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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Translational Animal Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-2102
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Retraction to: Economic viability in free-range chicken production

    • Authors: Lourençoni D; Faustino A, Turco S, et al.
      Abstract: Dian Lourençoni, Amelia Carvalho Faustino, Sílvia Helena Nogueira Turco, Otoniel Cajuí Bonfim, Luana Carolina Rocha E Silva, Ana Carolina De Sá Silva Lins, Economic viability in free-range chicken production, Translational Animal Science, 2021; txab109, https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txab109
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of cutting height, microbial inoculation, and storage length on
           fermentation profile and nutrient composition of whole-plant corn silage

    • Authors: Diepersloot E, Heinzen C, Jr; Saylor B, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of cutting height, heterofermentative microbial inoculants, and storage length on the fermentation profile and nutrient composition of whole-plant corn silage. The experiment was a completely randomized design with a 2 (cutting height) × 3 (microbial inoculation) × 5 (storage length) factorial arrangement of treatments. Corn forage was harvested at two cutting heights: either 25 cm (REG) or 65 cm (HI). Then, forage was inoculated with one of three microbial inoculants: (1) 300,000 CFU/g of fresh forage of Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Lentilactobacillus buchneri DSM 12856, and L. diolivorans DSM 32074 (LBLD; Bonsilage Speed inoculant, Provita Supplements Inc., Mendota Heights, MN), (2) 500,000 CFU/g of fresh forage of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DSM 12837 and L. buchneri DSM 16774 (LPLB; Bonsilage Corn + WS inoculant, Provita Supplements Inc., Mendota Heights, MN), or (3) distilled water (CON). Last, forage was randomly assigned to ferment for 5, 7, 14, 28, or 56 d of storage in vacuum-sealed bags. Silage pH was affected by a three-way interaction (P = 0.01), where CON treatments decreased continually over time while LPLB and LBLD began to increase at later storage lengths. Acetic acid concentration was greater (P = 0.001) in LPLB and LBLD than CON silage after 56 d of storage. Silage treated with LBLD did not have detectable levels of propionic acid (P > 0.05), although 1-propanol concentration was greater (P = 0.001) in LBLD treatments after 56 d of storage. The concentrations of total acids and acetic acid were greater (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively) for REG silage compared to HI. Additionally, HI silage had greater (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) concentrations of dry matter (DM) and starch, while neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and lignin concentrations were lower (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) in HI silage compared to REG silage. Last, HI silage had a greater (P = 0.001) NDF digestibility than REG silage. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing cutting height can improve nutrient composition of whole-plant corn silage. Additionally, results demonstrate that heterofermentative microbial inoculants can be used to shift silage fermentation to the production of lactic and acetic acids.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of select copper sources at minimum supplementation levels on
           nutrient content, off-colors, and blemishes in canned pet food

    • Authors: Dainton A; Tomlinson D, Aldrich C.
      Abstract: AbstractIn the previous research, super-fortification with copper decreased vitamin E content and darkened canned pet food, which prevented the analysis of black blemishes reported in commercial products. The pet food industry has linked these blemishes, which may be concerning to pet owners, to copper supplementation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different copper sources included at minimum recommended levels on nutrient content, color, and blemishes in canned pet food. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial, with 2 levels of copper supplementation [6 and 12 mg/kg dry matter (DM)], 3 copper sources (CG = copper glutamate, CA = copper amino acid complex, and CS = copper sulfate), and a control with no added copper (NC). Diets were analyzed for macronutrients (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash) and micronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and vitamin E). Color was quantified with a CIELAB color space colorimeter wherein L* values closer to 100 represented lighter products and more positive a* and b* values indicated redder and yellower products, respectively. Blemishes were enumerated and their surface area quantified with ImageJ software. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model with the fixed effect of treatment and the random effect of production day. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The 12 mg/kg DM treatments (average 14.19 mg/kg DM) contained the highest (P < 0.05) level of copper, followed by 6 mg/kg DM treatments (average 7.59 mg/kg DM) and then NC (0.00 mg/kg DM). Addition of copper decreased (P < 0.05) vitamin E content, except for NC and CS12 which were similar (P > 0.05; average 111.89 mg/kg DM). Lightness (average L* 63.66) was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. Adding copper decreased (P < 0.05) redness, with higher (P < 0.05) a* values for CG6 (9.55) vs. CA6 and CS6 (average 8.50). Yellowness also decreased with the addition of copper, except for CG6 which was similar (P > 0.05) to NC (average 18.70). However, CG6 and CG12 (average 4.05 blemishes/slice of food) contained more (P < 0.05) blemishes than CA6, CS6, and CS12 (average 0.97 blemishes/slice of food). Minimal levels of supplemental copper from CG may enhance overall color preservation but could increase blemish occurrence. No disadvantage was observed for CA vs. CS, indicating that CA could be exchanged for CS in formulations.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Environmental variation effects fertility in tropical beef cattle

    • Authors: Copley J; Engle B, Ross E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe northern Australia beef cattle industry operates in harsh environmental conditions which consistently suppress female fertility. To better understand the environmental effect on cattle raised extensively in northern Australia, new environmental descriptors were defined for 54 commercial herds located across the region. Three fertility traits, based on the presence of a corpus luteum at 600 d of age, indicating puberty, (CL Presence, n = 25,176), heifer pregnancy (n = 20,989) and first lactation pregnancy (n = 10,072) were recorded. Temperature, humidity, and rainfall were obtained from publicly available data based on herd location. Being pubertal at 600 d (i.e. CL Presence) increased the likelihood of success at heifer pregnancy and first lactation pregnancy (P < 0.05), underscoring the importance of early puberty in reproductive success. A temperature humidity index (THI) of 65–70 had a significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on first lactation pregnancy rate, heifer pregnancy and puberty at 600 d of age. Area under the curve of daily THI was significant (P < 0.05) and reduced the likelihood of pregnancy at first lactation and puberty at 600 days. Deviation from long-term average rainfall was not significant (P < 0.05) for any trait. Average daily weight gain had a significant and positive relationship (P < 0.05) for heifer and first lactation pregnancy. The results indicate that chronic or cumulative heat load is more determinantal to reproductive performance than acute heat stress. The reason for the lack of a clear relationship between acute heat stress and reproductive performance is unclear but may be partially explained by peak THI and peak nutrition coinciding at the same time. Sufficient evidence was found to justify the use of average daily weight gain and chronic heat load as descriptors to define an environmental gradient.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessing the effect of case-based teaching compared with lecture-based
           teaching on students’ knowledge and perceptions in a senior
           undergraduate dairy cattle management course

    • Authors: Ferree L; Román-Muñiz N, Edwards-Callaway L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAnimal science students need to apply the knowledge acquired during their degree program to real-life scenarios in future careers. Little to no research exists evaluating the effects of case-based (CB; material presented as a case study) and lecture-based (LB; material presented as a lecture) teaching in animal science in higher education. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of CB and LB teaching methods on student performance and to assess students’ attitudes toward CB and LB teaching methods in a senior dairy cattle management course. A cross-over study design was conducted over two course modules (1 = “calf health” and 2 = “lameness”) with a washout period of 2 wk. Students (n = 25) were randomly assigned to CB or to LB in module 1 and received the other method in module 2. Students completed a pre- and post-quiz in each module that consisted of 10 multiple-choice questions and 3 short-answer questions. Three separate linear mixed regression models were used to assess the effect of teaching method (CB or LB; predictor) on three different continuous outcomes for student performance: change (post-score − pre-score) in short-answer quiz scores, change in multiple-choice quiz scores, and the change in total quiz scores. Students completed an attitude assessment after each module that consisted of 8 Likert-scale statements and 2 free-response questions. Data were deidentified, and two researchers blinded to students’ CB or LB status analyzed free responses to identify themes. A logistic regression, which controlled for module and included student as a repeated measure, was used to determine if the proportion of students who agreed (outcome: yes/no) with each Likert-scale statement was different between CB and LB. There was a tendency for CB teaching methods to improve change in multiple-choice quiz scores (P = 0.06). The change in total quiz scores and the change in short-answer quiz scores did not differ between CB and LB groups (P > 0.1). For the survey statements “I enjoyed the teaching method used in this module” and “I wish this teaching method was utilized in more of my classes,” more students in LB agreed than in CB (P < 0.05). The themes preference, perceived benefits, and perceived drawbacks were mentioned in 80%, 44%, and 28% of CB comments, and in 84%, 40%, and 18% of LB comments, respectively, and suggest that students enjoy case studies but prefer to receive information via lecture first.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Alfalfa biotypes with putative enhanced cell wall digestibility and
           effects on performance of growing beef steers

    • Authors: Karls C; Combs D, Liou M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThree alfalfa biotypes were chosen based on the presumption that they would be sources of alfalfa herbage that differed in lignin concentration and therefore cell wall digestibility. The hypothesis was that a lesser lignin concentration would result in greater alfalfa neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and greater beef steer growth performance. The three alfalfa biotypes were HarvXtra (Forage Genetics International), Hi-Gest 360 (Alforex Seeds), and a control alfalfa, LegenDairy XHD (Winfield Solutions LLC). High-moisture wrapped bales were prepared from second-harvest, d 30 crops. Digestibility of NDF was determined using in vitro incubations and a steer digestibility trial. Alfalfa baleage and trace mineral salt were fed to Angus steers (300 kg initial body weight, 4 pens/treatment) in an 83-day growing-phase trial. Alfalfa acid detergent lignin concentrations were 75.6, 71.8, and 63.0 g/kg dry matter (P = 0.34) for LegenDairy, Hi-Gest and HarvXtra, respectively. Based on in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients, HarvXtra tended (P ≥ 0.09) to have the highest NDF digestibility. Alfalfa biotype affected in vivo apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (P < 0.001) and there was a trend for an effect on acid detergent fiber digestibility (P = 0.051). Hi-Gest and HarvXtra had similar in vivo apparent NDF digestibilities, which were greater than for LegenDairy (P < 0.05). There was no alfalfa biotype effect on daily alfalfa dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.51) or average daily gain (P = 0.25) by growing steers. The absence of an effect by the novel alfalfa biotypes on DMI by growing steers suggests that the compositional and digestibility differences of the novel alfalfa biotypes compared to LegenDairy were not sufficient to alleviate the limitation of physical fill (if evident) on DMI. If more disparity in cell wall composition and NDF digestibility were to exist between control and reduced-lignin biotypes, then perhaps an advantage in cattle growth performance for a reduced-lignin alfalfa biotype would be detectable.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of weaning method on postweaning performance by early weaned beef

    • Authors: Jaeger J; Preedy G, Waggoner J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHealth and performance of early-weaned steers were evaluated during a 56-d weaning period, a 56-d feedlot receiving period, and a 165-d feedlot finishing period. Steers (n = 239; 128 ± 14 d of age) were assigned to a 56-d weaning treatment: drylot weaning (D) or pasture weaning (P). Pasture steers grazed mature, native tallgrass range (89.2% dry matter [DM], 9.08% crude protein [CP]), without supplementation. A concentrate-based diet (18.7% CP and 1.15 Mcal NEg/kg) was fed to D steers. Later, all steers were transitioned to a receiving, then a finishing diet and fed to a common endpoint. Body weight (BW) after and average daily gain (ADG) during weaning were greater (P < 0.01) for D than for P. Incidence of undifferentiated fever during weaning tended to be greater (P = 0.10) for D steers than for P steers. Conversely, incidence of keratoconjunctivitis was greater (P < 0.01) for P than for D during weaning (40.2% vs. 0%, respectively) and receiving (P < 0.01; 14.3% vs. 1.6%, respectively). At the start and end of receiving, D steers had greater (P < 0.01) BW compared with P steers. Drylot steers had greater (P = 0.03) ADG compared with P steers during receiving. Pasture steers tended to have greater dry matter intake (DMI) (P = 0.09) during receiving than D steers. In contrast, gain:feed (G:F) was improved (P < 0.01) for P steers than for D steers during receiving. Incidence of undifferentiated fever was not different (P = 0.99) between D and P steers during receiving. At start of finishing, D steers were heavier (P < 0.01) than P steers; however, finishing ADG was greater (P < 0.01) for P compared with D. Conversely, hot carcass weight of P steers was less (P < 0.01) compared with D steers. Drylot steers had greater DMI (P < 0.01) than P steers during finishing, whereas P steers had improved G:F (P < 0.01) compared with D steers. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.19) between treatments in DOF, carcass characteristics or United States Department of Agriculture yield grade. Growth and health during a 56-d weaning period and a 56-d receiving period were improved when steers were weaned in a drylot environment and fed a concentrate-based diet compared with non-supplemented steers weaned in a pasture environment. We interpret these data to suggest that, under the conditions of our experiment, steers preconditioned on mature, native, warm-season pasture for 56 d without supplementation were unable to compensate for previous nutrient restriction during finishing.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Meta-analysis of the effects of monensin on growth and bloat of cattle on

    • Authors: Gadberry S; Lalman D, White F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMonensin has been part of the beef production landscape for over 45 years. Although first approved for use in finishing cattle, it has since been approved for cattle in extensive production systems and has been an economical way to increase performance of forage-fed animals. This meta-analysis investigated the impacts of monensin on performance of stocker cattle on high-forage diets. The stocker performance analysis resulted from 38 experiments with 73 mean comparisons; bloat analysis was conducted with 12 experiments with 23 mean comparisons. The metaphor package (version 2.4-0) for R (version 4.0.3; www.r-project.org) was used to determine the overall effect size of monensin compared to a negative control. Each study’s n, means, and SEM or P-value was used to calculate the mean difference and estimate of within-study variance for responses of interest. Moderators of monensin response considered in the analysis were delivery method, dose, study duration, initial calf BW, diet ME and CP, and forage category. Initial BW and basal ADG averaged 236 ± 45.9 kg and 0.72 ± 0.28 kg, respectively. In the ADG analysis, the only significant moderator of those considered was length of the study (P < 0.01); as duration of the study increased, the ADG response to monensin decreased by 0.0007 kg/day. For the average 112-day length of study, the average monensin response was estimated to be 0.0784 kg/day increase in ADG, approximately 10% above controls. Sufficient information was presented in 18 citations representing 40 mean comparisons for determining the effect of monensin on BW at the end of the experiment. The response model (P < 0.01) for ending BW, kg = 22.3–0.05 (initial calf BW, kg). Thus, for the average initial BW of 235 kg the average monensin response was estimated to be 10.6 kg increase in average ending BW. The incidence (−20%) and severity (−0.7 bloat score) of bloat was found to be reduced in bloat-prone pastures. There is ample evidence that monensin increases performance of growing calves on high forage diets along with reducing the incidence and severity of bloat.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of increasing supplemental zinc in beef feedlot steers
           administered a steroidal implant and beta agonist

    • Authors: Messersmith E; Smerchek D, Hansen S.
      Abstract: AbstractNinety-two Angus-crossbred steers (424 ± 28.3 kg initial body weight) were used in a 98-d study to assess the effects of increasing Zn supplementation on cattle performance, liver and plasma trace mineral concentrations, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics. All steers were implanted with a Component TE-200 (200 mg trenbolone acetate + 20 mg estradiol; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on d 0 and fed 300 mg‧steer−1‧d−1 of ractopamine hydrochloride (Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ) from d 70 to 98. Cattle were fed via GrowSafe bunks (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada), and steer served as the experimental unit (n = 22 or 23 steers/treatment). Supplemental Zn was administered through the diet at 0, 100, 150, or 180 mg Zn/kg on a dry matter basis from ZnSO4 (Zn0, Zn100, Zn150, or Zn180, respectively). Cattle were weighed on d −1, 0, 9/10, 20, 41, 59, 69, 70, 78/79, 97, and 98. Blood was collected on d 0, 9/10, 69, 78/79, and 97, and liver biopsies on d 9/10 and 78/79 (n = 12 steers/treatment). Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design. Contrast statements were formed to test the linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of Zn supplementation and test Zn0 vs. Zn supplementation. Day 10 and 70 body weight (BW) and d 0 to 10 and 0 to 70 average daily gain were linearly increased with Zn supplementation (P ≤ 0.05), and greater for Zn supplemented steers (P ≤ 0.03). No effects of Zn supplementation were observed on final BW, dressing percentage, ribeye area, 12th rib fat, or marbling (P ≥ 0.11). Hot carcass weight tended to be 7 kg greater for Zn supplemented steers than Zn0 (P = 0.07), and yield grade linearly increased with increasing Zn supplementation (P = 0.02). Day 10 liver Mn concentrations tended to quadratically decrease (P = 0.08) with increasing Zn supplementation, though d 79 liver Mn concentrations and arginase activity were not influenced by Zn (P ≥ 0.28). Day 10 liver arginase activity tended to be (r = 0.27; P = 0.07) and d 10 serum urea nitrogen was correlated with d 10 liver Mn (r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). Zinc supplementation linearly increased d 10 liver Zn and d 10, 69, 79, and 97 plasma Zn concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). A cubic effect of Zn was observed on d 79 liver Zn (P = 0.01) with lesser liver Zn in Zn0 and Zn150 steers. These data suggest increasing dietary Zn improves growth directly following the administration of a steroidal implant and that steroidal implants and beta agonists differ in their effects on protein metabolism.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Production performance, nutrient use efficiency, and predicted enteric
           methane emissions in dairy cows under confinement or grazing management

    • Authors: Brito A; Almeida K, Oliveira A.
      Abstract: AbstractThere has been an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of confinement versus grazing dairy systems. Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis to compare dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient use efficiency (i.e., feed efficiency, milk N efficiency), and predicted enteric CH4 emissions using studies that simultaneously evaluated confinement and grazing. We were able to include in the meta-analysis 8 peer-reviewed articles that met the following selection criteria: (1) publication between 1991 and 2021 in English language, (2) report either SEM or SD, (3) inclusion of at least 1 confinement [total mixed ration or fresh cut herbage fed indoors (i.e., zero-grazing)] and 1 grazing treatment in the same study, and (4) use of markers (internal or external) to estimate herbage dry matter intake. Two unpublished experiments were added to the data set resulting in a total of 10 studies for comparing confinement and grazing. The magnitude of the effect (i.e., effect size) was evaluated using weighted raw mean differences between grazing and confinement systems for a random effect model. Enteric CH4 production was predicted as follows: CH4 (g/d) = 33.2 (13.54) + 13.6 (0.33) × dry matter intake + 2.43 (0.245) × neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake (–9.5%), milk yield (–9.3%), milk fat yield (–5.8%), milk protein yield (–10%), and energy-corrected milk (–12%) all decreased in grazing versus confined dairy cows. In contrast, concentration of milk fat and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) were not affected by management system. Whereas milk protein concentration increased, milk nitrogen (N) efficiency (milk N/N intake) tended to decrease in grazing compared with confinement. Predicted enteric CH4 production was 6.1% lower in grazing than confined dairy cows. However, CH4 yield (g/kg of dry matter intake) and CH4 intensity (g/kg of energy-corrected milk) did not change between confinement and grazing. In conclusion, while production performance decreased in grazing dairy cows, nutrient use efficiency and predicted enteric CH4 emissions were relatively similar in both management systems. Results of our meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies that met our inclusion criteria leading to a limited number of treatment mean comparisons.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Invited review: a carcass and meat perspective of crossbred beef ×
           dairy cattle

    • Authors: Foraker B; Frink J, Woerner D.
      Abstract: AbstractCrossbreeding dairy cows with beef sires has greatly altered the consist of U.S. dairy-influenced slaughter cattle and generated an influx of crossbred beef × dairy cattle to the U.S. fed beef slaughter supply in 2021. This review provides a summary of our observations of carcass and meat traits in the recent U.S. beef × dairy crossbred population and, based on these observations, exposes future opportunities for consideration. Strip loin steaks from beef × dairy cattle can be marketed alongside conventional beef products in retail display without consumer discrimination based on color or steak shape previously experienced in steaks from straightbred dairy cattle. Additionally, beef from crossbred beef × dairy cattle cannot be discriminated against for eating quality attributes (tenderness, flavor, and juiciness) as it exhibits similar, if not improved, performance of these attributes to beef from conventional beef cattle. We have also demonstrated that live expression of beef-type versus dairy-type character within the beef × dairy crossbred population has minimal effect on eating quality. With proper genetic selection and management, crossbred beef × dairy cattle can capture carcass premiums from an optimal combination of carcass quality (marbling) and red meat yield. Future beef × dairy crossbred mating and management systems should emphasize increases in total carcass muscling and reductions in liver abscess prevalence. A story of quality, sustainability, and traceability in the large and constant supply of beef from crossbred beef × dairy cattle may present profitable branding and marketing opportunities for these products.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Board Invited Review: Crossbreeding beef × dairy cattle for the
           modern beef production system

    • Authors: Basiel B; Felix T.
      Abstract: AbstractCurrent trends in the United States dairy industry suggest that crossbred beef × dairy calves are replacing a proportion of the calf-fed Holstein steers slaughtered for beef each year. Economic pressures value preweaned beef × dairy calves at a premium over preweaned dairy bull calves; however, there is little modern data to support that intensively fed crossbred calves maintain their premium value over dairy steers across the supply chain. Data from international production systems and from historic research suggests that beef × dairy cattle had greater average daily gains and converted feed to gain more efficiently than dairy steers. Regarding carcass characteristics, across the literature crossbreds consistently yielded heavier carcasses that had lower proportions of trim than dairy steers. Fewer comparisons of beef × dairy and dairy steers exist in the literature for other economically relevant carcass characteristics such as ribeye area, backfat, marbling, tenderness, and eating quality. Existing published data are inconsistent among studies, highlighting the necessity for more research tailored to the United States beef production system
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Economic viability in free-range chicken production

    • Authors: Lourençoni D; Faustino A, Turco S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDespite the lack of large-scale farming of free-range chickens in Brazil, their production generates income in the countryside and prevents exodus of rural families in agricultural regions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic viability of free-range broiler production in different facilities. The experiment was conducted in two different sheds (masonry shed-SM and wooden shed-SW) located in the Plural Space of the Universidade Federal do Vale São Francisco, municipality of Juazeiro, BA. Here, 200 heavy red French free-range chickens were distributed in the two sheds and were raised from the 1st to the 88th day (slaughter). Assuming that the minimum age for slaughter is 85 days, the results indicated that at least 205 birds in SM and 217 birds in SW were necessary for the producer to earn the minimum per capita monthly wage in Brazil (2020); at least 411 birds in CG and 600 birds in GM were found to be necessary to achieve maximum productivity at the end of the production cycle. The maximum profitability in the slaughter of the chickens was achieved at an age of 60 days.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txab109
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2021)
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