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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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  • The Design of Wheat Warehouse: Structural Design-I

    • Authors: Kürşat MAMAN; Hakan KİBAR
      Abstract: The increase in grain production every year reveals the need for investment, maintenance and effective management in warehouses. Storage is a major bottleneck as it affects the possibility of bargaining for better market prices. In order to increase profitability, the product quality of the consumer must be assured. Therefore, there is a need for standardization of scientific research in this field and the production chain. In this study, a questionnaire study was carried out on the plant warehouses in Iğdır province, district and villages and their current situation was investigated. In view of the shortcomings of the existing warehouses, it was aimed to plan a horizontal reinforced concrete warehouse with a capacity of 1500 tons for wheat grain in accordance with technical data. Within the scope of the survey studies, it was determined that most of the plant warehouses in the region were made many years ago and they did not have any projects. It was determined that the family type warehouses were made by primitive means, the roof slope angles in the warehouses were insufficient and the environmental conditions required for the grain were not taken into consideration. In addition, it was determined that the storage conditions were not observed in the warehouses except cold stores, natural and mechanical ventilation was not performed, the humidity and heat insulation of the warehouses were not provided, the storage of the product was short term and the storage environment was not healthy. It is designed with a width of 12 m, a length of 36 m, a wall height of 5 m, a roof slope angle of 25° and a roof height of 2.89 m in order to store 1500 tons of wheat grain safely and securely in the storage structure and to ensure a long service life of the storage structure. In this warehouse designed, the total wall thickness is 32 cm, with a total wall thickness of 48 cm (with internal plastering, external plastering and insulation material), a total floor thickness of 77.5 cm with a 40 cm raft foundation, and a 6 cm thick polyurethane sandwich panel on the roof, 5 cm thick door (5 x 3.5 m) and 0.3 cm thick windows were used.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Design of Wheat Warehouse: Ventilation System Design and Unit Price

    • Authors: Kürşat MAMAN; Hakan KİBAR
      Abstract: Ventilation is a widely used method of preserving stored grain. This technology is used to change the microclimate of the product storage structure, to create unfavorable conditions for the development of harmful or harmful organisms in the grain, and to create favorable conditions for the constant preservation of grain quality. Considering the shortcomings of the existing warehouses, it is aimed to design the ventilation system and determine the approximate cost of a horizontal reinforced concrete warehouse with a storage capacity of 1500 tons for wheat grain in accordance with the technical data. As a result of the study, a total heat requirement of 73164.99 W was determined in order to ensure the optimum ambient temperature of the warehouse for safe and secure storage. The total cooling need is calculated as 105157.42 W. According to the unit prices of the designed wheat warehouse for 2022, the approximate cost of the Mechanical system (ventilation, air conditioning plant and automation) including VAT is 586052.90 ₺, the approximate cost of the electrical installation including VAT is 195145.39 ₺, the approximate cost of the construction elements including VAT is 2334272.79 ₺, and the total approximate cost including VAT is 3115471.08 ₺.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effects of Edible Coating Applications on the Storage of Persimmon
           (Diospyros kaki L.)

    • Authors: Erdinç BAL; Mustafa ZİLCİ
      Abstract: In the study, postharvest treatment of Guar gum edible coating (1%, 2% and 3%) was applied to cv. Fuyu persimmon and their effects on quality and storage period were investigated. After the applications, the fruits were kept in cold storage at 0-1oC and 85-90% relative humidity for 3 months. The effect of Guar gum coating on persimmon quality factors such as water loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, fruit flesh firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and taste of persimmon fruits were investigated during storage. According to the results, Guar gum application reduced weight loss and respiratory rate compared to control. However, 2% and 3% doses were found to be more effective among guar gum applications. These doses preserved fruit flesh firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds better, but also slowed the taste change. These results suggest that surface coating with appropriate dose of guar gum can be used to maintain quality and extend storage life of Fuyu persimmon.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effects of Different Organic Fertilizers on Plant Growth, Yield, Quality
           Properties and Element Contents in Spinach

    • Authors: Özgül YAMAN TÜRKKAN; Beyhan KİBAR
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of different organic fertilizers on plant growth, yield, quality properties and element contents in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The research was carried out under open field conditions in Bolu province. In the study, Matador spinach variety was used and seven different applications were examined. The applications were as follows: 1) Control, 2) Chicken manure, 3) Turkey manure, 4) Sheep manure, 5) Cattle manure, 6) Vermicompost and 7) Chemical fertilizer. The experiment was established in randomized complete block design with three replications. According to the research findings, significant differences were found among the applications. In general, organic fertilizer applications significantly increased yield, plant height, plant wet weight, plant dry weight, dry matter content, number of marketable leaves, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and selenium contents of the plant in comparison with control and chemical fertilizer. The highest yield was determined in cattle manure application. It was observed that cattle manure increased the yield by 88.08% compared to the control and increased the yield by 41.16% compared to the chemical fertilizer. In organic fertilizer applications, heavy metal contents such as arsenic, chrome, cobalt, and nickel were found to be lower than the control and, aluminum and cadmium contents were found to be lower than chemical fertilizer. As a result, it was determined that organic fertilizers examined in the study have positive effects on plant growth, yield, quality properties and element contents of spinach and organic fertilizers can be used successfully for sustainable agriculture in spinach cultivation.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Leaf Defoliation and Leaf Water Potential Effects on Cluster Properties
           and Yield in cv. Merlot

    • Authors: İlknur KORKUTAL; Elman BAHAR, Serkan CANDAR, Fatma Betül AKTAŞ
      Abstract: This research was carried out in order to determine the effects of leaf water potential and defoliation applications on the cluster characteristics by using Merlot/41B grafting combination in Chateau Kalpak vineyards in Sarkoy district of Tekirdag province. The trial was carried out in a vineyard for two years in the vegetation period of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021. In the experiment, there were leaf water potential [S0 (Control=no irrigation), S1 (-0.3/-0.5 MPa), S2 (-0.5/-0.7 MPa) and S3(<-0.7) MPa)] and defoliation methods; Control, Full Window, Right Window and Left Window were done respectively. As a result if vigneron’s want; low cluster width, low cluster length, low cluster weight and low number of berry per cluster in Merlot cv. in Sarköy district of Tekirdağ was concluded that Left Window application can be selected. And also S3 application can be preferred when low cluster weight, low cluster volume and low cluster compactness are desired.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of Pollen Quality Levels in Cherry Laurel (Laurocerasus
           officinalis Roemer)

    • Authors: Ayşegül FAT; Neriman BEYHAN, Hüseyin BALIK
      Abstract: In this study it has been determined the pollen quality of the cherry laurel genotypes grown in Giresun Hazelnut Research Institute in 2015-2016. In the experiment, flowers of the trees belonging to the 08-02, 28-04, 52-08, 52-12, 52-17, 52-18, 52-20, 53-05, 54-03 and 55-04 genotypes selected from Central and East Black Sea Region have been used. Flowering dates have been observed between March 19 th, April 24 th, at 2016, and between March 4th and April 6th 2015. Flowering dates varied by years, started 15 days earlier in 2016 and took place in a shorter period. The flowering dates differed according to the years, in 2016 the flowering started 15 days earlier and the flowering period was shorter. The amount of pollen viability and germination rates of the cherry laurel genotypes was between 81-90%. The viability and germination rates obtained in 2016 were higher than in 2015. The amount of abnormal pollen grains was not remarkable in all genotypes.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Effects of Temperature-Humidity Index Values on Some Behaviours in
           Male Anatolian Black Cattle

    • Authors: Çağrı Melikşah SAKAR
      Abstract: In this study, ear temperature and some behavioural data were determined in the four male animals of Anatolian Black cattle raised under the Institute conditions. For this purpose, a chip sensor (CowManager) was attached to the ears of the animals, and data of 51 days were obtained from each animal hourly. During the study, hourly temperature and humidity data of the barn where the animals were housed were collected, and hourly and daily Temperature - Humidity Index (THI) data were calculated from these values. According to these index values, daily THI values were classified in 3 groups, while hourly THI values were classified in 4 groups. In this study, the ear temperature of the bulls was found to be an average of 21.97 °C daily. The ear temperature values increased as the THI values increased, and the differences between the groups were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). In the study high active, active, not active, eating and rumination data were found to be 7.84, 6.86, 27.15, 26.69 and 28.31%, daily, respectively. In the analysis made according to the THI groups, the differences according to these behavioural characteristics were found to be statistically significant (P<0.01). In the study, as THI values increased high active, active and not active values increased, while eating and rumination values decreased. While the activity and eating values of the animals increased during the daytime, the not active and rumination values of the animals increased during the night hours. As a result, it was concluded that there is a correlation between the THI values, ear temperature and behavioural data, and this could be an indication that the animal behaviour was affected by meteorological events.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Comparison of Daily Evapotranspiration and Reference Evapotranspiration
           Fraction Values Calculated using METRIC Model and Google Earth Engine FLux

    • Authors: Emre TUNCA; Eyüp Selim KÖKSAL, Sakine ÇETİN TANER
      Abstract: Accurate evapotranspiration (ET) calculation is crucial in water resources management. In recent years, various remote sensing techniques based models have been developed to determine ET. Among these models, Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) is one of the most widely used. In the METRIC model, anchor pixels must be selected to represent extreme conditions where ET is at potential level and ET is zero in the internal calibration process. These choices should be made by experienced users in both remote sensing and ET. However, this limits the use of the METRIC model. In order to fill this gap, the Earth Engine Evapotranspiration Flux (EEFlux) application was developed in the Google Earth Engine platform. With this application, the METRIC model is calibrated automatically. The aim of this study was to compare the daily ET (ETd) and Reference ET fraction (ETrF) values obtained from the METRIC and EEFlux model. The study was carried out in the agricultural fields of barley, sunflower, wheat, corn, sugar beet, potato and onion cultivation in Uzunyazı, Çayırözü and Yeşilören villages in Merzifon district of Amasya province. Landsat 8 satellite images of three different dates were used in this research. According to the results obtained from this study, although the ETd values calculated with METRIC and EEFlux were compatible (R2=0.87), the EEFlux-ETd values were generally lower than the METRIC- ETd values (RMSE=2.5 mm day-1 and MAE=2.38 mm day-1). Calculated ETrF values were calculated with similar agreement to ETd values (R2=0.88, RMSE=0.11 and MAE=0.09). Accordingly, although there are certain differences between ETd and ETrF values calculated with EEFlux and METRIC, ETd values can be determined very quickly with EEFlux, without the need for local climate data and an experienced user.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Effect of Some Bio-Agents and Organic Substances Against Verticillium
           dahliae, A Problem in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Plant

    • Authors: Hasret GÜNEŞ; Emre DEMİRER DURAK, Semra DEMİR
      Abstract: The effects of some fungal (Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma viride) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) biological control agents, as well as vermicompost and salicylic acid organic substances, on the development of the difficult-to-control Verticillium dahliae, were investigated in this study. The study was conducted in vitro and in vivo, and the degree of antagonism and percent inhibition rate in vitro was determined. The effects of T. asperellum and S. cerevisiae, which had the highest inhibition rate in vitro, and vermicompost and salicylic acid organic substances on the development of V. dahliae, which is a problem in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in vivo, were investigated. In addition, it determined that salicylic acid, one of the organic substances, completely inhibited the development of V. dahliae. S. cerevisiae and salicylic acid increased the plant length and root length compared to the control group in applications with V. dahliae pathogen. Salicylic acid and T. asperellum reduced the effectiveness of the pathogen V. dahliae in both the green parts and the stem section scale values.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Monitoring the Short-Term Effect of Banana Waste Compost on the Enzymatic
           Activities of Soil Associated with Nitrogen and Phosphorus

    • Authors: İsmail Emrah TAVALI
      Abstract: A large amount of plant pruning waste occurs after annual care in banana production areas. This waste material contains significant amounts of organic substances and nutrients. In this study, banana waste compost (BWC) was applied to the soil both alone and in mixture with leonardite (LT) and vinasse compost (VC). Treatments include: control (CL), banana waste compost alone (BWC-2: 2 t da-1; BWC-4: 4 t da-1; BWC-8: 8 t da-1), leonardite alone (LT: the recommended application rate), leonardite with banana waste compost (BWC-2+LT; BWC-4+LT; BWC-8+LT), vinasse compost alone (VC: the recommended application rate), vinasse compost with banana waste compost (BWC-2+VC; BWC-4+VC; BWC-8+VC). Afterwards, the changes in the activities of nitrogen (NH4+NO3) and phosphorus (available P) related enzymes (urease and alkaline phosphatase) were monitored through analyzes made on soil samples taken on certain days (0th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 80th). During this period, the pH and EC values of the soil were also measured. According to the results obtained; it was determined that banana waste compost combined with leonardite generally positively affects the pH, EC, exchangeable NH4-NO3 and, available P of the soil, as well as the activity of urease and alkaline phosphatase compared to other treatments. In this regard, according to the control, the urease activity of the soil increased by 875%, the alkaline phosphatase activity by 149%, the exchangeable NH4+NO3 by 188%, available P by 83%, and the EC value by 100%. However, the pH value decreased by about 5%. As a result, it can be stated that the application of banana waste compost combined with leonardite as a soil conditioner at least 4 t da-1 will be economical and 10 to 20 days after this application, nitrogen and phosphorus availability will increase in the soil.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of Genetic Diversity in Banana and Bell Pepper Lines Using
           Molecular Markers

    • Authors: Yahya NAS; Hülya İLBİ
      Abstract: Successful hybrid cultivar breeding is depend on the high genetic diversity of the plant sources, as well as the homozygous and genetically distant lines requiring hybridization. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic distance between the inbred lines of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in order to increase efficacy of the breeding program. In this study, the genetic distances between the inbred lines of 44 bell peppers and 35 banana peppers were investigated using the SRAP (Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism) markers. Based on pattern scores, dendrograms were produced by the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of mathematical averages method). Out of the 71 primer combinations tested, 50 combinations revealed polymorphisms among the banana pepper lines, and a total of 123 polymorphic bands were obtained. In the bell pepper lines, 24 SRAP primer combinations were tested and 15 combinations had 25 polymorphic bands. Based on the UPGMA cluster analysis, the pepper lines divided into groups as bell peppers and banana peppers. While the genetic similarity among the banana pepper lines varied between 0.62 and 0.98, the genetic similarity among the bell pepper lines varied between 0.54 and 1.00. As a result, it can be stated that the SRAP markers can be used successfully for determining the genetic distances of the pepper inbred lines thus will help the breeding programme.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effect of Maturity Stages on Potantial Nutritive Value of Rheum ribes L.

    • Authors: Özer KURT
      Abstract: The purpose of the current work was to designate the effect of maturity stages potential nutritive value, the chemical composition, condensed tannin (CT), gas production (GP), methane production, metabolizable energy (ME), and organic matter digestibility (OMD) of Rheum ribes L. Maturity stages significantly affected (P<0.05) the chemical composition, CT, GP, methane production, ME and OMD of Rheum ribes L. Dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), CT, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of Rheum ribes L. ranged from 92.73-98.64%, 6.11-14.15%, 8.81-19.12%, 1.94-3.04%, 10.47-14.72%, 36.99-53.98% and 24.88-37.63% respectively. Gas production and methane production of Rheum ribes L. at 24 ranged from 29.73-40.60 ml and 2.63-5.50 ml respectively. ME and OMD of Rheum ribes L. ranged from 6.97-9.87 MJ kg-1 KM and 45.68-60.02% respectively. To sum up, maturity stages is a significant point on the nutritive value of Rheum ribes L. Nutritive value especially CP, ME and OMD of Rheum ribes L. decreased with advancing maturity. GP, ME and OMD were significant and negatively correlated with ADF and NDF contents, whereas positively correlated with CP. Moreover in vivo studies are needed to determine the effect of Rheum ribes L. on the feed intake and performance of ruminant animals.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Milk Yield, Fertility, Udder Characteristics, and Raw Milk Somatic Cell
           Count of the Damascus Goats Reared in Iğdır Conditions

    • Authors: Ali CAN; İsa YILMAZ
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the somatic cell number (SCC), udder characteristics and some yield characteristics in Damascus goats. This study was carried out on the Damascus goats raised on a private farm brought the first time in Iğdır province of Turkey in 2013. In the study, 62 Damascus goats were measured SCC of 620 milk samples, monthly milk yields, and udder characteristics in 2019. In the study, mean values of some udder characteristics such as udder circumference, udder width, udder bottom height, udder upper height, teat angle, udder volume, teat diameter, and teat length were determined as 41.83±0.13 cm, 13.07±0.04 cm, 30.57±0.14 cm, 51.01±0.15 cm, 38.02±0.13º, 1754.84±10.65 ml, 6.09±0.09 mm and 5.44±0.06 cm, respectively. In raw milk, mean values of SCC and logarithmic Log10SCC were found as 503,120±40,020 cells ml-1 and 5,543±0.037 cells ml-1, respectively. The effect of birth type and lactation order on SCC and Log10SCC was found to be significant (p<0.01). Average daily milk yield, lactation length, and lactation milk yield, which are among the factors affecting milk yield, were found as 2.14±0.05 kg, 292.15±0.60 day, and 626.23±12.94 kg, respectively. The effect of lactation length and season on average dairy milk yield was found to be significant (p<0.01). The effects of udder type on lactation length (p<0.05), and lactation duration on lactation milk yield were found significant (p<0.01). As a result, it has been concluded that Damascus goats can be successfully raised under the conditions of Iğdır province.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Spatial and Temporal Change of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in
           Marmara Region

    • Authors: Charifa ARABİ; Burak Nazmi CANDOĞAN
      Abstract: In this study, the annual total ETo values were estimated using the FAO Penman-Monteith method for 18 meteorological stations in the Marmara Region between the years 1990-2020 and their spatial and temporal changes were evaluated. For this purpose, annual total ETo trends were determined for each station using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen method, and ETo maps were prepared using the Geographical Information System (GIS) Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. According to the results of the study, the annual total ETo values varied between 742.3-1440.7 mm. While statistically significant increasing trends were determined in ETo values for Edirne, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Bozcaada, Çanakkale, Kırklareli, Uzunköprü, Tekirdağ, İpsala and Dursunbey stations, the trends were significantly decreasing for Kumköy-Kilyos and Keles stations. However, the increasing trends in ETo for Bandırma, Bursa, Şile, Florya and Gönen stations and the decreasing trend determined for Bilecik were not statistically significant. According to the annual average ETo map, ETo has reached high values in the western parts of the Marmara Region (south of Edirne, west of Balıkesir and Çanakkale), while ETo values have decreased in the east of Kırklareli and Tekirdağ (in the northern parts of the region) and east of Istanbul, Kocaeli and Sakarya (in the eastern parts of the region). In addition, while the average ETo values for long-term years were low in Kırklareli, the east of Tekirdağ, Kocaeli and Sakarya, statistically significant increasing trends were determined in the annual total ETo values calculated from the data of meteorology stations in these provinces.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Species Delimitation Analysis to Reveal the Origin of Turkish Podarcis
           siculus siculus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810) Populations

    • Authors: Ferhat MATUR; Kamil CANDAN, Çetin ILGAZ, C. Varol TOK, Mustafa SÖZEN, Muhsin ÇOĞAL, Batuhan Yaman YAKIN, Elif YILDIRIM, Yusuf KUMLUTAŞ
      Abstract: It is possible that the origin of Podarcis sicurus, which was introduced to Turkey by humans, is based on two different source populations or that the samples introduced to different geographies may differ at the subspecies level. The rapid evolutionary processes observed in island species can similarly occur in introduced and isolated populations. In this study Tissues were taken from samples obtained from Zonguldak, Istanbul and Samsun. mtDNA gene sequences were obtained and combined with Podarcis sicurus samples from sequences downloaded from Genbank. Phylogenetic analyzes and species delimitation analyzes were executed. Accordingly results, the specimens obtained from Turkey were grouped into two different haplotypes, similar to their geographic isolation. It has been observed that these groups are different resource groups. Species delimination analyzes show that the differentiation of these haplotypes may be at the subspecies level.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Current Status and the Last Locations of Turkey’s Native Buxus species
           (Buxus sempervirens L. and Buxus balearica Lam.) Under Threats

    • Authors: Ömer SARI; Fisun Gürsel ÇELİKEL, Halil YAŞAR
      Abstract: We investigated the current status and the last locations of Turkey’s native Buxus species under threats especially with boxwood moth (Cydalima perspectalis) in detail throught the country for the first time. Within the scope of the studies, detailed field and survey studies were carried out to determine the latest status of existing boxwood existence in regions and provinces. The study was carried out in 26 (the existence of boxwood is definitely 23 provinces, 3 provinces are thought to be boxwood) provinces. According to the results obtained from field studies conducted in 23 provinces, 59 districts and 195 locations for which boxwood presence information was obtained, it was determined that boxwood remained in 29 locations in 15 provinces and 23 districts. With these results, it was determined that Turkey's boxwood presence has decreased by 85%, and only 15% of the presence of boxwood remains. Due to the continuing effect of the boxwood moth, it is under serious threat in the remaining locations. The last remaining locations of Turkey’s native Buxus species under threats were determined and described in this first pionering research study on this matter. We suggest urgent studies for the protection of boxwood genetic reseources in Turkey.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
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