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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Welfare     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Translational Animal Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-2102
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [425 journals]
  • Correction to: Tannin-based product in feedlot diet as a strategy to
           reduce enteric methane emissions of Nellore cattle finished under tropical
           conditions

    • First page: txad131
      Abstract: This is a correction to: Elaine Magnani, Thiago H Silva, Leandro Sakamoto, Marcelo Q Manella, Fabio M G N Dias, Maria E Mercadante, Darren Henry, Juliana O S Marcatto, Eduardo M Paula, Renata H Branco, Tannin-based product in feedlot diet as a strategy to reduce enteric methane emissions of Nellore cattle finished under tropical conditions, Translational Animal Science, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2023, txad048, https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txad048
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad131
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Correction to: Assessment of effectiveness of deworming options in
           recently weaned beef cattle utilizing different anthelmintic programs in
           the southeast

    • First page: txad128
      Abstract: This is a correction to: Shane R Hernandez, Dylan B Davis, Brent C Credille, Jennifer J Tucker, Robert Lawton Stewart, Assessment of effectiveness of deworming options in recently weaned beef cattle utilizing different anthelmintic programs in the southeast, Translational Animal Science, Volume 6, Issue 4, October 2022, txac148, https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txac148.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad128
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of forage quality and particle size on feed intake and
           ruminoreticulum content of goats

    • First page: txad101
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim was to evaluate the effect of particle size and hay quality on feed intake, granulometric profile, and composition of the ruminoreticulum content in goats. We used 54 Alpine bucks in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 × 3. Treatments were a combination of Bermuda grass hay (Cynodon dactylon) with three quality levels: high (35 days), medium (50 days), and low (65 d) harvested at regrowth times. Were evaluated three particle sizes: small (16% ≥4.76 mm), medium (48% ≥4.76 mm), and large (75% ≥4.76 mm), which accounted for 66%, 75%, and 94% of physically effective fiber, respectively. Samples of offered diet, intake, and ruminoreticulum content were used to generate the granulometric profile. The offered diet, intake, and ruminoreticulum content presented different granulometric profiles regarding hay quality and particle size. Dry matter intake (DMI) and neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI) increased (P < 0.05) when low-quality hay and large particles were offered. However, when particle size in low-quality hay was reduced, DMI and NDF decreased (P < 0.05). When analyzing the ruminoreticulum content (DM, NDF, peNDF, and indigestible DM), we did not observe any effect (P > 0.05) of hay quality or particle size on the variables. Thus, reducing hay quality and increasing particle size increase dry matter and fiber intake, presenting an interaction between forage quality and particle size. Forage quality and particle size promote intense selective behavior and chewing, which leads to a homogeneous content of particle profile in ruminoreticulum and a uniform average retention time.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad101
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of isoenergetic supplementation as water use mitigation strategy
           on water footprint and health of nursing bull calves

    • First page: txad127
      Abstract: AbstractSustainable livestock systems focus on mitigating natural resource use such as water. Dietary management strategies can significantly reduce the water footprint of livestock animals; however, animal health is of concern when animals reduce water intake due to subacute dehydration. To evaluate potential consequences of this nutritional management intervention, a total of 23, 60 ± 3 days old nursing Holstein bull calves, weighing 94.7 ± 12.07 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design and received one of three diets. Control was a basal diet composed of a non-medicated milk replacer (milk replacer; n = 7), and the additional two diets, were composed of the same non-medicated milk replacer in addition to either lipid [n = 8; milk replacer + menhaden fish oil (3 %)] or soluble carbohydrate [n = 8; milk replacer + corn starch (7%) isoenergetic to fat group] supplements. Animals were offered ad libitum mineral mix and water, as well as 120 g/day of a composite mix of dried microbrewery’s spent grains. Data were analyzed as linear and generalized linear mixed models with diet as a fixed effect and animal as random utilizing R studio (R Core Team, 2021, Vienna, Austria; SAS Inst., Cary, NC). Within supplementation groups, lipid supplemented calves had the highest lymphocyte (63.24 vs 57.69 counts/100 lymphocytes; P < 0.033), and lowest neutrophil counts (29.3 vs 35.3 counts/100 lymphocytes; P < 0.047). Supplementation significantly increased total serum protein (P = 0.001) and skin moisture (P < 0.011), with carbohydrate group having the highest skin moisture (5.30 vs 3.99; P < 0.047). Supplementation also decreased fecal fluidity scores (P < 0.001) with no significant change in serum electrolytes (P > 0.256). No significant differences were found amongst treatments for the ingestive behavior (P > 0.338). The carbohydrate-supplemented calves significantly decreased all daily water footprints compared to the control and fat-supplemented groups: blue a 47.55 L decrease, (P < 0.001), green a 265.62 L decrease (P = 0.005), and gray a 55.87 L decrease (P = 0.009) water footprint, as well as total water footprint (369.04 L, P = 0.004). Our results indicate the potential to maintain animal performance while increasing water use efficiency through diet supplementation tailored to mitigate water use, without adverse effects on animal health.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad127
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Metabolic insights and background from naturally affected pigs during
           Streptococcus suis outbreaks

    • First page: txad126
      Abstract: AbstractStreptococcus suis (S. suis) is an endemic zoonotic pathogen still lacking adequate prevention in pigs. The present case study looked back to the occurrence and consequences of S. suis outbreaks in our swine research facilities in search of new metabolic and physiological insight. From a series of outbreaks, a dataset was created including 56 pigs sampled during disease detection based on clinical signs. Pigs suspected with S. suis infection were defined as diseased (n = 28) and included pigs defined as neurologically diseased (n = 20) when severe neurological signs (central nervous system dysfunctions, i.e., opisthotonos, ataxia, and generalized tremor) were observed. Another set of 28 pigs included respective pen mates from each case and were defined as control. Representative deaths were confirmed to be caused by S. suis. Tonsillar swabs were collected and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for total bacteria, total S. suis, and S. suis serotypes (SS) 2 (and/or 1/2) and 9. Blood and sera were analyzed to quantify blood gases, minerals, and S. suis reactive immunoglobulins against current isolates. Data collected included litter sibling associations, birth and weaning body weight (BW), and average daily gain (ADG) 7 d after the disease detection. In general, the disease increased pH, sO2 and the incidence of alkalosis, but reduced pCO2, glucose, Ca, P, Mg, K, and Na in blood/serum compared to control. The SS2 (and/or SS1/2) prevalence was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in neurologically diseased pigs and its relative abundance tended (P < 0.10) to increase in tonsils. In contrast, the relative abundance of total S. suis was lower (P > 0.05) in diseased pigs than control pigs. Levels of S. suis reactive IgG2 were lower, but IgM were higher (P < 0.03) in neurologically affected pigs compared to control. Furthermore, there was an increased proportion of sibling pigs that were diseased compared to control. In conclusion, our results evidence that naturally affected pigs were associated to average performing pigs without any predisease trait to highlight but a sow/litter effect. Besides, neurologically affected pigs had increased S. suis (SS2 and/or 1/2) prevalence and relative abundance, a respiratory alkalosis profile, and mineral loss.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad126
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A survey of Kansas beef producers and consumers who participate in
           business-to-consumer marketing of beef

    • First page: txad125
      Abstract: AbstractFollowing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, producer and consumer interest in business-to-consumer (B2C) beef sales increased. The objective of the current study was to assess current B2C beef producer and consumer attitudes and understandings of the B2C beef marketing process in order to identify knowledge gaps and strategies to improve producer/consumer interactions. Both producers and customers of local beef were recruited using a large online platform (https://shopkansasfarms.com), and descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. In total, 41 B2C beef producers and 174 consumers who had either previously participated in B2C marketing or intended to participate were surveyed. Most producers (69.8%) only produced beef and produced only a small number (1 to 20 head) of animals per year. Many (43.9%) reported selling 100% of beef directly to consumers, while 29.3% reported selling less than 20% through this channel. Almost all (97.3%) of the producers indicated that increased sales directly to consumers would be desirable, with most (87.1%) considering this marketing channel as the most profitable. Marketing beef in smaller portions, including portioned cuts, was popular, reported by more than 62% of producers, while whole carcass sales were lower. Word-of-mouth (91.3%) and social media (65.8%) were the most popular forms of advertisement used by producers and more than one-third of producers (38.9%) reported having trouble with customers regarding a sale. Over 60% of consumers indicated they had purchased B2C beef less than 5 times, with more than 73% indicating that more than 75% of their beef purchased was local. Low take-home weights, portion sizes, and quality were among consumers’ most cited troubles. Lack of freezer space (25%), price (24.9%), and quantity of product (41.7%) were reported as the largest barriers to consumer participation in B2C marketing. Both consumers and producers indicated that consumer testimonials would be the most beneficial in improving producer/consumer interactions, with educational materials from government sources viewed as the least beneficial. These results provide a baseline for B2C beef marketing and provide insight into impactful strategies to use to assist in this process.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad125
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Megasphaera elsdenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as direct fed microbials
           and their impact on ruminal microbiome during an acute acidosis challenge
           in continuous culture

    • First page: txad123
      Abstract: AbstractOur objective was to evaluate the effects of combinations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Megasphaera elsdenii as direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal microbiome during an acute acidosis challenge in a continuous culture system. Treatments provided a DFM dose of 1 × 108 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL, as follows: control (no DFM), YM1 (S. cerevisiae and M. elsdenii strain 1), YM2 (S. cerevisiae and M. elsdenii strain 2), and YMM (S. cerevisiae and half of the doses of M. elsdenii strains 1 and 2). We conducted four experimental periods of 11 d, which consisted of non-acidotic days (1 to 8) and acidotic challenge days (9 to 11) to establish acute ruminal acidosis conditions with a common basal diet containing 12% neutral detergent fiber and 58% starch. Treatments were applied from days 8 to 11, and samples of liquid and solid-associated bacteria were collected on days 9 to 11. Overall, 128 samples were analyzed by amplification of the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA, and data were analyzed with R and SAS for alpha and beta diversity, taxa relative abundance, and correlation of taxa abundance with propionate molar proportion. We observed a lower bacterial diversity (Shannon index, P = 0.02) when YM1 was added to the diet in comparison to the three other treatments. Moreover, compared to control, addition of YM1 to the diet increased relative abundance of phylum Proteobacteria (P = 0.05) and family Succinivibrioceae (P = 0.05) in the solid fraction and tended to increase abundance of family Succinivibrioceae (P = 0.10) and genus Succinivibrio (P = 0.09) in the liquid fraction. Correlation analysis indicated a positive association between propionate molar proportion and relative abundance of Proteobacteria (r = 0.36, P = 0.04) and Succinivibrioceae (r = 0.36, P = 0.05) in the solid fraction. The inclusion of YM1 in high-grain diets with a high starch content resulted in greater abundance of bacteria involved in succinate synthesis which may have provided the substrate for the greater propionate synthesis observed.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad123
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Partial replacement of soybean meal with full-fat black soldier fly larvae
           meal in plant-based nursery diets did not influence fecal Escherichia coli
           colony forming units or improve fecal consistency when pigs were weaned
           into non-disinfected pens

    • First page: txad121
      Abstract: AbstractAt weaning, one hundred pigs (21 d of age; 6.96 ± 0.23 kg BW) were used to determine the effect of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) in corn- and SBM-based nursery diets on growth performance, fecal scores, Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony forming units (CFU), and cecal mucosal microbial profile when weaned into non-disinfected nursery pens. Pens were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n = 5): high-complexity (contained highly digestible animal proteins and 10.8% SBM) with and without 3,000 ppm ZnO (HC + and HC−, respectively; representative of commercial diets), low-complexity (corn- and SBM-based; 31.8% SBM; LC), or LC with 30% inclusion of full-fat black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) to partially replace SBM (LCFL; 8.0% SBM). Diets were fed for 14 d (phase I), followed by 4 wk of a common corn-SBM diet (phase II). Fecal E. coli CFU and cecal mucosal microbial 16s rRNA community profiles were assessed 7 d after weaning. During phase I, pigs fed LC and LCFL had lower average daily gains (P < 0.05) than pigs fed HC + and HC−, which were not different. Average daily feed intake was not different for pigs fed LC and LCFL, but lower than for pigs fed HC− (P < 0.001); pigs fed HC + had greater feed intake in phase I vs. all other treatment groups (P < 0.001). Upon nursery exit, only pigs fed LCFL had lower BW than pigs fed HC− (P < 0.05), with intermediate values observed for HC + and LC. Day 3 fecal scores were greater for pigs fed LCFL vs. HC + (P < 0.05) and day 7 E. coli CFU were greater for all treatment groups vs. HC + (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HC− (P < 0.01), LC (P < 0.05), and LCFL (P < 0.05) had lower alpha diversity for cecal mucosal microbiota compared to HC+. At the genus level, pigs fed LC had lower Lactobacillus relative abundance vs. pigs fed HC + (P < 0.01). Therefore, BSFLM can partially replace SBM without sacrificing growth performance vs. nursery pigs fed corn- and SBM-based diets, but both groups had reduced phase I growth performance vs. pigs fed highly digestible diets containing animal proteins when weaned into non-disinfected pens. The BSFLM did not influence fecal E. coli CFU or improve fecal consistency after weaning and therefore, is less effective at minimizing digestive upsets vs. HC + diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad121
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Comparison of growth performance and tissue cobalt concentrations in beef
           cattle fed inorganic and organic cobalt sources

    • First page: txad120
      Abstract: AbstractCobalt is an essential trace mineral required for ruminal vitamin B12 synthesis, but sources differ in ruminal microbial utilization, i.e., cobalt carbonate is poorly water soluble, whereas acetate and lactate forms are water soluble. Reports comparing organic cobalt lactate to other cobalt salts are lacking. The study objective was to determine if feeding cobalt lactate at two inclusion rates resulted in similar growth performance and tissue cobalt concentrations as the carbonate and acetate forms used in feeds. One hundred Angus cross bred steers weighing 385 ± 20 kg were randomly assigned to one of five treatments. Cattle were fed a basal diet plus: 1) cobalt carbonate to supply cobalt at 30 mg/steer/d, 2) cobalt acetate to supply cobalt at 30 mg/steer/d, 3) cobalt acetate to supply cobalt at 60 mg/steer/d, 4) cobalt lactate to supply cobalt at 30 mg/steer/d, and 5) cobalt lactate to supply cobalt at 60 mg/steer/d. Cattle were fed according to industry standards until body fat deposition was visually deemed to grade USDA Choice, which was 92 and 117 d for each of the 2 blocks, respectively. Steers were harvested and carcass measurements recorded along with sampling of adipose, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle for tissue cobalt concentrations. Three statistical contrasts consisted of: 1: inorganic (cobalt carbonate) vs. organic (cobalt acetate and lactate); 2: cobalt acetate vs. cobalt lactate; and 3: feeding rate of 30 vs. 60 mg/steer/d cobalt. Body weight gains, average daily gains, dry matter intake, and feed conversions were similar (P > 0.10) for steers fed all cobalt sources and feeding rates. Hot carcass weight, yield grade, back fat thickness, and ribeye area were similar (P > 0.10) among steers fed all cobalt sources and inclusion rates. Liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose cobalt concentrations were similar (P > 0.08) for steers fed inorganic vs. organic cobalt sources. Feeding cobalt lactate compared with cobalt acetate did not affect (P > 0.10) liver, kidney, heart, muscle, and adipose tissue cobalt concentrations. Feeding 60 mg/steer/d cobalt compared with 30 mg/steer/d increased (P < 0.01) liver, kidney, heart, and adipose tissue cobalt concentrations, while muscle was a tendency (P < 0.06). The study demonstrated that feeding soluble cobalt lactate, a new cobalt source, resulted in similar growth performance, carcass characteristics, and tissue cobalt concentrations when compared with cobalt acetate and carbonate.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad120
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Image analysis to automatically classify anemia based on Famacha score in
           sheep using ocular conjunctiva images

    • First page: txad118
      Abstract: AbstractHaemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic blood-feeding parasitic in sheep, causing anemia and consequently changes in the color of the ocular conjunctiva, from the deep red of healthy sheep to shades of pink to practically white of non-healthy sheep. In this context, the Famacha method has been created for detecting sheep unable to cope with the infection by H. contortus, through visual assessment of ocular conjunctiva coloration. Thus, the objectives of this study were (1) to extract ocular conjunctiva image features to automatically classify Famacha score and compare two classification models (multinomial logistic regression—MLR and random forest—RF) and (2) to evaluate the applicability of the best classification model on three sheep farms. The dataset consisted of 1,156 ocular conjunctiva images from 422 animals. RF model was used to segment the images, i.e., to select the pixels that belong to the ocular conjunctiva. After segmentation, the quantiles (1%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 99%) of color intensity in each image channel (red, blue, and green) were determined and used as explanatory variables in the classification models, and the Famacha scores 1 (non-anemic) to 5 (severely anemic) were the target classes to be predicted (scores 1 to 5, with 162, 255, 443, 266, and 30 images, respectively). For objective 1, the performance metrics (precision and sensitivity) were obtained using MLR and RF models considering data from all farms randomly split. For objective 2, a leave-one-farm-out cross-validation technique was used to assess prediction quality across three farms (farms A, B, and C, with 726, 205, and 225 images, respectively). The RF provided the best performances in predicting anemic animals, as indicated by the high values of sensitivity for Famacha score 3 (80.9%), 4 (46.2%), and 5 (60%) compared to the MLR model. The precision of the RF was 72.7% for Famacha score 1 and 62.5% for Famacha score 2. These results indicate that is possible to successfully predict Famacha score, especially for scores 2 to 4, in sheep via image analysis and RF model using ocular conjunctiva images collected in farm conditions. As expected, model validation excluding entire farms in cross-validation presented a lower prediction quality. Nonetheless, this setup is closer to reality because the developed models are supposed to be used across farms, including new ones, and with different environments and management conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad118
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Supplemental organic trace minerals and a yeast culture product in newly
           weaned steers: effects of use and delivery method on growth performance
           and hepatic trace mineral content1

    • First page: txad119
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine if supplementation and delivery method of a “stress pack” composed of organic trace minerals and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture product influenced growth performance, feed efficiency, and hepatic trace mineral concentration in newly weaned steers. Crossbred steers (n = 192; 256 ± 14.0 kg) were used in a 49-day receiving phase experiment. Within 36 hours of weaning, steers were weighed, allotted to 24 pens (n = 8 steers/pen; 8 pens/treatment), and randomly assigned to treatments: 1) a traditional receiving diet (CON), 2) a traditional receiving diet plus the “stress-pack” directly in the diet (FORCE), and 3) a traditional receiving diet plus a low-moisture, cooked molasses block fortified with the “stress-pack” (TUB). The “stress-pack” was offered the first 28 day of the 49-day receiving period. Due to adverse weather conditions forecasted on day 1, biopsy samples were collected from a subsample of steers (n = 14 steers) on day 1 to establish hepatic trace mineral concentration baseline. Steers were selected based on the mean body weight (BW) from allotment (day −1) of the pen for collection of subsequent samples (n = 1 steer/pen) on days 14, 28, and 49 for hepatic trace mineral concentration determination. Cumulative dry matter intake (DMI) (P = 0.01) was greater for FORCE compared to CON and TUB. Final BW and average daily gain (ADG) tended (P ≤ 0.10) to be greater for FORCE compared to TUB and CON by 5.4% and 9.4%, respectively. Feed efficiency did not differ between treatments (P = 0.28). A treatment × day interaction (P ≤ 0.01) for hepatic Cu concentration was noted. The FORCE treatment had greater hepatic Cu compared to TUB and CON for the entire period. The steers that received TUB had greater hepatic Cu compared to CON on days 14 and 28, but similar to CON on day 49. The addition of a “stress-pack” to diets offered to newly weaned cattle enhanced hepatic trace mineral concentration, and delivery method influences DMI and daily gain.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad119
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Polyphenols as a partial replacement for vitamin E in nursery pig diets

    • First page: txad116
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 300 pigs (241 × 600; DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 6.0 ± 0.01 kg) were used in a 42-d trial to determine the effects of vitamin E levels and partially replacing vitamin E with a polyphenol (Cabanin CSD, R2 Argo, Denmark) on growth performance, complete blood count, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cytokine panel. Sixty pens of pigs were weighed and allotted to one of the five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with 12 pens per treatment. A control treatment was formulated to provide 15 IU/kg of vitamin E equivalence from vitamin E. This control treatment was then used as a base for three replacement strategy diets to determine the effects of replacing an additional 60 IU/kg of vitamin E with polyphenol in diets containing a basal level of vitamin E requirement estimate (15 IU/kg). First, an additional 60 IU/kg of vitamin E was added for a total of 75 IU/kg of vitamin E equivalence. Second, 50% of the additional vitamin E (30 IU/kg) was replaced with the equivalency of polyphenol. Third, all 60 IU/kg of the additional vitamin E was replaced with the equivalency of polyphenol. To evaluate whether there are negative effects of feeding nursery pigs a high level of polyphenol, a fifth treatment was formulated to provide 575 IU/kg of vitamin E equivalence with 75 IU/kg from vitamin E and 500 IU/kg from polyphenol. Whole blood and serum samples were collected on days 10 and 42, and pig weights and feed disappearance were measured on days 10, 21, 31, 38, and 42. For growth performance, increasing vitamin E equivalence tended to improve (quadratic, P < 0.10) gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) from days 10 to 21, and tended to improve (linear, P < 0.10) G:F from days 21 to 42 and 0 to 42. There was a vitamin E equivalence × day interaction (P = 0.050) for serum SOD activity. Increasing vitamin E equivalence increased (linear, P < 0.05) serum SOD activity on day 42 but not on days 10 (P > 0.10). For serum cytokines, there was no evidence of differences (P > 0.10) between treatments and vitamin E equivalence. Moreover, there was no evidence of differences (P > 0.10) in all response variables between the three replacement strategies throughout the entire periods. In summary, increasing vitamin E equivalence tended to improve G:F, which may be related to the improved SOD activity. Furthermore, polyphenol can effectively replace vitamin E provided above the vitamin E requirement to provide similar benefits from increasing vitamin E equivalence.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad116
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Efficacy of water application of a humic substance, butyric acid, vitamins
           C, D, and E and/or electrolytes on performance and mortality in
           health-challenged nursery pigs¹

    • First page: txad115
      Abstract: AbstractHealth challenges continue to be rampant in nursery pigs which has led to increased industry-wide mortality trends. Therefore, the objective of these three studies was to evaluate a water supplement (HV; HydraVantage, Kent Nutrition Group, Muscatine, IA) which is a proprietary blend of a humic substance, butyric acid, and vitamins C, D, and E, as well as an electrolyte blend on nursery pig performance and mortality. Experiment 1 consisted of 196 crossbred weanling pigs (7 pigs per pen with 14 pens per treatment) which were randomly allotted by BW to two treatments consisting of control (water for 33 d) or HV at 15 g/L of stock solution and proportioned through a medicator (1:128) for 11 d followed by water for 22 d. There were no performance differences. However, mortality was reduced (P < 0.01) from 6.12% for the control to 0.00% for HV. In experiment 2, there were 488 weanling pigs (6 to 10 pigs/pen with 14 pens per treatment) which were randomly allotted by BW to four treatments in a 34-d trial. Treatment 1 was control (water), and treatments 2 and 4 were HV at 15 g/L of stock solution for 11 and 34 d, respectively. Treatment 3 utilized HV at 15 g/L stock solution during days 0 to 11 with 7.5 g HV/L stock solution utilized during days 11 to 21 followed by water. No performance differences were observed among the four treatments. Mortality was 10.89%, 4.82%, 5.54%, and 7.26% for treatments 1 to 4, respectively, with treatment 1 having a higher mortality (P < 0.05) compared to treatments 2 to 4. In experiment 3, a 2 × 2 factorial study was conducted (7 pigs per pen with 14 pens per treatment) in which the treatments were: 1) water; 2) HV at 15 g/L stock solution for 34 d; 3) electrolytes at 241 g/L stock solution for 34 d; and 4) HV at 15 g/L of stock solution and electrolytes at 226 g/L of stock for 34 d. Overall pen gain tended to be improved (P = 0.09) with supplemental HV. Moreover, mortality was reduced (P = 0.06) by 36% (16.86% mortality for treatments 1 and 3 vs. 10.73% mortality for treatments 2 and 4). Supplemental electrolytes had no effect on mortality. These data suggest that HV has a positive effect by reducing mortality in nursery pigs undergoing health challenges.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad115
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Correction to: Effect of drinker type on water disappearance of nursery
           pigs

    • First page: txad114
      Abstract: This is a correction to: Katherine D Vande Pol, Nicholas S Grohmann, Thomas E Weber, Matthew J Ritter, Michael Ellis, Effect of drinker type on water disappearance of nursery pigs, Translational Animal Science, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2022, txac014, https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txac014
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad114
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Student perceptions of the impact of quality matters essential standards
           in an animal physiology course

    • First page: txad112
      Abstract: AbstractAs online learning becomes increasingly popular in higher education, the quality of courses that utilize this modality is becoming a focus of inquiry. Quality Matters (QM) is a leading quality assurance organization that reviews online and hybrid (partially online, partially in-person) courses for standards of pedagogy and instructional design and certifies courses that sufficiently meet these standards. In this study, we examine student perceptions of course quality in a hybrid three-credit-hour animal science course that has been certified by QM. The class met twice a week for 1.25 h with one class period online and one in person. It consisted of 11 modules, each of which included learning content, learning activities, and assessments. Upon completion, 46 of 114 students completed a survey in which they rated the course on each of the 21 QM essential standards (Fifth edition). Descriptive analysis revealed that for 19 of the 21 specific review standards, 75% to 91% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the course reflected the best practice described in the standard. For the other two standards, over half of students (72%, 63%) agreed or strongly agreed that best practices were reflected in course design. Another way to examine the data is to collapse specific review standards into eight general review categories as specified by QM; the collapsed data revealed that 75% to 88% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the course design reflected the eight general course design standards. The percentage of students disagreeing that the course reflected each best practice was 11% or lower. Cronbach analysis to examine the internal consistency of the QM questionnaire (0.96), indicated instrument reliability and stability. A principal component analysis of the data conducted to further examine features and patterns of student responses revealed four primary factors that students rated highly (learning objectives, learner interaction and engagement, accessibility and usability, and clarity) that explained 78% of the data variance. This study demonstrates that the high quality of course design and delivery in a QM-certified course is clear to students. and provides justification for the investment in high-quality online and hybrid course design. In the future, we plan to compare student perceptions of course quality in a course that has not been QM-certified with one that has, as well as the impact of those revisions on student outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad112
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Serum inflammation and oxidative DNA damage amelioration in cocks-fed
           supplemental Vernonia amygdalina and zinc in aflatoxin B1 contaminated
           diets

    • First page: txad113
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of the study was to assess the comparative effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal (VALM) and zinc (Zn) on the serum proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as DNA damage of cocks-fed aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated diets. A total of 250 sexually mature Isa White cocks of 24 weeks old were randomly distributed into five groups (treatments) with each containing 50 birds, which was replicated five times with 10 birds per replicate. Cocks in group A were fed basal diet only, group B was fed basal diet contaminated with 1 mg AFB1/kg diet, group C received diet B (basal + 1 mg/kg AFB1) with 50 mg/kg Zn, group D was fed diet B with 2.5 g/kg VALM, and group E received diet B with 5.0 g/kg VALM, respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum with fresh feed added to the feed troughs at 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., respectively. While serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated among the cocks on diet B, significant (P < 0.05) reductions were recorded among cocks on diets C, D, and E. Conversely, birds in group B had significant (P < 0.05) depression in serum interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) while improvements (P < 0.05) were recorded among cocks in groups C, D, and E, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of VALM offset the adverse physiological effects of AFB1 observed among group B birds. The effects were comparable with the results presented by the cocksfed diet containing Zn.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad113
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of protected benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, and gut health indices in starter pigs

    • First page: txad111
      Abstract: AbstractBenzoic acid is a common alternative for antibiotic and zinc oxide use in nursery diets. Free benzoic acid (BZA) is often supplied, but this form is absorbed before it can exert any effect on distal segments of the gut. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of protected benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and gut health indices in starter pigs. A total of 192 pigs were weaned at 28 ± 1 d age (initial body weight, 8.72 ± 1.13 kg). Pens were assigned to one of four treatment diets (n = 8 pens per treatment): (1) no additive (NC), (2) free benzoic acid (BZA; 0.6%), (3) protected benzoic acid (BC50; 0.2%, supplied at a ratio of one to three equivalents of BZA), and (4) antibiotic growth promoter (AGP; Carbadox, 50 ppm). Diets were fed for three weeks over two periods (period 1, 7 d; period 2, 14 d). Body weight and feed intake were measured for each period. Feces were collected at the end of each period to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter (OM), gross energy (GE), and crude protein (CP). One pig per pen was euthanized per period to determine plasma metabolites; jejunum and ileum morphology; jejunum, ileum, and colon cytokine abundance; and jejunum, ileum, and colon tight junction protein expression. The AGP group had increased average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared to other groups in period 1 and overall (P < 0.05); however, ADG and ADFI of the BC50 group was intermediate between the NC and BZA groups and the AGP group in period 2. The ATTD of OM, GE, and CP were greater in the AGP group compared to the NC and BC50 groups (P < 0.05), whereas the BZA group was intermediate. Jejunum and ileum villus height and crypt depth increased from period 1 to period 2 (P < 0.01) but were similar across groups. Ileum and colon tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) abundances were greater, whereas colon interleukin (IL)-1β and colon and ileum IL-8 abundances were less, in the AGP group compared to the BZA group (P < 0.05); the NC and BC50 groups exhibited intermediate TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 abundance in the ileum and colon. Jejunum cytokine abundance did not vary among groups but declined from period 1 to period 2 (P < 0.05). Tight junction protein expression also did not vary among groups. In summary, protected BZA supported a slight increase in growth performance in starter pigs, suggesting its potential as an alternative feed additive in nursery diets.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad111
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Differentiating between metabolic health statuses in Simmental cows and
           describing related milk fatty acids and relevant associated factors

    • First page: txad110
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this observational study was to examine differences in milk fatty acid (FA) concentrations for different metabolic health statuses and for associated factors—specifically to examine with which FA concentrations an increased risk for developing a poor metabolic adaptation syndrome (PMAS) was associated. During weekly visits over 51 wk, blood samples were collected from cows between 5 and 50 days in milk. The farmer collected corresponding milk samples from all voluntary milkings. The analysis was performed on n = 2,432 samples from n = 553 Simmental cows. The observations were assigned to five different cow types (healthy, clever, athletic, hyperketonemic, and PMAS, representing five metabolic health statuses), based on the thresholds of 0.7 mmol/L, 1.2 mmol/L, and 1.4 for the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids and for the milk fat-to-protein ratio, respectively. Linear regression models using the predictor variables cow type, parity, week of lactation, and milk yield as fixed effects were developed using a stepwise forward selection to test for significant associations of predictor variables regarding FA concentrations in milk. There was a significant interaction term found between PMAS cows and parity compared to healthy cows for C18:1 (P < 0.001) and for C18:0 (P < 0.01). It revealed higher concentrations for PMAS in primiparous and multiparous cows compared to healthy cows, the slope being steeper for primiparous cows. Further, an interaction term was found between PMAS cows and milk yield compared to healthy cows and milk yield for C16:0 (P < 0.05), revealing a steeper slope for the decrease of C16:0 concentrations with increasing milk yield for PMAS compared to healthy cows. The significant associations and interaction terms between cow type, parity, week of lactation, and milk yield as predictor variables and C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 concentrations suggest excellent opportunities for cow herd health screening during the early postpartum period.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad110
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of apple (Malus domestica) cider vinegar and garlic (Allium
           sativum) extract as phytogenic substitutes for growth-promoting dietary
           antibiotics in sexed broiler chickens

    • First page: txad109
      Abstract: AbstractTightening global regulations on the use of subclinical dietary antibiotics to enhance broiler growth are in response to increasing concern about the risk of resistance and their residues in animal products. The study evaluated the potential of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and garlic extract (GAE) as safer, phytogenic alternatives. A batch of 390 mixed-sex Ross 308-d-old broiler chicks was received into an open, deep litter house, and feather sexed in the second week into 30 experimental units of 13 birds per 2.03 m2 pen. From days 1 to 22, all chicks were on a 200 g/kg crude protein, coccidiostat-treated commercial starter diet. During the grower (16 to 28 days) and finisher (29 to 42 days) phases, chick pens were assigned treatments in a 2 (sex) × 5 (additives) factorial experiment replicated three times. The GAE was a pure extract, while ACV was produced by fermenting 1,000 g fresh apple and 80 g supplementary brown cane sugar in 1.3 liters of water for 4 wk. The five treatments comprised antibiotic (15% granular zinc bacitracin and 12% valinomycin sodium, each at 500 g/tonne) grower (190 g/kg crude protein, 13.0 MJ ME/kg) and finisher (165 g/kg crude protein, 13.2 MJ ME/kg) commercial diets with untreated drinking water as positive controls (PC), antibiotic-free duplicates of the PC diets with untreated drinking water as the negative controls (NC), with 3 mL/L filtered ACV in drinking water (T1), 2 mL/L filtered GAE-treated drinking water (T2), or mixed (3 mL/L ACV + 2mL/L GAE) additive drinking water (T3). Males had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than females in both growth phases. Birds on the PC gained more (P < 0.05) weight than others. Birds on the PC consumed more feed (P < 0.05) during the finisher phase than T1, T2, and the NC. Birds on the PC had a lower (P < 0.05) grower-phase feed convesion (feed:gain) ratio (FCR) than others, and lower (P < 0.05) FCR during the finisher phase than birds on T1 and T3. Birds on the PC had higher (P < 0.05) percent spleen weight than birds on T1, with smaller proventriculi (P < 0.05) than on NC, T1, T2, and T3, and smaller gizzard weight than birds on the T2 and T3. Birds on the NC exhibited less dressing percentage (P < 0.05) than all other treatments. Meat pH was higher (P < 0.05) in males. In conclusion, in contrast to dietary antibiotics, except for improved dressing percentage, the ACV and GAE did not express phytogenic benefit at the experimental dosage.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad109
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Role of oral phytogenic supplementation to protect cardiac, hepatic,
           nephrotic, and splenic oxidative stress in broiler chickens

    • First page: txad106
      Abstract: AbstractThis study investigated the effects of adding essential oils of garlic, ginger, turmeric, and cinnamon to drinking water on cardiac, hepatic, nephrotic, and splenic oxidative status of broiler chickens. A batch of 200 1-d old Arbo acre broiler chicks was administered with Control (Water: no additive), 30 ml/L of cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, or garlic essential oils in drinking water for 42 d. On day 43, three broiler chickens/replicates were sampled randomly, sacrificed, and eviscerated. The hearts, spleens, kidneys, and livers were excised and assayed for glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. In spleen broiler chickens, all additive essential oils increased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant activity. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase significantly increased (P < 0.05) in garlic, ginger, and turmeric essential oils except cinnamon. In kidney broiler chickens, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the additive essential oils. Garlic, cinnamon, and ginger essential oils increased (P < 0.05) catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in kidney broiler chickens. In liver broiler chickens, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione peroxidase were higher (P < 0.05) in cinnamon essential oil than other additive essential oils. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were higher (P < 0.05) in turmeric essential oils. In heart broiler chickens, all the additive essential oils significantly decreased (P < 0.05) lipid peroxidation and increased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant activity. In conclusion, oral garlic, turmeric, and ginger essential oils supplementation did not reduce lipid peroxidation in spleen, whereas cinnamon essential oil caused lipid peroxidation in liver of broiler chickens.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad106
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of extruded pet foods containing dried yeast (Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae) on palatability, nutrient digestibility, and fecal quality in
           dogs and cats

    • First page: txad107
      Abstract: AbstractGlobal protein shortages and sustainability concerns have increased consumer demand for non-animal-derived protein. Dried whole-cell yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) may be a suitable alternative to rendered protein meals in pet foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dried yeast in dog and cat foods on indicators that pet parents typically use to evaluate the suitability of a food for their pet. For this evaluation, two dog and two cat dry extruded diets were formulated. For each species, the test diet contained 10% dried yeast (Yeast) and the control diet was devoid of yeast (Control). Palatability, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and fecal quality of the foods were assessed in dogs and cats. Urine pH and specific gravity were measured in cats as indicators of urinary tract health. In dogs, the Yeast diet showed equivalent or better palatability compared to the Control diet based on total food consumption (P = 0.06), average daily consumption (day 1, P = 0.10; day 2, P = 0.54), and first choice preference over 2 consecutive days (P = 0.005). Cats showed a strong preference for the Yeast diet with more than double the consumption during the 2-d test period (P = 0.001). More cats showed a first-choice preference for the Yeast diet (24 vs. 16), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). There were no significant differences in stool quality or nutrient digestibility when fed Yeast vs. Control diets to the dogs and cats (P > 0.05). All cats produced urine with pH and specific gravity values within the normal range, though specific gravity was lower in the Control group (P = 0.003). This study provides support for the acceptability and digestibility of dog and cat diets containing dried yeast as an alternative protein source.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad107
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of reduced-protein diets with protease supplementation on growth,
           carcass yield, intestinal morphology, organ development, nutrient
           digestibility, and blood biochemical of broiler chickens

    • First page: txad098
      Abstract: AbstractThis study was conducted to evaluate growth performance, carcass yield, intestinal morphology, organ development, nutrient digestibility, and blood biochemical parameters of broiler fed 1% reduced-protein diets with/without protease supplementation. A total of 1,120 one-day-old male broiler chickens with average initial body weight (BW), 46.45 ± 0.49 g, were divided into five groups with seven replications and 32 birds per replication. The treatment varied according to the protein and protease enzyme levels: positive control (PC), negative control (NC, PC with reduction of 1% protein), PC supplemented with 50 g/t protease (PC + 50), NC supplemented with 50 g/t protease (NC + 50), and NC supplemented with 100 g/t protease (NC + 100). The results showed that there was no significant effect of 1% reduced-protein diets, with or without protease on feed intake, final BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and nutrient digestibility. The changes in dietary protein level and supplementation of protease did not affect carcass yield, but significantly affected abdominal fat content, PC + 50 group had significantly lower abdominal fat content than NC-based diet including NC, NC + 50, NC + 100. Reduced-protein with protease supplementation strongly affected organ weight, especially on day 21: the pancreas was heavier in PC and NC + 50 group than other groups, spleen was heaver in NC group than in NC + 100 group, thymus was heavier in NC + 50 group than in PC, NC and NC + 100 group, small intestine was heavier in NC + 50 and NC + 100 group than in PC group, and large intestine was also heavier in NC + 50 group than in NC group. Villus height sampled at 35-d was significantly increased with protease supplement, and which was significantly higher in NC + 100 group than NC group. Regarding on blood metabolites, only urea and uric acid were affected by the reduction of dietary protein, broiler fed PC diet had higher urea and uric acid content than fed NC diet. In conclusion, supplementation of 50 g/t protease in 1% reduced-protein diets does not negatively affect on growth, nutrient digestibility, carcass yield, organ development, and blood metabolites. Moreover, supplementation of protease in low-protein diet could effectively promote organ development and benefit intestine morphology.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad098
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Optimal lameness induction model development using amphotericin B in meat
           goats

    • First page: txad105
      Abstract: Abstract:Lameness continues to be a critical health and welfare concern associated with goat production. Amphotericin B (amp B) is an antimicrobial successful in inducing transient lameness for research purposes previously in livestock animals. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify which of three varying doses of amp B would be most effective in inducing lameness in meat type goats and (2) develop a facial grimace scale for goats. Lameness was produced by an intra-articular injection of amphotericin B into the left hind lateral claw distal interphalangeal joint with either a 5 mg/0.25 mL (high–low, 5 mg of amphotericin B in a volume of 0.25 mL), 5 mg/0.5 mL (high–high, 5 mg of amphotericin B in a volume of 0.5 mL), or a 2.5 mg/0.25 mL (low–low, 2.5 mg of amphotericin B in a volume of 0.25 mL). A saline treatment of 0.5 mL was used as control (0.9% sterile saline solution). Lameness response was analyzed by infrared thermography (IRT) at the induced joint, mechanical-nociception threshold (MNT), visual lameness scoring (VLS), a visual analogue scale (VAS), kinetic gait analysis (KGA), plasma cortisol (CORT), substance P (Sub P), and behavior scoring. The IRT and MNT values differed by timepoint (P ≤ 0.0001). Results from VLS showed the HL treatment was the most effective at inducing lameness (6/6 goats became lame compared to HH 4/6 and LL 2/6). At 24, 48, and 72 h, VAS scores were significantly higher when comparing HL to all other treatment groups (P = 0.0003). Both behavior observers (1 and 2) reported a significant time effect (P = 0.05), with goats exhibiting more facial grimacing at 24 h post-lameness induction. From these data, an optimal dose for a repeatable lameness induction model in goats was aquired. An effective Goat Grimace Scale (GGS) was also developed to evaluate pain responses in goats.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad105
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of pretreating wheat middlings and sunflower meal with fiber
           degrading enzymes on components solubilization and utilization in broiler
           chickens

    • First page: txad108
      Abstract: AbstractPretreating fibrous feedstuffs with exogenous enzymes may improve their utilization in broiler chickens. Pretreatment of wheat middlings (WM) and sunflower meal (SM) with fiber degrading enzymes (FDE) was investigated for 1) in vitro solubilization of crude protein (CP) and fiber-degrading (experiment 1), and 2) apparent retention (AR) of CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), as well as the concentration of ceca digesta metabolites in broiler chickens (experiment 2). In experiment 1, WM was pretreated with FDE and SM with FDE ± protease and incubated in a shaker for 24 or 48 h at 40°C and 200 rpm. Samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant used for assay of sugars and organic acids and pellet processed for determination of apparent disappearance (AD) of dry matter (DM), fiber, and CP solubilization. In experiment 2, WM and SM were pretreated with FDE for 24 h, oven-dried, and incorporated in iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets. Diets were: 1) a corn–soybean meal positive control (PC); 2) PC plus untreated WM and SM (negative control, NC), and diets 3, 4, 5, and 6 test diets, in which the untreated WM and SM in NC were replaced with pretreated WM and SM at 25% (N25), 50% (N50), 75% (N75), and 100% (N100), respectively. Diets were prepared in mash form in two phases (starter, days 0 to 21 and finisher, days 22 to 42) and had TiO2 (0.3%) as an indigestible marker. A total of 288 Ross708 d-old male broiler chicks were placed in cages based on body weights (6 birds/cage) and allocated diets (n = 8). Birds had free access to feed and water. Samples of excreta for AR and AMEn, and of ceca digesta for the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were collected at the end of each phase. Pretreatment with FDE increased (P < 0.001) solubilization of CP, AD of NDF, and release of sugars and organic acids in the supernatant. The mixture of FDE and protease further increased (P < 0.001) CP solubilization in SM. Feeding pretreated WM and SM had a linear response (P ≤ 0.038) on AMEn, and gross energy (GE) (day 21) and a quadratic response (P < 0.05) on AR of components and AMEn (day 42) and concentration of total SCFA on day 42. On day 42, N25 and N50 had higher AR of DM, CP, NDF, and GE than N75 and N100. In conclusion, pretreatment of WM and SM with enzymes increased CP and fiber degradation. Incorporating moderate amounts (N25 and N50) of pretreated WM and SM in a corn–soybean meal diet fed to broiler chickens improved nutrient and energy utilization.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad108
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluating lactation performance of multiparous dairy cattle to prepartum
           and/or postpartum supplementation of fat-embedded calcium gluconate

    • First page: txad104
      Abstract: AbstractPrebiotic compounds may be supplemented in the diet to improve animal health and performance in a variety of ways. In dairy cattle, the transition from pregnancy through parturition and lactation represents a critical life stage with many concurrent stressors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate responses to the provision of a hindgut-targeted prebiotic compound (calcium gluconate; HFCG) when supplemented prepartum and/or postpartum in a 2 × 2 factorial design. One hundred and sixty-four multiparous Holstein cattle were enrolled and followed from approximately 21 d prior to calving until 100 d of lactation. Treatments were administered as a pelleted compound feed offered in the rotary milking parlor once daily prepartum and thrice daily postpartum. Information pertaining to milk production and body weight were automatically recorded by the milking equipment, and information pertaining to reproductive and health performance was recorded by farm staff. Cattle that received HFCG prepartum were confirmed pregnant approximately 21 d earlier (P = 0.024). Cattle that received HFCG both pre- and postpartum had 9% to 10% higher yields of milk protein, fat, and energy-corrected milk (P ≤ 0.037) from weeks 4 to 9 of lactation relative to those that received HFCG exclusively prepartum. Conversely, cattle that received HFCG exclusively postpartum had 9% to 10% higher yields of milk protein, fat, and energy-corrected milk (P ≤ 0.037) from weeks 9 to 14 of lactation relative to those that received exclusively the negative control in both periods. The mechanism underlying these responses remains unclear, however, we hypothesize that these responses are due to localized reductions in inflammation in the gut and/or signaling to extragastrointestinal tissues altering energy partitioning and balance.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad104
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A comprehensive characterization of longevity and culling reasons in
           Canadian Holstein cattle based on various systematic factors

    • First page: txad102
      Abstract: AbstractThe decision of premature culling cows directly impacts the profitability of dairy farms. A comprehensive characterization of the primary causes of culling reasons would greatly improve both management and selection objectives in dairy cattle breeding programs. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the temporal frequencies of 34 culling reasons in Canadian Holstein cows. After data editing and quality control, records from 3,096,872 cows culled from 9,683 herds spread across Canada were used for the analyses covering the periods from 1996 to 2020. Reproductive issues were the main culling reason accounting for 23.02%, followed by milk production (20.82%), health (20.39%), conformation problems (13.69%), economic factors (13.10%), accidents (5.67%), age-related causes (1.67%), and workability (1.63%). Nearly fifty-eight percent of cows were culled after 47 months of age. The observed frequencies of culling due to economic factors were lower than expected from 1996 to 2014 and higher than expected between 2015 and 2020. Reproduction issues had the highest culling frequencies during fall (24.54%), winter (24.02%), and spring (22.51%), while health issues were the most frequent (22.51%) culling reason in the summer season. Health issues (25.50%) and milk production (27.71%) were the most frequent culling reasons in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, respectively. Reproductive issues showed the highest frequency across climates based on the Köppen climate classification, except for Csb (Dry-summer subtropical or Mediterranean climate) and Bsk (Middle latitude steppe climate), which correspond to small regions in Canada, where production was the most frequent culling reason (29.42% and 21.56%, respectively). Reproductive and milk performance issues were the two main culling reasons in most ecozones, except in Boreal Shield and Atlantic Marine, where health issues had the highest frequencies (25.12 and 23.75%, respectively). These results will contribute to improving management practices and selective decisions to reduce involuntary culling of Holstein cows.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad102
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of tissue depth, captive bolt penetration force and energy, and
           potential for bolt-thalamus contact in cadaver heads from physically
           castrated market barrows and immunocastrated boars

    • First page: txad103
      Abstract: AbstractThe main objective of this study was to describe tissue thicknesses of cadaver heads from physically castrated market barrows (PC MARKET BARROWS) and immunocastrated boars (IC BOARS) at the frontal penetrating captive bolt (PCB) placement. Other objectives were to describe differences in bolt force and energy requirements to penetrate and describe potential for bolt-thalamus contact. Forty-four heads were obtained from PC MARKET BARROWS (n = 22) and IC BOARS (n = 22) of similar age and size that were rendered insensible with CO2. Mean HCW was 117.32 ± 3.52 kg. Snout to poll distance (cm) and maximum deflection distance (cm) were collected in duplicate. Heads were split at midline with a bandsaw and soft tissue and cranial thicknesses were measured with a digital caliper. Images of each cut surface were collected to evaluate the potential for thalamic damage. Tissue samples were retained from each half of each head and a universal tester was used to determine maximum force and energy of bolt penetration. There was no evidence to support a significant difference (P > 0.05) in tissue thicknesses between PC MARKET BARROWS and IC BOARS. Maximum deflection distance (maximum distance from a straight edge that was placed from the tip of the snout to the poll of the head) was not different (P = 0.10) between PC MARKET BARROWS (3.31 ± 0.10 cm) and IC BOARS (3.08 ± 0.10 cm). There was no evidence to support a difference (P = 0.77) in maximum force between PC MARKET BARROWS (7130.32 ± 483.23 N) and IC BOARS (6974.60 ± 463.70 N). There was also no evidence to support a difference (P = 0.62) in maximum energy between PC MARKET BARROWS (33.37 ± 2.77 J) and IC BOARS (32.04 ± 2.50 J). For PC MARKET BARROWS, there was a difference (P = 0.05) between the number of heads where the thalamus was located within the theoretical plane of bolt travel for market placement (21/21) versus mature placement (16/21). For IC BOARS, the number of heads where the thalamus was located within the plane of theoretical bolt path was not different between the two PCB placements (19/21 each). Overall, the data suggest that tissue profiles of PC MARKET BARROWS and IC BOARS do not differ at the frontal PCB placement site and the mechanical tools that are effective for PC MARKET BARROWS should also be effective for IC BOARS.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad103
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The impact of functional teat number on reproductive throughput in swine

    • First page: txad100
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective was to evaluate the impact of functional teat number on reproductive throughput in swine. Data included 735 multiparous Landrace × Large White F1 females. Sow underlined traits consisted of total teat number (TT), functional teat number (FT), nonfunctional teat number (NFT), and number of functional mammary glands (FMG). Weaning traits were calculated for both the biological and the nurse dam. For the biological dam, litter size at weaning (LSW) included a sow’s biological piglets regardless of cross-fostering. For nurse dam, number weaned (NW) included the piglets a sow weaned. For the biological dam, piglet survival (PS) was calculated as litter size at weaning / (total number born × 100). Linear regression estimates were calculated in RStudio v. 1.1.456 and variance components were estimated using GIBBS3F90. Average total number born, number born alive, TT, FT, NFT, and FMG were 14.22, 13.12, 14.43, 13.96, 0.42, and 10.7, respectively. An increase in one FT enhanced (P < 0.05) LSW by 0.32 piglets and NW by 0.33 piglets. Similarly, an increase in one FT improved (P < 0.05) PS by 1.63% and reduced (P < 0.05) preweaning mortality by 2.73%. However, an increase in one FT reduced (P < 0.05) average piglet weaning weight (WW) for biological and nurse dams by 35 and 94 g, respectively. Yet an increase in one FT enhanced (P < 0.05) litter weaning weight (LWW) for biological and nurse dams by 1.3 and 1.5 kg, respectively. Heritability estimates for TT, FT, NFT, FMG, WW, LWW, LSW, and PS were 0.25, 0.22, 0.53, 0.18, 0.21, 0.22, 0.16, and 0.18, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between FT with TT, NFT, and FMG were 0.79, 0.09, and 0.28, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations between TT with WW, LWW, LSW, and PS were 0.37, 0.38, 0.11, and −0.19, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between FT with WW, LWW, LSW, and PS were 0.44, 0.49, 0.39, and 0.35, respectively. Results suggest increasing functional teat number would enhance both piglet survival and reproductive throughput.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad100
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • In vitro evaluation of microencapsulated organic acids and pure botanicals
           as a supplement in lactating dairy cows diet on in vitro ruminal
           fermentation

    • First page: txad099
      Abstract: AbstractThe utilization of microencapsulated organic acids and pure botanicals (mOAPB) is widely used in the monogastric livestock industry as an alternative to antibiotics; in addition, it can have gut immunomodulatory functions. More recently, an interest in applying those compounds in the ruminant industry has increased; thus, we evaluated the effects of mOAPB on ruminal fermentation kinetics and metabolite production in an in vitro dual-flow continuous-culture system. For this study, two ruminal cannulated lactating dairy Holstein cows were used as ruminal content donors, and the inoculum was incubated in eight fermenters arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of a 680-kg Holstein dairy cow producing 45 kg/d of milk and supplemented with increasing levels of mOAPB (0; 0.12; 0.24; or 0.36% of dry matter [DM]), which contained 55.6% hydrogenated and refined palm oil, 25% citric acid, 16.7% sorbic acid, 1.7% thymol, and 1% vanillin. Diet had 16.1 CP, 30.9 neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 32.0 starch, % of DM basis, and fermenters were fed 106 g/d split into two feedings. After a 7 d adaptation, samples were collected for 3 d in each period. Samples of the ruminal content from the fermenters were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h postmorning feeding for evaluation of the ruminal fermentation kinetics. For the evaluation of the daily production of total metabolites and for the evaluation of nutrient degradability, samples from the effluent containers were collected daily at days 8 to 10. The statistical analysis was conducted using MIXED procedure of SAS and treatment, time, and its interactions were considered as fixed effects and day, Latin square, and fermenter as random effects. To depict the treatment effects, orthogonal contrasts were used (linear and quadratic). The supplementation of mOAPB had no major effects on the ruminal fermentation, metabolite production, and degradability of nutrients. The lack of statistical differences between control and supplemented fermenters indicates effective ruminal protection and minor ruminal effects of the active compounds. This could be attributed to the range of daily variation of pH, which ranged from 5.98 to 6.45. The pH can play a major role in the solubilization of lipid coat. It can be concluded that mOAPB did not affect the ruminal fermentation, metabolite production, and degradability of dietary nutrients using an in vitro rumen simulator.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad099
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of copper, zinc, and manganese source and inclusion during late
           gestation on beef cow–calf performance, mineral transfer, and metabolism
           

    • First page: txad097
      Abstract: AbstractTo determine effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source and inclusion during late gestation, multiparous beef cows [n = 48; 649 ± 80 kg body weight (BW); 5.3 ± 0.5 body condition score (BCS)] were individually-fed hay and supplement to meet or exceed all nutrient recommendations except Cu, Zn, and Mn. From 91.2 ± 6.2 d pre-calving to 11.0 ± 3.2 d post-calving, cows received: no additional Cu, Zn, or Mn (control, CON), sulfate-based Cu, Zn, and Mn (inorganic, ITM) or metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelates (MMHAC) of Cu, Zn, and Mn at 133% recommendations, or a combination of inorganic and chelated Cu, Zn, and Mn (reduce and replace, RR) to meet 100% of recommendations. Data were analyzed with treatment and breeding group (and calf sex if P < 0.25 for offspring measures) as fixed effects, animal as experimental unit, and sampling time as a repeated effect for serum, plasma, and milk measures over time. Post-calving cow liver Cu was greater (P ≤ 0.07) in MMHAC compared with all other treatments. Calves born to RR had greater (P ≤ 0.05) liver Cu than ITM and CON, and MMHAC had greater (P = 0.06) liver Cu than CON. Liver Mn was less (P ≤ 0.08) for RR calves than all other treatments. Calf plasma Zn was maintained (P ≥ 0.15) from 0 to 48 h of age in ITM and MMHAC but decreased (P ≤ 0.03) in CON and RR. Gestational cow BW, BCS, and metabolites were not affected (P ≥ 0.13) by treatment, but gestational serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were greater (P = 0.01) for CON than MMHAC. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.13) calf birth size, vigor, placental size and minerals, or transfer of passive immunity. Neonatal calf serum Ca was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for MMHAC than all other treatments; other calf serum chemistry and plasma cortisol were not affected (P ≥ 0.12). Pre-suckling colostrum yield, and lactose concentration and content, were greater (P ≤ 0.06) for MMHAC compared with ITM and RR. Colostral triglyceride and protein concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.08) for RR than MMHAC and CON. Cow lactational BW and BCS, milk yield and composition, and pre-weaning calf BW and metabolism were not affected (P ≥ 0.13) by treatment. Lactational serum TBARS were greater (P = 0.04) for RR than CON at day 35 and greater (P ≤ 0.09) for MMHAC at day 60 than all other treatments. Source and inclusion of Cu, Zn, and Mn altered maternal and neonatal calf mineral status, but calf size and vigor at birth, passive transfer, and pre-weaning growth were not affected in this study.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad097
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Beef embryos in dairy cows: calfhood growth of Angus-sired calves from
           Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred beef dams

    • First page: txad096
      Abstract: AbstractImproved reproductive management has allowed dairy cow pregnancies to be optimized for beef production. The objective of this sire-controlled study was to characterize the effects of beef or dairy maternal genetics and the dairy management system on calf growth. Pregnancies were created with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dam breed (Holstein or Jersey) and mating type (artificial insemination or implantation of an in vitro produced embryo from a commercial beef cow oocyte). Resulting calves were reared in a calf ranch. Additionally, commercial beef cows were inseminated and reared resulting calves on range. Therefore, the five treatments were Angus × Holstein (A × H; n = 19), Angus × Jersey (A × J; n = 22), Angus × beef gestated by Holstein (H ET; n = 18), Angus × beef gestated by Jersey (J ET; n = 8), and Angus × beef raised by beef (A × B; n = 20). Beginning at birth, calf body weight, cannon circumference, forearm circumference, top width, hip width, and hip height were measured approximately every 28 d until ~196 d of age. At birth, A × J calves weighed the least (P < 0.01). At 150 d of age, body weight was greatest (P < 0.05) among A × B calves, intermediate among H ET and A × H calves, and least among J ET and A × J calves (P < 0.05). Morphometric differences were detected between treatments (multivariate analysis of variance, P < 0.01). Primary discriminant function scores identified A × B calves having lesser values than A × J or A × H calves (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P < 0.01); A × B calves had greater cannon circumference, greater top width, and less hip height (standardized loadings of −0.47, −0.48, and 0.63, respectively). Secondary discriminant function scores identified J ET and H ET to have greater forearm circumference—a key indicator of muscling—than A × J or A × H (ANOVA, P < 0.01; standardized loading of 0.99). The dairy management system limited growth rate of beef genetics compared to the beef management system. In addition, Holstein dams transmitted greater growth potential than Jersey dams. Replacing maternal dairy genetics with beef genetics moderated frame size and created a more muscular phenotype.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad096
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Compensatory gain based on lysine level in finishing pigs after being fed
           lysine deficient 97% corn diets for 3 or 6 wk

    • First page: txad095
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate increasing the concentration of lysine on the compensatory gain of finishing pigs during their recovery period after being fed a 97% corn holding diet for 3 or 6 wk. One thousand six hundred and eighty pigs with a starting body weight of 73.5 ± 2.2 kg were blocked by starting body weight and assigned to a nested arrangement. Twenty replicates of seven treatments were comprised of two restriction lengths [3 weeks (3 wk) vs. 6 weeks (6 wk)], and three lysine concentrations during recovery (Lys:ME same as control:100; control + 10%: 110; control + 20%: 120) plus one control (CONT) that remained nutrient unrestricted. Pen weight and feed intake were recorded on days 0, 21, 41, and at marketing. Whole pens were marketed when the pen average met 130 kg and carcass measurements were collected. Data were analyzed by pen with the fixed effects of restriction length and lysine within restriction length. Nutrient restriction lowered (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) compared to control, with 1.2, 0.4, and 0.5 kg for control, 3 wk, and 6 wk treatments, respectively. Restricted pigs showed decreased feed intake while restricted. After the respective restriction period, pigs were allowed a recovery diet until market. Previously restricted pigs had 16.7% and 27.3% greater (P < 0.01) ADG over control pigs for 3 and 6 wk treatments, respectively, in the first 3-wk of recovery. The lysine concentration in the recovery diet impacted (P < 0.01) the ADG with pigs allowed the highest lysine concentration having a 10% greater ADG than pigs fed the lower Lys:ME concentrations, for both restriction treatments. The increase in ADG was not paralleled by an increase in feed intake over control, thus, there was an improvement (P < 0.01) in gain to feed ratio in the recovery period. Control pigs reached market weight (131.5 kg) on experiment day 49 while pigs fed corn diets for 3 wk or 6 wk were slower to market (57 and 69 days, respectively; P < 0.01). Restricted pigs had greater backfat (CONT: 1.47, 3 wk: 1.55, 6 wk: 1.65 cm; P < 0.01), and decreased loin depth (CONT: 7.32, 3 wk: 7.03, 6 wk: 6.61 cm, P < 0.02) which was also impacted (P < 0.01) by lysine concentration. In conclusion, the use of restrictive diets reduced ADG and increased days to market. The use of recovery diets in which the Lys:ME ratio was greater than control pigs, resulted in increased compensatory growth.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad095
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Potential Implication of in ovo Feeding of Phytogenics in Poultry
           Production

    • First page: txad094
      Abstract: AbstractHatchery’s goals include maximizing revenue by achieving high hatchability with day-old birds of excellent quality. The advancement of technology has benefited the poultry sector since breeding and genetics technology have increased the rates of meat maturation in developing birds in a short period of time. Excessive use of in-feed antibiotics has been shown in studies to increase the chance of resistance to human infections. Bacterial resistance and antibiotic residues in animal products raised concerns about using antibiotics as growth promoters, eventually leading to a prohibition on using in-feed antibiotics in most industrialized nations. In ovo technology is a novel method for delivering bioactive chemicals to developing avian embryos. In ovo feeding technologies may provide additional nutrients to the embryos before hatching. The introduction of bioactive compounds has the potential to assist in decreasing and eventually eliminating the problems associated with traditional antibiotic delivery in chicken production. Phytobiotics were advocated as an alternative by researchers and dietitians. So far, several studies have been conducted on the use of phytogenic feed additives in poultry and swine feeding. They have primarily demonstrated that phytobiotics possess antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and growth-stimulating properties. The antioxidant effect of phytobiotics can improve the stability of animal feed and increase the quality and storage duration of animal products. In general, the existing documentation indicates that phytobiotics improve poultry performance. To effectively and efficiently use the in ovo technique in poultry production and advance research in this area, it is important to have a thorough understanding of its potential as a means of nutrient delivery during the critical stage of incubation, its effects on hatching events and posthatch performance, and the challenges associated with its use. Overall, this review suggests that in ovo feeding of phytobiotics has the potential to improve the antioxidant status and performance of chickens.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad094
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of a Lactococcus lactis-based dried fermentation product
           administered through drinking water on nursery pig growth performance,
           fecal Escherichia coli virulence genes and pathotypes, antibiotic usage,
           and mortality

    • First page: txad093
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 34,749 pigs were used in two experiments to evaluate the effects of a postbiotic dried fermentation product (DFP) administered through drinking water on nursery pig growth performance, antibiotic injection frequency, morbidity, mortality, fecal consistency, and characterization of fecal Escherichia coli. The DFP is composed of bioactive molecules derived from Lactococcus lactis. In Exp. 1, 350 barrows (DNA Line 200 × 400; initial body weight [BW] 6.1 ± 0.01 kg) were used in a 42-d study with five pigs per pen and 35 pens per treatment. The DFP was supplied for 14 d at a target dosage of 24 mg/kg BW using a water medicator at a 1:128 dilution. On days 7 and 14, fecal samples were collected for dry matter (DM) and to determine, by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, prevalence of 11 virulence genes characteristic of E. coli pathotypes. There was no evidence (P > 0.10) for differences for growth, incidence of diarrhea, number of antibiotic injections, removals, or fecal DM. On both fecal collection days, E. coli virulence genes were present with day 7 samples positive for genes that encode for hemolysins (hlyA, exhA), intimin (eae), and enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin (astA). Prevalence of enterotoxin genes (elt, estA, estB, astA) increased on day 14, but DFP had no effects on the prevalence of any of the virulence genes. A total of 32 out of 72 E. coli isolates were identified as enterotoxigenic pathotype and all except one were from day 14 fecal samples. Fourteen isolates were positive for F4 fimbria and one isolate was positive for F4 and F18 fimbriae. In Exp. 2, 34,399 nursery pigs (initially 5.6 kg) were used in 20 nursery barns with 10 barns per treatment (control or DFP). The target dosage of the DFP for the first 14 d was 35 mg/kg BW. Following the 14-d supplementation period, pigs continued to be monitored for approximately 31 d. There was no evidence (P > 0.05) for the DFP to influence the overall percentage of pigs that died or growth performance. From days 0 to 14, providing the DFP reduced (P < 0.05) the percentage of pigs that were euthanized. However, providing the DFP increased (P < 0.05) the overall percentage of pigs that were euthanized and total mortality. For the number of antibiotic injections (treatment interventions), providing the DFP reduced the number of injections for the common period (P < 0.001) and overall (P = 0.002). These results indicate that the DFP did not influence growth performance but providing the DFP in Exp. 2 led to increased total nursery pig mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad093
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Beef color and tenderness response to production systems utilizing
           additive combinations of growth-promotant technologies

    • First page: txad092
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare the influence of beef production systems using additive combinations of growth-promotant technologies on meat quality. Steer calves (n = 120) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) no technology (NT; control), 2) antibiotic treated (ANT; NT plus therapeutic antibiotics, monensin, and tylosin), 3) implant treated (IMP; ANT plus a series of three implants), and 4) beta-agonist treated (BA; IMP plus ractopamine-HCl). Muscle biopsy samples from the longissimus lumborum were extracted from a subset (n = 4 per treatment) of steers to evaluate expression of calpain-1, calpain-2, and calpastatin using real-time RT-PCR. Following carcass chilling, objective color (L*, a*, and b*) was evaluated. The right strip loin was removed from each carcass, portioned into 2.54-cm steaks, and designated to 7, 14, or 21 d postmortem aging periods for analysis of cook loss and Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The anterior face of each strip loin was used for analysis of crude fat and moisture. Treatment influenced (P < 0.001) L*, a*, and b*. The NT and IMP treatments had greater (P < 0.01) L* values, ANT was intermediate, and BA had the lowest (P < 0.01) L* values. The NT and IMP treatments had higher (P < 0.01) a* and b* values compared with ANT, which were higher (P < 0.01) than BA. Steaks from implanted steers (IMP and BA) tended (P ≤ 0.067) to exhibit higher a* and b* than steaks from nonimplanted steers. Cattle in the NT and ANT treatments produced steaks with increased (P < 0.01) crude fat percentage compared with the IMP and BA treatments, which were similar (P > 0.05). Percent moisture of NT steaks was lower (P < 0.01) than all other treatments, ANT was intermediate, and IMP and BA were similar (P > 0.05) and had the highest (P < 0.01) moisture content. Cook loss tended to be greater (P = 0.088) for implanted steers (IMP and BA) compared to nonimplanted steers (NT and ANT). Steaks from NT and ANT treatments were more tender (P < 0.05) than IMP and BA, which were similar (P > 0.05). Thus, WBSF was lower (P < 0.001) in nonimplanted than implanted steaks. Expression of calpastatin was increased (P ≤ 0.025) in ANT and BA treatments, and there was a tendency for expression of calpain-2 to be increased (P = 0.081) in ANT compared to NT. These results suggest that production systems with limited use of growth promoting technology produced strip loins with more crude fat, less moisture and cook loss, and improved tenderness.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad092
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Determining the phosphorus release curve for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 phytase
           from 500 to 2,500 FTU/kg in nursery pig diets

    • First page: txad090
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 320 pigs (Line 241 × 600, DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 11.9 ± 0.22 kg) were used in a 21-d growth study to determine the available P (aP) release curve for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 (Barentz, Woodbury, MN). At approximately 19 d of age, pigs were weaned, randomly allotted to pens, and fed common starter diets. Pigs were blocked by average pen body weight (BW) and randomly allotted to one of eight dietary treatments on day 18 postweaning, considered day 0 of the study. Dietary treatments were derived from a single basal diet and ingredients including phytase, monocalcium P, limestone, and sand were added to create the treatment diets. Treatments included three diets containing increasing inorganic P from monocalcium P (0.11%, 0.20%, and 0.28% aP), or five diets with increasing phytase (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, or 2,500 FTU/kg) added to the diet containing 0.11% aP. All diets were corn–soybean meal–canola meal-based and were formulated to contain 1.24% standardized ileal digestibility Lys, 0.30% phytate P, and an analyzed Ca:P ratio of 1.10:1. Prior to the beginning of the study, all pigs were fed a diet containing 0.11% aP for a 2-d period (days 16 to 18 postweaning). At the conclusion of the study, one pig, closest to the mean weight of each pen, was euthanized and the right fibula, rib, and metacarpal were collected to determine bone ash, density, and total bone P. Bones were weighed while suspended in a vessel of water and the weights used to calculate bone density (Archimedes’ principle). For bone ash, bones were processed using the non-defatted method. For the overall experimental period, pigs fed increasing inorganic P had increased (quadratic, P ≤ 0.033) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and final BW and a tendency for increased (quadratic, P ≤ 0.090) gain:feed ratio (G:F). Pigs fed increasing phytase had increased (quadratic, P ≤ 0.004) ADG, G:F, and final BW and increased (linear, P = 0.019) ADFI. For fibula, rib, and metacarpal characteristics, pigs fed increasing aP from inorganic P had increased (linear, P < 0.001) bone ash weight, percentage bone ash, bone density, and bone P concentration. Additionally, pigs fed increasing phytase had increased (linear or quadratic, P < 0.05) bone ash weight, percentage bone ash, bone density, and bone P. TheaP release curve generated for Smizyme TS G5 2,500 for percentage bone ash using data generated from all three bones is aP = (0.228 × FTU/kg) ÷ (998.065 + FTU/kg).
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad090
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of multiple vitamin E levels and two fat sources in diets for
           swine fed to heavy slaughter weight of 150 kg: I. Growth performance, lean
           growth, organ size, carcass characteristics, primal cuts, and pork quality
           

    • First page: txad086
      Abstract: AbstractThe study objective was to evaluate the effect of two fat source and graded levels of vitamin E (VE) supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of pigs at heavy slaughter weight (150 kg). A total of 48 individually-fed pigs (24 barrows, 24 gilts; 28.44  ± 2.69 kg) were blocked by sex and weight and randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Fat treatments were 5% tallow (TW) and distiller’s corn-oil (DCO) in the diets. The VE treatments included four levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate (11, 40, 100, and 200 ppm). Growth performance, carcass traits, organ weight, primal cuts, and pork quality were measured. Increasing dietary VE supplementation levels linearly increased overall Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.05), with an interaction between fat sources and VE supplementation levels on cumulative ADG (P < 0.05) during phases 1 and 3 (28 to 100 kg) and 1 to 4 (28 to125 kg) wherein ADG in the pigs fed the DCO diet, but not the TW diet, increased with increasing dietary VE supplementation level. A similar interaction was observed in 24 h pH and picnic shoulder (P < 0.05). No notable effect of fat source was observed in growth performance. With increasing dietary VE supplementation levels, there were quadratic responses in pork pH at 45 min and 24 h postmortem with the highest value in 40 and 100 ppm of VE levels while TBARS values on day 7 postmortem decreased linearly (P < 0.05). Compared with the TW diet, the DCO diet resulted in greater TBARS values during 7 postmortem (P < 0.05; day 5, P = 0.09). These results demonstrated that increasing dietary VE supplementation level could enhance growth rate and feed intake and reduce lipid peroxidation of pork whereas the diet containing DCO as a fat source could negatively affect pork shelf-life and carcass characteristics and that increasing VE supplementation level had no notable interaction with fat sources for carcass characteristics.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of saturated and unsaturated fat with vitamin A or
           beta-carotene supplementation in nursery pigs

    • First page: txad089
      Abstract: AbstractOne hundred and fifty-two nursery pigs (PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were randomly assigned to mix sex pens and one of six dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial. Diets included no added fat, 3% added choice white grease, or 3% added soy oil with either a supplemented vitamin A (for a total of 11,640 IU vitamin A/kg, Rovimix A 1000, DSM, Parsippany, NJ, US) or beta-carotene (for a total of 8,708 IU vitamin A/kg equivalent, Rovimix β-Carotene 10%, DSM). Pigs were given a 3-d adaptation period upon arrival. Pigs were weighed at the start of the study and at the end of each phase. A blood sample was taken from one pig per pen at the start and end of the study. Tissues were collected from eight pigs at the start of the study and six pigs per treatment at the end of the study. Data were analyzed via the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS 9.4 (SAS Inst., Cary, NC). Pen was the experimental unit, and repeated measures were used for growth performance and blood parameters. There was no fat by supplement interaction (P > 0.05) on body weight (BW), but there was a tendency (P = 0.054) for heavier BWs when soy oil was added to diets. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in average daily feed intake or average daily gain (ADG). There was an improved gain:feed (P = 0.02) when pigs were fed choice white grease over no added fat. There were time differences (P < 0.05) for plasma vitamins A (retinol), D (25 hydroxy vitamin D3), and E (alpha-tocopherol). Vitamin A and D values were higher at the end of the study, whereas vitamin E values were lower at the end of the study. The choice white grease diets had the highest (P < 0.05) plasma vitamins D and E (6.74 ng/mL and 2.87 ppm, respectively). Pigs supplemented with vitamin A had higher (P < 0.05) hepatic vitamin A than pigs supplemented with beta-carotene (19.9 vs. 15.6 ppm, respectively). There were no differences (P < 0.05) between immunoglobulins G and M or mRNA abundance of select genes (retinol binding protein 2, alcohol dehydrogenase class 1, lecithin retinol acyltransferase phosphatidylcholine-retinol O-acyltransferase, and beta-carotene oxygenase 1). In conclusion, fat inclusion level and type, with either vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation, did not affect the overall nursery pig growth performance. The addition of fat resulted in an increase in ADG and BW. Diets with choice white grease had the highest plasma vitamins D and E, and supplemental vitamin A increased hepatic vitamin A.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad089
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The impact of essential fatty acid ratios and unsaturated to saturated fat
           ratio on growth performance of grow-finish pigs and estrus detection of
           gilts

    • First page: txad088
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary unsaturated and saturated fat ratio (U:S) and the ratio of linoleic and linolenic acid (LA:ALA) on the growth performance of grow-finish pigs and estrus detection of gilts. A total of 240 pigs with initial body weight (BW) 54.4 ± 5.5 kg were randomly assigned to a high (>1.8; HUS) or low (<1.0; LUS) U:S in combination with a high (20:1), moderate (12:1), or low (4:1) LA:ALA in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary ratios were achieved using blends of choice white grease, beef tallow, corn oil, flaxseed oil, or palm kernel oil. Diets were fed across three phases and balanced for energy and LA. Pigs were housed across 60 pens with either four gilts or four barrows per pen. On day 49, 1 gilt per pen was moved to individual housing at approximately 154 d of age for evaluation of reproductive characteristics. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using PROC MIXED (SAS 9.4; SAS Inst., Cary, NC) with pen as the experimental unit and U:S, LA:ALA, sex, and their interactions as fixed effects. Initial BW was fit as a covariate. Within each phase, there were no differences in BW, daily gain (ADG), feed intake (ADFI), or feed efficiency (G:F) for U:S, LA:ALA, or their interaction when averaged across sex (P ≥0.128). Gilt feed efficiency was improved during the second phase compared to barrows; however, feed efficiency was not different between barrows and gilts during the first and third phases; resulting in a similar feed efficiency between sexes for the overall period (P = 0.523). Compared to HUS, gilts receiving LUS had higher ADFI overall (P = 0.018), which translated into improved G:F for HUS gilts (P = 0.011). Overall, gilts receiving the 20:1 diet tended to have improved G:F compared to 12:1 (P = 0.086). ADG was improved in pigs fed diets formulated with unsaturated fat sources to a 20:1 LA:ALA, regardless of sex. Detection of first estrus by 235 d of age in gilts was not impacted by U:S or LA:ALA (P ≥ 0.356). In conclusion, feeding differing dietary U:S and LA:ALA ratios impacts growth of growing pigs, particularly improving feed efficiency of gilts fed diets with unsaturated fat sources or a 20:1 LA:ALA. Further investigation into the physiological mechanisms differentially affecting gilt growth when fed varying dietary LA:ALA is warranted to understand the impact on reproductive outcomes.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of multiple vitamin E levels and two fat sources in diets for
           swine fed to heavy slaughter weight of 150 kg: II. Tissue fatty acid
           profile, vitamin E concentrations, immune capacity, and antioxidant
           capacity of plasma and tissue

    • First page: txad087
      Abstract: AbstractThe study objective was to evaluate the effect of two fat sources and graded levels of vitamin E (VE) supplementation on tissue fatty acid profile, VE concentrations, immune capacity, and antioxidant capacity of plasma and tissues of pigs at heavy slaughter weight (150 kg). A total of 48 individually-fed pigs (24 barrows, 24 gilts; 28.44 ± 2.69 kg) were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The two fat treatments were either 5% tallow (TW) or 5% distiller’s corn-oil (DCO). The VE treatments included four levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate (11, 40, 100, and 200 ppm). Compared to pigs fed the DCO diet, pigs fed the TW diet had greater SFA (C14, C16, and C18; P < 0.05) and MUFAs (C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1; P < 0.05), lower PUFA (C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:2, C20:3, and C20:4; P < 0.05) and iodine value in the backfat and belly fat. Increasing dietary VE supplementation level increased α- and total tocopherol concentrations in plasma (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), liver, and loin muscle (linear, P < 0.06), superoxide dismutase activity (quadratic, P < 0.05), but decreased γ-tocopherol concentrations in liver (linear, P = 0.06), plasma, and loin muscle (quadratic, P < 0.07), and decreased liver glutathione disulfide (GSSG; linear, P = 0.07) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (quadratic, P < 0.05). There was an interaction between fat sources and dietary VE supplementation level on the concentration of α-tocopherol in the loin muscle (P < 0.05) wherein a greater increase was observed in the TW treatment than the DCO treatment with the increasing dietary VE supplementation level. In conclusion, dietary FA composition in TW and DCO affected the composition of most FA in backfat, belly fat, and liver while increasing VE supplementation level did not significantly alter the FA profile in these tissues. Increasing dietary VE supplementation level increased tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver and loin muscle, and improved antioxidant capacity while tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver and loin muscle in the TW treatment increased more than they did in the DCO treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Estimating body weight and body condition score of mature beef cows using
           depth images

    • First page: txad085
      Abstract: AbstractObtaining accurate body weight (BW) is crucial for management decisions yet can be a challenge for cow–calf producers. Fast-evolving technologies such as depth sensing have been identified as low-cost sensors for agricultural applications but have not been widely validated for U.S. beef cattle. This study aimed to (1) estimate the body volume of mature beef cows from depth images, (2) quantify BW and metabolic weight (MBW) from image-projected body volume, and (3) classify body condition scores (BCS) from image-obtained measurements using a machine-learning-based approach. Fifty-eight crossbred cows with a mean BW of 410.0 ± 60.3 kg and were between 4 and 6 yr of age were used for data collection between May and December 2021. A low-cost, commercially available depth sensor was used to collect top-view depth images. Images were processed to obtain cattle biometric measurements, including MBW, body length, average height, maximum body width, dorsal area, and projected body volume. The dataset was partitioned into training and testing datasets using an 80%:20% ratio. Using the training dataset, linear regression models were developed between image-projected body volume and BW measurements. Results were used to test BW predictions for the testing dataset. A machine-learning-based multivariate analysis was performed with 29 algorithms from eight classifiers to classify BCS using multiple inputs conveniently obtained from the cows and the depth images. A feature selection algorithm was performed to rank the relevance of each input to the BCS. Results demonstrated a strong positive correlation between the image-projected cow body volume and the measured BW (r = 0.9166). The regression between the cow body volume and the measured BW had a co-efficient of determination (R2) of 0.83 and a 19.2 ± 13.50 kg mean absolute error (MAE) of prediction. When applying the regression to the testing dataset, an increase in the MAE of the predicted BW (22.7 ± 13.44 kg) but a slightly improved R2 (0.8661) was noted. Among all algorithms, the Bagged Tree model in the Ensemble class had the best performance and was used to classify BCS. Classification results demonstrate the model failed to predict any BCS lower than 4.5, while it accurately classified the BCS with a true prediction rate of 60%, 63.6%, and 50% for BCS between 4.75 and 5, 5.25 and 5.5, and 5.75 and 6, respectively. This study validated using depth imaging to accurately predict BW and classify BCS of U.S. beef cow herds.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of a ruminally protected blend of pantothenic acid, pyridoxine,
           folic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12 on finishing steer growth performance,
           efficiency of dietary net energy utilization, carcass trait responses, and
           liver abscess prevalence and severity

    • First page: txad084
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the influence that a ruminally-protected B-vitamin (RPBV) blend (containing vitamin B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) had on growth performance, efficiency of dietary net energy utilization, carcass trait responses, and liver abscess severity and prevalence in beef steers fed a finishing diet. Steers (n = 246; initial shrunk body weight [BW] = 411 ± 25.8 kg) from two different sources, were used in a 126-d RCBD experiment. Within 48 h after arrival, steers were individually weighed and allotted to 1 of 24 pens (n = 8 to 12 steers; 8 pens per treatment) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) No RPBV; (2) RPBV1 at 1 g/steer d−1; 3) RPBV2 at 2 g/steer d−1. During the first 14 d, cattle received two transition diets with increasing concentrate. From days 15 to 126, cattle were fed the final diet containing 53% dry-rolled corn; 23% corn silage; 20% MDGS; and 4% suspended supplement. On the first 28 d, steers of RPBV1 had a greater average daily gain (ADG) and better feed conversion (G:F), both by 9% (quadratic effect, P ≤ 0.02). However, cumulatively, no differences (P ≥ 0.13) among treatments were found for dry-matter intake (DMI), live final BW, ADG, or G:F. Carcass-adjusted final BW, ADG, and G:F were not influenced by treatment (P ≥ 0.59). Additionally, carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling score, kidney–pelvic–heart fat, or BW at 28% empty body fat did not differ among treatments (P ≥ 0.11). Ribeye area (REA) was altered (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) by treatment; steers from RPBV1 had decreased REA compared to others. Additionally, calculated yield grade (YG) and calculated retail yield (RY) were altered (quadratic effect, P ≤ 0.01) by treatment; steers from RPBV1 had increased YG and decreased RY compared to others. Estimated empty body fatness tended (P = 0.06) to be greater from steers-fed RPBV compared to control. Overall USDA YG distribution was altered by dietary treatment (P = 0.01). The proportions of YG1 and YG5 carcasses were unaffected by treatment, but there was a shift in the proportion of carcasses that graded YG2, YG3, and YG4 among treatments. Distribution of USDA Quality Grade was not altered by treatment (P = 0.53). No treatment differences in liver abscess incidence or severity were observed (P = 0.13). The use of RPBV altered carcass muscularity and rib fat accumulation affecting the overall YG distribution. However, RPBV did not appreciably influence any cumulative growth performance measures or liver abscess outcome.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Summary of methodology used in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
           challenge experiments in weanling pigs and quantitative assessment of
           observed variability

    • First page: txad083
      Abstract: AbstractPostweaning diarrhea in pigs is often caused by the F4 or F18 strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). To evaluate interventions for ETEC, experimental infection via a challenge model is critical. Others have reviewed ETEC challenge studies, but there is a lack of explanation for the variability in responses observed. Our objective was to quantitatively summarize the responses and variability among ETEC challenge studies and develop a tool for sample size calculation. The most widely evaluated response criteria across ETEC challenge studies consist of growth performance, fecal consistency, immunoglobulins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and small intestinal morphology. However, there is variation in the responses seen following ETEC infection as well as the variability within each response criteria. Contributing factors include the type of ETEC studied, dose and timing of inoculation, and the number of replications. Generally, a reduction in average daily gain and average daily feed intake are seen following ETEC challenge as well as a rapid increase in diarrhea. The magnitude of response in growth performance varies, and methodologies used to characterize fecal consistency are not standardized. Likewise, fecal bacterial shedding is a common indicator of ETEC infection, but the responses seen across the literature are not consistent due to differences in bacterial enumeration procedures. Emphasis should also be placed on the piglet’s immune response to ETEC, which is commonly assessed by quantifying levels of immunoglobulins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Again, there is variability in these responses across published work due to differences in the timing of sample collection, dose of ETEC pigs are challenged with, and laboratory practices. Small intestinal morphology is drastically altered following infection with ETEC and appears to be a less variable response criterion to evaluate. For each of these outcome variables, we have provided quantitative estimates of the responses seen across the literature as well as the variability within them. While there is a large degree of variability across ETEC challenge experiments, we have provided a quantitative summary of these studies and a Microsoft Excel-based tool was created to calculate sample sizes for future studies that can aid researchers in designing future work.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of gruel feeding and oral dextrose on the survivability of pigs
           after weaning

    • First page: txad082
      Abstract: AbstractTwo experiments were conducted in a 14,400 head nursery using 3,087 (experiment 1) and 988 (experiment 2) pigs to determine the effect of gruel feeding (experiment 1) and supplemental oral dextrose (experiment 2) on nursery pig survivability after weaning. Upon arrival to the nursery, for experiment 1, the smallest 10% of pigs were selected and randomly placed in pens with 61 to 108 pigs per pen. Pens of small pigs were assigned to one of two treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of gruel feeding two or four times per day for 14 d postplacement. At each gruel feeding, approximately 1.13 kg of solid feed was added to a round bowl (Rotecna S.A., Agramunt, Spain) located at the front of each pen and water added at a decreasing rate over time. In experiment 2, every other pig removed for welfare considerations (lameness, sick, or unthrifty) from the general population or pens of small pigs received a single 10 mL oral dose of a 50% dextrose solution (Vet One, MWI Animal Health, Boise, ID), as a source of glucose, before being placed in a removal pen. All removed pigs were tagged and weighed, body temperature recorded, and blood glucose concentration measured prior to and 30 min after entering removal pens. Overall, gruel feeding small pigs two or four times per day for 14 d postplacement did not influence (P > 0.10) mortality from weaning to the end of gruel feeding (3.78% vs. 4.25%, respectively). Likewise, dextrose administration did not influence (P > 0.10) pig mortality after removal to approximately 38 d postweaning (21.4% vs. 23.4% respectively), even though blood glucose concentration increased (P < 0.001) 30 min after removal for pigs administered dextrose. An interaction was observed for blood glucose concentration and body temperature (P < 0.001) where pigs with blood glucose concentrations less than 70 mg/dL had increased mortality as body temperature increased. In contrast, pigs with a blood glucose concentration of 70 mg/dL or greater had decreased mortality as body temperature increased. Pigs weighing less than 4.5 kg also had increased mortality (P < 0.001) compared with pigs weighing greater than or equal to 4.5 kg at removal. In summary, gruel feeding four times per day vs. two times per day or providing a dextrose supplement to pigs removed from the general population did not improve the survivability of pigs after weaning. Additionally, pigs removed with decreased body weight or with body temperature or blood glucose concentrations below or above the normal range had decreased survivability.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of progesterone infused controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR)
           device and timing of gonadotropin stimulation using P.G. 600 on
           reproductive success in ewes bred out of season

    • First page: txad081
      Abstract: AbstractObjectives of this study were to determine effects of exogenous progesterone (via controlled internal drug releasing devices; CIDR) in combination with exogenous gonadotropins (PMSG/hCG) use either at CIDR removal or 1 d before CIDR removal to induce estrus and cyclicity and subsequently enhance the proportion of ewes lambing, lambing rate, prolificacy, and days to lambing in ewes bred out of season. Multiparous ewes (n = 414) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: untreated (U, n = 122), 7 d CIDR (C, n = 97), 7 d CIDR plus P.G. 600 (240 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin [PMSG] and 120 IU human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) at CIDR removal (CPG0, n = 97), and 7 d CIDR plus P.G. 600 (240 IU PMSG and 120 IU hCG) 1 d before CIDR removal (CPG-1, n = 98). Rams (n = 15) were joined with ewes immediately after CIDR removal and remained with ewes for a 21 d breeding period. Lambing data were summarized for the first 10 days of the lambing season and overall. Categorical data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS whereas non-categorical data were analyzed using the mixed procedure. Proportion of ewes lambing in the first 10 d was greater (P < 0.05) for CPG0 and CPG-1 ewes compared with C ewes, which was greater (P < 0.0001) compared with U ewes. Overall proportion of ewes lambing was greater (P ≤ 0.0001) in all treatments utilizing CIDR compared with U ewes, but no differences (P ≥ 0.84) due to P.G. 600 were detected compared with C. Lambing rate in the first 10 d was greater (P < 0.05) for CPG-1 than C, with CPGO being intermediate, and all CIDR-treated ewes being greater than U (P < 0.0001). Overall lambing rate increased (P ≤ 0.0001) in all treatments utilizing CIDR compared with U ewes, but no differences (P ≥ 0.76) due to P.G. 600 were detected compared with C. Prolificacy was similar among all treatments both for the first 10 d of the lambing season (P = 0.86) and overall (P = 0.80). Day of lambing in the lambing season was reduced (P ≤ 0.03) for CPG0 and CPG-1 compared with CIDR-treated ewes, which was reduced (P < 0.0001) compared with U ewes (days 10.6, 9.0, 13.4, and 24.4 ± 0.9 for CPG0, CPG-1, CON, and U, respectively). Though timing of P.G. 600 did not influence results, the combination of CIDR and P.G. 600 enhanced the proportion of lambs born earlier in the lambing season, and incorporating a CIDR with or without P.G. 600 enhanced the overall proportion of ewes lambing and lambing rate in out-of-season breeding scenarios.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Response to ad libitum milk allowance by crossbred dairy and dairy–beef
           calves in an automated feeding system

    • First page: txad063
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare three-breed rotational crossbred calves sired by Holstein, Jersey, Montbéliarde, Normande, Viking Red, and Limousin bulls with Holstein’s calves fed a high milk allowance for growth, milk consumption, health scores, and profitability in an automated group feeding system. Breed groups were Holstein (n = 16), crossbreds of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein (n = 24), crossbreds of Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (n = 6), and Limousin crossbred beef × dairy (n = 45) calves. Calves were randomly assigned within the breed to one of two treatments from September 2019 to June 2020 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center in Morris, MN. The five breed groups were balanced across the two treatment groups. Treatment groups were fed 8 L/d (8 L) or ad libitum (AL) milk allowance, and calves were introduced to the automated feeder at day 5 and were weaned at 56 d. Milk feeding behaviors (drinking speeds) were collected from the automatic feeding system and analyzed by feeding and breed groups. Body weights were recorded at birth and weekly through weaning. The health scores of calves were recorded twice per week. Variables included in the statistical model for analyses were fixed effects of birthweight, the season of birth, breed group, and treatment group. Calves fed AL had a greater weaning weight (P = 0.001; 106.4 kg vs. 91.4 kg) and greater (P = 0.001) average daily gain (ADG; 1.11 kg/d vs. 0.87 kg/d) than calves fed 8 L, respectively. The calves fed AL (1,064 mL/min) had a slower drinking speed (P = 0.01) than calves fed 8 L (1,467 mL/min). Most breed groups were not different for weaning weight or ADG across the 56 d. Daily milk consumption per calf was lower (P = 0.009) for Limousin crossbred calves compared with Holstein and crossbred dairy calves. As expected, AL calves had higher (P = 0.001) milk cost ($189.52) than the 8 L calves ($140.71). The average cost per kilogram of gain was similar for calves fed 8 L ($2.89/kg) compared to AL ($3.00/kg) calves. Overall, the Limousin crossbred calves had the least milk cost ($152.75) compared with Holstein ($175.67) calves and Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein crossbred calves ($177.13). The results from this study found that although feeding calves AL resulted in greater milk consumption and higher cost than 8 L calves, there may be an economic advantage with costs per kilogram of gain to feeding calves ad libitum if increased growth rates are realized.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The effects of chromium propionate supplementation to yearling steers in a
           commercial feedyard on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and
           health

    • First page: txad078
      Abstract: AbstractBritish crossbred steers (n = 3,072; initial body weight [BW] = 358 ± 37 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of chromium propionate supplementation to yearling steers in a commercial feedyard on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and health. Steers were blocked by initial BW; pens were assigned randomly to one of two dietary treatments within block. Treatments, replicated in 15 pens per treatment with 75 to 135 heads per pen, included 1) control, 0 mg supplemental Cr/kg dietary dry matter (DM) (CTL); 2) 0.50 mg supplemental Cr/kg diet DM (chromium propionate; KemTRACE Chromium 0.4%, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) (chromium propionate, CR). Final BW (638 vs. 641 kg), average daily gain (1.81 vs. 1.82 kg), DM intake (11.02 vs. 11.02 kg), and gain efficiency (0.164 vs. 0.165) did not differ between CTL and CR, respectively (P ≥ 0.75). No differences among treatments for hot carcass weight (407 vs. 408 kg, CTL and CR, respectively), dressing percentage, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade were observed (P ≥ 0.15). Twelfth-rib fat thickness tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for CR vs. CTL (1.55 vs. 1.29 cm, respectively). A trend (P = 0.10) for marbling score to be higher for CR vs. CTL was detected (452 vs. 440, respectively). Distribution of quality grade was similar between CR and CTL; 1.52% of carcasses graded prime (P = 0.68), and 87.2% of carcasses graded choice (P = 0.68). Respiratory morbidity was low (1.93%) and not different among treatments (P = 0.20); likewise, there was no difference in respiratory treatment rates between treatments (P ≥ 0.18). Supplementing Cr to high-performing yearling steers did not alter growth performance, carcass characteristics, or health outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A comparison of carcass characteristics, carcass cutting yields, and meat
           quality of barrows and gilts

    • First page: txad079
      Abstract: AbstractObjectives of this research were to compare carcass characteristics, carcass cutting yields, and meat quality for market barrows and market gilts. Commercially-sourced carcasses from 168 market barrows and 175 market gilts weighing an average of 107.44 ± 7.37 kg were selected from 17 different slaughter groups representing approximately 3,950 carcasses. Each group was sorted into percentiles based on hot carcass weight with an equal number of barrows and gilts selected from each quartile so that weight minimally confounded parameters of interest. Carcass lean yield was determined for carcasses following fabrication (i.e. dissection of lean, fat, and bone tissue components) and meat quality measurements were evaluated at the time of fabrication (24 to 72 h postmortem) and following 14-d of postmortem storage. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with carcass serving as the experimental unit, sex (barrow or gilt), the three hot carcass weight quantiles (light [<104 kg]; average [104 to 110 kg]; heavy [>110 kg]), and the interaction between sex and hot carcass weight quantile serving as fixed effects, and producer nested within slaughter event serving as a random effect. Results from the study demonstrated that gilt carcasses were leaner (3 mm less backfat thickness; 3.5 cm2 greater loin muscle area, 1.52% greater merchandized-cut yield, and 2.92% greater dissected carcass lean yield; P < 0.01) than barrow carcasses, while loins from barrows were higher quality (0.43% more intramuscular fat and slightly less shear force; P < 0.01) than loins from gilts. While this study confirms the well-known biological principle that barrow carcasses have greater levels of fat deposition and lower levels of carcass leanness when compared with gilt carcasses, this study provides a much-needed quantification of these differences for the commercial industry that will undoubtedly be useful as new technologies emerge in upcoming years.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of feeding a vitamin and mineral supplement to cow-calf pairs
           grazing native range

    • First page: txad077
      Abstract: AbstractOur objectives were to evaluate the impacts of providing vitamin and mineral (VTM) supplements to cow-calf pairs during the summer grazing period on cow and calf performance and liver concentrations of minerals. During a two-year period, 727 crossbred cows and their calves (initial cow BW = 601.7 ± 48.1 kg; calf BW = 87.8 ± 5.0 kg; n = 381 in year 1, n = 346 in year 2) from the Central Grasslands Research Extension Center (Streeter, N.D.) were blocked by parity (young [parity 1 to 3], and old [parity 4+]) and randomly assigned to pastures at the beginning of the grazing season (16 in year 1 and 14 in year 2). Pastures were assigned to receive a free-choice VTM supplement (SUPP) or no VTM supplement (CON) from pasture turnout to pasture removal (158 and 156 days in year 1 and 2, respectively). Consecutive day weights were taken from cows and calves at pasture turnout and removal and liver biopsies were collected from a subset of cows at both timepoints and from calves at weaning. Cows were bred via AI 37 to 41 d after pasture turnout and by natural service cleanup bulls for a 70 to 80 d breeding season. Calving and weaning data were collected from the calf conceived and gestated during treatments. Data were analyzed for the effect of VTM treatment (SUPP vs. CON), block of parity, and their interaction using the GLM procedure of SAS with pasture as the experimental unit. Year was considered a random effect in the final analysis. Cow pregnancy success was evaluated using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS with model terms of VTM treatment, parity, and their interaction with year as a random effect. In year 2, cows in differing days postpartum (DPP) groups at pasture turnout (66.1, 48.8, and 34.5 ± 1.04 DPP for EARLY, MID, and LATE groups, respectively) were selected for liver biopsies with cow as the experimental unit. Cow and calf BW and BW change were not impacted (P ≥ 0.20) by VTM access. Pregnancy rate to AI, overall pregnancy rate, gestating calf birth BW and calving distribution were not affected (P ≥ 0.11) by treatment. Liver concentrations of Se, Cu, and Co were greater (P ≤ 0.002) at pasture removal and weaning for cows and suckling calves that had access to VTM. Cows considered EARLY calving had greater (P = 0.05) concentrations of liver Se compared with LATE calving cows. Although VTM supplementation enhanced concentrations of key minerals in the liver of cow-calf pairs, reproductive and growth performance was not affected.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Development and application of a scoring system for septum injuries in
           beef calves with and without a nose flap

    • First page: txad075
      Abstract: AbstractThe weaning period is a stressful time for beef calves because they must quickly gain independence from their dam. Gradual methods of weaning, such as when the calf is fitted with a nose flap to prevent suckling, are known to reduce the behavioral and physiological indicators of stress. Nose flaps are held in place by the nasal septum and are worn for 4 to 7 d. In the present study, the objectives were to 1) identify if a plastic nose flap worn for 7 d caused nasal injuries, (2) identify if factors like calf body weight or septum size predict injuries or flap loss, and (3) create a scoring system that could reliably score wound characteristics. Eighty-two (N = 82) Angus and Angus–Hereford crossbred beef calves were randomly assigned to ‘Flap’ or ‘No Flap’ treatments. Calves weighed 247 ± 29 kg and those with a flap had septums that were 39 ± 2 mm (mean ± SD). Images were taken of each nostril before flap insertion, on the day of removal, and 6 d after removal. Wounds were scored for the presence/absence of three characteristics in either nostril: damage (tissue where the flap rested was a different color than surrounding nostril), impression (edges of the wound were clearly raised or sunken), and blood. One trained observer scored a subset of photos (N = 64) twice, in a consistent manner for all three characteristics (damage, impression, and blood; 97%, 91%, and 100% agreement between 1st and 2nd evaluations, respectively), indicating that our system is repeatable. Thirty-two percent of calves in the Flap treatment lost their flap before the day of removal. No calves in the No Flap treatment were injured. All animals that kept their flap in for 7 d had damage and impressions in at least one nostril and 86% of calves had blood present immediately after nose flap removal (P ≤ 0.001 compared to No Flap) indicating that the flaps altered the nasal tissue and created open wounds. Six d after flap removal, 100% still had visible damage, 64% had impressions, and 29% had blood, indicating that while damage is longer lasting, wounds can start to repair after the flap is removed. Injuries were prevalent in all calves, thus there was no relationship between calf size (body weight or septum width) on these wounds (P ≥ 0.374). Body weight or septum size did not differ (P ≥ 0.489) between calves that kept or lost their flap. Injuries inflicted from a nose flap may counteract the previously documented benefits of this method of weaning, making it less advantageous than alternatives and raise concerns about other uses of these devices in other contexts.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Investigating the effects of jute nesting material and enriched piglet
           mats on sow welfare and piglet survival

    • First page: txad076
      Abstract: AbstractDomesticated sows are motivated to perform nesting behavior prior to farrowing, and nesting material can reduce piglet cold stress. However, nesting material may not be practical in most production systems due to the potential for clogging slurry systems. Therefore, the study objectives were to assess an alternative nesting material provided prior to farrowing on sow welfare and piglet survival, and to investigate the effect of the entire nesting environment on piglet survival and growth performance. We hypothesized that the provision of jute nesting material would decrease sow stress and farrowing duration, and that nesting mat provision would allow piglets to remain euthermic and improve survival and growth. Sows (N = 20) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: a farrowing crate with three pieces of 40.6 × 21.6 cm jute nesting material (Nest; n = 10) and two enriched piglet mats made from an acrylic board (28.0 × 86.4 cm) covered with a microfiber material, or a farrowing crate without nesting material (Control; n = 10) and one standard plastic piglet mat (28.0 × 86.4 cm). Jute pieces were attached to the front of the crate to prevent substrate from falling through the slatted floors. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA), on days −1, 0, 1, and 2 relative to farrowing, and a final sample was collected at weaning (day 16.9 ± 0.18). Blood was collected from four piglets per litter to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) at 48 h, day 7, and weaning. Piglet skin temperature (TS) was measured on two piglets per litter using an infrared camera for 3 d after birth at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 h. One piglet was randomly chosen from the heat lamp and nonheat lamp side of the crate to measure TS. Video was continuously coded for observations of jute- and crate-directed interactions. Data were analyzed as a mixed model analysis of variance in SAS 9.4. Nest sows performed less crate-directed behavior than Control sows (P = 0.02). Cortisol tended to be reduced in Nest sows (P = 0.08) when compared to Controls, but no differences in IgA concentrations (P > 0.40) were detected. Nest piglets tended to be heavier on day 7 (P < 0.10), had greater IgG concentrations (P = 0.03), and had greater TS (P = 0.02) versus Controls. No farrowing duration or number of stillbirth differences were observed (P > 0.70). The jute material and piglet nests positively impacted sow welfare and piglet measures but did not translate into improved piglet survival.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of supplemental zinc on growth, carcass characteristics, and liver
           abscess formation in steers with experimentally induced ruminal acidosis
           challenge

    • First page: txad072
      Abstract: AbstractThe study’s aim was to evaluate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation on steer performance, biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism, and liver abscess formation in response to a mild acidosis challenge. Forty-two steers (417 ± 3.99 kg; n = 6/pen) were housed in pens with bunks designed to measure individual dry matter intake (DMI) and fed one of two diets containing either 0 (CON; n = 18) or 90 mg Zn/kg from a Zn-amino acid complex (Zn-AA; n = 18; AvailaZn; Zinpro) for 109 d. Six additional steers were fed the CON diet and did not undergo the acidosis challenge (NON; n = 6). The acidosis challenge included restricting steers to 50% of the previous 7 d daily DMI on days 46 and 47, steers were individually provided 10% of DMI as cracked corn (as-fed) at 0800 h followed by ad libitum feed access 2 h post-grain consumption. Steer was the experimental unit, and two contrasts were constructed: NON vs. CON and CON vs. Zn-AA. Blood samples were collected on days 40, 48, 53, 69, 80, and 108 and analyzed as repeated measures. Final body weight and overall average daily gain (2.29, 2.30, and 2.31 ± 0.920 kg/d for CON, Zn-AA, and NON, respectively) were not different (P ≥ 0.74) between treatments. By design, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for NON compared to CON on day 46 but was not different (P ≥ 0.41) for the rest of the experiment. While hot carcass weight (423, 428, and 424 ± 7.9 kg for CON, Zn-AA, and NON, respectively) and ribeye area were not different (P ≥ 0.53) due to treatment, marbling score tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in CON compared to Zn-AA. The 12th rib backfat thickness was greater (P = 0.05) in NON vs. CON steers. Liver abscess incidence tended to be greater (P = 0.12) in CON (24% abscesses) vs. Zn-AA (6% abscesses). NON had a greater incidence (P = 0.05; 50% abscesses) compared to CON. Overall, blood fibrinogen and leukocyte counts were not different between treatments (P ≥ 0.67); however, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio tended to be greater in NON vs. CON (P = 0.08). Serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations were greater in NON vs. CON (P ≤ 0.02), and serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was lesser in CON vs. Zn-AA (P < 0.01). Overall, dietary Zn supplementation tended to lessen incidence of liver abscesses with limited impacts on overall cattle performance. Shifts in liver enzymes may represent opportunities to identify cattle with liver abscesses earlier in the feeding period.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Influence of dietary oils rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids on rumen
           microbiome of dairy cows

    • First page: txad074
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare the effect of supplementing dairy cow diets with contrasting sources of omega-6 (soybean oil) and omega-3 (fish oil) PUFA on rumen microbiome. For 63 d, 15 mid-lactating cows were fed a control diet (n = 5 cows; no fat supplement) or control diet supplemented with 2.9% dry matter (DM) of either soybean oil (SO; n = 5 cows) or fish oil (FO; n = 5 cows). Ruminal contents were collected on days 0, 21, 42, and 63 for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Beta diversity and Shannon, Simpson and Chao1 diversity indices were not affected by dietary treatments. In terms of core microbiome, Succiniclasticum, Prevotella, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, and NK4A214_group were the most prevalent taxa regardless of treatments. Bifidobacterium was absent in SO diet, Acetitomaculum was absent in FO, and Sharpea was only detected in SO. Overall, results showed that at 2.9% DM supplementation of either SO or FO over 63 days in dairy cow diets does not cause major impact on bacterial community composition and thus is recommended as feeding practice.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The impact of floor space allowance and dietary energy level on finishing
           pigs, from 65 to 120 kg, on growth performance

    • First page: txad070
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of lowering floor space allowance in finishing hogs from 65 to 120 kg when fed high- vs. low-energy diets on growth performance. Eighty-eight mixed-sex pens with 24 ± 1 pigs per pen were randomly assigned by weight in a complete block design to one of eight treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with two energy levels: low (LE, 3267 ± 15 kcal/kg) vs. high (HE, 3389 ± 15 kcal/kg) accomplished through fat inclusion; and four floor space allowances: 0.6, 0.63, 0.65, and 0.67 m2/pig. Assigned floor space was accomplished by moveable gates in the rear of the pen which were adjusted at each pig removal until the marketing phase. Pen weight was measured at days 0, 29, and 48, with feed disappearance measured at days 29 and 48 to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain-to-feed ratio (GF). Data were analyzed by pen (SAS 9.4, Cary, NC), as repeated measures, with the fixed effects of floor space allowance, dietary energy level, and the interaction between floor space allowance and energy level. For the overall experiment, decreased floor space had no effect (P > 0.1) on ADG, ADFI, or GF. Energy had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on ADFI (3.17 vs. 3.12 kg for LE and HE, respectively) and GF (0.35 and 0.36 for LE and HE, respectively), and tended to impact (P = 0.08) ADG (1.12 vs. 1.13 kg, for LE and HE, respectively). In conclusion, reducing space allowance from 0.67 m2 down to 0.6 m2 did not affect the growth performance of pigs from 65 to 120 kg. Pigs fed LE consumed more than the HE diets but had generally similar growth and no difference in body weight.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The effects of a nutritional packet (live yeast, vitamins C and B1, and
           electrolytes) offered to steers in a calf-fed system on growth
           performance, nutrient digestion, feeding behavior, carcass
           characteristics, and ruminal variables

    • First page: txad073
      Abstract: AbstractEffects of a nutritional packet strategically offered to calf-fed system steers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, ruminal variables, and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Angus crossbred steer-calves (N = 60; body weight [BW] = 234 ± 4 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design (block = BW) and stratified into two treatments: 1) control; and 2) 30 g/steer-daily (dry matter [DM] basis) of a nutritional packet containing (steer-daily basis): Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 1.7 × 1010 CFU), vitamin C (Ascorbic acid, 162 mg), vitamin B1 (thiamin hydrochloride, 400 mg), sodium chloride (2.4 g), and potassium chloride (2.4 g). Animals were offered (electronic feed-bunks [SmartFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD]), a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet to ad libitum (individual intake), once daily for 233 d. Treatments were offered during the first and last 60 days on feed (DOF). The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used, with steer as the experimental unit, treatment and phase (for feeding behavior and digestibility) as fixed effects, and BW-block as a random effect. Steers offered the nutritional packet had 14% less (P < 0.01) intake and 18% greater (P = 0.01) feed efficiency during the initial 30 DOF. Intake (days 0 to 233) was 6% greater (P = 0.02) for steers offered the nutritional packet, while BW gain was not different (P ≥ 0.44). Greater (P = 0.02) dressing percent (61.1% vs. 62%) for steers offered the packet was observed, while other carcass variables were not different (P ≥ 0.33). Digestibility of DM, organic matter, and fiber were greater (P < 0.01) for steers offered the packet. Steers offered the packet spent 13% less time eating during the first 60 DOF, while during the last 60 DOF a 14% greater meal frequency and 12.3% smaller mean meal size (treatment × phase interaction, P < 0.02) were observed. Steers offered the packet had a reduced (P ≤ 0.01) mean meal duration during both phases. Regardless of treatment, a decreased rumination (P ≤ 0.03) and chewing (P ≤ 0.01) activities were observed for the last 60 DOF compared to the first 60 DOF. Ruminal papillae area was 30% greater (P = 0.02) and the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for steers offered the nutritional packet. The nutritional packet offered to calf-fed steers improved feed efficiency during the initial 30 d after arrival, while inducing superior overall intake, nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, ruminal papillae area, and total ruminal VFA.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Inclusion of Yucca schidigera extract into finishing diets: impacts on
           ruminal, physiological, and productive responses of feedlot cattle

    • First page: txad071
      Abstract: AbstractThis experiment compared ruminal, physiological, and productive responses of feedlot cattle receiving Yucca schidigera extract to replace or fed in conjunction with monensin + tylosin. Angus-influenced steers (n = 120) were ranked by body weight (BW; 315 ± 3 kg) and allocated to 4 groups of 30 steers each. Groups were housed in 1 of 4 drylot pens (30 × 12 m) equipped with GrowSafe feeding systems (4 bunks/pen) during the experiment (day −14 to slaughter). On day 0, groups were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing (2 × 2 factorial): 1) no inclusion or inclusion of monensin + tylosin (360 mg and 90 mg/steer daily, respectively) and 2) no inclusion or inclusion of Y. schidigera extract (4 g/steer daily). Steers were slaughtered in 3 groups balanced by treatment combination (36 steers on day 114, 36 steers on day 142, and 48 steers on day 169). Blood was sampled on days 0, 28, 56, and 84, and the day before shipping to slaughter. On day 41, eight rumen-cannulated heifers (BW = 590 ± 15 kg) were housed with steers (1 pair/pen). Pairs rotated among groups every 21 d, resulting in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square (n = 8/treatment combination) with 14-d washout intervals. Heifers were sampled for blood and rumen fluid at the beginning and end of each 21-d period. Monensin + tylosin inclusion decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake and improved (P = 0.02) feed efficiency of steers, but did not alter (P ≥ 0.17) steer BW gain or carcass merit traits. Inclusion of Y. schidigera extract did not impact (P ≥ 0.30) steer performance and carcass characteristics. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and urea-N concentrations were not affected (P ≥ 0.16) by monensin + tylosin, nor by Y. schidigera extract inclusion in steers and heifers. Ruminal pH in heifers was increased (P = 0.04) by monensin + tylosin, and also by (P = 0.03) Y. schidigera extract inclusion. Rumen fluid viscosity was reduced (P = 0.04) by Y. schidigera extract, and rumen protozoa count was increased (P < 0.01) by monensin + tylosin inclusion. The proportion of propionate in the ruminal fluid was increased (P = 0.04) by monensin + tylosin, and tended (P = 0.07) to be increased by Y. schidigera extract inclusion. Hence, Y. schidigera extract yielded similar improvements in rumen fermentation compared with monensin + tylosin, but without increasing performance and carcass quality of finishing cattle. No complimentary effects were observed when combining all these additives into the finishing diet.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Grazing management and stocking strategy decisions for pasture-based beef
           systems: experimental confirmation vs. testimonials and perceptions

    • First page: txad069
      Abstract: AbstractGrazing management and stocking strategy decisions involve the manipulation of grazing intensity, grazing frequency, and timing of grazing to meet specific objectives for pasture sustainability and economic livestock production. Although there are numerous stocking systems used by stakeholders, these methods may be broadly categorized as either continuous or some form of rotational stocking. In approximately 30 published experiments comparing continuous vs. rotational stocking, there was no difference in liveweight gain per animal between stocking methods in 66% of studies. There was no difference in gain per hectare between methods in 69% of studies, although for gain per hectare the choice of fixed or variable stocking rate methodology affected the proportion (92% for fixed; 50% for variable). Despite these experimental results showing limited instances of difference between rotational and continuous stocking, rotational strategies (e.g., “mob stocking” or “regenerative grazing”) have received what appears to be unmerited acclaim for use for livestock production. Many proposed “mob stocking” or “regenerative grazing” systems are based on philosophies similar to high intensity-low frequency stocking, including provision for >60 d of rest period from grazing. In addition, grazing management practitioners and stakeholders have voiced and proposed major positive benefits from rotational stocking, “mob stocking”, or “regenerative grazing” for soil health attributes, carbon sequestration, and ecosystem services, without experimental evidence. The perceptions and testimonials supporting undefined stocking systems and methods have potential to mislead practitioners and result in economic disservices. Thus, we suggest that scientists, extension-industry professionals, and producers seek replicated experimental data as the basis for predicting outcomes of grazing decisions.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Water-based medium-expansion foam depopulation of adult cattle

    • First page: txad065
      Abstract: AbstractCurrent options for depopulation of adult cattle are limited, have logistic constraints, and may not be practical on a large scale. Aspirated water-based foam (WBF) has been shown to be successful in depopulating poultry and swine but has yet to be tested in cattle. WBF is advantageous because necessary equipment can be readily available, easy to use, and presents minimal personnel risk. With the use of a modified rendering trailer in a field setting, we evaluated the efficacy of aspirated WBF for depopulation of adult cattle. Water-based medium-expansion foam was added to the trailer holding cattle to a depth of approximately 50 cm greater than head height. The study was conducted as a gated design and the initial trial was conducted using six anesthetized and six conscious animals for verification of the process and followed by four replicates each containing 18 conscious cattle. A total of 84 cattle were used, with a subset (n = 52) implanted with subcutaneous bio-loggers that recorded activity and electrocardiograms. Cattle were loaded onto the trailer and three gasoline-powered water pumps delivered foam into the trailer followed by a 15-min foam dwell period. Average (± SD) time to completely fill the trailer with foam was 84.8 ± 11.0 s. No animal vocalizations were heard during foam application or the dwell period, and all cattle were confirmed dead upon removal from the trailer after 15 min of immersion. Necropsies of a subset of cattle revealed foam extending to at least the tracheal bifurcation in all cattle and distal to this level in 67% (8/12) animals. Time to cessation of movement, which served as a proxy for loss of consciousness, was 2.5 ± 1.3 min and time to cardiac death was 8.5 ± 2.5 min as determined by data from animals carrying subcutaneous bio-loggers. The results of this study indicate that WBF is a rapid and effective method for depopulation of adult cattle with potential advantages in speed and carcass handling and disposal over current methods.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Impacts of learning experiences within an online extension initiative on
           application of research-based principles by beef stakeholders

    • First page: txad067
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate, characterize and quantify the learning experiences and subsequent application of research-based technologies by beef producers upon conclusion of an online extension certification program (44 Farms International Beef Cattle Academy, IBCA). Upon conclusion of the program, paricipants were invited to complete a structured interview. Interview transcripts (n = 19) were coded, categorized, and merged into four overarching themes: Strengths, Struggles, Courses, and Geographical origin. Within Strengths, the most frequent codes were Connections, Application, and Instructor Experience, with 61, 53, and 50 coded segments respectively. Within Struggles, the most frequent codes were Time Management, Level of Knowledge, and Language issues, with 27, 18, and 15 coded segments, respectively. For Courses in the program, the most frequently mentioned were Nutrition, Reproduction, and Genetics, with 35, 28, and 24 coded segments respectively. Correlation between codes was evaluated using Pearson and only statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations were included in the matrices for network analysis. Interpretation of the generated network analysis map (P ≤ 0.05; Q = 0.468) including all four categories of codes revealed close relationships between Application and the Strengths of Time management, Instructor Experience, and Connections. Application was also directly related to the Courses of Reproduction and Genetics, and the Struggle of Student Engagement and Guidance. Geographical origin was an important factor mediating different correlations. Developing countries (Brazil, Panama, Dominican Republic, and South Africa) were more closely related to the Struggle of Tuition cost, which, in turn was related to the perceived Prestige of the program. In Europe (Romania, Germany, and Kazakhstan), a stronger correlation to the Struggles of Material Relevance and Language Issues was described. Collectively, these results support the positive impact of a comprehensive and interactive extension initiative to leverage application of research-based principles by beef stakeholders around the world. Further, these outcomes indicate that the most valued aspects of the program regarding application are related to interpersonal experience with faculty and peers of the industry (Instructor Experience and Connections) and that perception of struggles and strengths is greatly influenced by socio-cultural aspects of the learning community.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of grain inclusion rates in diets provided to early-weaned calves
           and steroidal implants utilization on growth performance and carcass
           characteristics of beef steers

    • First page: txad068
      Abstract: AbstractOne hundred and twenty-one Angus × SimAngus-crossbred steers (body weight (BW) = 159 ± 22 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of different grain inclusion (GI) rates in diets provided to early-weaned calves and steroidal implants (SI) utilization on growth performance and carcass characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat deposition, of beef steers. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, consisting of two GI rates (35% vs. 58%, dry matter (DM) basis), each one associated or not to steroidal implant utilization (no implants vs. 80 mg trenbolone acetate (TA) + 16 mg estradiol followed by 120 mg TA + 24 mg of estradiol). After being early-weaned (124 ± 14 d of age), steers were offered an average of 4.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a concentrate-based diet with a greater or lesser GI rate for 60 d. After being fed a concentrate-based diet with different GI rates for 60 d, steers were fed a common backgrounding diet for 56 d and subsequently fed a common high-grain diet until harvested at a constant final BW (620 kg). Steers were not implanted until the beginning of the backgrounding phase and then re-implanted when initiating the finishing phase. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no GI × SI interactions (P ≥ 0.62) for any of the growth performance parameters throughout the experimental period. Implanted steers tended to have a greater average daily gain (P = 0.10) during the finishing phase than nonimplanted steers. For the 12th rib fat thickness and yield grade (YG), a GI × SI interaction (P = 0.03) and a tendency for a GI × SI interaction (P = 0.10) was detected, respectively. Nonimplanted steers fed diets with greater GI rates presented the greatest 12th rib fat thickness and tended to have the greatest YG among treatments. No other interactions (P ≥ 0.33) were observed for the hot carcass weight, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, quality grade, marbling score, and kidney-pelvic-heart fat content. Steers fed diets with lesser GI rates tended to have a greater LM area than steers fed diets with greater GI rates (P = 0.10). Results from this experiment indicate that varying GI rates in diets provided to early-weaned calves and subsequent implantation with steroidal hormones did not affect marbling deposition.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of branched-chain amino acids to lysine ratios in corn distillers
           dried grains with solubles containing diets on growth performance, plasma
           nitrogen profile, carcass traits, and economic analysis in
           growing–finishing pigs

    • First page: txad066
      Abstract: AbstractA study was conducted to identify the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) branched-chain amino acids (BCAA):lysine (Lys) ratios on the growth performance, plasma nitrogen (N) profile, carcass traits, and economic analysis of growing–finishing pigs fed diets with high corn distillers dried grains with solubles (cDDGS) inclusions. A total of 1,140 pigs (initial body weight [BW] = 28.7 ± 2.0 kg) were housed in 45 pens of 25 or 26 pigs and fed one of five diets in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in four phases based on BW. Dietary treatments were a corn–soybean meal (SBM) based diet (PC), a corn–SBM-cDDGS-based diet (NC) with SID BCAA:Lys ratio of PIC (2020) recommendation and NC diets with SID BCAA:Lys ratios targeted for the 73% SID Val:Lys, 60% SID Ile:Lys, and 144% SID Leu:Lys during the growing phases (25 to 80 kg, Grow), targeted for the 78% SID Val:Lys, 70% SID Ile:Lys, and 160% to 170% SID Leu:Lys during the finishing phases (80 to 120 kg, finish), and both during the growing and finishing phases (Grow–Finish). One pig from each pen was bled at the end of 7 and 13 wk. After the 11-wk-feeding trial, pigs were sent to a commercial abattoir to investigate carcass traits. Pigs fed the Finish diet had a greater overall average daily gain (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the other cDDGS diets. Dietary treatments did not affect the hot carcass weight. However, feeding the Finish diet increased (P < 0.05) the iodine value of pork belly samples and decreased (P < 0.05) carcass yield. The plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration at the end of the growing phase and plasma concentrations of Leu and Val were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the Finish diet compared to the other cDDGS diets. Feeding pigs the cDDGS diets with different BCAA:Lys ratios had no difference in income over feed cost and income over feed and facility costs compared to the corn–SBM diet. Therefore, feeding pigs cDDGS diets with SID BCAA:Lys ratios adjusted for the previously determined finishing phase (from 80 to 120 kg of BW) recommendations by SBM inclusion supported growth performance and economic benefits equal to the corn–SBM diet.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Update on copper and selenium in Canadian cow–calf herds: regional
           differences and estimation of serum reference values

    • First page: txad062
      Abstract: AbstractTrace mineral supplementation of beef cattle is essential for efficient reproduction and herd health. Understanding regional differences in cow trace mineral status could inform decisions about risks of deficiencies and supplementation management. Cow–calf surveillance projects provided three opportunities to evaluate the trace mineral status of Canadian beef cow herds. Blood samples were collected at pregnancy testing in 2014 from 102 cow–calf herds and in 2016 from 86 cow–calf herds in Western Canada. In 2019, blood samples were collected at pregnancy testing from cows in 163 cow–calf herds from Eastern and Western Canada. Serum samples were analyzed for copper, selenium, and molybdenum concentrations using a plasma mass spectrometer. The prevalence of copper deficient cows sampled from the Western provinces ranged from 24% to 43% across the three periods, and was 20% from Eastern Canada in 2019. The prevalence of selenium deficient cows ranged from 0.2% to 0.4% across the three projects in Western Canada, but was higher in Eastern Canada at 4.6% in 2019. High serum molybdenum was identified in 9.4% to 14% of cows across the three periods in Western Canada and in 15% of cows sampled in Eastern Canada in 2019. Serum copper, selenium, and molybdenum concentrations varied by cow age and month of sample collection. Serum selenium and molybdenum concentrations, but not copper, varied by soil type associated with the location of the farm. A subsample of samples from cows from Western Canadian herds provided body condition score (BCS) data, pregnancy status, and calf survival data and were used to estimate updated serum reference values for adequate concentrations. Age-specific values were required for selenium and molybdenum. Reference intervals (80%) were estimated from 2,406 pregnant beef cows from 99 herds with each cow having a BCS ≥ 2.5/5 and a live calf at 3 wk with no retained placenta: copper for all cows (0.379 to 0.717 ppm), selenium for cows <4 yr (0.052 to 0.152 ppm), and selenium for cows ≥4 yr (0.064 to 0.184 ppm). Upper 90% reference limits were also estimated for serum molybdenum for cows <4 yr (>0.104 ppm) and cows ≥4 yr (>0.110 ppm). The lower limits for the reference intervals for adequate copper and selenium are below those previously reported; nevertheless, they represent a large sample that was specifically applicable to extensively managed beef animals in western Canada.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Restricted- and over-feeding during gestation decreases growth of
           offspring throughout maturity

    • First page: txad061
      Abstract: AbstractTo determine the effects of poor maternal nutrition on the growth and metabolism of offspring into maturity, multiparous Dorset ewes pregnant with twins (n = 46) were fed to either 100% (control; n = 13), 60% (restricted; n = 17), or 140% (over; n = 16) of National Research Council requirements from day 30 ± 0.02 of gestation until parturition. Offspring of these ewes are referred to as CON (n = 10 ewes; 12 rams), RES (n = 13 ewes; 21 rams), or OVER (n = 16 ewes; 13 rams), respectively. Lamb body weights (BW) and blood samples were collected weekly from birth (day 0) to day 28 and then every 14 d until day 252. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (infusion of 0.25 g dextrose/kg BW) was performed at day 133 ± 0.25. At day 167 ± 1.42, individual daily intake was recorded over a 77 d feeding period to determine residual feed intake (RFI). Rams were euthanized at day 282 ± 1.82 and body morphometrics, loin eye area (LEA), back fat thickness, and organ weights were collected. The right leg was collected from rams at necropsy and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and length. Averaged from day 0 until day 252, RES and OVER offspring weighed 10.8% and 6.8% less than CON offspring, respectively (P ≤ 0.02). When adjusted for BW, liver and testes weights tended to be increased and decreased, respectively, in RES rams compared with CON rams (P ≤ 0.08). Additionally, RES BMD and bone length were less than CON rams (P ≤ 0.06). Treatment did not influence muscle mass, LEA, or adipose deposition (P ≥ 0.41). Rams (−0.17) were more feed efficient than ewes (0.23; P < 0.01); however, no effect of maternal diet was observed (P ≥ 0.57). At 2 min post glucose infusion, glucose concentrations in OVER offspring were greater than CON and RES offspring (P = 0.04). Concentrations of insulin in CON rams tended to be greater than OVER and RES ewes at 5 min (P ≤ 0.07). No differences were detected in insulin:glucose or area under the curve (AUC) for glucose or insulin (P ≤ 0.29). Maternal diet did not impact offspring triglycerides or cholesterol (P ≤ 0.35). Pre-weaning leptin tended to be 70% greater in OVER offspring than CON (P ≤ 0.07). These data indicate that poor maternal nutrition impairs offspring growth throughout maturity but does not affect RFI. Changes in metabolic factors and glucose tolerance are minimal, highlighting the need to investigate other mechanisms that may contribute to negative impacts of poor maternal diet.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Water- and feed-based arginine impacts on gut integrity in weanling pigs

    • First page: txad059
      Abstract: AbstractTwo hundred and forty newly weaned pigs (PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used to determine if supplementing additional arginine (Arg) either in the water or in the feed, and the combinations thereof, improved intestinal integrity and growth performance in nursery pigs. Each of the 80 pens contained three pigs (21 ± 2 d of age) which were randomly allotted to treatments in 4 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of four water treatments (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% Arg stock delivered through a 1:128 medication delivery system) in combination with three dietary Arg treatments (1.35%, 1.55%, and 1.75% standardized ileal digestible Arg; SID). Pigs and feeders were weighed at the d0, d6 (water and diet change), d20 (diet change), and d41 for the calculation of average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F). Eighty pigs, 1 pig/pen, were euthanized at d6 for ileum evaluation of villus height and crypt depth. The remaining pigs were taken off the Arg-water treatment and fed phase-2 diets formulated to contain 1.35%, 1.55%, and 1.75% SID Arg. All pigs received a common diet from d20 to d41. Data were analyzed by pen as repeated measures (SAS 9.4). No interaction between water- and dietary-Arg was detected on nursery pig growth performance. There was a significant quadratic effect of SID Arg in the feed on pig final body weight (BW), ADG, ADFI, and G:F (P ≤ 0.037), where feeding 1.55% dietary Arg tended to improve growth performance compared to the 1.35% level for the 41 d of the trial (P ≤ 0.088). The use of the stock 8% Arg in the water resulted in a reduction in crypt depth (0:132.5, 4:140.7, 8:117.3, 12:132.0; P ≤ 0.01) and an improvement in intestinal permeability. The 4% oral Arg significantly reduced villous height:crypt depth ratio (0:2.50, 4:2.09, 8:2.56, 12:2.43; P ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the feeding of 1.55% Arg resulted in an improvement in nursery pig ADG, ADFI, G:F, and final BW but did not alter intestinal villi morphology; however, the use of Arg in the water resulted in an improvement in intestinal villi, but no phenotypical change in piglet growth in the nursery.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluating the temperature preferences of sexually mature Duroc, Landrace,
           and Yorkshire boars

    • First page: txad060
      Abstract: AbstractAn accurate understanding of boar temperature preferences may allow the swine industry to design and utilize environmental control systems in boar facilities more precisely. Therefore, the study objective was to determine the temperature preferences of sexually mature Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars. Eighteen, 8.57 ± 0.10-mo-old boars (N = 6 Duroc, 6 Landrace, and 6 Yorkshire; 186.25 ± 2.25 kg) were individually tested in thermal apparatuses (12.20 m × 1.52 m × 1.86 m) that allowed free choice of their preferred temperature within a 8.92 to 27.92 ºC range. For analyses, the apparatuses were divided into five thermal zones (3.71 m2/thermal zone) with temperature recorded 1.17 m above the floor in the middle of each zone. Target temperatures for thermal zones 1 to 5 were 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ºC, respectively. All boars were given a 24-h acclimation phase followed by a 24-h testing phase within the thermal apparatuses. Daily feed allotments (3.63 kg/d) were provided to each boar and all boars were allowed to consume all feed prior to entering the thermal apparatus. Water was provided ad libitum within the thermal apparatuses with 1 waterer per thermal zone. During testing, boars were video recorded continuously to evaluate behavior (inactive, active, or other), posture (lying, standing, or other), and thermal zone the boar occupied. All parameters were recorded in 15 min intervals using instantaneous scan sampling. Data were analyzed using GLM in JMP 15. For the analyses, only time spent lying or inactive were used because they were observed most frequently (lying 80.02%, inactive 77.64%) and were deemed to be associated with comfort based on previous research. Percent time spent active (19.73%) or standing (15.87%) were associated with latrine or drinking activity and were too low to accurately analyze as an indicator of thermal preference. Breed did not affect temperature preference (P > 0.05). A cubic regression model determined that boars spent the majority of their time inactive at 25.50 ºC (P < 0.01) and lying (both sternal and lateral) at 25.90 ºC (P < 0.01). These data suggest that boar thermal preferences did not differ by breed and that boars prefer temperatures at the upper end of current guidelines (10.00 to 25.00 ºC).
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Feeding incremental amounts of ground flaxseed: effects on diversity and
           relative abundance of ruminal microbiota and enteric methane emissions in
           lactating dairy cows

    • First page: txad050
      Abstract: AbstractWe evaluated the effects of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on diversity and relative abundance of ruminal microbiota taxa, enteric methane (CH4) emissions, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Twenty mid-lactation Jersey cows were used in the study. Of these 20 cows, 12 were used for ruminal sampling, 16 for enteric CH4 measurements, and all for spot urine collection. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Diets were formulated by replacing corn meal and soybean meal with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of GFX in the diet’s dry matter. Ruminal fluid samples obtained via stomach tubing were used for DNA extraction. Enteric CH4 production was measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Diets had no effect on ruminal microbiota diversity. Similarly, the relative abundance of ruminal archaea genera was not affected by diets. In contrast, GFX decreased or increased linearly the relative abundance of Firmicutes (P < 0.01) and Bacteroidetes (P < 0.01), respectively. The relative abundance of the ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus (P < 0.01) and Clostridium (P < 0.01) decreased linearly, and that of Prevotella (P < 0.01) and Pseudobutyrivibrio (P < 0.01) increased linearly with feeding GFX. A tendency for a linear reduction (P = 0.055) in enteric CH4 production (from 304 to 256 g/d) was observed in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX. However, neither CH4 yield nor CH4 intensity was affected by treatments. Diets had no effect on the urinary excretion of uric acid, allantoin, and total PD. Overall, feeding GFX decreased linearly the relative abundance of the ruminal bacterial genera Ruminococcus and Clostridium and enteric CH4 production, but no change was seen for CH4 yield and CH4 intensity, or urinary excretion of total PD, suggesting no detrimental effect of GFX on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Bovine neonatal microbiome origins: a review of proposed microbial
           community presence from conception to colostrum

    • First page: txad057
      Abstract: AbstractIn recent years, there has been an influx of research evaluating the roles of the reproductive tract microbiota in modulating reproductive performance. These efforts have resulted in a breadth of research exploring the bovine reproductive tract microbiota. The female reproductive tract microbiota has been characterized during the estrus cycle, at timed artificial insemination, during gestation, and postpartum. Additionally, there are recently published studies investigating in-utero inoculation of the bovine fetus. However, critical review of the literature to understand how the microbial shifts during a dam’s lifecycle could impact neonatal outcomes is limited. This review demonstrates a consistency at the phyla level throughout both the maternal, paternal, and neonatal microbiomes. Moreover, this review challenges the current gestational inoculation hypothesis and suggests instead a maturation of the resident uterine microbiota throughout gestation to parturition. Recent literature is indicative of microbial composition influencing metabolomic parameters that have developmental programming effects in feed utilization and metabolic performance later in life. Thus, this review enumerates the potential origins of neonatal microbial inoculation from conception, through gestation, parturition, and colostrum consumption while introducing clear paucities where future research is needed to better understand the ramifications of the reproductive microbiome on neonates.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of lactation and nursery diets supplemented with a feed flavor on
           sow feed intake and lactation performance and subsequent weaned pig
           nursery performance

    • First page: txad056
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 105 sows (Line 241, DNA, Columbus, NE) were used across four batch farrowing groups to evaluate the effects of feeding a feed flavor in lactation diets on sow and litter performance. Sow groups 1 and 2 farrowed in an old farrowing facility during the summer months and groups 3 and 4 farrowed in a new farrowing facility during the winter months. Sows were blocked by body weight (BW) within parity on days 110 of gestation and allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were a standard corn–soy-based lactation diet (control) or the control diet with the addition of a feed flavor at 0.05% of diet (Krave AP, Adisseo, Alpharetta, GA, USA). Farrowing facility environment had a large impact and resulted in many interactions with the feed flavor treatment. From farrowing to weaning, sows fed the feed flavor in the old farrowing house tended to have a higher (P = 0.058) lactation feed intake, while no difference in average daily feed intake (ADFI) was observed in the new farrowing house. Pigs weaned from sows fed with the feed flavor in the old farrowing facility had a higher (P = 0.026) BW at weaning and piglet average daily gain (ADG) from day 2 to weaning (P = 0.001) compared to piglets from sows not fed with the feed flavor; whereas the opposite occurred in the new farrowing house. Progeny from one farrowing group in the old farrowing facility was followed into the nursery. A total of 360 weaned pigs (DNA 241 × 600: initially 5.7 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial in the nursery portion of the study to evaluate the effects of previous sow feed flavoring treatment (control vs. flavor) and nursery diets formulated with or without a feed flavor on growth performance in a 38-d trial. Nursery treatments were either a control diet or a diet containing a feed flavor (Delistart #NA 21, Adisseo). Offspring from sows fed with the flavor diet were heavier at weaning (P < 0.001) which was maintained throughout the study. Overall, progeny from sows fed with a diet containing a feed flavor had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW during the trial. The presence of a feed flavor in the nursery did not improve overall nursery performance. In conclusion, when sow lactation feed intake was increased in the old farrowing house, pigs weaned from sows fed with the flavor diet were heavier (P = 0.039) at weaning compared to pigs weaned from sows fed with the control diet. Adding the feed flavor increased sow feed intake and piglet ADG in a warm environment, but not in a cool environment.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The differential plasma and ruminal metabolic pathways and ruminal
           bacterial taxa associated with divergent residual body weight gain
           phenotype in crossbred beef steers

    • First page: txad054
      Abstract: AbstractWe applied ruminal and plasma metabolomics and ruminal 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the metabolic pathways and ruminal bacterial taxa associated with divergent residual body weight gain phenotype in crossbred beef steers. A group of 108 crossbred growing beef steers (average BW = 282.87 ± 30 kg) were fed a forage-based diet for a period of 56 d in a confinement dry lot equipped with GrowSafe intake nodes to determine their residual body weight gain (RADG) phenotype. After RADG identification, blood and rumen fluid samples were collected from beef steers with the highest RADG (most efficient; n = 16; 0.76 kg/d) and lowest RADG (least efficient; n = 16; −0.65 kg/d). Quantitative untargeted metabolome analysis of the plasma and rumen fluid samples were conducted using chemical isotope labelling/liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Differentially abundant metabolites in each of the plasma and rumen fluid samples between the two groups of beef steers were determined using a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P-values ≤ 0.05 and area under the curve (AUC) > 0.80. Rumen and plasma metabolic pathways that were differentially enriched or depleted (P ≤ 0.05) in beef steers with positive RADG compared to those with negative RADG were determined by the quantitative pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1,629 metabolites were detected and identified in the plasma of the beef steers; eight metabolites including alanyl-phenylalanine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and slaframine were differentially abundant (FDR ≤ 0.05; AUC > 0.80) in beef steers with divergent RADG; five metabolic pathways including steroid hormone biosynthesis, thiamine metabolism, propanoate metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, and butanoate metabolism were enriched (P ≤ 0.05) in beef steers with positive RADG, relative to negative RADG steers. A total of 1,908 metabolites were detected and identified in the rumen of the beef steers; results of the pathway enrichment analysis of all the metabolites revealed no metabolic pathways in the rumen were altered (P > 0.05). The rumen fluid samples were also analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess the bacterial community composition. We compared the rumen bacterial community composition at the genus level using a linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) to identify the differentially abundant taxa between the two groups of beef steers. The LEfSe results showed greater relative abundance of Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17 and Anaerovibrio in steers with positive RADG compared to the negative RADG group, while steers in the negative RADG group had greater relative abundance of Candidatus_Amoebophilus, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Pseudomonas, Empedobacter, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella compared to the positive RADG group. Our results demonstrate that beef steers with positive or negative RADG exhibit differences in plasma metabolic profiles and some ruminal bacterial taxa which probably explain their divergent feed efficiency phenotypes.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of added calcium carbonate without and with benzoic acid on
           weanling pig growth performance, fecal dry matter, and blood Ca and P
           concentrations

    • First page: txad055
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of these studies was to determine the effects of increasing levels of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with and without benzoic acid on weanling pig growth performance, fecal dry matter (DM), and blood Ca and P concentrations. In experiment 1, 695 pigs (DNA Line 200 × 400, initially 5.9 ± 0.02 kg) were used in a 28 d study. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to pens and then pens were allotted to one of five dietary treatments. Treatment diets were fed from weaning (day 0) to day 14, with a common diet fed from days 14 to 28. Dietary treatments were formulated to provide 0%, 0.45%, 0.90%, 1.35%, and 1.80% added CaCO3 at the expense of ground corn. From days 0 to 14 (treatment period), average daily gain (ADG) and G:F decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.01) as CaCO3 increased. From days 14 to 28 (common period) and for the overall experiment (days 0 to 28), there was no evidence of differences in growth performance between treatments. For fecal DM, there was a trend (quadratic, P = 0.091) where pigs fed with the highest CaCO3 diets had the greatest fecal DM. Experiment 2 used 360 pigs (DNA Line 200 × 400, initially 6.2 ± 0.03 kg) in a 38 d study. Upon arrival to the nursery facility, pigs were randomly assigned to pens and then pens were allotted to one of six dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were fed in three phases with treatment diets fed from days 0 to 10 and days 10 to 24, and a common phase 3 diet fed from days 24 to 38. Dietary treatments were formulated to provide 0.45%, 0.90%, and 1.35% added CaCO3 with or without 0.5% benzoic acid (VevoVitall, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) added at the expense of ground corn. There was no evidence (P > 0.05) for any CaCO3 by benzoic acid interactions. For the experimental period (days 0 to 24), there was a tendency for benzoic acid to increase ADG (P = 0.056), average daily feed intake (ADFI; P = 0.071), and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F; linear, P = 0.014) as CaCO3 decreased. During the common period (days 24 to 38), pigs previously fed benzoic acid had increased (P = 0.045) ADG and marginally increased (P = 0.091) ADFI. For the overall study, pigs fed benzoic acid had increased ADG (P = 0.011) and ADFI (P = 0.030), marginally increased G:F (P = 0.096) and final body weight (P = 0.059). Serum Ca decreased (linear, P < 0.001) as CaCO3 decreased in the diet. These data show that decreasing the CaCO3 content in the nursery diet immediately after weaning may improve ADG and G:F. Dietary addition of benzoic acid may also provide beneficial effects on ADG and ADFI, regardless of dietary Ca level.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Assessment of a COVID-induced shift in the evolution of a beef cattle
           production course

    • First page: txad053
      Abstract: AbstractThis study investigated student (n = 272) exam grades and group project peer evaluations in a senior-level beef cattle management course during semesters of COVID-imposed transitional instructional delivery methods across the Fall 2019 to Spring 2021 semesters. Each semester identical format exams were administered, and students were assigned to groups of 4 or 5 balanced for previous cattle experience to work on a semester-long on a scenario-based ranch management project. Prior to COVID, exams were administered as closed-note with 1-h time limit, but were made open-note with 12 to 14 h time limit beginning in March 2020. Similar exam grades existed (P > 0.05) across these five semesters with the exception that Exam 3 deviated 3.7% (P = 0.020) from lowest to highest mean score; similar relative variation in exam scores based on CV and SD were seen across these semesters. For the group project, students scored all group members on a 0 (inferior) to 10 (superior) scale at the end of each semester that weighted the project grade by 20%. Remote vs. face-to-face (F2F) status did not influence (P > 0.05) group peer evaluation scores regarding “Overall level of participation” or “Willingness to work for success of your group” when group number or individual student was included in models. Fall 2020 and Spring 2021 semesters had both remote and F2F students and were investigated for online page view and engagement. Across these two semesters, students (n = 125) were 72% females, 36.8% rated themselves as having no or little previous cattle experience, and 34.4% rated themselves as experienced or very experienced with cattle. No metric for online activity was correlated with exam grades, except the number of page views and Exam 3 scores (r = 0.28, P = 0.002). Neither gender (P > 0.05) nor previous cattle experience (P > 0.05) affected online activity metrics, peer evaluation points received on group projects, or exam grades. However, strong correlations (r = 0.33 to 0.45, P < 0.001) were seen between student peer points received and all four exam grades. Additionally, project group accounted for 28% to 37% of the differences in exam grades. Overall, no differences in exam grades (P < 0.05 except Exam 3) or group peer evaluations (P < 0.05) were detected when the course had different delivery styles. These results indicate that attributes of individual students are a major driver of successful course outcomes in this class, no matter what course delivery method is utilized.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The effect of timing of Improvest administration on growth performance and
           carcass characteristics in gilts

    • First page: txad051
      Abstract: AbstractImprovest (IMP; Zoetis Inc., Parsippany, NJ) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in gilts. Improvest is administered twice: the first dose should be administered no earlier than 9 wk of age and the second dose (D2) at least 4 wk after the first dose. The aim of this study was to determine how the timing of IMP before harvest affects growth performance and carcass characteristics in gilts. A total of 1,632 gilts were allocated to four groups (12 pens/treatment; 34 gilts/pen): 1) a control group did not receive IMP; 2) T-early gilts received IMP on day 7 (day 0 = 10 wk postweaning), and D2 on day 40 (i.e., 35 d prior to first removal for harvest); 3) T-medium gilts received IMP on day 21 and D2 on day 56 (i.e., 19 d prior to first removal for harvest); 4) T-late gilts received IMP on day 35 and D2 on day 70 (i.e., 5 d before first removal for harvest). Pigs were selected for harvest by visual observation on days 75, 89, 103, and 117: 1) the heaviest 7 gilts/pen for each treatment on day 75; 2) the heaviest 10 gilts/pen of each treatment at day 89; 3) the heaviest 10 gilts/pen of each treatment on day 103; and 4) the remaining 7 gilts/pen on day 117. Weights and feed disappearance were recorded every 2 wk and during harvest dates to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (Gain:Feed; G:F). Generalized linear mixed models of SAS were used to analyze all variables. The increase in ADFI over Control gilts was observed 15 d post D2 and continued through 77 d post D2, with advantages in ADG occurring between 15 and 35 d post D2. Control and IMP treated gilts had similar G:F 15 to 33 d post D2. The overall ADG and ADFI from day 0 to market, final live weights, and hot carcass weights were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) in IMP gilts compared to Control. When G:F based on live weight was averaged across all groups (i.e., from day 0 to market), T-early had the lowest (P ≤ 0.05) G:F compared to Control, T-medium, and T-late gilts, which did not differ. Carcasses from IMP gilts had increased (P < 0.01) backfat, but similar (P = 0.5) Longissimus muscle depth, compared to Control. Within a cohort of similar aged gilts finishing during the summer, this study indicates that the trajectory of growth is enhanced within a similar window post D2 of IMP. Gilts treated with IMP had heavier carcasses with increased backfat and similar Longissimus muscle depth.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Ewes with higher embryo survival rear lambs that grow faster

    • First page: txad052
      Abstract: AbstractA key economic driver of a meat producing sheep flock is the total kilograms of lamb liveweight at weaning per ewe exposed to the ram. Optimization of key reproductive steps is required to achieve peak performance of a sheep flock. The goal of this paper was to use more than 56,000 records from a commercial flock to investigate the key reproductive steps affecting flock reproductive performance. We also applied a maximum-likelihood based technique to predict the embryo survival and ovulation rate for daughters of individual sires based on measurements of the number of fetuses at midpregnancy (detected by ultrasound-scanning). The model was used to determine how changes in premating liveweight, age, predicted ovulation rate, embryo survival, number of fetuses at midpregnancy, lamb survival, and lamb growth rate affect the total lamb liveweight at weaning per ewe exposed to the ram in the flock. The data from the commercial flock was also used to investigate the role of ewe age and premating liveweight on each reproductive step. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the key reproductive steps affecting flock reproductive performance. The elasticity for embryo survival was 80% of that for lamb survival. There was also significant between sire variance in the estimates of ovulation rate and embryo survival. The reproductive performance of daughters of sires with high (top 50%) and low (bottom 50%) embryo survival was investigated. Embryo survival was 0.88 in the high group and 0.82 in the low group (a 6% reduction in embryo survival). The expected total weight of lambs weaned per ewe exposed to the ram was 42 kg in the high embryo survival group and 37 kg in the low embryo survival group (a 12% reduction in the total weight of lambs weaned per ewe exposed to the ram). The proportion of twin litters was 70% in the high group and 60% in the low group, highlighting the potential importance of embryo survival for the rate of twinning in flocks with ovulation rates greater than two ova. Although lamb survival was similar between the high and low embryo survival groups, lamb growth was reduced by 10% in the low embryo survival group for the same litter size (P < 0.001). This novel positive phenotypic association between embryo survival and lamb growth rate can potentially be exploited to improve flock performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Tannin-based product in feedlot diet as a strategy to reduce enteric
           methane emissions of Nellore cattle finished under tropical conditions

    • First page: txad048
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 120 Nellore bulls, [initial body weight (BW) = 307 ± 11.6 kg and 12 mo of age] were allocated into 12 collective pens (10 bulls per pen) in a commercial feedlot to evaluate the effects of a specific blend of tannin and saponins on enteric methane (CH4) emissions. The study was a completely randomized design, in which pens were considered the experimental units (N = 6 pens per treatment) and were randomly allocated into one of two treatments: 1) Control (CON), a basal diet with monensin supplementation (25 mg/kg dry matter [DM]; Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA), or 2) Control + a specific blend of tannin and saponins (TAN; 0.7 g/kg DM; composed of quebracho and chestnut tannin extracts along with carriers from cereals rich in saponins; SilvaFeed BX, Silvateam, San Michele Mondovi, CN, Italy). After the adaptation period (20 d), the experiment was divided into two phases: growing phase (21 to 53 d; total of 33 d) and fattening phase (54 to 139 d; total of 86 d). Enteric methane emissions were estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Interactions between treatment and period (growing vs. fattening) were detected for daily CH4 emissions, in which animals fed TAN reduced CH4 emissions by 17.3% during the fattening period compared to bulls fed CON (P = 0.05). In addition, bulls fed TAN had lower CH4 emissions expressed by dry matter intake (DMI) during the fattening period compared to bulls fed CON (P = 0.06). The findings presented herein indicate that a specific blend of tannin and saponins can be used as a strategy to reduce enteric CH4 emissions and its intensity of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot systems under tropical conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Tannin-based product in feedlot diet as a strategy to reduce enteric
           methane emissions of Nellore cattle finished under tropical conditions

    • First page: txad048
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 120 Nellore bulls, [initial body weight (BW) = 307 ± 11.6 kg and 12 mo of age] were allocated into 12 collective pens (10 bulls per pen) in a commercial feedlot to evaluate the effects of a specific blend of tannin and saponins on enteric methane (CH4) emissions. The study was a completely randomized design, in which pens were considered the experimental units (N = 6 pens per treatment) and were randomly allocated into one of two treatments: 1) Control (CON), a basal diet with monensin supplementation (25 mg/kg dry matter [DM]; Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA), or 2) Control + a specific blend of tannin and saponins (TAN; 7 g/kg DM; composed of quebracho and chestnut tannin extracts along with carriers from cereals rich in saponins; SilvaFeed BX, Silvateam, San Michele Mondovi, CN, Italy). After the adaptation period (20 d), the experiment was divided into two phases: growing phase (21 to 53 d; total of 33 d) and fattening phase (54 to 139 d; total of 86 d). Enteric methane emissions were estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Interactions between treatment and period (growing vs. fattening) were detected for daily CH4 emissions, in which animals fed TAN reduced CH4 emissions by 17.3% during the fattening period compared to bulls fed CON (P = 0.05). In addition, bulls fed TAN had lower CH4 emissions expressed by dry matter intake (DMI) during the fattening period compared to bulls fed CON (P = 0.06). The findings presented herein indicate that a specific blend of tannin and saponins can be used as a strategy to reduce enteric CH4 emissions and its intensity of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot systems under tropical conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of selenium source on nursery pig growth performance, serum and
           tissue selenium concentrations, and serum antioxidant status

    • First page: txad049
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 3,888 pigs (337 × 1050, PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initially 6.0 ± 0.23 kg) were used in a 35-d study. At the time of placement, pens of pigs were weighed and allotted to one of three dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a blocking structure including sow farm origin, date of entry into the facility, and average pen body weight. A total of 144 pens were used with 72 double-sided 5-hole stainless steel fence line feeders, with one feeder serving as the experimental unit. For each feeder, 1 pen contained 27 gilts, and 1 pen contained 27 barrows. There were 24 replicates per dietary treatment. Diets were fed in three phases, and all contained 0.3 mg/kg added Se. A common phase 1 diet contained added Se from sodium selenite and was fed in pelleted form to all pigs from day 7 to approximately day 0. Three Se sources sodium selenite, Se yeast, and hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) were used to formulate three experimental diets in meal form for phase 2 (days 0 to 14) and phase 3 (days 14 to 35). During the pre-treatment period (days 7 to 0), there was a tendency (P = 0.097) of a difference in average daily feed intake between treatments, although no significant pairwise differences were observed (P > 0.05). There were no other differences in growth performance between treatments from days 7 to 0. Clinical disease attributed to Streptococcus suis was observed within the trial between days 0 and 14, and water-soluble antimicrobial therapy was administered to all treatment groups for 7 d. From days 0 to 35, pigs fed OH-SeMet tended to have decreased average daily gain (P < 0.10) and increased (P < 0.05) serum and tissue selenium concentration compared to other treatments. There was marginally significant evidence of a source × day interaction (P = 0.027) for total antioxidant capacity where the numerical increase over time was less for the OH-SeMet than sodium selenite or selenium yeast treatments. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in antioxidant status as measured by serum glutathione peroxidase or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay between treatments. In summary, compared to sodium selenite and selenium yeast, OH-SeMet may have a greater bioavailability as indicated by increased serum and tissue selenium concentration; however, antioxidant status was similar between treatments and OH-SeMet tended to reduce growth performance compared with pigs fed sodium selenite.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of feeding CLOSTAT (Bacillus subtilis PB6) on the clinical health,
           performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers1

    • First page: txad047
      Abstract: AbstractThe objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding Bacillus subtilis PB6 on clinical health, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Bos indicus crossbred steer calves (n = 397; 342 kg initial body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to pens by initial BW; pens (n = 24) were randomly assigned to one of two of the following experimental treatments: 1) no supplemental dietary direct-fed microbial, control (CON; n = 12 pens) or 2) 13 g/steer daily B. subtilis PB6 (CLO; CLOSTAT, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA; n = 12 pens). Steers were housed in 12.2 × 30.5 m soil-surfaced pens; pen served as the experimental unit. The percentage of cattle treated once or twice for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) did not differ among treatments (P ≥ 0.27); BRD mortality also did not differ between CON and CLO (P = 0.34). During the receiving period, final BW (P = 0.97), average daily gain (ADG; P = 0.91), dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.77), and gain:feed (P = 0.79) were not different among treatments. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for CLO-supplemented steers to be 14% more efficient from days 0 to 14 of the receiving period. Final BW, overall finishing phase ADG, and DMI did not differ by treatment (P ≥ 0.14); ADG was 0.14 kg greater for CLO than CON (P = 0.03) from days 29 to 56 of the finishing period. Gain: feed tended (P = 0.07) to be 7% greater (0.144 vs. 0.141) for CLO than CON throughout the duration of the finishing period, and 6.7% greater (P = 0.08; 0.152 for CLO vs. 0.150 for CON) for the entirety of the experiment. Carcass traits did not differ among treatments (P ≥ 0.31). The results of this experiment suggest that supplementing 13 g/steer daily B. subtilis PB6 may improve feed efficiency in feedlot cattle.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of peripartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analogue on
           beef cow–calf performance

    • First page: txad046
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective was to evaluate the effects of peripartum supplementation of a methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) to primiparous, spring-calving beef females on dam and progeny performance. Angus heifers (n = 60) were blocked by expected parturition date, stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and randomized to 1 of 15 pens. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a basal diet supplemented with 0 (M0), 15 (M15), or 30 (M30) g/animal/d of MHA (provided as MFP feed supplement, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO). Diets were fed from 45 ± 13 (SD) d pre-calving through 81 ± 13 d postpartum (DPP), after which all cow–calf pairs were managed as a single group on pasture until weaning (199 ± 13 DPP). Dam BW, BCS, and blood samples were taken at 6 predetermined timepoints. Progeny data were collected at birth, 2 intermediate timepoints, and at weaning. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis at 7 ± 2 DPP and at 55 ± 5 DPP. Serial progesterone samples were analyzed to establish resumption of cyclicity, and ultrasonography was performed at 55 ± 5 DPP to evaluate ovarian function. Cows were bred via artificial insemination at 82 ± 13 DPP and subsequently exposed to bulls for a 55-d breeding season. Pen was the experimental unit, and preplanned orthogonal contrasts were tested (linear effect and M0 vs. M15 + M30). Dam BW and BCS were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.29) throughout the study. Week 1 milk fat concentration increased linearly (P = 0.05) and total solids tended to increase linearly (P = 0.07) as MHA increased; however, no other milk components were affected (P ≥ 0.16). Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.16) dam reproductive parameters or progeny growth from birth until weaning. Post-calving, circulating methionine equivalents tended to linearly increase (P = 0.10) with increasing MHA supplementation. At breeding, plasma urea N linearly decreased (P = 0.03) with increased supplementation of MHA, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids were less (P = 0.04) in MHA-supplemented dams compared with dams receiving no MHA. Maternal circulating glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were not affected (P ≥ 0.15) by treatment at any point. These data indicate that peripartum supplementation of MHA may increase milk fat composition shortly after calving, but MHA supplementation did not improve progeny growth or dam reproductive performance in the current study.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of sprouted whole pearl millet on growth performance, intestinal
           development, bacterial count, and blood indices of broiler chickens

    • First page: txad045
      Abstract: AbstractThis study investigated the effects of varying levels of sprouted whole grain pearl millet (SPM) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, microbial count, and blood indices of broiler chickens. A maize–soybean meal basal diet was formulated and fed to broiler chickens as starter (0 to 21 d) and finisher (22 to 42 d) diets. The diets comprised of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of SPM incorporated as whole grain. On 0 d, 180 unsexed broiler chickens were allocated to experimental diets in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times; each replicate had 12 chicks. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of broiler chickens. Diets and water were provided ad libitum for 42 d.Results showed that the body weight gain (BWG) of broiler chickens on SPM compared favorably with those on the control diet. BWG showed trends in increment (P < 0.10) while FCR showed decreased trends (P < 0.10) with partial inclusion of SPM at 42 d and 0 to 42 d. The drumstick weight showed quadratic effect (P = 0.044) while the wing weight showed linear effect (P = 0.047) to treatment diets at 21 d. The liver weights of broiler chickens showed linear response (P = 0.018) at 21 d and (P = 0.004) at 42 d to SPM inclusion in diets. Sprouted whole PM consistently increased low-density lipoprotein concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05). Length and weight of small intestine and ceca showed decreasing trends on SPM levels in the treatment diets. Digesta pH assessment revealed that pH in the crop was lower (P < 0.05) on partial SPM while pH in proventriculus was reduced (P < 0.05) with inclusion of SPM in treatment diets. Lactobacilli count decreased linearly (P = 0.010) with SPM inclusion. This study suggests that SPM could be used as an alternative source of energy in production of broiler chickens. Therefore, partial replacement of maize with SPM in broiler diet had no negative effect on performance, physiological status, and overall health of broiler chickens.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Predicting fecal composition, intake, and nutrient digestibility in beef
           cattle consuming high forage diets using near infrared spectroscopy

    • First page: txad043
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to develop near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to predict fecal nutrient composition, intake, and diet digestibility from beef cattle fed high forage diets. Heifers were fed 12 different forage-based diets (>95% forage dry matter basis) in 3 total collection digestibility studies, resulting in individual fecal samples and related spectra (n = 135), corresponding nutrient intake, and apparent total tract digestibility (aTTD) data. Fecal samples were also collected from steers grazing two annual and two perennial forage mixtures over two growing seasons. Samples (n = 13/paddock) were composited by paddock resulting in 30 samples from year 1, and 24 from year 2. The grazing fecal spectra (n = 54) were added to the existing fecal composition spectral library. Dried and ground fecal samples were scanned using a FOSS DS2500 scanning monochromator (FOSS, Eden Prairie, MN). Spectra were mathematically treated for detrend and scatter correction and modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression was performed. The coefficient of determination for cross validation (R2cv) and standard error of cross validation (SECV) were used to evaluate the quality of calibrations. Prediction equations were developed for fecal composition [organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), amylase-treated ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), undigestible NDF after 240 h of in vitro incubation (uNDF), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P)], digestibility [DM, OM, aNDFom, N], and intake [DM, OM, aNDFom, N, uNDF]. The calibrations for fecal OM, N, aNDFom, ADF, ADL, uNDF, Ca, P resulted in R2cv between 0.86 and 0.97 and SECV of 1.88, 0.07, 1.70, 1.10, 0.61, 2.00, 0.18, and 0.06, respectively. Equations predicting intake of DM, OM, N, aNDFom, ADL, and uNDF resulted in R2cv values between 0.59 and 0.91, SECV values of 1.12, 1.10, 0.02, 0.69, 0.06, 0.24 kg·d−1, respectively, and SECV values between 0.00 and 0.16 when expressed as % body weight (BW). Digestibility calibrations for DM, OM, aNDFom, and N resulted in R2cv ranging from 0.65 to 0.74 and SECV values from 2.20 to 2.82. We confirm the potential of NIRS to predict fecal chemical composition, digestibility, and intake of cattle fed high forage diets. Future steps include validation of the intake calibration equations for grazing cattle using forage internal marker and modelling energetics of grazing growth performance.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial probiotic on in vitro
           rumen gas production and nutrient digestibility of different feedstuffs
           and total mixed rations

    • First page: txad044
      Abstract: AbstractWe evaluated the effects of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on total in vitro gas production, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch disappearance of different feedstuffs and total mixed rations (TMR) in three different experiments. In experiment 1, six single fiber-based feedstuffs were evaluated: alfalfa hay, buffalo grass, beet pulp, eragrostis hay, oat hay, and smutsvinger grass. Experimental treatments were control (with no probiotic inoculation; CON) or incubation of a probiotic mixture containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis (3.2 × 109 CFU/g; DFM). The calculation of DFM dose under in vitro conditions was based on the assumption of a rumen capacity of 70 liter and the dose of 3 g of the DFM mixture/head/d (9.6 × 109 CFU). Total in vitro gas production, DM, and NDF disappearance were evaluated at 24- and 48 h posttreatment incubation. Mean treatment effects were observed at 24- and 48 h gas production (P < 0.0001), as DFM incubation increased in vitro gas production by 5.0% and 6.5%, respectively. For nutrient digestibility, mean DM digestibility was increased at 48 h (P = 0.05), whereas mean NDF digestibility increased at both timepoints by incubating DFM in vitro (P ≤ 0.02). In experiment 2, nine commercial dairy TMR were collected and evaluated for the same variables and treatments described in experiment 1, with the additional analysis of starch digestibility at 7 h post in vitro incubation. The only difference was the concentration of the DFM included, being representative for a dosage of 8.8 × 109 CFU/head/d. In vitro gas production was increased only at 48 h due to DFM incubation (P = 0.05), whereas DM and NDF digestibility were improved at 24 and 48 h (P ≤ 0.02). No treatment effects were observed on in vitro starch digestibility (P = 0.31). In experiment 3, a combined analysis of DM and NDF digestibility was performed by using quality values (NDF and crude protein or CP) of 16 substrates. Regardless of CP and NDF levels of the substrates, DFM improved in vitro 24 and 48 h DM and NDF digestibility (P ≤ 0.03). In summary, incubating a Bacillus-based DFM (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis; BOVACILLUS) improved mean in vitro gas production, DM, and NDF digestibility of single feedstuffs and commercial dairy TMR, highlighting the potential of this combination of Bacillus spp. to improve nutrient utilization, mainly fiber.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Live and carcass production traits for progeny of purebred sires in
           comparison with the clone of a USDA prime yield grade one carcass

    • First page: txad041
      Abstract: AbstractCloning is a technology by which an animal’s tissue can be salvaged and replicated. Carcasses that grade USDA prime–yield grade 1 (P1) represent a rare and antagonistic outcome and are a goal for terminal sire selection in the United States. A terminal sire progeny test generated offspring for a crossbred bull (14% Zebu, 86% Angus; ALPHA), born in 2012 via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) from a carcass that graded P1. ALPHA progeny (steers and heifers) were compared against progeny of three purebred (Angus; Charolais; Simmental) reference sires. Live production traits included weaning weight, morbidity, mortality, and days on feed; carcass traits included abscessed liver frequency and lung lesion frequency, individual quality and yield grade (YG) parameters, and carcass value. Observed carcass traits for progeny from the Angus, Charolais, and Simmental sires were reflective of the carcass outcomes expected for each sire’s respective breed. Calves sired by the Angus were the earliest maturing indicated by the youngest chronological age at harvest (P ≤ 0.02) concomitant with the most backfat (P < 0.01), and the greatest marbling scores (P < 0.01). Calves sired by the Charolais had the heaviest carcass weight (P = 0.04), greatest cutability as assessed by USDA calculated YG (P < 0.01) and were the heaviest muscled based on “longissimus” muscle area (P < 0.01). ALPHA-sired calves were the most similar in carcass outcomes to calves sired by the Simmental, combining advantageous quality and yield parameters to produce an intermediate for carcass quality and yield. The economic value of moderate carcass outcomes is reflected in the carcass value per century weight, in which ALPHA-sired steers tended (P = 0.07) to be of the greatest value compared to other sire groups. ALPHA progeny performed comparably to high-performing reference sires for terminal sire production traits and the P1 genetics in which ALPHA was cloned have economical and biological value in modern U.S. beef production.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of different sow lactation feeder types and drip cooling on sow
           bodyweight, litter performance, and feeder cleaning criteria

    • First page: txad040
      Abstract: AbstractA total of 600 sows (line 3; PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used to evaluate the effect of different lactation feeder types and drip cooling on sow farrowing performance and litter growth performance during the summer. For the feeder evaluation, the trial was conducted in two sequential groups with 300 sows per group. Five 60-farrowing-stall rooms with tunnel ventilation were used for each group. On approximately days 110 to 112 of gestation, sows were blocked by body condition score (BCS), parity, and offspring sire (lines 2 or 3 sires; PIC), then randomly allotted to one of three feeder types: 1) PVC tube feeder, 2) Rotecna feeder (Rotecna), or 3) SowMax feeder (Hog Slat). The three feeder types were placed in one of three stalls with the same sequence from the front to the end of all rooms to balance for environmental effects. For drip cooling evaluation, the trial was conducted during the 2nd group of 300 sows. Drippers were blocked in three of every six farrowing stalls to balance feeder type and environmental effects. After farrowing, sows had ad libitum access to feed. For litter performance data, only pigs from sows bred to line 2 sires were recorded. Line 3 sire pigs were not included in litter performance data, but sows of these pigs were included in sow body weight (BW) and feed disappearance data. After weaning, feeder cleaning time was recorded on a subsample of 67 feeders (19, 23, and 25 for PVC tube, Rotecna, and SowMax, respectively). There was no evidence of difference (P > 0.05) in sow entry BW, exit BW, BW change, and litter performance among the different feeder types. However, sows using the SowMax feeders had decreased (P < 0.05) total feed disappearance, average daily feed disappearance, and total feed cost compared to those fed with the PVC tube feeders. There was a marginal difference (P < 0.10) between feeder types in cleaning time, with PVC tube feeders requiring less time than the Rotecna feeders; however, cleaning time varied greatly between the personnel doing the cleaning. Sows with drip cooling had greater (P < 0.05) feed disappearance, litter growth performance, and subsequent total born, and reduced (P < 0.05) BW change. In conclusion, using a SowMax feeder reduced feed disappearance with no effects on sow and litter performance compared to a PVC tube feeder, and drip cooling improved sow and litter performance during summer.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Skills for future equine sports rehabilitation careers

    • First page: txad042
      Abstract: AbstractThe field of equine sports medicine and rehabilitation provides a career opportunity for students interested in remaining in the horse industry but not focused on a career as a veterinarian. However, throughout the United States, there are limited educational opportunities for undergraduate students to prepare for this career. The objective of this work was to determine what skills and theoretical knowledge professionals in the equine rehabilitation industry deemed most useful for employment in the equine rehabilitation industry, and, using that information, develop a curriculum to meet these industry needs. To meet this objective, a Qualtrics survey was distributed through email and social media to veterinarians, veterinary professionals, rehabilitation service providers, and horse owners. In addition to demographics, the survey asked respondents to list practical skills and theoretical knowledge that are essential for professionals in the equine rehabilitation industry. The majority of the 117 respondents (84%) were located in the United States, with the remainder from Canada (5%), the United Kingdom (5%), and several other countries. Eighteen percent of respondents were veterinarians, 26% owned or managed rehabilitation facilities, 8.5% were veterinary technicians, and the remainder were horse owners, rehabilitation service providers, and others. Horse handling skills (19%) and communication skills (18%) were the most commonly listed practical skills deemed essential for rehabilitation professionals. Of the theoretical skills, evaluation of lameness (29.5%), anatomy (31%), and fundamentals of equine reconditioning programs (32%) were deemed equally important for rehabilitation professionals. These data were used to design a minor in Equine Sports Rehabilitation that incorporated fundamental knowledge in lameness evaluation and rehabilitation methods as well as significant hands-on opportunities with rehabilitating horses and communicating about rehabilitation methods and progress with clients.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Growth and growth curve analysis in Dorper × Tumele crossbred sheep under
           a smallholder management system

    • First page: txad034
      Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the growth performance and Kleiber ratio (KR) and to determine the growth curve of Dorper × Tumele sheep under a smallholder management system. Growth and efficiency-related traits were analyzed by using the general linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS. Gompertz, Logistics, Brody, Monomolecular, and Negative exponential models were used to determine the growth curve, and growth curve parameters were estimated via the nonlinear regression model (NLIN) procedure of SAS. The overall least-squares means of the birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, and yearling weight were 3.29, 13.7, 17.3, and 23.4 kg, respectively. Dorper × Tumele lambs grew faster during the preweaning period (115.3 ± 1.19 g day−1) than during the postweaning periods (44.1 ± 1.26 g day−1 to 33.5 ± 1.13 g day−1). Likewise, a higher KR was observed during the pre-weaning age (16.1 ± 0.08 g/day/kg0.75) than during postweaning periods (5.08 ± 0.13 g/day/kg0.75 to 3.10 ± 0.09 g/day/kg0.75). Brody, a model without an inflection point was the best-fitted growth function for Dorper × Tumele sheep under a smallholder management system. The highest and lowest asymptotic weight was observed for Brody (23.8 ± 0.22 kg) and Logistics (20.7 ± 0.11 kg) models, respectively. The maturation rate ranged between 0.21 (Brody) and 0.66 (Logistics). Based on the Brody model, the correlation between asymptotic weight and maturity rate was −0.92. The growth parameter estimate in this study indicates that Dorper × indigenous sheep had a better speed to achieve mature weight and the early mature crossbred sheep are less likely to exhibit high adult weight. The rapid growth of crossbred sheep during the early period can provide more profit to the farmer by reducing the cost of sheep production inputs. Therefore, crossing Tumele with Dorper sheep and integrating with improved management would be suggested to improve productivity and profit from sheep production.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Survey of the use of beef semen in dairy herds in Pennsylvania and nearby
           states

    • First page: txad038
      Abstract: AbstractBecause dairies across the United States have rapidly adopted breeding to beef breed sires, the use of beef semen has increased dramatically in recent years. The objective of this survey was to gather information about the use of beef semen by dairy producers in the Northeast United States to generate beef × dairy cattle for beef markets. The survey was conducted using the services of the Center for Survey Research at the Pennsylvania State University—Harrisburg campus. Respondents had two options for returning their responses: 1) mail the paper survey to CSR in the postage-paid business-reply envelope included in the mailing, or 2) complete the survey online via an open-access web survey link. A total of 669 surveys were received and a final number of 617 surveys were included in the responses based on completeness and validity of the responses. Because of the broad electronic distribution, a true response rate cannot be calculated. Of these, 463 (75.0%) were completed via returned paper survey, and 154 (25.0%) were completed via web, between November 9, 2021 and February 16, 2022. Of the 617 respondents, 539 were from Pennsylvania. Due to the large variations in returned survey copies by state, results are reported without state separation. Across all respondents, 69.7% reported milking 100 or fewer cows and over 90% of collected responses reported Holsteins as the predominant dairy breed in the Northeast. Only 18.8% of the respondents did not currently, nor plan to, breed with beef semen. Deciding which beef bulls to use on Northeast dairy farms was primarily based on the recommendation of the semen sales representative (54.5%) and the price of the semen purchased (42.3%). In addition, 89.7% of respondents cited using Angus genetics in their beef bull selections. However, there was no difference in reported profitability of crossbreeding between respondents who indicated using other beef breeds vs. those who indicated just using Angus (P ≥ 0.19). In conclusion, using beef sires on dairy females, regardless of the breed of beef sire, adds value to the resulting progeny from dairy farms in the Northeast.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of late-season sheep grazing following early-season steer grazing
           on population dynamics of sericea lespedeza in the Kansas Flint Hills

    • First page: txad037
      Abstract: AbstractMature ewes were used in a 4-yr study to evaluate effects of intensive late-season sheep grazing on vigor of sericea lespedeza in native tallgrass prairie. Pastures (N = 8; 31 ± 3.6 ha) infested with sericea lespedeza (initial basal frequency = 1.4%) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: early-season beef steer grazing (1.1 ha/steer; initial BW = 258 ± 34 kg) from April 15 to July 15 followed by no grazing for the rest of the year (control; STR) or steer grazing from April 15 to July 15 followed by intensive grazing by mature ewes (0.2 ha/ewe; SHP) from August 1 to October 1. Ewes (initial BW = 65 ± 3.1 kg) were assigned randomly to graze four of eight pastures; remaining pastures were not grazed from August 1 to October 1. Vegetation responses to treatment were measured along four permanent 100-m transects in each pasture. Herbivory on sericea lespedeza was monitored weekly in each pasture from July 21 to October 7. Herbivory on sericea lespedeza in SHP and STR after steer grazing and before sheep grazing was not different (P = 0.51). In contrast, sericea lespedeza herbivory following sheep grazing was greater (P < 0.01) in SHP than in STR. Herbivory of individual sericea plants was greater (P < 0.01) in SHP than in STR by the end of week 1 of the sheep-grazing period (10.6% vs. 0.5%); moreover, herbivory on sericea lespedeza steadily increased (P ≤ 0.01) such that 92.1% of sericea lespedeza plants were grazed in SHP compared to 1.4% in STR by week 8 of the sheep-grazing period. Whole-plant DM weight of sericea lespedeza at dormancy was less (P < 0.01) in SHP than in STR. Additionally, annual seed production by sericea lespedeza was less (P < 0.01) in SHP than in STR (114 vs. 864 seeds/plant). Pasture forage biomass was not different (P = 0.76) between SHP and STR after the steer-grazing period. Conversely, STR had more (P < 0.01) residual forage biomass than SHP at the end of the sheep-grazing period. Growth performance of beef steers grazing from April 15 to July 15 annually was not different (P ≥ 0.59) between treatments. Our results were interpreted to suggest that intensive late-season grazing by sheep decreased vigor of sericea lespedeza. Late-season sheep grazing decreased forage biomass by 904 kg DM/ha compared with late-season rest; however, residual biomass was adequate to prevent soil-moisture loss and erosion during the dormant season.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Correction to: Replacing cottonseed meal and sorghum with dried
           distillers’ grains with solubles enhances the growth performance,
           carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot lambs

    • First page: txad025
      Abstract: U.S. Department of Agriculture10.13039/100000199National Institute of Food and Agriculture10.13039/100005825
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Correction to: Intake, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat
           quality of feedlot lambs fed novel anthocyanin-rich corn cobs

    • First page: txad026
      Abstract: Texas Corn Producers Board
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • In ovo injection of cinnamon or clove alters the physiology and growth of
           broilers in a hot tropical environment

    • First page: txad036
      Abstract: AbstractA study was conducted to evaluate the influence of in ovo feeding of clove and cinnamon on broilers. The experiment used 700 broiler (Ross 308) hatching eggs that were incubated at the recommended temperature of 37.8 °C. On day 17.5 of incubation, 100 eggs were randomly assigned to each of the following seven treatments: uninjected eggs (OE), eggs injected 0.5 mL distilled water (DH), 2 mg of clove, 4 mg of clove, 2 mg of cinnamon, 4 mg of cinnamon, and 3 mg of ascorbic acid (AC). During the posthatch period, the chicks were raised for 56 days. Data on physiological parameters, growth performance, and intestinal histomorphology were collected. Results revealed that the plasma triiodothyronine (T3) of AC and CV2 chicken was higher than the others. Additionally, the plasma malondialdehyde levels of the chickens of AC, CV2, and CM2 were improved significantly (P < 0.05). The initial weights of CV2 birds were comparable with AC CV4, CM4, and CM2 birds but heavier than those of OE and DW. The bodyweight gain in the CV2 group was similar to AC, CV4, and CM2 groups but heavier than OE, DW, and CM4 birds. Feed intake of OE and DW groups was similar to AC, CV2, CV4, and CM2 but higher than CM4. The feed conversion ratio of OE and DW chickens was comparable but higher than the value obtained in chickens of other treatments. The intestinal morphology of the birds did not follow a particular trend. The study concluded that the in ovo injection of 2 mg of clove improved broiler birds’ metabolic and antioxidant status at hatch. The high and low doses of clove and the low dose of cinnamon improved the performance of broiler chickens at the market age in a hot tropical environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Industry survey of added vitamins and trace minerals in U.S. swine diets

    • First page: txad035
      Abstract: AbstractFrom November 2021 to February 2022, 37 swine nutritionists representing 29 production systems and 8 nutrition supplier companies in the United States were surveyed about added vitamin and trace mineral concentrations in swine diets. Respondents were asked to provide vitamin premix and trace mineral concentrations, inclusion rates, and weight ranges associated with feeding phases. Survey participants represented 4.38 million sows, or 72% of the U.S. industry. Data were compiled into three nursery phases (phase 1, weaning to 7 kg; phase 2, 7 to 11 kg; and phase 3, 11 to 23 kg), three finishing phases (23 to 55 kg; 55 to 100 kg; 100 kg to market), gilt development, gestation, lactation, and boar. Within each dietary phase, the vitamins and trace minerals of interest included: vitamins A, D, E, and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, vitamin C, carnitine, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc, cobalt, and chromium. Descriptive statistics used included: average, weighted average (determined by the total number of sows represented), median, minimum, maximum, 25th percentile (lowest quartile), and 75th percentile (highest quartile). In addition, all average supplementation rates for vitamins and trace minerals within each phase of production were compared to the requirement estimates reported in the NRC (2012). Nutritionists generally supplemented vitamins and trace minerals well above the NRC (2012) requirement estimates. However, great variation among respondents was observed in all vitamins and trace minerals, particularly in the fat-soluble vitamins. Also, the use of alternative sources of vitamin D [25(OH)D3], E (natural, d-alpha-tocopherol), and organic or chelated minerals like copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc were being used by approximately 40% of the respondents, primarily in breeding herd and nursery diets. Understanding current supplementation practices may help develop research trials to test different vitamin and trace mineral inclusions and provide an industry benchmark of vitamin and trace mineral usage.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of corn-fermented protein as a dietary ingredient in extruded
           dog and cat diets

    • First page: txad032
      Abstract: AbstractMost pet foods utilize traditional ingredients like corn, wheat, and soy. These ingredients and other grains, such as distillers dried grains (DDG), have been used by the pet food industry. Corn-fermented protein (CFP) is a nutrient-dense enhancement on DDG but has not been evaluated in pet food. Therefore, it was the objective of this study to determine the effect of CFP in the production of extruded pet diets, and to determine the effect on nutrient utilization (digestibility) and stool consistency in dogs, and palatability in dogs and cats. Experimental diets with treatment protein sources (corn gluten meal [CGM], soybean meal [SBM], and CFP) were produced in triplicate using a single-screw extruder. Processing parameters and kibble samples were collected at timed intervals during diet production. Kibbles were evaluated for physical dimension and texture. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed in any physical dimension or texture parameters evaluated, with exception of radial expansion, which was lower (P < 0.05) for CFP kibble compared to others. The CFP kibble required a smaller (P < 0.05) mass restriction valve opening, to keep similar bulk density among dietary treatments. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in specific mechanical energy among treatments during diet production. Twelve beagles were fed the experimental diets in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin Square design in which four dogs were randomly assigned to each of three treatments for each period. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and were supplemented with titanium dioxide to serve as an external marker in order to estimate apparent total tract digestibility. Dogs were housed individually and fed twice daily, and water was available ad libitum. Feces were collected after feedings. The diet produced with CGM was more digestible (P < 0.05) than CFP and SBM for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, and gross energy. Further, the CFP diet was also less (P < 0.05) digestible than the SBM diet for dry matter and organic matter. Dogs fed the diet containing CFP had higher (P < 0.05) fecal mass than those fed SBM and CGM. The CFP diet also resulted in a higher fecal score (P < 0.05) than those fed diets with the CGM diet, but similar (P > 0.05) to the SBM diet. For palatability assessment, dogs had a preference (P < 0.05) for CGM over SBM or CFP, but cats showed a preference (P < 0.05) for SBM and CFP over CGM. Results indicate that CFP is acceptable for use in dog and cat diets. Further research should be conducted to evaluate the use of these ingredients at lower inclusion levels.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Inclusion of spray dried plasma in diets based on different ingredient
           combinations increases the digestibility of energy, fiber, Ca, and P by
           young pigs

    • First page: txad031
      Abstract: AbstractAn experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of spray dried plasma (SDP) in diets increases apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and/or the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of gross energy (GE) and nutrients in diets for young pigs, and that ATTD of energy and nutrients or STTD of P in individual ingredients are additive in diets containing SDP. Eighty barrows (body weight: 9.30 ± 0.97 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted to 1 of 10 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. Four diets were prepared without SDP and contained ingredients commonly used in the United States, Canada, the European Union, or Asia. Four additional diets were prepared by mixing 94% of the previous four diets and 6% SDP. A diet containing SDP as the sole source of P and a P-free diet were also formulated. The ATTD of GE and nutrients and the STTD of P were calculated in all diets except the P-free diet and for the four regional diets containing 6% SDP, values were also predicted from the digestibility obtained in SDP alone and the regional diets without SDP. Differences between measured and predicted values for digestibility of GE and nutrients were also calculated. An interaction was observed between SDP and region for the ATTD of soluble dietary fiber where the digestibility decreased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the U.S. diet with 6% SDP compared with 0% SDP, but that was not the case for the other regional diets. There was no interaction for the ATTD of GE, N, insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), total dietary fiber (TDF), Ca, and P or the STTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD values were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.10%) when 6% SDP was included in the diet compared with diets with 0% SDP. The ATTD of GE, IDF, TDF, and P, and the STTD of P was greater (P < 0.05) for the Asia diet compared with the other diets regardless of inclusion of SDP. The measured ATTD of IDF and TDF was greater (P < 0.05) than the predicted values for the U.S. and European Union diets, and the measured ATTD of GE, N, Ca, and P and the STTD of P was greater (P < 0.05) than the predicted values for the Asia diet. In conclusion, addition of 6% SDP to a diet will increase the ATTD of energy and nutrients and the STTD of P in diets for weanling pigs, and in some cases, the measured ATTD of energy and nutrients or the STTD of P by pigs fed diets containing SDP is greater than predicted from individual ingredients.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of a pre- and probiotic mixture and an autogenous vaccine on
           growth performance in newly weaned piglets experimentally challenged with
           an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    • First page: txad030
      Abstract: AbstractBeneficial effects of pro- and prebiotics in weanling piglets are of great interest in livestock production. Similarly, the use of specific vaccines is of interest as alternative to antibiotics to reduce postweaning performance losses. The aim of this study was the assessment of the effect of a dual-strain probiotic (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) and a prebiotic (fructo-oligosaccharides) as well as the additional vaccination with an autogenous inactivated Escherichia coli vaccine on the performance of newly weaned piglets after experimental infection with an enterotoxigenic E. coli. Forty piglets at the age of 28 d were randomly allotted to one of five groups: nonchallenged control (NC); challenged positive control (PC); challenged and vaccinated (CV); challenged and diet supplemented with pre- and probiotic mix (CM) and challenged, diet supplemented with pro- and prebiotic mix and vaccinated (CMV). Piglets of CV and CMV were vaccinated parenterally prior to the trial at the age of 17 d. Compared to NC, the experimental infection with E. coli resulted in a significant reduction of body weight gain in both vaccinated groups (P = 0.045), which was associated with an impaired gain to feed ratio (P = 0.012), but not feed intake. In contrast, piglets in the group supplemented with pro- and prebiotics (group CM) were able to maintain their weight and had an average daily gain, which was not significantly different from groups NC and PC. No differences regarding body weight gain, feed intake, gain to feed ratio and fecal score were observed between groups during the 3rd and 4th week of the trial. A significant impairment of fecal consistency and frequency of diarrhea was observed related to the oral challenge when comparing PC and NC treatments (P = 0.024). Neither vaccine, nor supplementation with pro- and prebiotics were able to significantly improve fecal consistency, nor did they have a positive effect on the prevalence of diarrhea. The results show no positive synergistic effect of the specific combination of vaccine and pre- and probiotics used in this trial on performance and diarrhea. The results show that the concept of a combination of a specific vaccination and a probiotic with a prebiotic needs further investigation. In the sense of avoiding the use of antibiotics, this seems to be an attractive approach.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Supplement feed efficiency of growing beef cattle grazing native Campos
           grasslands during winter: a collated analysis

    • First page: txad028
      Abstract: AbstractSupplementing growing cattle grazing native subtropical Campos grasslands during winter improves the low, even negative, average daily weight gain (ADG) typical of extensive animal production systems in Uruguay. Nonetheless, to render the practice profitable, it is crucial to control supplement feed efficiency (SFE), that is, the difference in ADG between supplemented and control animals (ADGchng) per unit of supplement dry matter (DM) intake. Little has been studied specifically on how SFE varies in these systems. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude and variation in SFE of growing beef cattle grazing stockpiled native Campos grasslands during winter and assess putative associations with herbage, animals, supplements, and climatic variables. We compiled data from supplementation trials carried out in Uruguay between 1993 and 2018, each evaluating between one and six supplementation treatments. The average ADG of unsupplemented and supplemented animals were 0.13 ± 0.174 and 0.49 ± 0.220 kg/animal/day, respectively. In both cases, ADG decreased linearly as the proportion of green herbage in the grazed grassland was lower, but the ADG of unsupplemented animals was further reduced when winter frosts were numerous. Estimated SFE were moderately high, with an average of 0.21 ± 0.076 ADGchng/kg DM, resulting from average ADGchng of 0.38 ± 0.180 kg/animal/day in response to an average supplementation rate of 1.84 ± 0.68 kg supplement DM intake/animal/day (0.86%  ± 0.27% body weight). No association was found between SFE and supplementation rate or type (protein vs. energy-based; P > 0.05), but forage allowance negatively affected it, and herbage mass positively affected it, yet in a smaller magnitude, suggesting that a balance is needed between the two to maximize SFE. Weather conditions during trials affected SFE (P < 0.05), with greater SFE in winters with lower temperatures and more frosts. Daytime grazing time was consistently lower in supplemented animals compared to their unsupplemented counterparts, whereas ruminating time during the day was similar, increasing as the proportion of green herbage decreased. Herbage intake estimated from energy balance suggested the existence of some substitution effect. This agrees with the moderately high SFE and with the total digestible nutrients-to-protein ratio of these subtropical humid grasslands being higher than in semi-arid rangelands and dry-season tropical pastures but lower than in sown pastures.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Residual effect of narasin on feed intake and rumen fermentation
           characteristics in Nellore steers fed forage-based diet

    • First page: txad027
      Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the residual effect of narasin on intake and ruminal fermentation parameters in Nellore cattle fed a forage-based diet. Thirty rumen-cannulated Nellore steers [initial body weight (BW) = 281 ± 21 kg] were allocated to individual pens in a randomized complete block design, with 10 blocks and 3 treatments, defined according to the fasting BW at the beginning of the experiment. The animals were fed a forage-based diet containing 99% Tifton-85 haylage and 1% concentrate. Within blocks, animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (1) forage-based diet without addition of narasin (CON; n = 10), (2) CON diet plus 13 mg of narasin/kg DM (N13; n = 10), or (3) CON diet plus 20 mg of narasin/kg DM (N20; n =10). The experiment lasted 156 d and was divided into two periods. The first period lasted 140 d and consisted of the daily supply of narasin. In the second period (last 16 d), the animals were not supplemented with narasin when the residual effect of the additive was evaluated. The treatments were evaluated by linear and quadratic orthogonal contrasts. The results were reported as least square means and the effect was considered significant when P ≤ 0.05. No treatment × day interaction was identified for dry matter intake (P = 0.27). There was a treatment × day (P ≤ 0.03) interaction after narasin removal for the molar proportion of acetate, propionate, ac:prop ratio, and ammonia nitrogen. The inclusion of narasin decreased linearly (P < 0.01) the molar proportion of acetate (P < 0.01), and this effect persisted until day 5 after narasin withdrawal (P < 0.01). Narasin inclusion linearly increased the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.04), and linearly decreased (P < 0.01) ac:prop ratio up to 5 d after removing narasin from the diets. No treatment effects were observed (P > 0.45) on days 8 and 16 after the withdrawal. Narasin linearly decreased ammonia nitrogen up to 1 day after withdrawal (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the use of narasin for a prolonged period (140 d) resulted in a residual effect on rumen fermentation parameters after the removal of the additive from the diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Association of a variant upstream of growth differentiation factor 11
           (GDF11) on carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle

    • First page: txad029
      Abstract: AbstractThe mature peptide of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) in Bos taurus breeds, shares 90% amino acid sequence similarity to myostatin (MSTN), where loss-of-function mutations result in muscular hyperplasia causing a phenotype known as double-muscling. Mutations in the MSTN coding sequence increase muscle mass and reduce fat and bone tissues, but also confer poor fertility, reduced stress tolerance, and increased calf mortality. GDF11 influences skeletal muscle development in mice, and muscular atrophy can be induced by exogenous GDF11 treatment. To date, there are no reports of GDF11’s role in bovine carcass traits. To determine associations between GDF11 and carcass quality in beef cattle, bovine GDF11 was examined in crossbred Canadian beef cattle populations during finishing. Few coding variants were found in this functionally important gene, but an upstream variant c.1-1951C > T (rs136619751) with a minor allele frequency of 0.31 was identified and further genotyped in two separate populations of crossbred steers (n = 415 and 450). CC animals had lower backfat thickness, marbling percentage, and yield score than CT or TT animals (P < 0.001 and < 0.05). These data suggest a role of GDF11 in carcass quality in beef cattle and may provide a selection tool to improve carcass traits in cattle.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Influence of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles substitution
           for steam-flaked corn on characteristics of growth performance, and
           dietary energetics of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 16-week
           growing phase: metabolizable protein versus metabolizable amino acids

    • First page: txad024
      Abstract: AbstractThis study evaluates the partial replacement of steam-flaked corn (SFC) with increasing dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) levels in growing-finishing diets for calf-fed Holstein steers. Two experiments were conducted. In trial 1, 100 Holstein calves (136 ± 7 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of DDGS as a metabolizable protein source on cattle growth performance, and dietary energetics of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 111 d growing phase. Four dietary levels of DDGS were evaluated (10, 15, 20, and 25%, dry matter basis), replacing SFC (flake density, 0.31 kg/L). In trial 2, four Holstein steers (368 ± 20 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber, nitrogen (N), and indispensable amino acid supply to the small intestine. The increasing level of DDGS did not affect (P ≥ 0.13) average daily gain, gain efficiency, and estimated dietary net energy values. Replacement of SFC with increasing levels of DDGS decreased (linear; P = 0.01) ruminal OM digestion. There was no treatment effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the small intestine (P = 0.34) and ruminal microbial efficiency (P = 0.79). However, increasing levels of DDGS in the diet increased (linear; P ≤ 0.04) flow of methionine, histidine, phenylalanine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine but did not affect (P = 0.74) intestinal supply of lysine. Increasing DDGS in the diet increased (linear, P < 0.01) flow of N to the small intestine but decreased (linear; P < 0.01) ruminal N efficiency. Replacing SFC with DDGS increased intake and amino acid leaving the abomasum. Still, this effect was not sufficient to increase the growth performance of calf-fed Holstein during the first 111 d on feed.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Reviewer List

    • First page: txad009
      Abstract: The Section Editors and the Editor-In-Chief of Translational Animal Science like to thank the many scientists who have contributed their time and talents reviewing manuscripts for the journal. Reviewing for the journal is critical to ensuring that the best science is published. The expertise of these individuals is invaluable to the journal, the animal science community and to those that depend on the high-quality science that is published.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of dietary cation–anion difference on dry matter intake,
           digestibility, body weight gain, blood parameters, and carcass traits in
           Zandi lambs

    • First page: txad019
      Abstract: AbstractThe dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) has gotten much attention recently; however, there is not much evidence on organic matter digestibility, blood parameters, dry matter intake, body weight, and carcass features of male sheep fed with different DCAD diets. The effects of dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) on these traits in male lambs under the environmental high temperatures were investigated in this study. Forty male lambs (average body weight of 39 kg) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with eight replicates. Lambs were fed diets with DCAD levels ranging from 150 (control group) to 300, 450, 600, and 750 mEq/kg dry matter. This study lasted 100 d and used a 21-d adaptation. The results showed that the control group had the highest dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility, and crude protein digestibility (P = 0.02). Also, the lowest amount of average body weight was observed in the control group (P = 0.01). The results showed the different DCAD levels affected the statistical significance in terms of live weight, carcass weight, length and width of muscle cross section, lung weight, spleen weight, and abdominal fat (P = 0.04). As well, the highest ruminal pH was observed in the control group (P = 0.4). The results of the blood glucose parameter showed that control group had a significant effect on the blood glucose level (P = 0.04). Furthermore, the highest abdominal fat weight was observed in the control group (P = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference between other traits, including skin weight, head weight, leg weight, carcass length, liver weight, kidney weight, heart weight, testicle weight, tail weight, rumen weight, and lactation weight. In summary, increasing DCAD in the diet could improve the production and carcass quality in lambs under environmental high temperatures.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of supplementing narasin to Bos indicus heifers during
           late-gestation and lactation on development of the offspring

    • First page: txad023
      Abstract: AbstractThis experiment evaluated the effects of supplementing narasin during late-gestation and lactation on productive and physiological responses of Bos indicus beef heifers and their offspring. Pregnant, nulliparous Nelore heifers (N = 88) that conceived under the same fixed-time artificial insemination protocol and to the same sire were used. Heifers were ranked by maternal ability genomic score, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) and allocated to 44 drylot pens (2 heifers per pen; 10 × 25 m). Pens were ranked by these traits and alternatively assigned to receive (NAR) or not (CON) 0.260 mg of narasin/kg of heifer BW daily (Elanco Saúde Animal, São Paulo, Brazil). Narasin was mixed into a supplement offered at 0.30% of heifer BW from day 0 until heifers weaned their calves (day 316), whereas CON heifers received the same supplement without narasin addition. Heifers received Urochloa brizantha hay and water for ad libitum consumption (days 0 to 316) and calved between days 97 to 112 of the experiment. After calving, heifers and offspring had access to hay and supplement; hence, supplements and narasin were offered according to heifer + calf BW beginning on day 162. No treatment differences were detected (P ≥ 0.18) for heifer BW and BCS during the experiment, although BW loss from day 0 to calving was less (P = 0.04) in NAR compared to CON heifers. Hay intake during the experiment did not differ (P = 0.79) between treatments. Serum IGF-I concentrations were greater (P = 0.05) for NAR heifers on day 60 of the experiment and did not differ (P ≥ 0.28) between treatments 24 h and 30 d after calving (treatment × day interaction; P = 0.04). No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.58) for calf birth BW. Serum concentrations of total protein 24 h after birth were greater (P = 0.04) in calves from NAR compared with CON heifers, and a tendency (P = 0.10) for a similar outcome was noted for serum IgG concentrations. Diarrhea incidence did not differ (P = 0.16) between treatments, although the number of total diarrhea cases per calf were greater (P = 0.03) in the CON offspring. Growth rate of calves from NAR heifers tended (P = 0.08) to be greater, resulting in heavier calves at weaning (P ≤ 0.04) compared with CON offspring. Collectively, these outcomes indicate narasin supplementation to beef heifers as a nutritional alternative to improve cow–calf productivity via developmental programming effects during gestation, as well as direct consumption by their nursing offspring.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Weanling pigs consume more feed if hybrid rye replaces corn in diets, but
           average daily gain and fecal scores are not impacted by hybrid rye

    • First page: txad022
      Abstract: AbstractAn experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that growth performance and health status of pigs will not be reduced if hybrid rye is included in diets at the expense of corn during the initial 5 wk post-weaning. A total of 128 weanling pigs (5.6 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly allotted to 32 pens and 4 dietary treatments. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 35 d in three phases with days 1 to 7 being phase 1, days 8 to 21 being phase 2, and days 22 to 35 being phase 3. Within each phase, a control diet primarily based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, and three additional diets were formulated by including 8.0, 16.0, or 24.0% (phase 1), 16.0, 32.0, or 48.0% (phase 2), and 20.0, 40.0, or 60.3% (phase 3) hybrid rye in the diet at the expense of corn. Pig weights were recorded at the start and conclusion of each phase, fecal scores were visually assessed every other day on a pen basis, and blood samples were obtained from 1 pig per pen on days 21 and 35. Results indicated that average daily gain (ADG) in phase 1 increased (linear, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of hybrid rye increased, but no other differences in ADG were observed. Average daily feed intake linearly increased in phase 1, phase 3, and overall (P < 0.05) as hybrid rye inclusion increased in the diets, and gain:feed was negatively impacted by the inclusion of hybrid rye in the diet (phase 1, linear, P < 0.05; phases 2, 3, and overall, quadratic, P < 0.05). No differences in average fecal scores or diarrhea incidence were observed. On days 21 and 35, blood urea N increased (linear, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye increased in the diets; and on day 21, serum total protein also increased (linear, P < 0.05) with increasing hybrid rye inclusion in the diet. Mean blood hemoglobin concentration on day 35 increased and then decreased as hybrid rye inclusion increased (quadratic, P < 0.05). On day 21, interleukin (IL) 2 and IL 10 decreased and then increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye inclusion increased. On day 35, IL 8 and IL 12 increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) and interferon-gamma decreased and then increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) as hybrid rye inclusion increased. In conclusion, the ADG of pigs was not different among treatments, but at the highest hybrid rye inclusion level, pigs consumed more feed than if corn was fed and gain:feed was reduced with increasing hybrid rye in diets. Differences in blood serum cytokines indicate the immune system was affected differently when hybrid rye instead of corn was fed.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Carcass and meat quality traits in Brangus steers

    • First page: txad021
      Abstract: AbstractThe quality grade system used in the United States to identify carcasses with superior eating satisfaction to consumers is based on the amount of marbling within the ribeye and the maturity of the carcass. However, the most important quality attribute for consumers is tenderness. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic correlations between carcass and meat quality traits of strip loin steaks from Brangus steers, particularly the relation between the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) quality grade and tenderness. Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values in this study averaged 5.10 ± 0.96 kg, slightly higher than the national average of 4.55 ± 1.14 kg. Average WBSF across all quality grades ranged from 4.90 to 5.27 kg with standard deviations ranging from 0.78 to 1.40 kg. In the present Brangus steer population, there was a weak negative (−0.13) but favorable correlation (P < 0.05) between marbling score and tenderness measured through WBSF. The USDA quality grade had a significant (P = 0.02) effect on WBSF. The WBSF least square means were significantly higher in the Select compared with the Choice¯, and Choiceº quality grades. The Choice⁺ and Prime quality grades were not significantly different from any quality grades regarding the WBSF. The standard quality grade did not have significantly different WBSF least square means from any other quality grade. The range of WBSF values was large, especially in the lower quality grade categories, indicating that there is considerable variation in tenderness, even within quality grade. The high level of variation in tenderness within USDA quality grades highlights the limitation of the USDA grading system to predict eating quality or tenderness.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Amino acid digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy
           of mildly cooked human-grade vegan dog foods using the precision-fed
           cecectomized and conventional rooster assays

    • First page: txad020
      Abstract: AbstractThe pet food market is constantly changing and adapting to meet the needs and desires of pets and their owners. One trend that has been growing in popularity lately is the feeding of fresh, human-grade foods. Human-grade pet foods contain ingredients that have all been stored, handled, processed, and transported in a manner that complies with regulations set for human food production. While most human-grade pet foods are based on animal-derived ingredients, vegan options also exist. To our knowledge, no in vivo studies have been conducted to analyze the performance of human-grade vegan diets. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the amino acid (AA) digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) of mildly cooked human-grade vegan dog foods using precision-fed cecectomized rooster and conventional rooster assays. Three commercial dog foods were tested. Two were mildly cooked human-grade vegan dog diets (Bramble Cowbell diet (BC); Bramble roost diet (BR)), while the third was a chicken-based extruded dog diet (chicken and brown rice recipe diet (CT)). Prior to the rooster assays, both mildly cooked diets were lyophilized, and then all three diets were ground. Diets were fed to cecectomized roosters to determine AA digestibility, while conventional roosters were used to determine TMEn. All data were analyzed using the mixed models procedure of SAS (version 9.4). The majority of indispensable and dispensable AA across all diets had digestibilities higher than 80%, with a few exceptions (BC: histidine, lysine, threonine, and valine; BR: histidine). The only difference in indispensable AA digestibility among diets was observed with tryptophan, with its digestibility being higher (P = 0.0163) in CT than in BC. TMEn values were higher (P = 0.006) in BC and BR (4.55 and 4.66 kcal/g dry matter, respectively) than that in CT (3.99 kcal/g dry matter). The TMEn/GE was also higher (P = 0.0193) in BR than in CT. Metabolizable energy (ME) estimates using Atwater factors accurately estimated the energy content of CT, but modified Atwater factors and the predictive equations for ME recommended by the National Research Council underestimated energy content. All calculations underestimated the measured TMEn values of BC and BR, with Atwater factors being the closest. Although testing in dogs is required, these data suggest that mildly cooked human-grade vegan dog diets are well-digested. Moreover, TMEn data suggest that existing methods and equations underestimate the ME of the mildly cooked human-grade vegan foods tested.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of fat source and level on growth performance and carcass
           characteristics of commercial finishing pigs

    • First page: txad018
      Abstract: AbstractTwo experiments evaluated different fat sources and levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economic impact in commercial finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 2,160 pigs (337 × 1,050, PIC; initially 37.3 ± 0.93 kg) were used. Pens of pigs were blocked by initial body weight and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments. Three of the four dietary treatments included: 0%, 1%, and 3% choice white grease. The final treatment contained no added fat until pigs were approximately 100 kg, and then a diet containing 3% fat was fed until marketing. Experimental diets were fed over four phases and were corn–soybean meal based with 40% distillers dried grains with solubles. Overall, increasing choice white grease decreased (linear, P = 0.006) average daily feed intake (ADFI) and increased (linear, P = 0.006) G:F. Pigs fed 3% fat only during the late-finishing phase (~100 to 129 kg) had similar G:F compared to pigs fed 3% for the entire study during the late-finishing phase, and intermediate G:F overall. Increasing fat tended to increase (linear, P = 0.068) hot carcass weight (HCW). Feed cost increased (linear, P ≤ 0.005) and income over feed cost decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.041) as choice white grease increased. In Experiment 2, 2,011 pigs (PIC 1,050 × DNA 600; initially 28.3 ± 0.53 kg) were used. Pens of pigs were blocked by location in the barn and randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of fat source (choice white grease or corn oil) and level (1% or 3% of the diet) and a control diet with no added fat. Overall, increasing fat, regardless of source, increased (linear, P < 0.001) average daily gain (ADG), decreased (linear, P = 0.013) ADFI, and increased (linear, P < 0.001) G:F. Increasing fat increased (linear, P ≤ 0.016) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth. There was a fat source × level interaction (P < 0.001) in carcass fat iodine value (IV), where IV increased to a greater extent in pigs fed corn oil with only a small increase in IV in pigs fed diets with choice white grease. In conclusion, these experiments suggest that increasing fat from 0% to 3%, regardless of source, produced variable responses in ADG but consistently improved G:F. Increasing fat increased HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth, but feeding diets containing corn oil increased carcass IV. With the ingredient prices used, the improvement in growth performance did not justify the extra diet cost from increasing fat from 0% to 3% in most situations.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Chicken’s best friend' Livestock guardian dog bonding with
           free-ranging chickens

    • First page: txad014
      Abstract: AbstractGrowth in the free-range and pastured egg industries has increased globally, necessitating improvements in predator control. Some egg producers are turning to the use of livestock guardian dogs (LGD; Canis familiaris) to protect hens from predation. We worked on a property where pastured layer hens were protected by two Maremma LGDs that were released from their chicken enclosure for 2–3 nights a week. GPS tracking showed that the dogs were more strongly bonded to people than the chickens, spending most of their time at night (96.1% of location data) close to the farmhouse and only 0.09% near their chicken paddock. Despite this lack of attendance, we found no change in the paddock space use by chickens with or without the dogs present (P = 0.999). Furthermore, camera trapping revealed 40 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) events over the 46-d monitoring period, with less fox activity on nights when the LGDs were allowed to roam the property and motion-activated spotlights were also deployed (P = 0.048). An online survey of 59 poultry producers found strong belief in the effectiveness of LGDs, although half the respondents (52%) indicated that they were still experiencing predation issues. There was no association with the reported degree of human bonding of their LGDs, but respondents were more likely to report current issues with predators if they owned 100 or more chickens (P = 0.031). The present case study as well as the farmer survey have identified that LGDs can be strongly bonded to people. Although there was no evidence of subsequently increased risk of predation, bonding with people could draw LGDs away from the animals they should be defending, with predation risk for poultry likely to depend on how far away LGDs move from their livestock.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The nutritional quality of a fresh orange pulp-wheat straw mixture ensiled
           with either sugar beet pulp, wheat bran, or urea compared to corn silage
           (Zea mays) in sheep

    • First page: txad017
      Abstract: AbstractThis study compares corn silage (CS) with an orange pulp-wheat straw mixture (OW) ensiled with either sugar beet pulp (SBP), wheat bran (WB), or urea in terms of intake, chemical composition, phenolic compounds, silage fermentation characteristics, digestibility, in vivo rumen variables and biochemical blood variables in 48 Shall male sheep, and in vitro methane (CH4) production. In addition to CS, five other silages: OW (i.e., 87.5% fresh orange pulp + 12.5% wheat straw); OWU (OW + 1% urea); OWS (87.5% fresh orange pulp + 8.6% wheat straw + 3.9% SBP); OWSU (87.5% fresh orange pulp + 8.6% wheat straw + 1% urea + 3.9% SBP); and OWB (87.5% fresh orange pulp + 8.6% wheat straw + 3.9% SBP) were ensiled for 90 days. All diets, which contained a mineral-vitamin premix (10 g/kg of dry matter [DM]), were each randomly assigned to five sheep (live weight 40 ± 2.5 kg) using a completely randomized design, and the SAS software MIXED method was used for data analysis. Among all silages, OWU and OWSU had the highest (P < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration, but there were no differences in other fermentation characteristics. Animals fed on the CS diet had higher DM intake (P = 0.01) and DM (P = 0.01), organic matter (P = 0.01), and neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.02) digestibilities compared with other diets. However, sheep receiving OWU and OWSU diets had higher (P < 0.01) crude protein digestibility than those fed on other diets. The OWU and OWSU-fed sheep had the highest (P = 0.04) ruminal ammonia-N concentration. Sheep fed on CS had higher (P = 0.03) ruminal total short-chain fatty acids, acetate concentration (P = 0.02), total protozoa (P < 0.01), and cellulolytic bacteria numbers (P < 0.01), but had a lower (P = 0.03) propionate concentration compared with the other sheep. In vitro CH4 production was higher (P = 0.01) with the CS diet compared to the orange pulp diets. Estimated microbial protein supply was lower (P = 0.05) with CS compared to all orange silages. In conclusion, the variation in the nutritive quality among the OWS, OWSU, and OWB is relatively small, and the OWB, which is most comparable to CS, was judged to be nutritionally the best among the diets.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of long-term supplementation of a direct-fed microbial and
           enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast cell culture product on feedlot growth
           performance, efficiency of dietary net energy utilization, heat stress
           measures, and carcass characteristics in beef steers

    • First page: txad016
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this research was to determine the influence of long-term supplementation (258 d) of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and yeast cell wall (YCW) product used alone or in combination on growth performance, dietary net energy utilization, and carcass characteristics in beef steers finished under climatic conditions in the Northern Plains (NP). Single-sourced Charolais × Red Angus steers [n = 256; body weight = 246 ± 1.68 kg] were blocked by pen location in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of DFM and YCW. Steers were administered a series of diets common to the NP and administered ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 300 mg/kg) during the last 28 d of the finishing phase. Steers were vaccinated and poured at processing and individually weighed on days 1, 14, 42, 77, 105, 133, 161, 182, 230, and 258. Temperature–humidity index (THI) was calculated during RH supplementation. For 98% of the experiment, the THI was lower than 72 and thus cattle were not under high-ambient temperature. On days 1, 2, 21, and 22 of RH supplementation, respiration rates (RR), and panting scores (PS) were determined before and after AM and PM feedings (0700 h, 1100 h, 1400 h, and 1700 h). A DFM + YCW interaction was noted for the proportion of steers categorized as PS 2.0 at 1100 h on day 21 (P = 0.03) and RR on day 21 at 1400 h (P = 0.02). Control steers had a greater proportion of PS 2.0 compared to DFM or YCW steers (P ≤ 0.05), while DFM + YCW steers did not differ from others (P ≥ 0.05); DFM + YCW steers had greater (P < 0.05) RR compared to DFM steers, while control and YCW steers did not differ from others (P ≥ 0.05). No DFM + YCW interactions or main effects (P ≥ 0.05) were observed for cumulative growth performance measures. However, YCW steers had 2% lower (P = 0.04) dry matter intakes compared to steers not fed YCW. No DFM + YCW interactions or main effects (P ≥ 0.05) were observed for carcass traits or liver abscess severity. However, a DFM + YCW interaction (P < 0.05) was noted for the distribution of USDA yield grade (YG) 1 and Prime carcasses. Control steers had a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of YG 1 carcasses compared to other treatments. DFM+YCW steers had a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of USDA Prime carcasses compared to DFM or YCW but were similar to control steers, which were also similar to DFM or YCW. Overall, the use of DFM and YCW alone or in combination had minimal effects on growth performance, carcass traits, and heat stress measures in steers finished in NP climatic conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Case study: effects of low-stress weaning on calf growth performance and
           carcass characteristics

    • First page: txad015
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare the influence of two low-stress weaning methods with conventional weaning on post-weaning performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers. Single-sourced steer calves (n = 89) were stratified by body weight (BW) and dam age into three groups in a completely randomized design (n = 29 or 30 steers/treatment): ABRUPT (calves isolated from dams on the day of weaning), FENCE (calves separated from dams via a fence for 7 d prior to completely weaning), and NOSE (nose-flap inserted and calves remained with dams for 7 d prior to completely weaning). At day +7 post-weaning, calves were transported to a commercial feedlot where they received standard step-up and finishing rations typical for a Northern Plains feedlot. BWs were recorded in study day −7 (PreTreat), 0 (Weaning), 7 (PostWean), 26 (Receiving), 175 (Ultrasound), and 238 or 268 (Final), and average daily gains (ADG) were calculated for each time period. Blood samples were collected via coccygeal venipuncture at d −7 (PreTreat), 0 (Weaning), and +7 (PostWean) from a subsample of calves (n = 10 per treatment) and analyzed for haptoglobin (acute-phase stress protein) concentrations using a bovine haptoglobin ELISA kit. On day 175, ultrasound fat thickness and intramuscular fat were determined and utilized to project marketing dates when steers reached 1.27 cm of backfat (day 238 or 268). Carcass measurements were recorded at the time of harvest. The weaning method interacted (P < 0.01) with a time period for ADG and BW. Calf ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in the NOSE treatment during PreTreat to Weaning than ABRUPT or FENCE. In the Weaning to PostWean period, the FENCE calves had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than ABRUPT and NOSE. During the Postwean to Receiving period ADG was greater (P < 0.04) for ABRUPT compared to FENCE and NOSE. Calf ADG was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments for the remainder of the feeding period. Calf BW did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05) at all times of weighing. Haptoglobin was undetectable in all samples except two samples collected on day −7. The weaning method did not influence (P > 0.05) carcass measurements. Collectively these data suggest low-stress weaning methods do not significantly improve post-weaning growth performance or carcass characteristics compared to using conventional methods despite minor, short-term alterations in ADG during the weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Using precision tools to manage and evaluate the effects of mineral and
           protein/energy supplements fed to grazing beef heifers

    • First page: txad013
      Abstract: AbstractOur objectives were to develop a Mobile Cow Command Center (MCCC) capable of precision monitoring of grazing heifers to 1) examine the relationship between supplement intake on concentrations of liver mineral and blood metabolites and 2) examine activity, reproductive, and health behavior. Yearling crossbred Angus heifers (N = 60; initial BW = 400.4 ± 6.2 kg) were fitted with radio frequency identification ear tags that allowed access to electronic feeders (SmartFeed system; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD), and with activity monitoring tags (CowManager B.V., the Netherlands) that monitored reproductive, feeding, and health-associated behaviors. Heifers were assigned randomly to one of three treatments for a 57-day monitoring period: 1) no supplement (CON; N = 20), 2) free choice mineral (MIN; Purina Wind and Rain Storm [Land O’Lakes, Inc.], N = 20), or 3) free choice energy and mineral supplement (NRG; Purina Accuration Range Supplement 33 with added MIN [Land O’Lakes, Inc.], N = 20). Consecutive day body weights, blood, and liver biopsies were collected at pasture turnout and final day of monitoring. By design, mineral intake was greatest in MIN heifers (49 ± 37 g/d) and energy supplement intake was greatest in NRG heifers (1,257 ± 37 g/d). Final BW and ADG were similar among treatments (P > 0.42). Concentrations of glucose on day 57 were greater (P = 0.01) in NRG compared with CON and MIN heifers. Liver concentrations of Se and Fe on day 57 were greater (P < 0.05) in NRG heifers than CON, with MIN being intermediate. Activity tags reported NRG heifers spent less time eating (P < 0.0001) and more time (P < 0.0001) being “highly active” than MIN with CON heifers being intermediate. Data retrieved from activity tags identified 16 of 28 pregnant heifers exhibiting some type of estrus-associated behavior even after confirmation of established pregnancy. The activity monitoring system triggered a total of 146 health alerts from 34 of the 60 heifers monitored, but only 3 heifers of the heifers initiating an electronic health alert needed clinical treatment. However, animal care staff identified nine additional heifers that required treatment for which no electronic health alert was generated. The electronic feeders successfully controlled intake of individual heifers managed in groups pastures; however, the activity monitoring system misrepresented estrus and health events.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Manger space restriction does not negatively impact growth efficiency of
           feedlot heifers program fed a concentrate-based diet to gain 1.36 kg daily
           

    • First page: txad012
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this research was to determine the influence manger space restriction had on program-fed feedlot heifers during the growing phase. Charolais × Angus heifers [initial body weight (BW) = 329 ± 22.1 kg] were used in a 109-d backgrounding study. Heifers were received approximately 60 d prior to study initiation. Initial processing (53 d before study initiation) included individual BW, application of an identification tag, vaccination against viral respiratory pathogens and clostridial species, and administration of doramectin pour-on for control of internal and external parasites. All heifers were administered 36 mg of zeranol at study initiation and were assigned to 1 of 10 pens (n = 5 pens/treatment with 10 heifers/pen) in a randomized complete block design (blocked by location). Each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 20.3 cm (8IN) or 40.6 cm (16IN) of linear bunk space/heifer. Heifers were individually weighed on days 1, 14, 35, 63, 84, and 109. Heifers were programmed to gain 1.36 kg daily based on predictive equations set forth by the California Net Energy System. To calculate predictive values, a final BW of 575 kg was assumed to be the mature BW of the heifers and tabular net energy values of 2.05 NEm and 1.36 NEg from days 1 to 22, 2.00 NEm and 1.35 NEg from days 23 to 82, and 1.97 NEm and 1.32 NEg from days 83 to 109 were used. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4 with manger space allocation as the fixed effect and block as the random effect. No differences (P > 0.35) were observed between 8IN or 16IN heifers for initial BW, final BW, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency, variation in daily weight gain within each pen or applied energetic measures. No differences (P > 0.50) were observed between treatments for morbidity. Although not statistically analyzed, 8IN heifers appeared to have looser stools during the first 2 weeks compared to the 16IN heifers. These data suggest restricting manger space allocation from 40.6 to 20.3 cm did not negatively influence gain efficiency or the efficiency of dietary net energy utilization in heifers programmed fed a concentrate-based diet to gain 1.36 kg daily. The use of tabular net energy values and required net energy of maintenance and retained energy equations are effective means to program cattle to a desired rate of daily gain during the growing phase.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of partially replacing dietary corn with sugars in a dual-flow
           continuous culture system on the ruminal microbiome

    • First page: txad011
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugars as a replacement for starch on the ruminal microbiome using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Four periods of 10 days each were conducted with 8 fermenters in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Treatments included: 1) control with corn—CON, 2) molasses—MOL, 3) untreated condensed whey permeate—CWP, and 4) CWP treated with a caustic agent—TCWP as a partial substitute for corn. Sugars were defined as the water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) concentration. Diets were formulated by replacing 4% of the diet DM in the form of starch from corn with the sugars in byproducts. Microbial samples for DNA analysis were collected from the solid and liquid effluent containers at 3, 6, and 9 h after feeding. Bacterial community composition was analyzed with sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed with R 4.1.3 packages vegan, lmer, and ggplot to determine the effects of treatment on the relative abundance of taxa in the solid and liquid fractions, as well as the correlation of Acetate: Propionate ratio and pH to taxa relative abundance. Treatments did not affect alpha or beta diversity. At the phylum level the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was increased in CON compared to sugars in the solid fraction. In the liquid fraction, Firmicutes had greater relative abundance in sugar treatments while Bacteroidota and Spirochaetota were present in lower relative abundance in CWP. For solid and liquid samples, the family Lachnospiraceae had greater relative abundance in sugar treatments compared to CON. The decreased relative abundance of Christensenellaceae and Rikenellaceae paired with the greater relative abundance of Selenomonadaceae in CWP could help explain greater propionate molar proportion and decreased ruminal pH previously observed for this treatment. The genera Olsenella a lactic acid-producing bacterium, had the greatest relative abundance in MOL. Incorporating TCWP or MOL as a partial replacement for starch was more conservative of fibrolytic bacterial taxa compared to CWP. Additionally, TCWP did not increase bacterial taxa associated with synthesis of lactate as compared to MOL. Overall, replacing starch with sugars is mostly conservative of the ruminal microbiome; however, changes observed coincide with differences observed in acetate and propionate proportions and ruminal pH.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Lactation performance and feed utilization of Rahmani ewes fed with either
           a newly produced bacteriocin-like substance or a commercial bacteriocin

    • First page: txad010
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of the present study was to compare the effect of feeding a newly produced bacteriocin-like substance from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (PNP) with a commercial bacteriocin (NISEEN-S; CNP) in lactating Rahmani ewe diets. In experiment 1, the effects of four levels (500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 unit/kg substrate, dry matter (DM) basis) of both bacteriocins on in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics, total gas production (TGP), methane production (CH4), and nutrient degradability were determined. In experiment 2, 2 wk before the expected parturition, 30 multiparous lactating Rahmani ewes (mean ± SD: 2 ± 0.3 parity, 46.8 ± 2.5 kg body weight, 23 ± 2.7 mo of age, and 370 ± 13 g/d of previous milk production) were equally divided into three treatments in a complete randomized design for 90 d. The ewes in the control treatment were offered a diet composed of 600 g of concentrate feed mixture, 300 g berseem hay, and 100 g of faba bean straw (Control), or supplemented with produced bacteriocin like substance (PNP) or commercial (CNP) bacteriocin at 500 unit/kg feed (DM basis). In experiment 1, both PNP and CNP linearly and quadratically decreased (P < 0.001) CH4 production; however, PNP and CNP at 500 unit/kg feed quadratically increased fiber degradability (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, both PNP and CNP increased (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibility, and ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate, and propionate, while decreasing ruminal ammonia-N. The PNP treatment increased (P < 0.05) blood total proteins and albumin, while PNP and CNP treatments increase serum glucose. Both PNP and CNP treatments increased (P < 0.05) daily milk production and milk efficiency, without affecting the concentration of milk components. Both PNP and CNP are recommended to improve feed utilization and milk production, with superior results detected for PNP at 500 unit/kg feed daily.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The increasing relevance of immunobiology within a connected animal
           science curriculum

    • First page: txad007
      Abstract: AbstractModern technological agriculture emerged in the 20th century and has expanded into a global enterprise occupying approximately 38% of the Earth’s land area and accounting for over 40% of the world’s workforce. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that to feed a world population of 9-billion people in 2050 will require an almost doubling of overall food production, including meat, dairy, and egg production over 2010 levels. However, our collective ability to meet this demand cannot be taken for granted. Despite many successes, global agricultural systems now face multiple unprecedented challenges including a dearth of new treatments for livestock diseases. The discovery of antibiotics led to a complacency now reflected in a dependency on exogenous antimicrobials and a growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Developments within the field of immunobiology had led to significant breakthroughs in understanding of human health and disease. However, despite over 60% of infectious diseases being zoonotic in nature and nonhuman animals acting as an important disease reservoir, research in livestock immunobiology has not been as resourced. As a direct result, recalcitrant animal diseases continue to threaten sustainability of animal production systems, security of the food chain and human health. It is within the context of collective One Health action that ambitious innovation in the connectivity of animal science undergraduate curricula is urgently required, specifically to include threshold concepts in immunobiology. Fostering transformative learning is critical to equip future generations of animal scientists with the knowledge and interdisciplinary skills to counter these existential challenges of our time.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of supplementing rice straw with two fodder tree leaves and their
           combinations on voluntary feed intake, growth, and nitrogen utilization in
           sheep

    • First page: txad004
      Abstract: AbstractFodder tree leaves (FTL) are limitless nutrient resources that provide high-quality feed, particularly during the dry season, improving animal diets, and reducing the use of concentrates in ruminant livestock farming. In order to determine the benefits of FTL, two experiments were conducted to measure the voluntary feed intake, growth performance, and nitrogen utilization of forest-type (FT) sheep fed rice straw (RS) and supplemented with either Leucaena leucocephala (LEU) or Samanea saman (SAM) or their equal combination (LS). For the growth trial (Experiment 1), 12 male FT sheep with mean initial body weight (BW) of 17.0 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design. The diets were Urea-treated RS (UTS) (Control), RS + L (LEU), RS + S (SAM), and RS + 50% L + 50% S (LS). After 14 d of adjustment period, feed intakes and refusals were recorded daily, whereas BW was recorded bi-weekly for 12 wk. Four rams weighing 17.0 ± 1.0 kg BW were randomly assigned to the four treatments over a four period in a repeated (4 × 4) Latin square design to estimate the nitrogen (N) balance study (Experiment 2). Treatment diets were the same as that of Experiment 1. Dry matter intake of straw was highest (P = 0.0001) for sheep fed UTS. However, combining L with S increased (P = 0.0001) straw DM intake compared to feeding L or S alone. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total feed intake between sheep offered UTS and LS, but both were significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than those offered LEU and SAM. Body weight gain (3.70 kg) and growth rate (196.15 g/d) were highest (P = 0.0001) for sheep offered LS compared to the other treatment groups. Values for N balance differed (P = 0.0001) among treatment diets. N balance for LUE and LS supplemented diets were higher than that of SAM but all were higher (P = 0.0001) than those offered UTS. Leucaena and Samanea leaves could, therefore, be utilized as supplement to poor-quality straws to improve the productivity of small ruminants especially during the long dry seasons in the tropics.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The effect of supplementation of essential amino acid combinations in a
           low crude protein diet on growth performance in weanling pigs

    • First page: txad008
      Abstract: AbstractThe present study investigated the impact of providing different supplemental essential amino acids (EAA) in a low crude protein (CP) diet on growth performance in weanling pigs. A total of 324 mixed-sex 24-d weaned piglets (initial BW 6.9 ± 0.34 kg) were used in a 27-d growth trial with six dietary treatments immediately post-weaning. The first two treatments were a control standard CP (19%) diet (positive control; PC) and a negative control (NC) diet with low CP (16%) and reduced Ile, Leu, and histidine levels. The rest of the treatments had low CP with varied EAA types and levels; T1 had similar Ile, Leu, and His levels as PC but with low CP (16%), while T2 had low CP and 10% higher His, Thr, Trp, and Met+Cys compared to PC. The T3 was a low CP diet with 10% supplemental Leu, Ile, and Val compared to PC, while T4 was a low CP diet with 10% supplementation with all the EAA except Lys compared to PC. The initial body weight (BW) was not statistically different (P > 0.05) among the treatments. Also, on d 6, no statistical differences in BW were observed among the treatments. The average BW recorded on d 13, 20, and 27 showed significant treatment differences where the PC had consistently higher BW than all the other treatments (P < 0.05). The average daily gain (ADG) of the PC was higher than the rest of the treatments. Between d 13 and 20, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) for PC was not different from NC and T1 (P > 0.05), but compared to T2, T3, and T4, the PC treatment showed a high ADFI (P < 0.05). Overall (d 0–27), the ADFI for PC was not different from T1 and was significantly higher than all other treatments. Overall, results showed that the gain to feed (G:F) ratio was higher (P < 0.05) for PC compared to other dietary treatments. In summary, although the treatments (T1–T4) consisted of varying levels of EAA above the recommended requirement levels for optimal performance, we did not see a significant impact on growth performance improvement, which may indicate that the targeted EAA (His, Val, Thr, lle, Leu, Trp, and Met) may not have been limiting in these diets. On the other hand, the phenylalanine (Phe) requirement may be limited in the current formulations, or perhaps the EAA: total N ratio in T1, T2, T3, and T4 may have been too high, resulting in the inefficiency of EAA utilization for growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • An immersive field trip focused on beef production increases the sense of
           belonging in ethnoracial minority college students

    • First page: txad001
      Abstract: AbstractSense of belonging is a student’s sense of feeling accepted, valued, and included by others in their discipline. Imposter syndrome is self-perceived intellectual fraud in areas of success. Sense of belonging and imposter syndrome can influence behavior and well-being and are linked to academic and career outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate if a 5-d tour of the beef cattle industry changed college students’ sense of belonging and imposter tendencies with a focus on ethnicity/race. Procedures involving human subjects were approved by the Texas State University (TXST) IRB (#8309). Students from TXST and Texas A&M University (TAMU) attended a beef cattle industry tour in the Texas Panhandle in May 2022. Identical pre- and post-tests were administered immediately before and after the tour. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS v.26. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate the change from pre- to post-survey and one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of ethnicity/race. Students (n = 21) were mostly female (81%); attended TAMU (67%) or TXST (33%); and were White (52%), Hispanic (33%), or Black (14%). “Hispanic” and “Black” were combined as a single variable to analyze differences between White and ethnoracial minority students. Before the tour, there was a difference (P = 0.05) in sense of belonging in agriculture between White (4.33 ± 0.16) and ethnoracial minority (3.73 ± 0.23) students such that White students had stronger belonging. There was no change (P = 0.55) in White students’ sense of belonging as a result of the tour, from 4.33 ± 0.16 to 4.39 ± 0.44. However, there was a change (P ≤ 0.01) in ethnoracial minority students’ sense of belonging, from 3.73 ± 0.23 to 4.37 ± 0.27. There was no change (P = 0.36) in imposter tendencies from the pre-test (58.76 ± 2.46) to the post-test (60.52 ± 2.79). Ultimately, participating in the tour increased ethnoracial minority, but not White, students’ sense of belonging and did not impact imposter syndrome tendencies across or within ethnicity/race. One benefit of implementing experiential learning opportunities in dynamic social environments is the potential to improve students’ sense of belonging, especially in disciplines and careers where ethnoracial minority people are underrepresented.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad001
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The effects of increasing dietary total Ca/total P ratios on growth
           performance, Ca and P balance, and bone mineralization in nursery pigs fed
           diets supplemented with phytase

    • First page: txad006
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary total Ca/total P ratios on growth performance, digestibility of Ca and P, bone mineralization, and concentrations of Ca and P in urine and plasma in nursery pigs. There were six diets in a randomized complete block design, including one positive control and five diets corresponding to five total Ca/total P ratios: 0.55, 0.73, 0.90, 1.07, and 1.24 (analyzed as 0.58, 0.75, 0.93, 1.11, and 1.30). These five diets were deficient in P but supplemented with 1,000 phytase units/kg feed. Each diet was fed to six pens of eight pigs (four barrows and four gilts per pen). All diets contained 3 g/kg TiO2, and fecal samples were collected from each pen on days 5–7 of trial. At the end, one pig per pen was sacrificed to collect the right tibia and urine in the bladder. The results showed that increasing dietary Ca/P ratio to 0.93 increased gain:feed but then gain:feed decreased as the Ca/P ratio was increased to 1.30 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Although average daily gain and final BW were unaffected by changing Ca/P ratio in diet, dry bone weight; weights of bone ash, Ca and P; and bone Ca/P ratio increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Ca/P ratio. The percent bone Ca showed a tendency to increase (P = 0.064). Increasing dietary Ca/P ratio decreased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P linearly (P < 0.05) and the concentration of digestible P linearly (P < 0.001), but increased the concentration of digestible Ca (linear and quadratic effects: P < 0.01) and the digestible Ca/P ratio (linear effect: P < 0.001). In plasma, the concentration of Ca increased both linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P = 0.051), whereas the concentration of P tended (linear and quadratic, P < 0.10) to decrease with increasing dietary Ca/P ratio. Similarly, in urine, the concentration of Ca increased both linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of P decreased linearly (P < 0.01). In conclusion, increasing the dietary Ca/P ratio reduced feed efficiency but increased bone mass and the amounts of Ca and P deposited in bone of nursery pigs fed diets supplemented with 1,000 FYT/kg phytase. The increases in bone growth led to a reduction of urinary P excretion that exceeded the decreased digestible P supplied in diet with the widening dietary Ca/P ratios.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Influence of supplemental flavomycin on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in calf-fed Holstein steers

    • First page: txad005
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of supplemental flavomycin on cattle growth performance, carcass characteristics, diet digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers. One hundred Holstein steers (123 ± 7 kg) were balanced by weight and assigned to 20 pens. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam flaked corn-based diet supplemented with (dry matter basis): 1) control, no feed additive; 2) 6.6 mg/kg flavomycin; 3) 13.2 mg/kg flavomycin, and 4) 30 mg/kg monensin (MON). There were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.17) on live weight, average daily gain (ADG), and gain efficiency. Flavomycin did not affect dry matter intake (DMI; P ≥ 0.24). Flavomycin supplementation did not affect (P ≥ 0.37) the ratio of observed vs. expected DMI. However, MON decreased (P = 0.02) observed vs. expected DMI by 3.7%. There were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.44) on ruminal pH or temperature. Flavomycin did not affect (P ≥ 0.13) carcass characteristics and liver abscess among steers. Four Holstein steers (463 ± 20 kg) with ruminal cannulas were used in 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to study treatment effects on site and extent of digestion, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) molar proportions. Dietary treatments were the same as experiment 1. Flavomycin tended to increase (linear effect, P = 0.07) ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion, associated with increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) ruminal starch digestion. Supplementing flavomycin at 13.2 mg/kg decreased net microbial N synthesis (quadratic effect, P = 0.03). Compared with control, MON tended to increase (P = 0.10) ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion and increased (P < 0.01) ruminal starch digestion. Monensin did not affect (P = 0.39) net microbial N synthesis, but decreased (P = 0.01) ruminal degradation of feed nitrogen (N). There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on total tract apparent digestion of DM, OM, NDF, and starch. Flavomycin decreased ruminal pH (quadratic effect, P < 0.01) measured 4 h postprandial. Compared with control, MON increased ruminal pH (P = 0.03). Flavomycin increased (linear effect, P = 0.03) ruminal propionate molar proportion and decreased (linear effect, P ≤ 0.04) ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate, and decreased (linear effect, P = 0.02) acetate:propionate molar ratio and estimated methane production. We conclude that supplementing flavomycin at 6.6 or 13.2 mg/kg had no major effects on cattle growth performance, carcass characteristics, diet digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effects of Aspergillus oryzae prebiotic on dietary energy and nutrient
           digestibility of growing pigs

    • First page: txad002
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae prebiotic (AOP) on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed high-fiber diets. Eighteen growing barrows (initial body weight = 50.6 ± 4.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Corn and soybean meal-based diets were formulated with fiber from cereal grain byproducts corn (distillers dried grains with solubles, DDGS), rice (rice bran, RB), or wheat (wheat middlings, WM) to meet or exceed all nutrient requirements for 50 to 75 kg growing pigs. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 0.05% AOP supplemented at the expense of corn in the DDGS diet (DDGS + AOP), RB diet (RB + AOP), and WM diet (WM + AOP). All diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Pigs were allotted randomly to a triplicated 6 × 2 Youden square design with six diets and two successive periods. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected for 2 d after a 21-d adaptation period, and dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and ash were analyzed to calculate apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) was calculated by correcting AID with basal endogenous AA losses from the same set of pigs. Pigs fed the DDGS+AOP diet had greater (P < 0.05) AID of EE compared with those fed the DDGS diet. However, supplementation of AOP did not (P > 0.05) affect AID of GE, DM, CP, NDF, ash or SID of AA of any high-fiber diet. Supplementation of 0.05% AOP increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, GE, CP, NDF, and ash in DDGS, RB, and WM diets. Diet digestible energy was 35 kcal/kg greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed AOP supplemented diets compared with those fed diets without AOP. In conclusion, supplementation of AOP increased ATTD of nutrients and energy value in high-fiber diets containing DDGS, RB, or WM.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of dietary Conocarpus erectus leaves and branches on milk yield,
           quality, antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile, and blood parameters
           of Najdi dairy goats

    • First page: txac172
      Abstract: AbstractTo investigate the effect of Conocarpus erectus tree leaves and branches as a partial replacement of forage on milk yield and components, blood and rumen parameters of goats, 16 Najdi goats were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments (CON, without C. erectus; CE, contains C. erectus). The basic ratio consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage. In treatment CE, 22.5% of the forage (alfalfa hay and wheat straw) was replaced with C. erectus leaves and branches. The lowest amount of dry matter intake and digestibility were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). The amount of milk production significantly increased (P = 0.01) in the treatment CE. The total count did not differ between treatments, but the highest amount of Lactobacillus spp. (P = 0.01) and the lowest amount of mold (P = 0.01) were observed in the treatment CE. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity decreased on days 15 (P = 0.02) and 31 (P = 0.01) of the experiment in treatment CE. The highest amount of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids and also conjugated fatty acids were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). Also, the concentration of fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 was lower in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). The lowest amount of triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoproteins, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration were not affected by experimental treatment (P > 0.05). According to the results, the use of C. erectus leads to improved milk production and fatty acid profile, antioxidant activity, and microbial load.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac172
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Intake, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot
           lambs fed novel anthocyanin-rich corn cobs

    • First page: txac171
      Abstract: AbstractFeeding anthocyanin- and antioxidant-rich forages to sheep and dairy cows can improve performance and product quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding anthocyanin-rich (Hi-A) corn cobs on the growth performance and meat quality of lambs. A total of 30 eight-month-old Rambouillet ewe lambs (body weight 30.7 ± 1.2 kg) were fed for 63 days with three diets consisting of 80% concentrate and 20% roughage: Hi-A corn cobs (Hi-A), regular corn cobs (Low-A), and bermudagrass hay (BGH). A completely randomized design trial with 10 lambs per treatment was used. Data were collected on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), gain:feed ratio (G:F), carcass traits, meat color, fatty acid (FA) profile, volatile aroma compounds, and sensory panels. After feeding for 63 days, lambs were harvested, and the carcasses were evaluated. Boneless lamb loin chops were fabricated and submitted to FA, aroma, and sensory analysis. The corn cob diets did not affect BW, ADG, or G:F of the lambs compared to BGH diet, but DMI (P < 0.01) was decreased. The dressing percentage was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs fed BGH than in those fed Hi-A, while lambs fed Low-A did not differ from the other two diets. Loin chop instrumental color characteristics were not influenced by diets, except the hue angle, which was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs fed Hi-A than Low-A, while BGH did not differ from lambs fed either cob diet. There was no significant difference in the meat fatty acid profile. Five volatile compounds were affected by diets. The 2-butanone (P = 0.07) and 2,3-butanedione (P = 0.05) were greater in chops from lambs fed BGH relative to lambs fed Hi-A and neither differed (P > 0.05) from lambs fed Low-A diet. The 2-propanone was greater (P = 0.01) in chops from lambs fed BGH than in those fed either the Low-A or Hi-A diets. Both 3-methyl-butanal and methyl benzene were lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) in chops from lambs fed the Hi-A diet than in those fed either the BGH or Low-A diet. Replacing 20% bermudagrass hay with corn cobs in the diets of feedlot lambs did not affect sheep growth performance, meat fatty acid profile, sensory traits, and most carcass characteristics and meat color parameters. Hi-A corn diet improved aroma in cooked boneless loin chops, but sensory traits were not affected. This study showed the Hi-A corn cobs can be safely used for roughage and feed for lambs and for improving meat aroma in cooked boneless loin chops.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac171
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Water binders in beef patties increase yield and extend shelf life

    • First page: txad091
      Abstract: AbstractIdentifying nonallergenic, natural water binders to increase beef patty juiciness and extend shelf life would be beneficial to the beef industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of integrating water binders into beef hamburger patties on cooking yield, shelf life, and pH. Five water binder treatments were added at 2% of the meat block. Treatments included potato extract, citrus fiber, dried refried beans, potato peel, or no binder (control). Six batches of each treatment were made and two patties from each batch were analyzed for each parameter. Fluid yield and lipid oxidation were measured on cooked, frozen (210 d), and reheated patties. Raw patties were used to evaluate color, fluid loss, and lipid oxidation over 4 d of retail display. Patties containing citrus fiber improved reheat yield (P = 0.03) and overall yield (P < 0.01). Citrus patties had the lowest pH (P < 0.01) at 5.45. On days 0 and 4 of retail display, patties containing a water binder treatment had less lipid oxidation than the control patties (P < 0.01). Additionally, the cooked, frozen, and reheated patties, had less lipid oxidation when containing a water binder treatment than the control patties (P < 0.01). Citrus fiber improved water retention in reheated patties, and all water binders delayed lipid oxidation in raw, cooked, frozen, and reheated patties. Increasing patty juiciness and delaying lipid oxidation will improve consumers’ eating experience of reheated, precooked patties in settings such as school or hospital cafeterias.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad091
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2023)
       
  • Fire management effects on ruminal digestibility and in vitro methane
           emissions of subtropical rangeland plant species

    • First page: txad080
      Abstract: AbstractPrescribed fire is a common management practice used to manipulate rangeland plant productivity and composition. Although the nutritive value of most herbaceous plant species is considered poor for grazing animals, native rangelands in Florida are an important source of forage for livestock, especially during the winter months, when the productivity of cultivated perennial warm-season pastures is limited. This study evaluated the effects of prescribed fire on methanogenic potential and nutritive value of selected native rangeland plant species. Treatments were a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of plant species (creeping bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium var. stoloniferum {Nash} Wipff], wiregrass [Aristida stricta {Michx.}], or saw palmetto [Serenoa repens {W. Bartram} Small]) and prescribed fire management [2 yr after burning (control) vs. 1 yr after burning (burned)] distributed in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent undigestible fiber (NDF), in vitro methane production, and in situ ruminal disappearance. Prescribed fire generally increased forage CP and DM effective degradability relative to control; however, no effect was observed on saw palmetto. Wiregrass had the least CP concentration in both burned (8.5%) and control (2.3%). In burned treatments, creeping bluestem and palmetto had greater DM effective degradability (62% and 58%) than wiregrass (53%). Fire increased in vitro gas production by 60 (creeping bluestem) to 90% (wiregrass) relative to control treatments. No effect of fire on methane production was observed for any of the plant species evaluated in this study. Creeping bluestem had the greatest methane production (12.5 mg/g DM), followed by wiregrass (5.3 mg/g DM) and saw palmetto (1.4 mg/g DM). Methane:DM effective degradability decreased in the following order: creeping bluestem ≥ wiregrass > saw palmetto. Data indicated prescribed fire was an effective tool to increase creeping bluestem and wiregrass nutritive value but no effect was observed on saw palmetto. Cattle grazing grass-dominated rangelands will likely emit more gas and methane than shrub or tree-dominated ecosystems; however, the greater forage nutritive value and subsequent positive impacts on animal production are expected to offset a substantial fraction of enteric methane emissions.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad080
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of dietary arginine supplementation to increase placental
           nutrient transporters in aged mares

    • First page: txad058
      Abstract: AbstractNine pregnant mares (18.2 ± 0.7 yr; 493.82 ± 12.74 kg body weight [BW]) were used to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of l-arginine would enhance placental vascularity and nutrient transport throughout gestation in aged mares. Mares were balanced by age, BW, and stallion pairing, and assigned randomly to dietary treatments of either supplemental l-arginine (50 mg/kg BW; n = 7) or l-alanine (100 mg/kg BW; n = 6; isonitrogenous control). Mares were individually fed concentrate top-dressed with the respective amino acid treatment plus ad libitum access to Coastal Bermudagrass hay. Treatments began on day 14 of gestation and were terminated at parturition. Mare BW, body condition score (BCS), and rump fat were determined, and body fat percentage was calculated every 28 d and concentrate adjusted accordingly. Doppler blood flow measurements including resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index for uterine artery ipsilateral to the pregnant uterine horn were obtained beginning on day 21 and continued every 7 d until day 154 of gestation, and prior to parturition. Parturition was attended with foaling variables and placental measures recorded. Placental tissue from the pregnant horn was analyzed histologically to assess cell-specific localization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cationic amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A1) proteins. Semiquantitative analyses were performed using 10 nonoverlapping images per sample fixed in a 10× field (Fiji ImageJ v1.2). Mare performance data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS and foaling and placental data were analyzed using PROC GLM. Gestation length at parturition was not influenced (P > 0.05) by supplemental arginine. Compared with arginine-supplemented mares, control mares had a thicker rump fat layer (P < 0.01) and greater percent body fat (P = 0.03), and BCS (P < 0.01) at parturition. Arginine-supplemented mares had a lower RI than control mares prior to parturition (P < 0.01). Body length, height, and BW of foals at birth, as well as placental weight and volume, and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF and SLC7A1 at parturition, were not affected (P > 0.05) by maternal arginine supplementation. These results indicate that dietary arginine supplementation (50 mg/kg BW) is safe for gestating mares. A larger number of mares is required to extend knowledge of effects of supplemental arginine on embryonic/fetal survival and growth in mares.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad058
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2023)
       
  • Exploring associations among morphometric measurements, genetic group of
           sire, and performance of beef on dairy calves

    • First page: txad064
      Abstract: AbstractSire selection for beef on dairy crosses plays an important role in livestock systems as it may affect future performance and carcass traits of growing and finishing crossbred cattle. The phenotypic variation found in beef on dairy crosses has raised concerns from meat packers due to animals with dairy-type carcass characteristics. The use of morphometric measurements may help to understand the phenotypic structures of sire progeny for selecting animals with greater performance. In addition, due to the relationship with growth, these measurements could be used to early predict the performance until the transition from dairy farms to sales. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the effect of different beef sires and breeds on the morphometric measurements of crossbred calves including cannon bone (CB), forearm (FA), hip height (HH), face length (FL), face width (FW) and growth performance; and (2) to predict the weight gain from birth to transition from dairy farms to sale (WG) and the body weight at sale (BW) using such morphometric measurements obtained at first days of animals’ life. CB, FA, HH, FL, FW, and weight at 7 ± 5 d (BW7) (Table 1) were measured on 206 calves, from four different sire breeds [Angus (AN), SimAngus (SA), Simmental (SI), and Limousin (LI)], from five farms. To evaluate the morphometric measurements at the transition from dairy farms to sale and animal performance 91 out of 206 calves sourced from four farms, and offspring of two different sires (AN and SA) were used. To predict the WG and BW, 97 calves, and offspring of three different sires (AN, SA, and LI) were used. The data were analyzed using a mixed model, considering farm and sire as random effects. To predict WG and BW, two linear models (including or not the morphometric measurements) were used, and a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy was used to evaluate their predictive quality. The HH and BW7 were 7.67% and 10.7% higher (P < 0.05) in SA crossbred calves compared to AN, respectively. However, the ADG and adjusted body weight to 120 d were 14.3% and 9.46% greater (P < 0.05) in AN compared to SA. The morphometric measurements improved the model’s predictive performance for WG and BW. In conclusion, morphometric measurements at the first days of calves’ life can be used to predict animals’ performance in beef on dairy. Such a strategy could lead to optimized management decisions and greater profitability in dairy farms.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad064
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2023)
       
  • The effects of receiving diet roughage inclusion on performance, health,
           and serum metabolite characteristics of newly received beef calves

    • First page: txad039
      Abstract: AbstractCurrent dogma suggests increased dietary roughage may improve calf health at the expense of performance during receiving. In experiment 1, the effects of increasing dietary roughage on performance and clinical health of high-risk heifers was evaluated over a 56-d receiving period. Heifers (n = 589; initial body weight; BW = 230 ± 33 kg) were sourced from Oklahoma livestock auctions from April through October of 2019. Heifers were randomly assigned to pens, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Diets contained either: 1) 15% roughage (R15), 2) 30% roughage (R30), or 3) 45% roughage (R45) in the form of prairie hay. Orthogonal contrasts were used to test for linear and quadratic responses among experimental treatments. There was a linear decrease in overall average daily gain (ADG; P ≤ 0.0001) with increasing roughage inclusion which resulted in a linear decrease (P ≤ 0.0001) in heifer final BW. A linear increase (P ≤ 0.01) was observed for overall dry matter intake (DMI), and overall gain:feed (G:F) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.0001) as dietary roughage concentration increased. A quadratic response to decreasing roughage was observed (P = 0.02) for the percent of calves treated three times for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). No other responses (P ≥ 0.11) were detected in animal health variables. In experiment 2, Angus steers (n = 12) and heifers (n = 6; BW = 272 ± 28 kg) were acquired from a single ranch in Oklahoma to evaluate the same experimental dietary treatments on serum metabolite concentrations. Animals were randomly assigned to experimental treatments, with animal serving as the experimental unit in experiment 2. Statistical models for serum metabolites in experiment 2 were analyzed using repeated measures with the effects of treatment, time, and treatment × time. In experiment 2, there were tendencies for treatment × time interactions for blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P = 0.07) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA; P = 0.06) concentrations. No metabolites were affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.11), while all metabolites were impacted by time (P ≤ 0.02). In summary, growth performance was improved in calves as dietary roughage concentration decreased with minimal impacts on health and serum metabolites. These results suggest that diets containing as little as 15% roughage can be used during receiving to improve calf performance without compromising calf health when fibrous byproducts are included in the diet.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Apr 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad039
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2023)
       
 
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