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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
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European Journal of Wildlife Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.733
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1439-0574 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4642
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Evaluation of a combined and portable light‑ultrasound
           device with which to deter red deer

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      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Wild boar visits to commercial pig farms in southwest England:
           implications for disease transmission

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      Abstract: Abstract Contact between wild animals and farmed livestock may result in disease transmission with huge financial, welfare and ethical consequences. Conflicts between people and wildlife can also arise when species such as wild boar (Sus scrofa) consume crops or dig up pasture. This is a relatively recent problem in England where wild boar populations have become re-established in the last 20 years following a 500-year absence. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if and how often free-living wild boar visited two commercial pig farms near the Forest of Dean in southwest England. We placed 20 motion-sensitive camera traps at potential entry points to, and trails surrounding, the perimeter of two farmyards housing domestic pigs between August 2019 and February 2021, covering a total of 6030 trap nights. Forty wild boar detections were recorded on one farm spread across 27 nights, with a median (range) of 1 (0 to 7) night of wild boar activity per calendar month. Most of these wild boar detections occurred between ten and twenty metres of housed domestic pigs. No wild boar was detected at the other farm. These results confirm wild boar do visit commercial pig farms, and therefore, there is potential for contact and pathogen exchange between wild boar and domestic pigs. The visitation rates derived from this study could be used to parameterise disease transmission models of pathogens common to domestic pigs and wild boars, such as the African swine fever virus, and subsequently to develop mitigation strategies to reduce unwanted contacts.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Correction to: A questionnaire‑based investigation to explore the social
           and legal implications derived from the use of camera traps for wildlife
           monitoring and conservation

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      PubDate: 2022-10-03
       
  • A Nearctic cat in the Neotropics: spatial biases in the existing knowledge
           of bobcats in Mexico (1988–2019)

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      Abstract: Abstract Spatial biases commonly occur in biodiversity conservation efforts, and bobcats in Mexico exemplify this issue. Bobcats are one of the most well-studied felids worldwide. However, in Mexico bobcat studies are limited despite a wide distributional range. The objective of our study was to review the scientific literature published on bobcats in Mexico from 1988 to 2019 and to identify potential sampling biases. For each study, we identified the year, location, taxonomic focus, topic studied, and georeferenced each research location that included data collection in Mexico. We compared the spatial distribution of bobcat studies to random locations with a generalized linear model with binomial error structure using three variables and their interactions (degree of biome transformation, distance to protected lands, and distance to capital cities). We reviewed 210 publications (including research articles and undergraduate and postgraduate theses). Only in 37 publications were bobcats the single species studied. Bobcat studies have increased in Mexico since 2004 with most (78.57%) published within the 2004–2019 period. The main topic studied was diet, followed by species interactions. All but three states within the bobcat distribution in Mexico have at least one research study. We found that study locations are biased towards the less transformed biomes and protected lands. Bobcats can persist in urbanized landscapes although a threshold of disturbance for the species in Mexico remains unknown. Thus, we suggest bobcat research efforts to be strategically directed to fill knowledge gaps and with greater emphasis on highly transformed landscapes where the species may be at risk.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Does predation risk affect spatial use in an introduced ungulate
           species' The case of a Mediterranean mouflon alpine colony

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      Abstract: Abstract Predation risk is known to affect the spatial use of prey species, imposing a trade-off between feeding requirements and predation avoidance. As a result, prey species can leave high-quality forage areas to use sub-optimal, but safer, habitat patches, defined as “refuge areas.” In this study, we describe changes in the spatial use of an introduced ungulate species, the Mediterranean mouflon Ovis aries musimon, following the recolonization (in 1996) of wolves Canis lupus into the Albergian Hunting Estate (Italian Western Alps). Since 1988, we monitored the mouflon population by spring counts from vantage points. We georeferenced all observations and recorded the size and structure of the spotted groups. Finally, we identified available refuges by selecting patches characterized by (i) the presence of rocks and (ii) high values of steepness and ruggedness. We found that mouflons significantly reduced the average distance from refuge areas over the years, with the yearly average distance from refuges being 56% lower after wolves recolonized the area (i.e., 93.8 ± 32.1 vs. 213.1 ± 40.9 m). The analysis of orographic parameters showed that mouflons used patches with higher values in elevation, slope, ruggedness, and a significant difference in all three parameters when comparing years pre and post wolf return. Both sexes were significantly affected, but ewes were particularly sensitive and selected patches closer to refuge areas (75.8 ± 30.3 m) than males (131.0 ± 53.6 m). Our results suggest that the presence of new predators can alter the distribution of an introduced species such as the Mediterranean mouflon, triggering the resurgence of anti-predation behavior.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Ophidiomyces ophidiicola detection and infection: a global review on a
           potential threat to the world’s snake populations

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      Abstract: Abstract Ophidiomyces ophidiicola (Oo) is one of the most relevant fungal pathogens for snakes. It is the etiological agent of ophidiomycosis, an emerging disease causing dysecdysis, skin abnormalities, crusting cutaneous lesions, and ulcerations. Despite this major tegumentary “tropism”, Oo infection can be systemic and it is capable of inducing visceral lesions. Moreover, ophidiomycosis may lead to abnormalities of reproductive physiology, hunting behavior, and thermoregulation, thus increasing the risks of sublethal effects and predation on affected snakes. Oo seems horizontally transmitted and can induce postnatal mortality. This article reviews published data on Oo detection and infection in all snake species in countries around the world and categorizes these data using new classification parameters. The presence of this fungus has been recorded in 11 states (considering the USA as a whole); however, in four states, the mycosis has only been reported in snakes held in captivity. Detection and/or infection of Oo has been ascertained in 62 snake species, divided into nine families. The taxa have been categorized with diagnostic criteria in order to report, for each species, the highest rank of categorization resulting from all cases. Therefore, 20 species have been included within the class “Ophidiomycosis and Oo shedder”, 11 within “Ophidiomycosis”, 16 in “Apparent ophidiomycosis”, and 15 within “Ophidiomyces ophidiicola present”. We also discuss the significance and limits of case classifications and Oo’s impact on wild populations, and we suggest methods for preliminary surveillance. Standardized methods, interdisciplinary studies, and cooperation between various research institutions may facilitate further Oo screening studies, elucidate the unclear aspects of the disease, and protect ophidiofauna from this emerging threat at the global level.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • DoMoS − an open-source device for automated monitoring of endangered
           garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Obtaining biological and behavioural data on wild animals in the field remains a challenging task. Data collection is either very labour-intensive or sometimes even proves impossible without special technical devices. This is especially true for small nocturnal mammals like the endangered garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus). Here, we present a new device for automated small mammal monitoring, called DoMoS (Dormouse Monitoring System). It integrates the collection of individual hair samples for DNA analysis, a scale to measure body mass, and a camera trap to monitor activity. During a first field test with garden dormice, data on body mass and activity patterns and hair samples have been successfully collected. The system was designed as an open-source project and can thus be replicated and adjusted to other species’ monitoring needs and research questions. The DoMoS enables the study of various data, including the collection of DNA samples, without capturing the target species. Automatic data collection reduces stress for animals and researchers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • Native marsupial acts as an in situ biological control agent of the main
           soybean pest (Euschistus heros) in the Neotropics

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural predators of agricultural pests are known to help increase crop yields and are considered an alternative to chemical insecticides. We investigated the role of the gracile mouse opossum Gracilinanus agilis for controlling a soybean pest, the brown stink bug Euschistus heros. We tested the hypothesis that this bug disperses to natural forest environments of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) during the soybean off-season and that G. agilis acts as a relevant predator of this insect. We also quantified and valued G. agilis predation on E. heros independently in five forest areas located at different distances from a soybean crop. The isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of E. heros remains found in predator fecal samples collected during the soybean off-season were more similar to E. heros collected in the crop than to samples collected during the growing season. Gracilinanus agilis predation on E. heros in forests was greater during the crop off-season than during the growing season but decreased with increasing distance between forest and crop. This inverse relationship indicates that the potential role of mouse opossums for pest control depends on the proximity of natural forests to crops. We estimated that the ecosystem service provided by this marsupial may reach up to US$ 31.08 ha−1 year−1 of native forest, which may represent tens of millions of dollars per year considering the amount of native vegetation within farmlands in the Cerrado. These results highlight the relevance of natural vegetation conservation near crops for the maintenance of agricultural pest control.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
       
  • Correction to: Effects of dehorning on population productivity in four
           

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      PubDate: 2022-08-25
       
  • Height and tension of electric lines: how should an electric fence be
           installed to effectively mitigate human-wildlife conflict'

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      Abstract: Abstract Electric fences are an effective means of mitigating human-wildlife conflict; however, some fences are not impenetrable and allow some animal intrusion. This study revealed the most appropriate height of fence lines for target species and whether line tension affected their effectiveness. Nine study plots were used, and an equilateral triangular area of 3.2 m per side (4.43 m2) was enclosed by an electric fence. Electric lines were set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 cm, and all lines were connected to the positive terminal of an energizer. The following electric fence conditions were provided for the animals: (i) three levels of voltage (1500, 4000, and 10,000 V), (ii) two types of grounding (soil and metal mesh), and (iii) two levels of line tension. There were nine target species. Two cameras were set up in each study plot, and attractants were placed inside and outside the fence. Animals were observed and recorded both inside and outside the fence. The most touched height of the electric lines was half the adult shoulder height of each species. In addition, the height at which most animals passed through the fence was below their shoulder height. Moreover, high-tensile electric fences were twice as likely to electrify animals than low-tensile fences. These results highlight the importance of understanding the height and tension of electric lines. Thus, the fence line should be set at a high tension and lower than half of the shoulder height of the target species.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
       
  • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a free ranging leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)
           in India

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      Abstract: Abstract We report an incidence of natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 in free-ranging Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). The case was detected during routine screening. Post-mortem and laboratory examination suggested virus-induced interstitial pneumonia. Viral genome could be detected in various organs including brain, lung, spleen, and lymph nodes by real-time PCR. Whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed infection of Pango lineage B.1.617.2 of SARS-CoV-2. Till now, only Asiatic lions have been reported to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 in India. Infections in animals were detected during peak phase of pandemic and all the cases were captive with close contacts with humans, whereas the present case was observed when human cases were significantly low. No tangible evidence linked to widespread infection in the wild population and the incidence seems to be isolated case. High nucleotide sequence homology with prevailing viruses in humans suggested spillover infection to the animal. This report underlines the need for intensive screening of wild animals for keeping track of the virus evolution and development of carrier status of SARS-CoV-2 among wildlife species.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
       
  • Effects of dehorning on population productivity in four Namibia
           sub-populations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis)

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      Abstract: Abstract The black rhinoceros (rhino) (Diceros bicornis) is critically endangered, with poaching being one of several threats to the species’ survival. Many reserves across several countries, including Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, now dehorn their rhinos in an attempt to reduce poaching. Historical data collected by the Namibian Ministry of Environment, Forestry, and Tourism and Save the Rhino Trust were used to investigate whether dehorning has an effect on age at first reproduction (AFR), inter-calving interval (ICI), birth sex ratios, calf survival, cause of death, and lifespan. These were assessed in four Namibian sub-populations (hereafter referred to as ‘populations’) of black rhino (denoted A, B, C, and D) which have undergone varying levels of dehorning. No significant difference was found in any of the variables between dehorned and horned individuals. Population was a significant predictor of AFR (LRT = 7.433, p = 0.024) and ICI (LRT = 13.281, p = 0.004), although pairwise comparisons only found populations A and B to be significantly different (AFR: z = −2.736, p = 0.017, ICI: z = −3.705, p = 0.001). Additionally, a significantly higher number of males than females were born in population D (p = 0.021, CI = 0.544, 0.960). The main cause of death across all individuals was poaching, although there was no significant difference in the proportion of rhinos poached between dehorned and horned individuals (X2 = 0.638, p = 0.424, n = 265). No evidence was found to suggest that dehorning has any effect on AFR, ICI, birth sex ratios, calf survival, or lifespan in the black rhino, which is reassuring in the continued use of dehorning as an anti-poaching technique in this species.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
       
  • Salt-lick use in Malaysian tropical rainforests reveals behavioral
           differences by food habit in medium and large-sized mammals

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      Abstract: Abstract The food habits and behavior of medium and large-sized mammals that visited natural salt-licks in a tropical rainforest of Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Peninsular Malaysia, were analyzed to understand the purpose of their salt-lick visits. The study was conducted at the wet-type salt-licks, where the animals drink clear water, thus the ingestion of clay particles needed for detoxification of plant secondary compounds, one of the possible purposes of salt-lick visits, seemed very low. Ten herbivorous, seven omnivorous, and four carnivorous species were recorded at the salt-licks. 95.3% of all video capture records of animals at the salt-licks were of herbivores, while the records of omnivores and carnivores were only 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. These results indicated that herbivores visited studied salt-licks much more frequently than other food-habit species. The herbivores also tended to stay longer at the salt-licks than omnivores and carnivores. In addition, water-drinking behaviors were recorded significantly more frequently in herbivores (73% of video captures) than in omnivores (28%) and carnivores (0%). The carnivores showed only resting, passing, and hunting behaviors. The results suggest that the studied salt-licks were mainly used by herbivores and some omnivores, possibly to supplement minerals and/or alleviate gastrointestinal problems by drinking salt-lick water.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Genetic traces of dispersal and admixture in red deer (Cervus elaphus)
           populations from the Carpathian Basin

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      Abstract: Abstract After the last glacial, the Carpathian Basin was repopulated from either eastward or northward colonisation routes for various species; one of these was the emblematic member of the European megafauna, the red deer, Cervus elaphus. We analysed 303 red deer individuals from the middle of the region, in seven Hungarian game reserves, at ten microsatellite loci (C01, C229, T26, T108, T123, T156, T172, T193, T501, T507), to investigate the genetic diversity of these subpopulations. We discovered high levels of genetic diversity of red deer subpopulations; allelic richness values ranging 4.99–7.01, observed heterozygosity 0.729–0.800, polymorphic information content 0.722–0.806, and Shannon’s information index 1.668–2.064. Multi-locus analyses indicated population admixtures of various degrees that corresponded to geographical location, and complex genetic structures were shown by clustering. Populations in the south-western and the north-eastern parts of the region formed two highly separated groups, and the red deer from populations in between them were highly admixed (in western Pannonia/Transdanubia, where the Danube flows into the Carpathian Basin). This pattern corresponds to the distribution of mitochondrial as well as Y-chromosome lineages. Assignment tests showed that a large fraction of individuals (29.4%) are found outside of their population of origin, indicating that the dispersal of red deer is rather common, which could be expected considering the life course of the species.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Severe feather deformation in greater white-fronted goose (Anser alb.
           albifrons) goslings during hot summer period on Kolguev Island 2016

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      Abstract: Abstract In summer 2016, we observed premature feather malformation among goslings of greater white-fronted goose (Anser alb. albifrons), between 7 and 10 weeks of age on family gathering areas on Kolguev Island, Russia, the most important breeding island in the Western Palearctic. Rarely reported in wild birds, to our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been recorded in wild geese of this species, despite continuous ringing and marking of thousands of wild geese across Northern Europe and Arctic Siberia. This feather malformations were documented in 36 unfledged goslings showing weak feather basis, deformed or unevenly grown wing feathers or even dead feather buds. Approximately about one-third of all chicks were affected. Feather malformations like this, causing flightless chicks as a result, have never been noticed in any other of our 12 study years since 2006. The lesion was characterised by soft feather buds, weak or incomplete wing feathers and lack of feather development. No other abnormalities were observed in the goslings, so goslings did not differ in weight or body sizes. Affected fledglings never became airworthy and were killed in large numbers by predators or at latest perished during the Arctic winter.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Molecular surveillance revealed no SARS-CoV-2 spillovers to raccoons
           (Procyon lotor) in four German federal states

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      Abstract: Abstract Raccoons (Procyon lotor), which are closely related to the family Mustelidae, might be susceptible to natural infection by SARS-CoV-2. This assumption is based on experimental evidence that confirmed the vulnerability of farmed fur-carnivore species, including Procyon lotor to SARS-CoV-2. To date, there are no reports of natural SARS-CoV-2 infections of raccoons in Germany. Here, we use RT-PCR to analyze 820 samples from raccoons hunted in Germany with a focus on 4 German federal states (Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia). Lung tissues were homogenized and processed for RNA extraction and RT-qPCR for detecting SARS-CoV-2 was performed. No viral RNA was detected in any samples (0/820). Next, we compared raccoons and human ACE-2 residues that are known to serve for binding with SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Interestingly, we found only 60% identity on amino acid level, which may have contributed to the absence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in raccoons. In conclusion, the chance of raccoons being intermediate reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2 seems to be very low.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Presence of spraint at bridges as an effective monitoring tool to assess
           current Eurasian fish otter distribution in Austria

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      Abstract: Abstract Monitoring carnivore populations requires sensitive and trustworthy assessment methods to make reasonable and effective management decisions. The Eurasian fish otter Lutra lutra experienced a dramatic population decline throughout Europe during the twentieth century but is currently recovering in both distribution range and population size. In Austria, most assessments on otter distribution have applied a modified version of the so-called “British” or “standard” method utilizing point-wise surveys for otter spraints at predefined monitoring bridges. In this study, we synthesize several recent statewide assessments to compile the current otter distribution in Austria and evaluate the efficiency and sensitivity of the “monitoring bridge” approach in comparison to the “standard” method. The otter shows an almost comprehensive distribution throughout eastern and central Austria, while more western areas (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) are only partially inhabited, likely due to a still ongoing westward expansion. Furthermore, the bridge monitoring method utilizing presence/absence information on otter spraints reveals itself to be a time- and cost- effective monitoring tool with a tolerable loss of sensitivity for large-scale otter distribution assessments. Count data of spraints seem to be prone to observer bias or environmental influences like weather or flooding events making them less suitable for quantitative analyses.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Apparent survival, reproduction, and population growth estimation of a
           Kentish plover population in the Canary Islands

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      Abstract: Abstract The increase of the tourism and urbanization of vast areas of dunes and beaches has been accompanied by an increase in the level of disturbances to many shorebirds, especially on those species which depend on such habitats to breed. The European Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) population is declining, also in the Canarian archipelago, one of the most important touristic destinations worldwide. Using data from an intense monitoring program on Lanzarote Island and the nearby La Graciosa islet (hereafter, both referred as Lanzarote), we aimed to (1) estimate the breeding output and survival and (2) use these parameter estimates to build a population model to assess the long-term growth rate of the population and evaluate, accordingly, its conservation status. Our studied population presents a relatively high breeding success although, thereafter, the first-year apparent survival is low. Even though adult apparent survival rates are reasonably high, these seem insufficient to compensate for the low survival rates of the first-year birds. In this sense, we found a negative growth rate according to a population model estimating an annual loss equivalent to 20% (95% confidence interval: 6–35%). Local studies to account for the effects of human disturbance caused by tourist industry on survival, breeding rates, and demography are required to develop precise conservation actions for the Kentish plover population in Lanzarote.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10344-022-01601-x
       
  • Response of a mesocarnivore community to a new food resource: recognition,
           exploitation, and interspecific competition

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      Abstract: Abstract Mammalian carnivores with generalist feeding behaviour should trace and exploit new and predictable food resources quicker and more easily than more specialised species. On the other hand, if the new food resource is spatially and temporally predictable, interference or exploitation competition should arise among members of the carnivore guild, with the expectation that smaller species will not use the food resource or will change their foraging behaviour to avoid conflict with larger species. Here, we studied the response to a new food resource of a mammalian mesocarnivore community in south-western Iberian Peninsula. We installed artificial feeding points supplied with a novel food source and tracked them by camera trapping to investigate whether (1) the new artificial food resource was visited, recognised and exploited by the mesocarnivore guild species; (2) how frequently they used the food; and (3) in case of co-occurrence, if dominant species excluded or reduced the feeding options of subordinates. All target species except the badger recognised and exploited the novel food. More generalist species trended to visit feeding points more frequently and spent more time feeding than less generalist species, even though significant differences were not achieved in all cases. When co-occurring at the same feeding point, the arrival of larger species reduced either the visitation rates, feeding probability or time spent feeding of smaller species. Moreover, some smaller species showed a shift in their normal activity pattern at the feeding points when a larger competitor started to use the food source. Overall, we conclude that active avoidance combined with temporal segregation may help reduce agonistic interactions among competitors for shared resources.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10344-022-01597-4
       
  • Evaluation of a combined and portable light-ultrasound device with which
           to deter red deer

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      Abstract: Abstract Human–wildlife conflicts are a growing problem in Northern Hemisphere where wild ungulates are one of the taxonomic groups most frequently involved. To mitigate these conflicts, it is essential to develop preventive actions able to avoid encounters between wildlife and human (activities). We here employed photo-trapping to evaluate the behaviour of red deer (Cervus elaphus) when confronted with dissuasive portable deterrents that function on the basis of changing patterns of light and ultrasound. This was done by following a before/after experimental design, with two phases: (i) a test phase, with active deterrents, and (ii) a control phase, without deterrents. When deterrents were activated they achieved a 48.96% reduction in the frequency of use by red deer (up to 66.64% when it was assessed on a thinner Sect. 10 m wide from the line of deterrents) and produced a reduction of 67.71% in the frequency of deterrent-line crossings. However, a habituation effect was detected since the use by red deer of the treatment area increased as time since treatment. These results indicate that these portable devices are effective as regards dissuading deer, mainly on short time scales. The deterrents tested here could be suitable for use at focal points for short periods or in combination with other methods to improve their effectiveness in vulnerability points. This device could potentially be used to mitigate conflicts caused by wildlife species and in response to relevant and timely situations, such as vehicle collisions and damage to crops, among others.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10344-022-01599-2
       
 
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