic animal care requirements of the species in the zoo to ensure all individuals have the best opportunity to attain positive welfare states. In this way, and once validated, foundational welfare assessment can be easily completed by busy animal care staff, capacity is built into zoo operations as all stakeholders are aware of exactly what each species needs, and deeper dive welfare assessment (especially concerning animal mental states) can be targeted more effectively. Further evolution of these seven steps for the giraffe is suggested and extrapolation of this approach, to aid identification of key welfare indicators across all zoo-housed species, is encouraged.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030039
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 567-577: The Impacts of a Commercial Bubble Curtain on
           Zoo-Housed African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) Swimming Behavior

    • Authors: Shannon L. O’Brien, Katherine A. Cronin
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Swimming is an important behavior for all penguin species. However, zoo-housed penguins typically do not swim as often as their wild counterparts, which may have consequences for their health and welfare. In an effort to increase the swimming time of the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) population at Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL, USA (21 adults: 13 males, 8 females), we introduced a commercially available bubble curtain to the outdoor pool within the penguins’ habitat. The bubble curtain pushes pressurized air out through a hose fitted with small holes to create a stream of bubbles that generate water movement, which could entice penguins to swim. Over the course of 2 months, the penguins were exposed to a series of alternating conditions characterized by the bubble curtain being off or on for 2-week periods. A total of 228 swimming bouts were observed during this study. The bubble curtain did not increase the amount of time the penguins spent swimming, nor the maximum number of penguins in the pool during swim bouts. Rather, the penguins spent more time swimming when the bubble curtain was turned off, and the number of penguins in the pool during swim bouts was consistent across experimental phases. Additionally, we found that penguins swam the most when air temperatures were between 31 and 40 °F (approximately −1 to −4 °C). Unexpectedly, at least three individual penguins swam overnight between the hours of midnight and 6:00, highlighting the value of monitoring animals during entire 24 h periods. Collectively, this study provides detailed information about the swimming behavior of a zoo-housed African penguin population, and indicates that a bubble curtain was ineffective at stimulating swimming.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030040
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 578-586: The Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy on
           the Healing of Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina) Shells

    • Authors: Ashley R. Souza, Christopher Masterson, Tara M. Harrison
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Photobiomodulation therapy (cold laser or low-level laser therapy) has been evaluated in human and small animal medicine; however, there is a lack of knowledge about the role photobiomodulation therapy could play in reptile rehabilitation and release. This study used a quantifiable unit, Hounsfield units (bone density measurement), in computed tomography (CT) to evaluate if photobiomodulation therapy showed a significant healing difference between groups treated with photobiomodulation and those that were not. This study included 20 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) presented to a rehabilitation center that sustained shell fractures without penetrating the coelom. They all received similar medical treatments, except that the photobiomodulation group received 250 Hz of red light laser for three minutes three times a week for eight weeks. The turtles were evaluated over the course of two months of therapy. Computed tomography scans were performed prior to therapy, at the midpoint of treatment (one month postinjury), and at the end of the study (two months postinjury). The average Hounsfield units of the fractures were evaluated using nonparametric means, the Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis tests (ranked sums), and found that there were no significant differences in shell density between the photobiomodulation and control groups amongst the scans. This study did find that there was a significant difference (p = 0.0455) between the two groups in regard to the width of the fracture between pre- and post-treatment scans. This study found that the photobiomodulation group had a significantly decreased width of the fracture site between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements, showing that photobiomodulation could be a relatively easy and effective treatment to promote healing of fractured turtle shells.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030041
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 587-612: Biological and Management-Related Predictors
           of Reproductive Success in North American Ex Situ Asian Small-Clawed
           Otters (Aonyx cinereus)

    • Authors: Ashley D. Franklin, Monica M. McDonald, Mary Agnew, Sarah Duncan, David M. Powell
      First page: 587
      Abstract: The long-term sustainability of ex situ animal populations requires coordination across facilities through cooperative breeding programs. Here, we investigate the reasons for inconsistent reproductive success in the zoo-based North American Asian small-clawed otter (ASCO; Aonyx cinereus) population. Reproductive viability analysis (RVA) was used to identify which characteristics of ASCOs in breeding pairs were most predictive of reproductive success. The RVA identified pair type, contraception history, and age as the most significant predictors of offspring production. The use of deslorelin in males and long-term deslorelin use in females hinder future reproductive potential and should, therefore, be considered carefully in genetically valuable individuals and potential breeders. Moreover, genetically valuable animals should be paired with younger mates, as advancing male and female age decreases the likelihood of success. The lack of reproductive success observed after 1 year of attempted breeding among new pairs provides evidence of potential mate incompatibility, therefore, population managers should consider splitting up pairs that remain unsuccessful over time, because the likelihood of offspring production is low. Lastly, the inclusion of dens and/or caves and pools designed with ample shallow water areas in ASCO habitats may improve breeding success.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030042
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 613-622: Welfare Indices in Anurans under Human Care

    • Authors: Ethel Cortés Pérez, Ricardo Itzcóatl Maldonado Reséndiz
      First page: 613
      Abstract: Certain species within the order Anura are relatively new in the context of exotic animals as pets, and the precise conditions required for their optimal care and well-being are still not well understood. This knowledge gap highlights the crucial need to develop effective strategies to measjournal oure the welfare of these animals. To address this need, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature on welfare indices related to amphibians kept under human care. A systematic review was conducted across eight scientific databases, with a focus on identifying relevant articles that explored welfare indices specifically within the order Anura. The search was performed using two specific keywords. In total, 1568 English language results were obtained. Following a refinement process, 19 articles were selected for further analysis. The most investigated welfare indices in amphibians included individual survival, life expectancy, reproduction, hibernation, and body condition. However, it is important to note that studies specifically examining the behavior of amphibians within the order Anura are limited in scope. It is evident that there is still much work to be conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding of the environmental conditions and cognitive processes that affect the well-being of these animals.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030043
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 623-636: Allostatic Load Index Effectively Measures
           Chronic Stress Status in Zoo-Housed Giraffes

    • Authors: Haley N. Beer, Lisa K. Karr, Trenton C. Shrader, Dustin T. Yates
      First page: 623
      Abstract: For giraffes, few standardized methods exist for quantifying chronic stress. Allostatic load index is quantified from a panel of multi-system stress biomarkers to estimate cumulative stress. Our objective was to determine whether a panel of biomarkers selected for their role in allostatic load would reflect the number of documented stress events experienced by giraffes. Cortisol, DHEA-S, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and fructosamine were determined in serum samples from zoo-housed giraffes (n = 18). These were correlated with the overall number and frequency of ZIMS-documented stress events experienced prior to blood collection. We also compared giraffes grouped by high vs. low total stress events and event frequencies. Giraffes experiencing higher total stress events tended to have 1.65-fold greater (p < 0.10) serum cortisol, had 1.49-fold greater (p < 0.05) serum fructosamine, and had 3.9-fold greater (p < 0.05) allostatic load. Giraffes experiencing higher stress-event frequency had 2.4-fold greater (p < 0.05) serum NEFA. Correlations for individual biomarkers with individual stress event categories were inconsistent, but DHEA-S (r = −0.44), cortisol/DHEA-S (r = 0.49), fructosamine (r = 0.54), and allostatic load (r = 0.49) correlated (p < 0.10) with total stress events. These findings indicate that the allostatic load index robustly reflected total cumulative stress events for these giraffes and was more consistent than the individual biomarkers used for its calculation. We conclude that allostatic load index is a promising tool for assessing stress in captive giraffes, although revision of the biomarker panel is warranted.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030044
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 637-647: Distribution and Management of the Invasive
           Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) at the Foot of a Protected Area in
           Luzon Island, Philippines

    • Authors: Ericson Esquibel Coracero
      First page: 637
      Abstract: Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) pose one of the most significant threats to native biodiversity. Swietenia macrophylla, or big leaf mahogany, is among the most threatening invasive plants in the Philippines. This article aimed to formally document the presence of S. macrophylla along the edges of Mt. Banahaw de Nagcarlan, a protected area on Luzon Island, Philippines. The study also sought to identify the management strategies being implemented by various government institutions to address big leaf mahogany and other invasive plants. A total of 1591 individuals of S. macrophylla were documented in mixed land-use areas and roadsides. These were found to have been introduced by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in 1991 as a reforestation species. Fortunately, no individuals were observed beyond the buffer zone towards the protected area. The identification of management strategies for big leaf mahogany and other IAPS revealed that there is no established approach specifically addressing the presence of S. macrophylla at the site. However, some institutions advocate for the conservation of native plants through tree planting activities and educational campaigns. Furthermore, no collaborative efforts were observed among stakeholders and institutions. The results of this study highlight the urgent need to manage the S. macrophylla population. Planning and enforcement of strategies require collaborative efforts among stakeholders to prevent its entry into the protected area and ensure the preservation of native biodiversity.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4030045
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 292-311: Conservation through Collaboration: Regional
           Conservation Programs of the North Carolina Zoo

    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Roznik, Halley Buckanoff, Robert W. Langston, Christopher J. Shupp, Dustin Smith
      First page: 292
      Abstract: In response to rapid biodiversity losses in recent decades, zoos have become more engaged in conservation issues. Solutions to conservation challenges are complex and require collaborative efforts across organizations. Zoos can be effective partners that can contribute diverse expertise and resources to protect wildlife and their habitats. While zoos often partner with international organizations to facilitate field-based conservation projects on the exotic animals they exhibit, some of the most meaningful conservation and education initiatives are conducted locally in partnership with local organizations. A core part of the mission of the North Carolina Zoo (Asheboro, NC, USA) is the conservation of wildlife and their natural habitats, both regionally and internationally. The goal of this article is to review the North Carolina Zoo’s regional conservation programs and the importance of partnerships with other local organizations in accomplishing shared goals. North Carolina Zoo plays an important role in regional conservation by protecting and managing natural lands, protecting declining amphibians through headstarting and habitat management, rehabilitating native wildlife, and working on local outreach and sustainability projects to reduce impacts on natural resources and inspire others to get involved in conservation. These programs were developed through partnerships with local and state government agencies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations, other zoos and aquariums, schools, libraries, and businesses. These collaborations have been instrumental in developing and implementing successful projects by pooling limited resources and sharing crucial expertise. They demonstrate how zoos are evolving to become leaders and partners in conservation, research, and education to protect local species and natural resources.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 312-324: Monitoring Thermoregulation Patterns in Asian
           Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Winter Months in Southwestern Ontario Using
           Infrared Thermography

    • Authors: Janel Lefebvre, Charlie Gray, Taryn Prosser, Amy Chabot
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Given the current and future threats to Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), maintaining a sustainable ex situ population is crucial for the longevity of the species. Using Infrared Thermography (IRT), thermoregulation of Asian elephants at low ambient temperatures was examined. Thermal images were taken at 15 min intervals over 60–90-min observation periods, once weekly, during January and February 2022. A total of 374 images were examined from 10 Asian elephants, which varied from 1 to 56 years of age. Data from thermograms of the ear and body were interpreted in view of weight, age and behavior. Variability in surface temperature was found most frequently in the ears, occasionally presenting as thermal windows—areas with dense underlying blood supply that aid in heat exchange. Thermal windows occurred most frequently in the distal, then medial, regions of the ear. The pattern of appearance of thermal windows in the ear provides support that the increase of blood flow is utilized as a method of warming. This preliminary study provides key insight into Asian elephant thermoregulation, suggesting that the species may be more well-adapted to lower ambient temperatures than previously thought.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 325-334: Role of Endemism and Other Factors in
           Determining the Introduction Success of Rare and Threatened Species in
           Tashkent Botanical Garden

    • Authors: Sergei Volis, Igor V. Belolipov, Temur Asatulloev, Mirabdulla Turgunov
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Although rare and threatened species are maintained in many botanical gardens around the world, detailed reports on the success or failure of their introduction appear infrequently, which makes it difficult to understand the major constraints of growing imperilled species in botanical garden living collections. Though intuitively, a level of endemism appears to be important, its role as a predictor of species cultivation success in the garden living collections has never been tested. This paper summarizes the experience of the Tashkent Botanical Garden in creating and maintaining living collections of rare and threatened species of Uzbekistan, trying to understand the role of endemism and other factors in the success and failure of these species cultivation. We found that out of 100 rare and threatened species introduced, the cultivation of 26 failed. Most of these species were endemic to the country, occupying soil types and habitats different from those of the garden site. However, surprisingly, the introduction of many analogous species has been successful. This implies that some narrow endemics can be successfully grown in botanical gardens, but to predict which can and which cannot is impossible, and there are no alternatives to introduction trials. Overall, the large number of rare and threatened species for which introductions were successful confirms the important role of ex situ conservation in preserving critically endangered biodiversity and should stimulate further work in this direction. The future efforts of the garden staff will focus on two major objectives: (i) collecting seeds of endangered species that have so far skipped attention or their collection missions have not been successful; and (ii) propagating those species that have proven cultivation success and using the propagated material for in situ actions.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 335-363: Investigating Object Recognition Memory Using
           Sensory Enrichment with a North American River Otter (Lontra canadensis)

    • Authors: Jessica J. Wegman, Caroline M. DeLong
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Research studies that shed light on cognitive and perceptual abilities in otters can utilize tasks that provide environmental, structural, food-based, sensory, or cognitive enrichment. The current study examined the use of the novel object recognition task, a task commonly used to study memory in non-human animals, as a form of sensory enrichment. The subject of the current study was an adult male otter that resided at the Seneca Park Zoo in Rochester, NY, USA. The stimulus pairs for this task were multisensory (3D objects and odorants). In this study, three memory intervals were investigated: 10 min, 1 h, and 24 h (each memory interval included 10 sessions). The otter spent only 15% of his time near the stimulus pairs and engaged in very few explorations, suggesting that this was not an effective form of sensory enrichment and did not provide any evidence for long-term memory. These results contrast strongly with our previous studies with otters using a two-alternative forced-choice task that provided engaging cognitive enrichment. We suggest that cognitive enrichment, including enrichment via training (and food-based enrichment), may be more effective for otters than sensory enrichment. Future research should further investigate cognitive phenomena in otters using tasks involving cognitive enrichment. These types of studies can improve enrichment practices and promote positive welfare for otters in zoos, inform conservation efforts, and grow our limited knowledge of otter perception and cognition.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 364-395: Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry,
           Pharmacology, and Toxicology of Euphorbia resinifera O. Berg. (B): A

    • Authors: Oumaima Hmidouche, Khadija Bouftini, Abdelbasset Chafik, Sara Khouri, Halima Rchid, Abdessadek Rahimi, Mostafa Mimouni, Elbekay Maarouf, Fatna Zaakour, Rachid Nmila, Aya Khouchlaa
      First page: 364
      Abstract: Euphorbia resinifera (Zaggûm or Tikiut) is an endemic species of Morocco that grows in the Middle Atlas Mountain range. It is used in folk medicine to treat several diseases, especially various types of cancer. Aim of the review: In this review, we critically highlighted and discussed previous reports on E. resinifera, concerning its botanical description, taxonomy, geographical distribution, and medicinal use. In addition, bioactive compounds, toxicology, and pharmacological effects were reported. Materials and methods: We searched various scientific databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, SpringerLink, SciFinder, Wiley Online, and Google Scholar, to collect data on E. resinifera. Studies involving E. resinifera or its bioactive compounds with regards to antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antiprotease, immunomodulatory, irritant, and lysosomal activities are discussed here. Results: E. resinifera has been widely used in folk medicine practice in Morocco to treat several diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and inflammatory skin conditions, as well as to heal wounds. In phytochemistry studies, biochemical compounds have been identified from E. resinifera belonging specially to terpenoids. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations showed that extracts and compounds from the latex of E. resinifera exhibited a wide spectrum of biological properties, particularly antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, and immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activities. Conclusion: The use of E. resinifera in conventional medicine is supported by processes founded on biological evidence. However, in-depth research is necessary to prove the safety and efficacy of E. resinifera latex extracts and their compounds and to clarify their pharmacological mechanisms. In addition, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies are required for extracts and bioactive compounds.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 396-412: Conservation Innovations and Future
           Directions for the Study of Rhinoceros Gut Microbiome

    • Authors: Christina M. Burnham, Kimberly Ange-van Heugten, Erin A. McKenney, Larry J. Minter, Shweta Trivedi
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Rhinoceros are among the largest and most endangered herbivores in the world. Three of the five extant species are critically endangered, with poaching and habitat loss contributing heavily to declines. The gut microbiome is an essential facet of host health and digestion, mediating a variety of immune and physiological functions. Certain microbes have the potential to serve as biomarkers for reproductive outcomes and predictors of disease susceptibility. Therefore, assessing gut microbial dynamics in relation to wild and managed rhinoceros populations has particular relevance for zoos and other conservation organizations that maintain assurance populations of these charismatic megafauna. The functional gut microbiomes associated with all rhinoceros species remain poorly studied, and many published reports are limited by small sample sizes and sex biases. In this review, we synthesize current research to examine the rhinoceros gut microbiome under human management and resulting conservation implications, address common pitfalls of wildlife gut microbiome studies, and propose future avenues of research in this field.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 413-426: Record, Recall, Reflect: A Qualitative
           Examination of Compassion Fatigue in Toronto Zoo Staff

    • Authors: Krischanda Bemister-Bourret, Merna Tawfik
      First page: 413
      Abstract: This study explored Toronto Zoo animal-care professionals’ (ACPs) experiences with compassion fatigue (CF) using a two-phase participatory methodology. In phase one, 11 participants took photographs of their workplace. In phase two, participants told the story behind their photographs through one-on-one interviews. The data were analyzed using NVivo12 software. The participants’ experiences with compassion fatigue stemmed from issues with foundational infrastructure at the Toronto Zoo. Specifically, the participants highlighted issues related to training, staffing, and resource availability and discussed their resultant effect on animal welfare. The participants described the importance of built and sustained trust in their jobs, both with each other and with the non-human animals under their care. While the Zoo’s motto is “One TZ”, the participants noted conflict between the public’s perception of the Toronto Zoo and how the organization cares for its staff. The additive effects of mental and physical exhaustion have led to disengagement from activities that once brought joy and difficulty staying focused while at work and home. The findings will enable the Toronto Zoo to provide comprehensive mental health support for their staff and allow participants, researchers, partner organizations, and the general public to discover more about compassion fatigue in the hope that the lessons learned will last a lifetime.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 427-444: Understanding How the Unique Context of the
           Minnesota Zoo Shapes Our Local Conservation Initiatives

    • Authors: Mary Mallinger, Tricia Markle, Ben Minerich, Cale Nordmeyer, Erik Runquist, Seth Stapleton
      First page: 427
      Abstract: The field of wildlife conservation is comprised of a variety of players with different contexts and approaches. Zoos and aquariums, historically largely focused on public entertainment, are shifting more towards conservation-minded missions and can play a unique role in wildlife conservation by leveraging their distinct assets. The Minnesota Zoo is an AZA-accredited institution and an agency of the State of Minnesota that has been conducting wildlife conservation for over 40 years. Here, we review our current portfolio of local field projects, including initiatives targeting pollinators, native mussels, turtles, and bison, using several considerations to structure and better understand how our unique context has shaped our work. Our designation as a state agency has impacted our initiatives by necessitating a focus on local efforts and has facilitated many partnerships with other government agencies. Indeed, partnerships have been vital to our success and have shaped our programs significantly since their inception. All of the Zoo’s conservation initiatives are built on a bedrock of sound science, and we continue to contribute to the field through research, utilizing the expertise of department staff. In addition, the various funding streams that support our programs have dramatically shaped our work and have created some siloing of staff within the department. However, grant funding can serve as a buffer against the impacts of economic uncertainty, as evidenced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, our programs have expanded and our objectives have pivoted over the years in response to changing needs and opportunities; such flexibility—and increased flexibility for our staff—is imperative to the future success of these efforts. The Minnesota Zoo’s narrative is unique and helps us understand how we can continue to most effectively carry out local conservation efforts. As we work to protect habitats and save species from extinction, it is important to utilize the distinct assets that each organization can contribute in order to have the greatest collective impact.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 445-461: The Role of Zoos and Aquariums in
           Contributing to the Kunming–Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

    • Authors: Andrew Moss, Matea Vukelic, Susan L. Walker, Charlotte Smith, Sarah L. Spooner
      First page: 445
      Abstract: It is now well established that human-induced species extinctions and habitat degradation are currently occurring at unprecedented rates. To halt and reverse this decline, the international community adopted the Kunming–Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), as part of the Kunming–Montreal Biodiversity Package, in December 2022. We clarify what this new framework means for conservation zoos and aquariums in their mission to prevent species extinction by highlighting areas of focus. We explain why it is necessary that conservation zoos and aquariums establish the appropriate mechanisms for contributing towards such a framework to help validate their role in the 21st Century. Conservation zoos and aquariums should be reassured that much of their work already fits within the GBF. However, the current mechanisms for individual zoos and aquariums to directly contribute to the implementation of the GBF mostly rely on close collaboration with individual national governments and/or are only possible at a national level. It is therefore critical that national, regional, and global zoo membership organisations take a leading role in championing the work of their members. Equally, adequately linking the efforts of zoos and aquariums to the national implementation of international instruments, such as the GBF, is imperative to ensure that these organizations’ contributions feed into the understanding we have of global progress towards the implementation of international instruments.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 462-475: Living Collections of Threatened Plants in
           Botanic Gardens: When Is Ex Situ Cultivation Less Appropriate than Quasi
           In Situ Cultivation'

    • Authors: Sergei Volis
      First page: 462
      Abstract: Botanic gardens play an increasingly important role in the conservation of global biodiversity. However, although botanical gardens periodically report the results of introducing certain species of native flora, they rarely attempt to summarize existing knowledge to make general recommendations regarding ex situ collections. The aim of this study was to analyze the many years of experience of the Tashkent Botanical Garden in creating and maintaining living collections of threatened species of Uzbekistan (the majority of which are endemic to the country or Central Asia) in order to identify species whose cultivation ex situ is advisable, and whose cultivation will not result in meaningful conservation. Careful analysis of the species introduction history revealed that a simple dichotomy of the introduction results (success/failure) appears to be an oversimplification. In terms of the cultivation success, the introduced plant species can rather be classified into three categories: success, failure, and dubious success. For many species whose introduction was earlier considered successful, the introduction success is questionable and further efforts to conserve these species ex situ should be abandoned. A decision tree and classification of threatened perennials for possible ex situ introduction are proposed and the species in TBG collections are tabulated according to the latter. Species considered unsuitable for ex situ conservation are recommended for quasi in situ conservation. Both approaches, ex situ and quasi in situ, should be intensively used as a part of an integral conservation strategy for preserving plant biodiversity.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 476-489: Connecting to Zoos and Aquariums during a
           COVID-19 Lockdown

    • Authors: Alaina M. Macri, Deborah L. Wells
      First page: 476
      Abstract: One of the main goals of zoos and aquariums (hereafter ‘zoos’) is to connect visitors with animals. Unfortunately, COVID-19 lockdowns resulted in these organizations closing around the globe, making this goal exceedingly difficult. During lockdowns, zoos became very resourceful and found alternative means to connect people with animals. Additional social media, webcams, and education resources were offered. What is unknown, however, is the extent to which people used these resources and what factors influenced this. This study, therefore, aimed to explore these questions through an online survey. Of the 302 participants who chose to stay connected to a zoo, the majority (82%) did so via social media, and just over half of the sample used webcams (51%). When asked why they stayed connected, 75% indicated that they did so for their own interest in animals, but some (36%) said they enjoyed sharing the animal information with family/friends. Zoo members were more likely to use education resources, and people with zoo work experience were more likely to share animal information. This study illustrates that zoo resources were utilized during lockdown and that demographic variables were associated with how and why people used them. The findings have implications for zoos post-COVID-19 and may be useful for promoting connections and well-being in certain cohorts of society.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 490-506: A Comprehensive Approach to Improving Endemic
           Plant Species Research, Conservation, and Popularization

    • Authors: Marco D’Antraccoli, Angelino Carta, Giovanni Astuti, Jacopo Franzoni, Antonio Giacò, Manuel Tiburtini, Lorenzo Pinzani, Lorenzo Peruzzi
      First page: 490
      Abstract: Scientific research is the main driver to push forward and disseminate botanical knowledge. Despite many institutions having this fundamental aim as a core activity, many of them do not have a complete set of facilities, expertise, staff, and resources to cover all the steps involved in the study, management, conservation, and popularization of plant diversity. Accordingly, we propose a workflow formalizing the cooperation between a botanical garden and a botanical research center, focused on the study of plant endemic species. Specifically, the cooperation was implemented between the PLANTSEED Lab of the Department of Biology and the Botanic Garden and Museum of the University of Pisa. We present seven representative case studies (Armeria arenaria complex, Bellevalia webbiana, Crocus etruscus and C. ilvensis, Dianthus virgineus complex, Pulmonaria hirta complex, and Santolina chamaecyparissus complex) to disentangle the approaches and opportunities arising from cooperative approaches, from laboratory to cultivation. We analyze the emerging properties derived from this synergistic cooperation by promoting open research questions and answering them using a comprehensive approach to improving endemic plant species research, conservation, and popularization in the botanical garden. In this manuscript, we show how a cooperative approach between heterogeneous botanical institutions can constitute an effective and easy-to-implement approach to achieve the goals of each partner involved in the cooperation.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4020036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 12-20: Effect of Prolonged Serum Storage Time and
           Varied Temperatures on Biochemical Values in African Savanna Elephants
           (Loxodonta africana)

    • Authors: Emily L. Schlake, Katherine R. Cassady, Erika J. Gruber, Larry J. Minter
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Blood samples are routinely collected from wild populations in remote locations with limited electricity, minimal diagnostic capabilities, and extreme environmental conditions. Under these conditions, serum samples may be stored for prolonged time under varied temperatures prior to processing, which could affect the ability to interpretation the results. This study’s objective was to evaluate the effects of delayed processing of serum samples and varied storage temperatures on biochemical values in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana). Blood samples were collected from six elephants managed by the North Carolina Zoo. For each elephant, seven red top tubes were collected. One serum sample for each elephant was analyzed on Day 0 (control group). The remaining samples were stored under different temperatures including room temperature (23 °C), refrigeration (2.2 °C), and incubation (32.2 °C), with samples from each temperature group being analyzed on Day 5 and Day 10. Many of analytes (10 out of 18) did not change significantly regardless of storage temperature or time. Refrigeration improved stability in an additional four analytes over prolonged storage. We conclude that if serum is properly separated shortly after collection, many serum biochemical analytes can be accurately measured even after suboptimal serum storage, but refrigeration and prompt evaluation are still required for some analytes.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 21-38: The Impacts of Evening Events in Zoos: A
           Christmas Event at Knowsley Safari

    • Authors: Ellen Williams, Tom Fulwell, Naomi Davies Walsh, Jessica J. Harley, Bridget Johnson
      First page: 21
      Abstract: It is important to examine the animal welfare implications of all aspects of zoo operations, including out-of-hours public events. Research to date has indicated variable responses across species and event types. The current research aimed to understand and quantify the impact of a Christmas lights event. Four species of ungulates: Rothschild giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi; n = 2) in one exhibit and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris; n = 4), lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris; n = 3) and vicuña (Lama vicugna; n = 5) in a mixed species exhibit were observed. Data were collected from 16:00–20:00 between 28 October 2021 and 11 January 2022. The event ran from mid-November to the end of December 2021. Five-minute behavioural observations were undertaken once per hour using instantaneous scan sampling with a one-minute inter-scan interval. A further six days of 12 h observations were conducted to enable a more detailed investigation post-event. Data collected were compared on non-event and event days using Mann–Whitney U tests (event vs. non-event) and Kruskal–Wallis tests (pre-event, event, post-event periods). Kruskal–Wallis tests and one-way ANOVAs were undertaken to compare behaviours during three time periods (12:00–16:00, 16:00–20:00, 20:00–00:00) over 12 h. Mixed behavioural responses were seen across the study species. Capybara spent more time in their house from 16:00–20:00 on event nights compared to non-event nights (p < 0.001) and tapir only engaged in vigilant behaviour from 16:00–20:00 when the event was held, (p = 0.044). There were no differences in frequency of behaviour between pre-event, event, and post-event observation periods, with the exception of capybara, who spent more time OOS in the pre-event period than during (p < 0.001) or after the event (p < 0.001). The results of the project, undertaken as part of an evidence-based management programme, highlighted that the event did not have any overtly negative impacts on the ungulates studied. Except for the giraffe, all individuals had free access to inside and outside environments, and it is believed this choice enabled animals to be active in managing their response to the event. It is recommended that future work observe animals over 24 h to understand whether events lead to behavioural changes the day after events or if animals reverted to normal activity once the event ended.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 39-49: Gorilla Activities and Social Behavior:
           Assessing Changes Associated with Absence of Zoo Visitors, Zoo Attendance,
           Time of Day and Increasing Maturity

    • Authors: Cathleen R. Cox, Jill S. Werner, Joan I. Mead
      First page: 39
      Abstract: In this study we report on associations found between several variables and changes in gorilla behavior. Two groups of gorillas were observed, one was a family group and the other was a bachelor group. The zoo was closed to visitors for two periods during the COVID-19 pandemic which made it possible to document any differences associated with the presence and absence of visitors. We also considered possible changes in behavior in relation to daily zoo attendance, time of day, and increasing maturity of group members. Output variables included six activities and one location which were assessed by instantaneous sampling, as well as level of aggressive and affiliative behavior assessed by recording all occurrences. Hour in which observations were done and successive months in the study, which serves as a measure of increasing maturity of younger gorillas, were the best predictors of activity and location, with each showing significant relationships with three output variables. Absence of visitors during zoo closure was also significantly associated with an increase in time the gorillas were proximate to potential visitor viewing areas. Aggression among the bachelors was lower when the zoo was closed and higher with maturation of the youngest male. Reviewing differences in level of aggression during the two periods of closure shows that decreased aggression among the bachelors was not a result of zoo closure.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 50-52: Fundamental Knowledge on Forgotten Species: An
           Exploration of Data from Rarely Studied Captive Animals

    • Authors: Kris Descovich, Caralyn Kemp, Jessica Rendle
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Zoological institutions contribute a large amount of fundamental and applied knowledge on a diverse array of animal species [...]
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 53-69: The Societal Value of the Modern Zoo: A
           Commentary on How Zoos Can Positively Impact on Human Populations Locally
           and Globally

    • Authors: Phillip J. Greenwell, Lisa M. Riley, Ricardo Lemos de Figueiredo, James E. Brereton, Andrew Mooney, Paul E. Rose
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Modern zoos and aquariums have evolved greatly since the end of the Second World War, to become centres of conservation excellence and scientific institutions for the study of animal behaviour, ecology, husbandry management. Whilst the impact of zoos and aquariums to biodiversity conservation, population management and advancement of species care is well documented, their positive impacts on society (including the communities that they are located within) is less well known. The four established aims of the modern zoo—Conservation, Education, Recreation (Engagement) and Research—provide a strong foundation for wider review and critique of the societal value of zoos and aquariums. This article synthesises what such value may be, and how it could be measured, from a systematic review of the literature pertaining to each of these four established aims. It also recommends areas of future scientific inquiry to further study the wider impact of zoos on their local communities and on human populations and behaviour more generally. Including Wellbeing as a fifth aim of the modern zoo would also cement their wider societal value. Further scrutiny of the societal value of the modern zoo enhances the value of the zoo’s living collection and the green spaces that it manages to provide accessibility to biodiversity and nature-centric education essential to long-term, planetary friendly human behaviour change.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 70-71: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Journal of
           Zoological and Botanical Gardens in 2022

    • Authors: Journal of Zoological; Botanical Gardens Editorial Office
      First page: 70
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 72-81: Trainer Interaction Can Improve Welfare
           Outcomes of Toy Enrichment for Isolated Animals: A Case Study

    • Authors: Kelly Jaakkola, Sarah Brignac, Linda Erb, Emily Guarino, Abigail Haddock, Armando Rodriguez
      First page: 72
      Abstract: In cases where social animals must be temporarily housed alone, environmental enrichment is particularly important. Providing animals with manipulable objects (“toys”) is a common form of environmental enrichment, but its effectiveness can be limited by animal disinterest or habituation. The current study examined whether caregiver interaction could increase the effectiveness of object-based enrichment for a quarantined bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Behavioral observations were conducted after a training session, after a trainer toy play session, and between interactive sessions. The results showed that the dolphin floated in place less and played with toys more after interacting with a caregiver than he did at times further removed from caregiver interaction. He was also more likely to play with the same toys that the trainer had played with, showing effects of stimulus enhancement and/or social referencing. Although this study is, of necessity, based on a single animal of a single species, these findings suggest that interacting with a caregiver can enhance the efficacy of object-based environmental enrichment for isolated animals.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 82-86: An Introduction to the Special Issue:
           “The Animals Will Play While the Visitors Are Away: What Happens
           When Zoos and Aquariums Are Closed to Visitors'”

    • Authors: David M. Powell, Ashley N. Edes
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Zoos and aquariums are cultural institutions that rely on a steady stream of paying visitors, whose patronage comes in the form of admission fees or product sales, for their financial health, a condition that is vital to their continued delivery on the modern zoological mission, one that includes not only recreation but also conservation, education, and research [...]
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 87-98: Access to Multiple Habitats Improves Welfare: A
           Case Study of Two Zoo-Housed Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    • Authors: Kelly Bruno, Cassidy Hubbard, Emily Lynch
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Using various forms of enrichment, animal care specialists encourage species-specific behaviors and discourage stereotypic behaviors. Within the zoo community, bears (Ursids spp.) are commonly housed, yet are prone to exhibiting stress-related behaviors. Here, we assess the effect of access to multiple habitats, including areas of off guest view, on the welfare of two American black bears (U. americanus) housed at the North Carolina Zoo. In this study, we looked at two behaviors, pacing and foraging to represent negative and positive welfare indicators. We performed logistic regressions to model the effect of access on these behaviors. Because having an animal visible to guests is important to consider when creating management plans, we also explored the effect of access on the bears’ visibility. We found that full access reduced the likelihood of pacing by an average of 13% and increased the likelihood of foraging by an average of 5%. Access to multiple areas reduced the probability of visibility by 57% for one individual but did not impact visibility of the other bear. This case study suggests the value of access to zoo animal welfare and should incite future research aimed at exploring the effects of access on various behavioral outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 99-107: Effects of Background Color on Stress-Linked
           Behavior in the Critically Endangered Lake Oku Clawed Frog (Xenopus

    • Authors: Arabella E. Graves, Jemma E. Dias, Christopher J. Michaels
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Ex situ amphibian populations are a key component of global amphibian conservation strategy, and optimal husbandry is vital to ex situ conservation success. Animal behavior can be used to inform captive welfare and improve husbandry practices. However, it has been little used for amphibians compared with mammals and birds. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of different colored tank backgrounds on the behavior of the critically endangered Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) in captivity. This was conducted by studying the behavior of a group of 24 captive frogs in 5 groups using established behavioral indicators of presumed stress. Resting and swimming behaviors, established in the literature as linked to acute stress, were recorded under conditions of three background colors and a standard husbandry control of no background. Frog groups were exposed to each background for five days with behavioral frequencies recorded daily from 11:00 until 13:00. Using generalized linear mixed models, we identified a significant effect of background days after the background was changed and the interaction between the two variables on both swimming and resting behavior. The results of this study suggest an initial response of stress to altering the background, modulated by the color of the background, followed by the extinction of the stress response such that by five days after the background change, behaviors were similar to the baseline and indistinguishable between treatments. Overall, this study suggests that frog stress behavior was not differentially directly affected by green, grey, black, or transparent backgrounds but that green and grey backgrounds were associated with the smallest stress response to background change. These colors may therefore be recommended to reduce the impact of stress from disturbance.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 108-117: Reference Intervals and Clinical Utility of
           Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Proteins Electrophoresis in the Hamadryas
           Baboon (Papio hamadryas)

    • Authors: Megan L. Cabot, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Carolyn Cray, Larry J. Minter
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Measurements of specific acute phase proteins (APP) and protein electrophoresis (EPH) fractions have been widely used to better assess the health of species under managed care across numerous taxa. To date, APP assays have not been validated in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), and reference intervals have not yet been established. This information is critical for the interpretation of APP and EPH measurements used in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases during routine veterinary care of this species. To obtain this information, banked serum samples from hamadryas baboons of various age, sex, and health status, under managed care at the North Carolina Zoo, were analyzed. A small pilot study found significantly higher serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) but not haptoglobin in baboons with acute inflammation compared to healthy counterparts, so these two APPs were investigated further. Reagents for serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were validated, although differences in CRP reagents were observed. Based on the results of this study, SAA and CRP were defined as major APPs that were significantly increased in baboons with active inflammation or infection compared to healthy conspecifics. Baboons with acute inflammation additionally had significantly higher gamma globulins compared to healthy baboons. Although mean albumin concentrations were lower in baboons with acute inflammation, the difference from healthy baboons was not statistically significant. This study identifies SAA, CRP, and EPH as useful tools in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in the hamadryas baboon and establishes reference intervals to aid in the future veterinary care of this species.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 118-133: Gender and Age, but Not Visual Context,
           Impact Wildlife Attitudes and Perceptions of Animals in Zoos

    • Authors: Andrew C. Alba, Gina M. Ferrie, Mandi Wilder Schook, Maureen Leahy, Katherine A. Cronin
      First page: 118
      Abstract: People’s attitudes toward wildlife may impact their behaviors in support of conservation. We surveyed people in the United States to determine if gender, age, or visual contexts commonly seen in zoos impacted wildlife attitudes and perceptions of animals in zoos. After viewing an image of a two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) or reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus) in one of six different contexts, respondents indicated their agreement with statements designed to reveal their wildlife attitudes. We categorized attitude types, determined factors influencing attitudes, and investigated perceptions of animals in zoos. Analyses revealed both positive and negative wildlife attitudes. Attitudes were not influenced by the context in which animals were portrayed but were highly impacted by gender and age. Similar factors influenced perceptions of animals in zoos. Zoological facilities should consider how attitudes are shaped by gender and age when designing animal exhibits, educational programs, and media offerings to promote conservation mindedness.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 134-145: Vitamin A, Vitamin E, and Carotenoid
           Concentrations in Livers of Marine Toads (Rhinella marina)

    • Authors: Hanna Lee, Larry J. Minter, Troy N. Tollefson, Frank Ridgley, Dustin Smith, Kimberly Treiber, Heather Scott, Brigid V. Troan, Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Global amphibian population decline is a major concern. Therefore, conservation centers have become increasingly needed for population sustainability breeding programs. This need makes proper nutrition programs while in human care imperative. The specific nutritional focus of this current research was to analyze vitamin A, vitamin E, and carotenoid (apocarotenoid, β-carotene, β-carotene ester, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein ester, zeaxanthin, and zeaxanthin ester) concentrations in the liver of 66 free-range marine toads (Rhinella marina) over a two-month period after entering human management. Toads were fed supplemented crickets randomly assigned to one of two diets: Diet 1 consisted of brown house crickets (Acheta domestica) gut loaded with Mazuri® Cricket Diet 5M38 and small amounts of sweet potato and carrots; Diet 2 consisted of an identical diet with the gut loaded crickets additionally dusted with Repashy® Superfoods Vitamin A Plus. Ten toads were euthanized prior to human management on Day 0 to assess baseline liver nutrients. Seven toads consuming each of the two diets (14 toads total) were euthanized on Days 9, 15, 32, and 62. Regardless of diet treatment, there were decreases (p < 0.05) in all the analyzed nutrient concentrations over the 62-day human management period. The results from this study indicate that higher dietary vitamin A, vitamin E, and carotenoid content may be needed and/or the cricket gut loading and dusting techniques used to feed the amphibians food source insects may be inadequate.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 146-157: The Effect of Pyrantel Pamoate Treatment on
           Fecal Pinworm (Leidynema appendiculata) Parasites of Dietary Dubia Roaches
           (Blaptica dubia): Efforts to Eliminate Passthrough Fecal Pseudoparasites
           in Lesser Hedgehog Tenrecs (Echinops telfairi)

    • Authors: Elizabeth Browder, Sabrina Kapp, Kimberly Ange-van Heugten, James Flowers, Larry S. Christian, Daniel S. Dombrowski
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Pinworm ova were discovered on lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi) fecal exams. Ova were passthrough pseudoparasite pinworms originating from feeder roaches (Blaptica dubia). Roaches were maintained as a feeder colony and offered to tenrecs as a portion of their diet. Pinworms were identified as Leidynema appendiculata. This study aimed to determine if these pinworms could be eliminated from the roaches. Roaches were randomly assigned into groups (n = 24), including a control (A) and four treatment groups (B–E). Treatment group roaches received oral dosing of anthelmintic pyrantel pamoate at four concentrations (mg/g as offered): 3.5 (Group B), 14.0 (Group C), 26.0 (Group D), and 35.0 (Group E). Roach diets were made weekly and offered to roaches 2 consecutive days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. The total pinworm ova per gram of roach feces examined were visually reduced in all treatment groups compared to controls at the end of the feed dosing period (Day 23). Post-treatment pinworm numbers were visually reduced in all treatment groups compared to controls on Day 29 and Day 65. Groups receiving higher concentrations of the oral dosing (C–E) significantly differed from controls at Day 29 (p = 0.0086, p = 0.0045, and p = 0.0013, respectively) with a concentration-dependent response. Parasites were not eliminated in any group at Day 29 or 65 post-treatment, with an increasing visual trend indicating recontamination. This is the first report confirming a passthrough pseudoparasite in tenrecs from dubia roaches, and anthelmintic dosage research is warranted.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 158-175: Comparing Predictors and Outcomes of Higher
           Allostatic Load across Zoo-Housed African Great Apes

    • Authors: Ashley N. Edes, Katie L. Edwards, Dawn Zimmerman, Balbine Jourdan, Douglas E. Crews, Barbara A. Wolfe, Donald L. Neiffer, Janine L. Brown
      First page: 158
      Abstract: Stressors over the lifespan can contribute to physiological dysregulation, or allostatic load. Allostatic load has been studied in humans using allostatic load indices (ALIs) for over 25 years, but the same methods are rarely applied to other species. We constructed an ALI for zoo-housed western lowland gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos and tested potential predictors of and health outcomes associated with allostatic load. Allostatic load scores ranged from 0–6 for gorillas and chimpanzees and 0–7 for bonobos. Age was significantly associated with allostatic load in gorillas and chimpanzees but not bonobos. Cumulative stressful events were positively associated with allostatic load in chimpanzees. Wild-caught gorillas had higher allostatic load than zoo-born conspecifics, but rearing differences between zoo-born animals were not significant for any species. Age may affect associations of allostatic load with stressful events and birthplace as results change when it is included as a covariate. Allostatic load was not retained in best-fit models for risk of all-cause morbidity, cardiac disease, or mortality risk. Some analyses herein were limited by the use of retrospective data, such as reason for sample collection and length of records provided for individual animals. Nevertheless, these data indicate additional research is needed to optimize ALIs for non-human primates.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 176-190: Quantifying Acute Behavioral Reactions of
           Bali Mynas (Leucopsar rothschildi) to Environmental and Progressively
           Challenging Enrichment

    • Authors: Eli Baskir, Alayna Parsons, Marija Elden, David M. Powell
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Animals use specific behaviors and skills to overcome challenges and access resources. Environmental enrichment is provided to animals in human care to both promote species-appropriate behaviors and reduce undesired behaviors. Feather pecking in birds is an undesired behavior without a clear cause. The Saint Louis Zoo houses three pairs of young Bali mynas (Leucopsar rothschildi) who pluck neck feathers from conspecifics. To reduce this behavior, animal care staff presented the birds with seven enrichment items from four categories, presenting each item twice. The enrichment included a modifiable, progressively challenging bamboo tube device at multiple levels of difficulty. While plucking was not affected by any enrichment item, we observed significant increases in locomotion and decreases in autopreening, allogrooming, and head bobbing. Leafy greens produced the greatest changes when compared to other enrichment types. Overall engagement with the progressively challenging enrichment increased with the change from the first to the second level of difficulty, and interaction with the device was highest for the third and most difficult version. These increases suggest that no habituation to the progressively challenging device occurred, while a possible neophobic effect declined with multiple uses and increased familiarity.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 191-213: Age and Social History Impact Social

    • Authors: Taylor S. Readyhough, Maura Davis, Sharon Joseph, Anneke Moresco, Amy L. Schreier
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Wild bull Asian elephants spend time in all-male groups. Therefore, managers of ex situ populations increasingly house bulls together. We examined the social interactions of five bull Asian elephants at Denver Zoo, using instantaneous sampling to compare social interactions across adolescent and mature bulls, and bulls with a social history prior to the integration of this group compared to bulls with no social history. Both age and social history significantly affected bull behavior. Adolescent bulls exhibited more affiliative and submissive behaviors when housed with mixed-age and mature social partners compared to with only adolescents, and less non-contact agonistic behavior and less time in proximity to a conspecific with mixed-age groups compared to with only other adolescents. Mature bulls exhibited more affiliative behavior when they were with only adolescent bulls compared to only mature bulls, and more time in proximity to a conspecific and increased contact agonistic behavior with at least one adolescent compared to only mature bulls. Bulls in new social groups engaged in more affiliative, agonistic, and submissive behaviors, and spent less time in proximity, than when they were in previously established social combinations. As more institutions house bulls socially, our results provide insights into factors that may affect bull social interactions.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 214-230: Local Plant and Insect Conservation Evaluated
           with Organizational Identity Theory

    • Authors: Lily Maynard, Bailey Cadena, T’Noya Thompson, Valerie Pence, Megan Philpott, Mollie O’Neil, Mandy Pritchard, Julia Glenn, Bridget Reilly, Jordan Hubrich, David Jenike
      First page: 214
      Abstract: With a range of programs focused on local plant and insect conservation, the Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden works with partners and our communities to restore landscapes and thriving ecosystems for wildlife and people. We used organizational identity theory (OIT) to evaluate the current strategies and practices of five programs and determine opportunities for adaptation to better achieve our organizational conservation goals. Case studies ranged from habitat restoration of wetlands and gardens to community engagement to encourage individual gardeners and the reintroduction of endangered plants and insects. We present program characteristics and how collaborative partnerships facilitate opportunities for zoos to lead the conservation of local flora and fauna. The OIT framework reveals components critical to strategy implementation and best practices relevant to other zoos, aquariums, and botanical gardens when evaluating their collaborative conservation initiatives.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 231-239: Evaluation of Targeted Injections of
           Ivermectin or Potassium Chloride for Euthanasia of Anesthetized Thorny
           Devil Stick Insects (Eurycantha calcarata)

    • Authors: Ashlyn C. Heniff, Melinda A. Gorges, Gregory A. Lewbart, Julie A. Balko
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Insects are commonly utilized in biomedical research and have become increasingly popular in museum collections and as pets. Despite this, objective evaluation of insect euthanasia is scarce. This study investigated the effectiveness of targeted injections of ivermectin or potassium chloride (KCl) for the euthanasia of anesthetized thorny devil stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata). Ten clinically healthy mature insects (six males, four females) were enrolled. Insects were weighed and anesthetized via exposure to a cotton ball soaked with 1.6 mL of liquid isoflurane in a 1 L sealed chamber until loss of righting reflex and response to stimulation (induction). Insects then received one of three treatments: ivermectin 100 mg/kg (n = 4), KCl 200 mEq/kg (n = 4), or 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL/kg (n = 2) injected along the ventral thoracic midline between the first leg plate and the caudal adjacent plate. Following injection, insects were serially monitored for return of spontaneous movement and righting reflex. Death was defined as the absence of spontaneous movement for 48 h. Median (range) induction time and isoflurane concentration at induction was 36 (22–39) min (n = 9) and 22 (19–22)%, respectively. Euthanasia was successful in 4/4, 3/4, and 0/2 isoflurane-anesthetized insects receiving ivermectin, KCl, or 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. Recovery was prolonged at 10.5 (sodium chloride female), 11.0 (KCl male), and 18.0 (sodium chloride male) hours. This is the first prospective investigation of euthanasia in adult E. calcarata. In this preliminary study, ivermectin 100 mg/kg via ventral midline injection was effective for euthanasia of thorny devil stick insects.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 240-255: Effects of Failure on California Sea Lion
           (Zalophus californianus) Gameplay Strategies and Interest in a Cognitive
           Task: Implications for Cognitive Enrichment in Pinnipeds

    • Authors: Danielle L. Roberts, Holli C. Eskelinen, Kelley A. Winship, Amber M. Ramos, Mark J. Xitco
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Cognitive enrichment for professionally managed species has become more prevalent in recent years in both zoological and research settings and has been encouraged as a means of welfare enhancement. However, the task’s difficulty must be specifically tailored as it can impact the successful nature of the sessions, as tasks that are too simple or difficult may not be perceived as enriching by the animals. While pinnipeds are common in zoos, aquariums, and research facilities, few studies have explored the use of cognitively challenging enrichment in this species, and the level of difficulty and presence of failure on animal success and engagement in this type of session has not been assessed. In this study, gameplay strategies during computerized enrichment sessions were evaluated before and after a game that introduced failure, or the loss of opportunity to complete a level for a reward after an incorrect movement. Interest in participation during the session, measured as the latency without contact, was also tested as a proxy for this enrichment’s effect on welfare. When incorrect movements resulted in a short pause and removed the opportunity to finish individual levels for a reward, all three sea lions tested significantly reduced the amount of time spent on each of several strategies they employed, but significantly increased the number of button presses per strategy, suggesting the animals focused on more precise movements as their proficiency improved. Two sea lions also showed a significant decline in latency without contact following the introduction of failure in the form of a single opportunity to complete a task for a reward after previously having unlimited opportunities, while one maintained a low latency without contact across both test conditions. The results suggest that more cognitively challenging tasks incorporating failure did not cause a reduction in gameplay performance and session interest in sea lions. Individual variation was also noted in strategy use, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the individual in terms of enrichment provision.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 256-276: Improving Animal Wellbeing Using
           Behavior-Based Methodologies: A Discussion on Enrichment and Bears under
           Human Care

    • Authors: Mindy Babitz, Angela Gibson, Jason Pratte
      First page: 256
      Abstract: This communication discusses the Bear Care Group’s “behavior-based” enrichment philosophy, focusing on the importance of enrichment programs built on the knowledge of species’ natural histories, living strategies, and observed daily and seasonal routines. Methods for program development are discussed, detailing the benefits to animal wellbeing, including the reduction of chronic stress and frustration that lead to abnormal or stereotypical behaviors. The concepts are illustrated through a discussion of bear natural history and living strategies, but these methods are applicable to a wide range of taxa. The Bear Care Group encourages facilities to consider behavior-based enrichment programs to promote positive welfare for their animals.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 277-287: By Bits and Pieces: The Contributions of Zoos
           and Aquariums to Science and Society via Biomaterials

    • Authors: David M. Powell, Theodore G. Meyer, Mary Duncan
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Scientific research has long been recognized as one of the four pillars of the zoo or aquarium mission, alongside recreation, conservation, and education. This study sought to quantify a sample of zoos’ participation in scientific research via the provision of biomaterials from animals to outside scientists and the associated training of undergraduate and graduate students that resulted from these projects. A convenience sample of zoos provided data on their participation in biomaterials-related projects and a focused analysis of biomaterials-related research facilitated by the Saint Louis Zoo was conducted. In addition, the Association of Zoos & Aquariums’ conservation & science database was queried to uncover what research projects AZA members engaged in over the last five years that likely involved biomaterials research and training of students. Results demonstrate that zoos are making significant contributions to science by agreeing to participate in large numbers of biomaterials-related projects across different areas of focus involving a variety of animal species annually, with results applicable to human and non-human animals. Support of such research often involves student thesis projects, thus contributing to the education of future scientists.
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
  • JZBG, Vol. 4, Pages 288-291: Regional Conservation, Research, and
           Education: Ways Forward

    • Authors: Ursula S. Bechert
      First page: 288
      Abstract: There are currently over 8 billion people on Earth, a figure which grows by approximately 67 million annually; https://www [...]
      Citation: Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jzbg4010024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2023)
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