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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2312-797X - ISSN (Online) 2312-7988
Published by Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Homepage  [22 journals]
  • Effects of pesticides on human health and environment

    • Authors: Viktor I. Dolzhenko, Anton P. Karmazin, Tamara S. Astarkhanova
      Pages: 455 - 463
      Abstract: -
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-455-463
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Efficiency and safety of combined herbicide Avrora, OD for corn protection

    • Authors: Aleksey V. Bereznov, Ibragim R. Astarkhanov, Tamila N. Ashurbekova, Abdulla Behzad
      Pages: 464 - 474
      Abstract: Field small-plot experiments were carried out in the Moscow region, Rostov region and the Republic of Dagestan in 2021-2022. Herbicide Avrora, OD (100 g/l mesotrione + 80 g/l amicarbazone + 60 g/l nicosulfuron + 5 g/l aminopyralid) was studied during the two growing seasons. The high biological efficiency of Avrora, OD at the stage of 3-6 leaves of corn and the early growth stages of weeds was established. The optimal herbicide rates, the timing of protective measures, and the sensitivity of certain types of weeds were determined depending on the type of weed in crops to combat annual and perennial weeds. The increased application rate of the tested herbicide up to 1.0 l/ha led to an increase in the effectiveness of the pesticide in the number and weight of weeds and was 92.4…97.9 and 92.4…97.8 %, respectively. By the harvesting time, infestation of corn crops in the control decreased to 16…17 plants/m2. In the variants with herbicides, infestation of crops did not exceed 8 plants/m2. High yields of green mass in the first zone and corn grains in the second and third soil-climatic zones were noted in all tested experimental variants. The use of Avrora herbicide in the early phases of weed growth on vegetative corn plants does not have a negative effect on crop plants and contributes to yield increases of up to 53.7…56.2 % when cultivating grain corn and up to 138.5 % when cultivating green mass corn.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-464-474
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Development and synthesis of compounds with fungicidal activity in
           suppression of fungal growth

    • Authors: Fatima D. Dahaeva, Sarah Bachman, Murat S. Gins, Maryam Bayat
      Pages: 475 - 484
      Abstract: The research was conducted to synthesize and study fungicidal activity of synthesized chemical compounds of various classes, triazole and imidazole, and their mode of action due to the wide spectrum of action and low application rates. The developed synthesis methods resulted in several groups of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds and evaluated their fungicidal activity. Inhibitory activity of compounds to strains of Fusarium solani (medium resistance to fungicides) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (susceptible to most fungicides) from the collection of phytopathogenic microorganisms of Agrobiotechnological Department, RUDN University, was tested. In the synthesis of new chemical compounds with fungicidal activity, urea derivatives 1-(3-(Difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)-3-(2-chlorophenyl) urea were identified and structurally confirmed. All target compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity to inhibit mycelium growth. Preliminary screening results showed that all synthesized compounds have good fungicidal activity against S. sclerotiorum . The compound 1-(3-(Difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl) urea showed antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum . At concentration of 100 ppm, the compound suppressed growth of S. sclerotiorum strain by 90.5 %. An in vitro experiment revealed that the compound 1-(3-(Difluoromethyl)1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl) urea was effective for suppressing white mold - S . sclerotiorum , at the dose of 100 mg/L. The significance of the research lies in the fact that production of eco-safe products in agroindustry is impossible without development of new biologically active compounds with low application rates and toxicity indicators, controlled persistence, corresponding to the world level. The results obtained can be implemented in real sector of economy engaged in production of chemical plant protection products. Synthesis and use of new fungicides are relevant in agricultural production as an element of development and intensification of existing agricultural technologies.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-475-484
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Testing two forms of rodenticide baits based on brodifacoum in vitro on
           Norway rats Rattusnorvegicus

    • Authors: Sergey V. Ryabov, Valentin V. Vvedensky, Tatyana V. Dolzhenko, Ranim Karrijow
      Pages: 485 - 492
      Abstract: The chemical method is the most common to control rodents. Fast acting rodenticides (zinc phosphide and krysid) and slow-acting rodenticides divided into first- and second-g eneration anticoagulants are used for deratization practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of rodenticidal activity of brodifacum for two forms of rodenticidal baits in order to control rodents in settlements and adjacent territories, on agricultural land and reduce their harm. In case of high numbers, they carry such dangerous diseases as plague, typhoid fever, paratyphs, encephalitis, rabies, tuberculosis, tularemia, etc. Fleas and ticks parasitizing mouse-like rodents transmit pathogens to pets and humans. The economic damage caused by rodents is high. They destroy and spoil food and fodder, destroy the seedlings of agricultural crops. In a year, a gray rat eats 20…24 kg of food and pollutes 10 times more products. In total, two forms of baits based on brodifacoum were prepared against rodents. We proposed and tested the rodenticidal activity of the forms of baits developed in loose and soft forms. The assessment established that both forms had high biological activity, reaching 90.17 and 89.67 %. Consumption rates of poisoned baits in the form of soft briquettes were lower compared to grain baits, showing high efficiency and saving the food base for preparation of poisoned rodenticidal baits.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-485-492
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide in grapevine
           protection

    • Authors: Viktor I. Dolzhenko, Olga V. Shapoval, Yuri N. Pleskachev, Tamara S. Astarkhanova
      Pages: 493 - 500
      Abstract: The problem of contamination of agricultural products with toxic substances is an urgent problem in production. One of the most chemically treated crop is vineyards. Multiple treatments during one growing season have led to the fact that grape plantings have become an accumulator of unsafe chemical plant protection products. Moreover, grapes are consumed fresh. Accordingly, the selection of environmentally friendly pesticides and the replacement of chemicals with biological ones has become a priority for producers of this crop. Our research was devoted to evaluation of bioinsecticide based on entomopathogenic bacteria B. thuringiensis in the system of protecting grapes from pests. Such studies are of great interest and, according to the literature, 90 % of registered insecticides are based on Bacillus thuringiensis . Microorganisms isolated from nature as plant protection agents, when reintroduced into natural conditions, preserve beneficial species in biocenoses. At the same time, they are selective and, while affecting certain harmful objects, do not cause harm to humans and the environment. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the bioinsecticide Biometch Insecto, WP on grapevine pests: European grape worm ( Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.) and leafy form of phylloxera ( Viteus vitifolii Fitch.). Biometch Insecto, WP is based on strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HG207 and Beauveria bassiana HG208. The effect of entomopathogens was compared with the effect of insecticide Bioslip, BW, L, the active ingredient of which is Beauveria bassiana . The results of the research revealed high biological effectiveness (90…100 %) of Biometch Insecto, WP in protecting grapevines from pests when applied during the period of mass hatching of European grape worm caterpillars and emergence of phylloxera larvae from galls.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-493-500
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Effectiveness of biological products for control of the most significant
           mycoses on potato crops

    • Authors: Elena N. Pakina, Sergey I. Shkurkin, Maria T. Mukhina
      Pages: 501 - 507
      Abstract: Experiments on comparative assessment of effectiveness of bioagents to control the most significant fungal diseases were carried out on crops of potato breeding line in the Zernograd district, Rostov region. Biofungicide Metabakterin, WP based on Methylobacterium extorquens NVD VKM B-2879D + Validamycin Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus VKPM AC-1966 + Bacillus subtilis VKPM B-2918 IPM 215 and biofungicide Vitaplan based on Bacillus subtilis , strain VKM-B-2604D + Bacillus subtilis , strain VKM-B-2605D were studied in the research. The results showed that Metabakterin, WP at the rate of 80 g/ha was the most effective for control of early blight, late blight, fusarium dry rot and rhizoctonia canker on potatoes, while protection period of the biofungicide against these fungal diseases ranged from 19 to 27 days. It was noted that application rate of 80 g/ha of Metabakterin, WP provided the maximum increase in potato yield.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-501-507
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • The effect of hydrogel on one- and two-year-old saplings of English oak
           Quercus robur L.

    • Authors: Anna A. Bakaneva
      Pages: 508 - 519
      Abstract: Survival rate of English oak ( Quercus robur L.) saplings (one- and two-year-old) on experimental plots under different hydrological conditions (long-interval flooding, short-interval flooding, no flooding) and the effect of hydrogel on the survival of the planted stock were studied. At present, these studies are relevant for the floodplain forest ecosystem of the Volga River, since the forests of this region are experiencing huge natural and anthropogenic loads, therefore, developments are needed for their conservation and restoration. The purpose of the research was to study the method of planting English oak ( Quércus róbur ) with annual and biennial saplings using hydrogel to restore and increase the biodiversity of degraded forest phytocenoses in conditions of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain in the north of the Astrakhan region. In the work, the following methods were used: soil moisture was determined by the thermostatic-weight method (B.A. Dospekhov); experimental data were processed by the method of dispersion analysis using Microsoft Excel. According to the results of the study, the best survival rate (83 %) was observed in one-year-old saplings of English oak in the variant with using hydrogel in no-flooding site.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-508-519
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Effect of low positive temperature on the antioxidant system formation in
           de-etiolated and etiolated Amaranthus tricolor L. seedlings grown from
           seeds treated with growth regulators

    • Authors: Ekaterina M. Gins
      Pages: 520 - 530
      Abstract: In the Non-chernozem zone of Russia, the recurrent spring cold up to 1-2 °C can cause damage and death of thermophilic amaranth seedlings. Pre-sowing treatment of seeds with growth regulators is an inexpensive and effective method to reduce the negative effect of hypothermia on seed germination. The aim of the research was to study the effect of low-temperature stress on etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings of amaranth cv. ‘Valentina’ ( A. tricolor L.) grown from seeds treated with growth stimulants. Seeds were pretreated with aqueous solutions of Albit (1 g/L), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) - 5 mM and succinic acid (ScA) - 500 mg/L. Seeds were germinated in peat pots at 23 ± 2 °C (T23) for 7 days. On the 7th day, peat pots with seedlings grown in the light and in the dark were moved to thermostat at 2.0 ± 0.5 °C (T2) for 8 hours. Determination of the amount of amaranthine, chlorophylls and carotenoids were carried out according to generally accepted methods. Pretreatment of seeds with the growth regulators Albit, H2O2, and ScA increased hypocotyl length, root length, and biomass of light and etiolated seedlings. Low positive temperatures increased the content of amaranthine and carotenoids but reduced the content of chlorophylls. It was shown that all used growth regulators - H2O2, Albit and ScA trigger or at least maintain the system of antioxidant protection in light and etiolated seedlings of amaranth cv. ‘Valentina’ under low positive temperatures.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-520-530
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Evaluation of different lines of vegetable soybean Glycine max L. Merr.
           under conditions of the Moscow region

    • Authors: Freddy E. Mullo Panoluisa, Natalia A. Semenova, Elena V. Romanova
      Pages: 531 - 540
      Abstract: Edamame is a special soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr .) harvested as a vegetable when the seeds are immature (R6 and R7 stage) and have expanded to fill 80 to 90 percent of the pod width. The study was conducted in the experimental field of Federal Scientific Vegetable Center in the Moscow Region in 2020-2022 and Agro-biotechnological department, Agrarian and Technological Institute, RUDN University. The object of research was 3 accessions of soybean ( Glycine max L.): accession A, accession F, Hidaka and Lira. Before sowing, soybean seeds were inoculated with Optimays 400 ( Bradyrhizobium japonicum ) and Biobesta ( Sinorhizobium fredii ). In the field experiment, 10 soybean samples were taken from each plot at the stage of biological ripeness to determine plant height (cm), number of pods per plant, number of stems per plant, stem width (mm), average number of seeds per plant, weight of 1000 seeds (g) and yield (t/ha). The experiment was designed in a complete random block with a factorial arrangement. Thus, we had 4 accessions and 3 treatments (C - control, V1 - Bradyrhizobium japonicum and V2 - Sinorhizobium fredii ) with 3 replacations. The study showed that accession A had the highest average yield per hectare (2.70 t/ha) and weight of 1000 seeds (159 g). Under conditions of the Moscow region, variant V2 ( Sinorhizobium fredii ) had the highest average yield (2.57 t/ha) and weight of 1000 seeds (100.25 g). Therefore, more than 90 % of the results obtained for these two indicators are associated with the use of V2 treatment. For the rest of the studied indicators, no significant differences were found, and they did not affect the efficiency indicators. The combination of accession A and treatment V2 led to the highest average yield (2.99 t/ha). The product based on Sinorhizobium fredii showed the best indicators for all the studied samples.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-531-540
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • World experience in the application of low-energy electron irradiation in
           agriculture

    • Authors: Oksana V. Tkhorik, Vladimir A. Kharlamov, Irina V. Polyakova, Nadezhda N. Loy, Maria G. Pomyasova, Valentin I. Shishko
      Pages: 541 - 553
      Abstract: According to the long-term observations of the FAO, losses of plant-based agricultural products are estimated to be between 10 and 30 %. The main causes of these losses are plant pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and insect pests. The study discusses the problems of ensuring phytosanitary safety of agricultural products and proposes the use of radiation technology instead of chemical treatment. Radiation technology has a long history of research and application, spanning over 75 years. The most extensive and detailed data on the application of this technology have been obtained for gamma installations, which use natural radioactive isotopes. Lowenergy (less than 300 keV) electron accelerators were invented relatively recently, so the question of their use in agriculture is relevant. Treatment with low-energy electron radiation combines all the advantages of radiation treatment of food and agricultural products with gamma radiation, and at the same time, significantly reduces the risk of damage to biological structures inside the irradiated object due to the low penetrating power of the radiation. This study notes that low-energy electron accelerators can be successfully used to combat plant infectious diseases, reducing the amount of plant pathogens on seeds, without affecting their growth parameters. The use of low-energy electron irradiation to prevent microbiological spoilage is also discussed. The nutritional qualities of irradiated products are not significantly altered. The method of radiation disinfestation (control of insect pests) using low-energy electron radiation has also proven to be effective. However, it should be noted that additional research is necessary to determine the optimal doses of low-energy radiation for each type of product and to ensure safety for human health and the environment. Generally, the use of radiation technology in agriculture has great potential and can become an effective means of improving productivity and food safety. This method of food processing has been recognized as safe for human health by several authoritative international organizations, including the UN (FAO), WHO, IAEA, and others.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-541-553
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Effects of precision irrigation on water regime and productivity of winter
           wheat

    • Authors: Alexander N. Babichev, Dmitry P. Sidarenko
      Pages: 554 - 565
      Abstract: The aim of the research was to establish the effect of precision irrigation with varying mineral fertilizer availability on winter wheat productivity. Studies were carried out on irrigated arable land in the Rostov region. The test scheme included 3 replications. The climate of the research area is arid but not hot enough. The sum of temperatures for growing period is in the range of 3000…3200 ºC, the average annual precipitation is 470 mm, for the growing period - 285 mm. The soil cover of the experimental site is chernozem. According to the granulometric composition of the soil, the entire profile is represented mainly by heavy loam, turning into medium loam at a depth of 130-160 cm. The structural state in dry sieving and the water resistance of the aggregates are characterized as excellent. The lowest water-holding capacity for 0-60-centimeter layer is 28.3 %, which is good according to the existing classification. Soil density in 0.6 m layer is 1.27 t/m3, and in 1.0 m layer - 1.33 t/m3. Differentiated doses of fertilizers against the background of irrigation technologies studied in variants had a significant impact on productivity of winter wheat. Thus, in the variants with no irrigation, water consumption coefficient of winter wheat was 890.8 to 1343.6 m3/t; using the recommended irrigation system reduced its value to 725.9…1327.3 m3/t, and the precision irrigation technology provided a reduction in the value of water consumption coefficient to 681.6…1147.6 m3/t. The conducted studies revealed advantage of precision irrigation technology and mineral fertilizers, the use of which in different years provided higher winter crop yield by an average of 0.55 t/ha in comparison with the recommended technology, and, in comparison with variants without irrigation - by 3.49 t/ha. The introduction of modern high-precision irrigation technologies will make agricultural products produced on irrigated land more competitive.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-554-565
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Increasing efficiency of irrigation reclamation in potato and soybean
           agrocenoses using sludge

    • Authors: Andrey E. Novikov, Anton A. Poddubsky, Alexey A. Novikov, Roman V. Zbukarev, Natalya V. Bogomolova
      Pages: 566 - 579
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess effect of different doses of wastewater sludge on productivity of irrigation water use by agrocenoses of potatoes (Zhukovsky rannii) and soybeans (VNIIOZ 31), on their yield, as well as the index of soil contamination and seed production. Agrometeorological conditions of the periods of vegetation experiments are characterized as dry with hydrothermal coefficient value of no more than 0.39. Considering the current climatic conditions, regulations for watering potatoes and soybeans were drawn up. It was established that application of WWS in doses of 20, 40 and 60 t·ha-1 had different effects on crops total water consumption. In potato crops, irrigation rate varied from 2590 m3·ha-1 in the control to 1850 m3·ha-1 in WWS60 variant, and in soybean crops, it varied from 3700 in the control to 2960 m3·ha-1 in WWS60 variant. At the same time, amount of irrigation water to obtain a ton of potato and soybean yield in the control averaged 124.5 and 1298.2 m3·t-1, respectively, against 118.3…72.8 and 1213.1…886.2 m3·t-1 for variants WWS20, WWS40 and WWS60, which corresponded to increase in water use productivity from 5.0 to 41.5 % and from 6.6 to 31.7 %, respectively. Laboratory studies of soil samples of the arable layer showed that pollution index in relation to heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu varies from 2.54 in variant WWS20 to 4.04 in variant WWS60, which indicates the absence of soil contamination. Evaluation of potato tubers for values of starch, dry matter, nitrates and heavy metals demonstrates sufficiently high quality and acceptable level of contamination of the seeds.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-566-579
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Dynamics of morphofunctional parameters in experimental pseudomonosis of
           rabbits

    • Authors: Ekaterina M. Lenchenko, Galina S. Tolmacheva
      Pages: 580 - 590
      Abstract: Among the most frequently reported diseases of rabbits, the main place is occupied by diseases of bacterial etiology, the pathogens of which are characterized by multidrug resistance. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of morphometric indicators during experimental infection of rabbits with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. When assessing colonization resistance of organs, the following indicators were taken into account: colonization index, ratio of the number of microorganisms isolated from nasal cavity washes, contents of cecum of clinically healthy and sick animals. Significant changes in morphological parameters (p ≤ 0.05) were revealed during the isolation of P. aeruginosa from blood, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and kidneys of sick rabbits. Overgrowth of isolates producing adhesive antigens, hemolysins, bacteriocins should be considered as prognostic markers of connective tissue dysplasia. The initiation, development, and outcome of microbial overgrowth syndrome are mediated by morphofunctional changes in compensatory mechanisms of mucociliary clearance system and colonization resistance.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-580-590
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Surgical treatment of colorectal tubular adenoma in dog

    • Authors: Anna V. Nazarova, Boris S. Semenov, Tatyana S. Kuznetsova
      Pages: 591 - 603
      Abstract: The surgical methods for treatment of adenomatous polyps in dogs and their effectiveness for maintaining health and quality of life of the animal were studied. The study was conducted on the clinical case of colorectal tubular adenoma (TA) surgical treatment in a 11-year-old male Irish setter who was admitted for hematochezia. A colonoscopy revealed a colon wall neoplasm. Based on the data of cytological and histological examination of the biopsy material, the patient was diagnosed with «tubular adenoma of the rectum». Computed tomography revealed a mass 57×18.3×18.3 mm in the rectal ampoule. After tissue segmentation, to make a therapeutic decision about the possibility of surgical resection and access, the ampoule of the rectum was resected through dorsal access. In the early postoperative period, tenesmus (with a decrease in their severity within a week after surgery) and partial fecal incontinence were recorded. The most serious complication was the formation of several more defects of the colon wall cranially from the superimposed anastomoses, which required three more operations. To decompress the colorectal anastomosis, a temporary flank double-barrelled colostomy with a support bridge was performed. The study revealed that despite the relatively rare incidence of TA in dogs, the comparison investigation of diagnosis and surgical treatment methods and avoiding postoperative complications and tumor recurrence is a relevant task both due to the possibility of TA malignancy and due to the fact that dogs are a naturally biological model for investigating this pathology.
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2023-18-4-591-603
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2023)
       
 
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