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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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Translational Animal Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-2102
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [424 journals]
  • Impact of dietary supplementation of l-Arginine, l-Glutamine, and the
           combination of both on nursing performance of multiparous sows

    • Abstract: AbstractDietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) has been considered as an option to improve nursing performance in reproductive sows. This study investigated whether a low-level supplementation of Arg or Gln or a blend of both could modify milk nutrients and improve piglets’ growth beyond weaning. Seventy-two multiparous sows were assigned to four groups: one group fed a control diet, three treatment groups fed the control diet supplemented with either 0.35% Arg, 0.35% Gln, or both, from day 108 of gestation until weaning at day 26 of lactation. Immediately after birth, the litters were cross fostered to 13 piglets and monitored until 2 wk after weaning. Sows body condition and litter growth were assessed. Colostrum and milk samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) around weaning were determined in sows and two representative piglets per litter. Supplementing Gln or the combination of Arg and Gln had no effect on the parameters studied. Arg supplementation increased weaning weight, while decreasing the variation of piglet weights 2 wk after weaning. There was no correlation with plasma IGF-1 since the hormone was not altered in sows or piglets. The colostral concentration of fat tended to increase in the Arg-group, whereas protein, lactose, energy, and polyamine concentrations remained unaffected. Milk samples obtained on day 12 and 25 of lactation were not influenced by dietary treatment. The data indicate that there might be a window of opportunity, explicitly at the onset of lactation, for dietary intervention by maternal dietary Arg supplementation.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac169
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Differentiation in poult plumage color of f1 progeny from crosses between
           white and black indigenous turkeys

    • Abstract: AbstractA study assessed the poult plumage color of F1 progeny from artificially inseminated crossings between white and black indigenous turkeys. 72 hens (32 black, 40 white) and 10 toms were used (5 black and 5 white). The turkeys were grouped into four treatments based on the breeding plans: T1 (White toms × White hens), T2 (Black toms × Black hens), T3 (White toms × black hens), and T4 (Black toms × White hens). Semen was harvested from five white toms, pooled, and inseminated into hens in T1 and T3. Semen harvested from five black toms were also pooled and inseminated into hens in T2 and T4. All inseminations were carried out immediately after collection, and each hen received a dose of 0.02 mL. Insemination was done for 2 consecutive days in week 1 and once weekly; eggs were collected and incubated weekly for 12 weeks. Poult plumage colors were monitored and recorded weekly after the first 28 d. Average fertility in each of the treatments 1 (99.63%), 2 (99.81%), 3 (99.84%), and 4 (99.27%) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the treatments. Hatchability was highest in T2 (72.54%) and least in T1 (57.67%). Percentage white plumage poults in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 88.73%, 31.61%, 58.15%, and 54.63%, respectively. Percentage black plumage poults in T1, T2, T3, and T4 were 6.97%, 33.04%, 15.26%, and 23.76%, respectively, while 4.30%, 35.35%, 26.57%, and 21.61% were percentage checkered plumage poults in T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the percentage checkered obtained in T2, T3, and T4; percentage of white poult in T3 and T4; percentage of black poult in T3 and T1. The major determinant of poult plumage color concerning quantity was the plumage color of breeder tom semen used for insemination.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac168
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effects of increasing soybean meal in corn-based diets on the growth
           performance of late finishing pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThree experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) levels by replacing feed-grade amino acids (AA) in corn, corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and corn-wheat midds-based diets on growth performance of late finishing pigs (n = 4,406) raised in commercial facilities. Across all experiments, pens of pigs were blocked by initial bodyweight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. All diets were formulated to contain 0.70% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and varying amounts of feed-grade AA. All diets were formulated to meet or exceed minimum essential AA requirement estimates as a ratio to Lys. In Exp. 1, 1,793 pigs (initially 104.9 ± 4.9 kg) were fed corn-based diets and pens of pigs were assigned treatments with increasing SBM from 5% to 20%. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F) improved (linear and cubic, P ≤ 0.02) as dietary SBM increased, with the greatest improvement observed as SBM increased from 5% to 8.75% and little improvement thereafter. In Exp. 2, 1,827 pigs (initially 97.9 ± 4.3 kg) were fed diets containing 25% DDGS with SBM levels increasing from 0% to 16%. Overall, feed efficiency marginally improved (linear, P ≤ 0.10) as SBM increased, with the greatest performance observed when diets contained 8% SBM and similar performance thereafter with 12 or 16% dietary SBM. In Exp. 3, 786 pigs (initially 96.7 ± 3.2 kg) were fed diets that contained 30% wheat midds and dietary SBM from 0% to 16%. Final BW of pigs increased (linear, P < 0.05) and overall ADG and G:F improved (linear and cubic, P < 0.05) as SBM increased. The combined results of the three experiments suggest that inclusion of at least 4% to 8% dietary SBM at the expense of feed-grade amino acids in corn-based diets with or without grain coproducts can improve growth performance of late-finishing (greater than 100 kg) pigs.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac165
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Association of maternal temperament and offspring disposition on growth

    • Abstract: AbstractAnimal behavior is complex and varies in definition, depending upon specific traits under observation. Temperament is one component of behavior, that in cattle, is described as the level of fearfulness to a novel or threatening environment. Temperament is a heritable trait which is important since aggressiveness and docility contribute to reproductive success, growth, and carcass quality. We observed maternal temperament at calving and the subsequent influence, if any, on offspring disposition at weaning and their effects collectively on growth performance and carcass traits. Maternal behaviors at calving were observed at four locations within the University of Arkansas system. Cows were assigned a maternal disposition score (MDS) at calving; a scale from 1 to 5 in which aggression decreases. At weaning, calves were assigned a chute score (CS); a scale from 1 to 6 in which aggression increases. Both scoring systems have been previously established. Blood was collected during the 56-d backgrounding period postweaning for blood glucose analysis. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (α = 0.05). The relationship between the two scoring systems was determined with a Pearson correlation (P = 0.22). Animal was the experimental unit and blocked by location for all dependent variables. Location, sex, diet, and MDS were included in the class as covariables for all growth performance and carcass data related to CS. Cows that were more aggressive birthed heavier calves (P < 0.01) compared to indifferent cows. Calves born to cows with either very aggressive or very attentive (MDS of 2 or 3, respectively) scores were heavier upon feedlot entry (P = 0.03) compared to those from indifferent or apathetic cows (MDS of 4 or 5, respectively). Calves defined as nervous and restless (CS of 3 and 2, respectively) were heavier at weaning compared to docile calves (P < 0.01). Restless calves were heavier compared to nervous calves upon arrival and exiting the feedlot (P ≤ 0.01). Calves that were docile at weaning had greater marbling compared to calves that were restless (P ≤ 0.01). Calves that were restless at weaning had greater lean muscle area compared to calves that were nervous (P = 0.05). No definitive relationship was determined between dam and calf temperament. However, the results suggest temperament does impact growth performance and carcass traits but whether the influence comes from the dam or calf temperament, specifically, remains unanswered.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac164
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • The effects of feeding benzoic acid and/or active dry yeast (Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae) on fatty acid composition, sensory attributes, and retail
           shelf-life of beef longissimus thoracis

    • Abstract: AbstractFifty-nine Angus-cross steers (492 ± SD 36 kg) were arranged in a randomized complete block design and assigned to the following dietary treatments for the final 106 days of the finishing phase: no supplementation (CON), 0.5% benzoic acid (ACD), 3 g/steer/d active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YST), or both [0.5% benzoic acid and 3 g/steer/d S. cerevisiae (AY)]. Steers were slaughtered at a commercial facility where longissimus thoracis (IMPS #107 Beef Rib) samples were retrieved and evaluated for fatty acid composition, sensory attributes, and shelf-life during a simulated retail display period. Data (N = 57) were analyzed using dietary treatment as a fixed effect, blocking weight at the beginning of the study as a random effect, and steer as the experimental unit. Muscle pH and proximate composition (moisture and intramuscular lipid) for longissimus samples were not different (P ≥ 0.39) among dietary treatments. Most fatty acid profile values and calculations were not different among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.10); however, the n-6:n-3 ratio differed (P = 0.01), with ACD samples having lower n-6:n-3 compared with CON and YST samples while AY samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. The trained sensory panel did not detect differences among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.23) for juiciness, beef flavor intensity, or off-flavor intensity; however, they did score AY samples as chewier than ACD samples with CON and YST samples intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Yet, tenderness was not different when scored by trained panelists (P = 0.10) or measured instrumentally (P = 0.21). Total color change tended to differ (P = 0.09) during the 12-d simulated retail display period with AY samples experiencing less color change compared with YST samples, while CON and ACD samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Lipid oxidation (as measured with TBARS) tended to differ (P = 0.08) following the 12-d simulated retail display period with ACD and AY samples experiencing lower levels of oxidation compared with CON, while YST samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Overall, these results suggest there were no negative impacts on meat quality when finishing steers were supplemented with either benzoic acid or S. cerevisiae, and there may even be advantages for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability when steers were supplemented with benzoic acid.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac161
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety
           Inspection Service Humane Handling Enforcement Actions: 2018–2020

    • Abstract: AbstractFederally inspected slaughter establishments in the United States must adhere to the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act and regulations that enforce it. Failure to comply with this law results in a Humane Handling Enforcement Action (HHEA) issued by the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service (USDA FSIS). The objective of this study was to systematically analyze and describe HHEAs issued between 2018 and 2020. Enforcement action notification letters were accessed from the USDA FSIS website and date, location, regulatory action, reason for noncompliance, species, and follow up action for each HHEA was recorded. Summary statistics (proportions and percentages) were calculated for the entire population dataset. Between 2018 and 2020, FSIS issued 293 HHEAs; 109 in 2018, 85 in 2019, and 99 in 2020. The majority of HHEAs (64.16%; 188 of 293) were related to the mechanical stunning of bovine (39.93%; 117 of 293) and porcine (24.23%; 71 of 293) species. The majority (50.23%; 107 of 213) of causative reasons for mechanical stun failure across all species were not clearly described; however, of those that were, most (39.12%; 68 of 213) were related to the placement of mechanical stuns. Addressing these issues through improved training and research would help to reduce the total number of HHEAs. Additional detail in reporting the events that result in HHEAs from USDA FSIS would aid in guiding corrective actions on an industry-wide scale.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac153
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
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