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Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1841-9364 - ISSN (Online) 2344-4576
Published by Banat´s University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Post-hatch L-Threonine supplementation to low protein diets influences the
           

    • Authors: Joel Oluwatosin ALABI, Subrat Kumar BHANJA, Adeboye Olusesan FAFIOLU, Okanlawon M ONAGBESAN, Akhsat GOEL, Manish MEHRA, Ifeoluwa Dami DADA, Oluremi Adebisi OSINOWO, Oluseyi O OLUWATOSIN
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate growth performance, immune responses and carcass traits of CARIBRO Vishal broilers fed dietary L-Thr in low protein diets without or with the balance of Lys and Met. Broilers fed 85% CP diet with Thr alone showed depressed daily weight gain (linear, P = 0.004), daily feed intake (quadratic, P = 0.031) and higher FCR (linear, P = 0.008) at d 21 (exp. 1) whereas, birds fed low CP diets but supplemented with Thr and balance of Lys and Met exhibited similar (P > 0.05) growth rate as that of control diet (exp. 2). Incremental Thr levels increased (P < 0.05) the immune and digestive organs weights, and enhanced antibody responses against SRBC and PHA-P antigens in both experiments. Thr inclusion increased (P < 0.001) total protein and globulin in both experiments. Dietary crude protein in broiler diets could be reduced up to 85% of fast-growing broilers’ requirement with adequate supplementation of 3 limiting amino acids (Lys, Met, and Thr) for CARIBRO Vishal broiler chicks. Dietary L-Thr supplementation enhanced the immune status of broiler chickens fed low CP diets.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Body Protein Reserve and Possibilities for Improvement in Honey Bee
           Colonies - Review

    • Authors: Calin Julean
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to assess the body's protein reserve in honey bee colonies and the possibilities for improving it. Understanding the causes of changes in body proteinis is important for the beekeeping sector in order to improve bioproductive indices and ensure the health of bees.The body's protein reserves of bees are located in the fat body, hypopharyngeal glands and plasma proteins (vitellogenin). Its active role has been proven in the following aspects: the secretion of larval food (royal jelly), longevity, metamorphosis, the evolution and behavior of adults, immunity and detoxification of bees. Body protein values ranges from 21 to 67% of the dry matter. The values considered physiologically normal are over 40%. The factors that reduce the protein content are: the quantity and quality of protein feed, overuse (enzymatic, immune, toxic or various diseases). Body protein deficiency causes bees to fly at a younger age; they also quickly become bee-collectors and their longevity is shortened. Research has established the ideal protein for bees, which is close in value to the proportion of aminoacids in royal jelly. Pollen as a source of protein for bees was classified as follows: poor quality below 20% CP (crude protein), average quality between 20-25% CP and high quality with over 25% CP. The quality of pollen protein is given by the presence of essential aminoacids. No deficiencies of essential aminoacids are reported in pollen produced by species of the family Rosaceae, Phacelia spp., Echium spp., nor in most species of the families Brasicaceae and Fabaceae. It is noted that the plants produce pollen with a low content of protein and essential aminoacids in summer and autumn. In conclusion, it is necessary to supplement the bee families with protein feed in order to ensure the body protein reserve according to the requirements.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Nitrogen emissions from agriculture and livestock sector, among the causes
           of climate change

    • Authors: Daniel Catalin Necula
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: This paper aimed to review the nitrogen emissions from the agriculture and livestock sector and their impact on the environment in the light of the actual global climate change picture. Emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxide and nitrous oxide contribute to air pollution and global warming, while nitrates contribute to soil and water pollution. The agriculture and livestock sector is responsible for ammonia emissions representing approximately 80-90% of total anthropogenic emissions. Approximately 52% of total nitrous oxide emissions are coming from agriculture, and there is a strong correlation with the application rates of synthetic fertilizers. The nitrogen lost in the soil and water through leaching represents an important nitrate emission with negative effects on the environment due to acidification and eutrophication. As a result of human activity in recent decades, significant amounts of reactive nitrogen were released into the environment, disrupting the natural nitrogen cycle. The main causes of nitrogen emissions in the agriculture and livestock sector are represented by the excessive and inefficient use of synthetic fertilizers, manure management, including the low efficiency of nitrogen conversion into milk, meat and eggs by animals.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of growth traits in calves of Charolais in different breeding
           conditions

    • Authors: Jozef Bujko, Katarína Hozaková, Cyril Hrnčár
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: The issue was solved by the growth of 632 Charolais calves born between 2011 and 2016 from three farms in the Slovak Republic who are part of performance beef cattle testing. In our work was evaluated a live birth weight, weight at 120 days of age, weight at 210 days of age, weight at age 365 days, average daily gain from birth to 120 days of age, average daily gain between 120 and 210 days of age and average daily gain up to 365 days. Assessment factors were selected by breeder, sex of calves, calf birth year, calf birth month and sire effect. Evaluating of the live weight at birth founded the highest weight of farm A (42.92 kg), which is closest to the breed standard. Heaviest calves were born in 2016 with very high significant effect (p<0.001) on the birth weight. Male calves were heavier than heifers in single, heifer twins were also heavier. High statistical significance (p<0.001) was detected by sire. In our work we´ve founded the best weaning weight 229.11 kg in lower birth weight (33.52 kg). This indicator reduced over the years up to year 2016, when the weight raised again. Heifers reached higher values than bulls (203.74 kg compared to 177.40 kg), while the impact of this factor was statistically significant (p<0.05). The highest calves weaning weight was found in the October (224.35 kg) and the January (209.98 kg). We also investigated the correlation dependence of growth characteristics, when we found a positive correlation dependence (r = 0.03) between weaning weight and birth weight, which is statistically not significant (p>0.05).
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Lactose percentage in relation to the somatic cells count in
           milk of dairy cows of the Slovak Spotted cattle

    • Authors: Jozef Bujko, Juraj Candrák, Peter Strapák, Cyril Hrnčár, Mariusz Bogucki
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate lactose percentage in relation to the somatic cells count in milk of Slovak Spotted cattle. A total of 468,082 control milk samples from 28,848 dairy cows born from 2000 to 2014 were used for investigating lactose percentage (LP), milk yield (MY), lactose yield (LY), fat percentage (FP), proteins percentage (PP) and somatic cells count (SCC). Data were analysed using the SAS version 9.4 and linear model with fixed effects: farmer (F), years-month of control (YM), order of lactation (OL), sire (S), coding of SCC (CS). In the dataset the average of LP was 4.78±0.27 %, while the one of MY, LY, FP, PP and SCC were 20.44±8.65, 0.98±0.43, 4.04±0.80, 3.49±0.37 and 455.95±1,296.16 cells *1000/ ml. The correlation of LP with MY, LY, FP, PP, and SCC was equal to r = 0.33205, r = 0.41609, r = -0.11414, r = -0.24404 and r = -0.31175. These correlation coefficients were statistically highly significant P <0.0001. Among all fixed effects in the analysis of variance of LP, the most relevant effect was observed for CS (P<.0001).
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of sexual dimorphism in a population of dogs of the Romanian
           Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    • Authors: Dorel Dronca, Ioan Pet, Gabi Dumitrescu, Lavinia Stef, Liliana Ciochina Petculescu, Silvia Patruica, Mihaela Ivancia, Eliza Simiz, Marius Maftei, Marioara Nicula, Adela Marcu, Mihaela Cazacu, Silvia Erina, Mirela Ahmadi
      Pages: 35 - 38
      Abstract: Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed of Romanian Carpathian Mountains. The aim of this study was to analyze the existence and size of sexual dimorphism in a population of 26 males and 23 females of the Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, for 6 body measurements: ear length, ear width, distance between the ears, distance between the eyes, length hair at withers and metacarpal perimeter. Following the study on the significance of statistical differences between body measurements recorded in 26 males and 23 females, it was concluded that sexual dimorphism is not evident in the population of the Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog studied in this paper, except the distance between the ears character. Among the other characters, the differences between the individuals of the two sexes are insignificant (p>0.05). We recommend to the dog breeders to take into account the genetic improvement programs, and also the results presented in this paper.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Water course quality evolution near animal husbandry farms

    • Authors: Erika Beilicci, Camelia Stefanescu, Robert Beilicci
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: The sum of the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water determine the water quality evolution in water courses. Animal husbandry is one of the main causes of water courses pollution, especially if it does not have a wastewater treatment plant and they are discharged directly into the water course. The water quality determine the treatment technology and costs of water treatment to meet the quality requirements of the users in downstream, and the measures necessary for the protection / improvement of the water quality. An important aspect of the activity of water specialists is to monitor, analyze and forecast the evolution of water quality, especially in sectors where there are significant sources of pollution. In this paper is realized the modeling of the evolution of the water quality of the Crasna River, situated in the north-west part of Romania, using the MIKEbyDHI software, an advanced hydroinformatic tool. The evolution of Crasna River water quality is important because it is a cross-border river and is subject to the Romania - Hungary bilateral conventions and EU directives.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PREVALENCE OF LAMENESS IN CATTLE – ASSOCIATED HERD LEVEL RISK
           FACTORS -

    • Authors: Ioana Cristina Crivei, Cătălina SĂNDULEANU, Alina Narcisa POSTOLACHE, Adina Mirela ARITON, Ioana POROȘNICU, Andra Sabina NECULAI VĂLEANU, Ciprian RADU, Teodor BUGEAC
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Defined as a severe welfare problem, lameness in cattle is associated with impaired locomotion and lesions of the hind limb, affecting fertility, milk yield, and considerable economic losses. This study aims to determine the prevalence of lameness and to establish risk factors involved in herd lameness in cattle within a farm in the north-eastern part of Romania. A total of 370 animals were scored for lameness as well as for other information on individual cows (parity, body condition score, milk yield, days in milk). Additional information like nutrition, resting, cow comfort, social confrontation, and density were also collected. Thus, herd lameness prevalence ranged between 0 to 72%, with a mean of 22%. Higher milk production was associated with lower chances of being lame. Compared to first parity, multiparous cows had higher odds of being lame, which was also correlated with a low body condition score (<2.5). Overgrown claws, injured hocks, slippery floors, hygiene and care were also correlated with this condition, emphasizing the importance of housing conditions and welfare. Therefore, actions like improving management practices in order to improve cow welfare as well as detection and proper treatment of this disorder promptly are essential for dairy herds.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN RAW MILK EVALUATION USING SOLERIS
           SYSTEM AS A RAPID ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    • Authors: Ioana Cristina Crivei, Alina Narcisa POSTOLACHE, Adina Mirela ARITON, Cătălina SĂNDULEANU, Ioana POROȘNICU, Teodor BUGEAC1
      Pages: 53 - 57
      Abstract: Defined as the mammary glands/udder inflammation, mastitis caused by various infectious etiological agents, is still considered a debilitating condition in dairy cows, influencing both animal welfare and the dairy industry through decreased production performance and increased culling rates. The consumption of raw milk or other milk products is related to the microbiological quality of raw milk. The main disadvantages in applying laboratory microbiological culture are related to logistical limitations and the expense of shipping samples, as well as the time required for analysis to receive interpretations, which can range from three to five days. The aim of this study is to validate the Soleris System as a rapid alternative method to the plate-count method in order to assess the microbiological quality of raw milk. Thus, this study establishes the reliability of this alternative method for determining the total viable count in raw milk in samples from cows. In conclusion, raw milk evaluation using the Soleris System demonstrates its promise as a valid tool for accurate testing in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of coriander essential oil and vacuum packaging to
           poultry sous vide meat

    • Authors: Miroslava Kačániová, Lucia Galovičová, Petra Borotová, Simona Kunová
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Poultry meat is currently considered as a dietetic food due to its valuable biological and nutritional characteristics. This poultry meat is high in protein, essential amino acids, minerals and is low in fat. Meat is for its optimal composition and high-water activity very suitable breeding ground for undesirable microorganisms that cause microbial spoilage of meat. To prolong the shelf life of meat and preserve its quality and hygienic properties various forms of packaging are used. The aim of our work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil from coriander in combination with vacuum packaging. Samples were collected from sous vide chicken breast meat, prepared in vacuum. Listeria monocytogenes and coriander essential oil were applied on the chicken breast meat. After application, the samples were prepared by sous vide cooking at four different temperatures (50 °C, 55 °C, 60 °C, and 65 °C) during different time of intervals (5; 15; 30; and 60 min). The primary objective was to isolate and analyze the bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) Biotyper and with mass spectrometry (MS). Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were identified. Most frequent type of bacteria isolated from samples were Gram-negative bacteria. The presence of the dominant species Listeria monocytogenes varied depending on temperature and time.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Mycological and Mycotoxinic Investigations of Plant Substrates in the
           Moldavian Plateau Area

    • Authors: Ioana Poroșnicu, Andra Sabina Neculai-Valeanu, Adina Mirela Ariton, Nicolae Iulian Badilas, Bianca Maria Madescu, Ioana Crivei
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Mycological and mycotoxinic contamination of plant substrates endangers the most important sectors globally - agriculture, animal husbandry and the food industry. The starting point of contamination is the spread of pathogens in the field, transport and even handling before storage. Increasing the temperature and humidity of these seeds can be an important factor in the development of fungi and mycotoxins. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the fungal and mycotoxinic potential in the samples that characterize the area of the Moldavian Plateau. From agricultural farms, samples such as corn grains, wheat, barley, soybeans, rapeseed, peas and sunflowers were collected and analyzed and a series of 10 determinations / sample were performed in order to establish the fungal and mycotoxinic load. The results clearly indicate the presence on the seed coat of fungal spores of the genera Penicillium (60%), Aspergillus (52.8%), Fusarium (48.5%) together with species from the Mucoraceae family (38.5%). The most contaminated samples were corn, wheat and barley grains. The climatic conditions in this geographical area are favorable for these species of micromycetes and regarding the mycotoxinic examination performed by the TLC technique, the mycotoxins identified in the 70 plant substrates were aflatoxins B1, G2, ochratoxin and zearalenone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Lemongrass essential oil

    • Authors: Veronika Valková, Hana Ďúranová, Lucia Galovičová, Nenad Vukovic, Milena Vukic, Miroslava Kačániová
      Pages: 73 - 78
      Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) are liquid extracts from aromatic plants with many applications in diverse industries. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle) belongs to plants known for their many biological properties. The present study was designed to evaluate commercial lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) in relationship to its chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity against four filamentous fungi of the genus Penicillium (P.) spp. (P. expansum, P. italicum, P. aurantiogriseum, and P. chrysogenum). For these purposes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and disc diffusion methods were used. The results from the volatile profile determination showed that citronellal (35.3%), geraniol (23.4%), β-citronellol (11.7%), citronellyl acetate (3.9%) and α-limonene (3.8%) were the major components of the EO chemical constitution. Lemongrass EO at the highest concentration (500 µL/L) exhibited the most effective (P < 0.05) inhibitory action (inhibition zones: 6.17 ± 0.27 mm, 4.27 ± 0.25 mm, 6.90 ± 0.36 mm, 5.90 ± 0.36 mm, respectively) against the growth of all fungi strains (P. expansum, P. italicum, P. aurantiogriseum, and P. chrysogenum) investigated. Based on the above-mentioned findings it can be seen that LGEO appears to be a promising natural agent with an inhibitory effectiveness on the Penicillium spp. growth and thus, it can find an application in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Testing the Chelating Properties of Coriander Lyophilisate (Coriandrum
           sativum) in Experimental Lead Poisoning in Carassius gibelio Bloch

    • Authors: Florina Făt, Gabi Dumitrescu, Diana Berzovan, Liliana Petculescu-Ciochina, Marioara Nicula (Neagu)
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Our study aimed to highlight the histological alterations of some tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to sub lethal Pb intoxication with and without coriander dietary supplementation. 90 Prussian carps, with weighing between 10 and 12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment), E1 (75 ppm Pb into water), E2 (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized coriander leaves in feed). Gill, intestine, liver and kidney were sampling and analyzed in light microscopy at the end of experiment. QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Our findings were: severe histological alterations in experimental Pb-poisoned group; coriander lyophilisate has been shown to be an excellent chelator on liver tissue and is largely able to attenuate the toxic effects of lead in the kidneys, intestine and gill.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The influence of wintering on macronutrients in fish meat, in species from
           a wild habitat

    • Authors: Marcel Daniel Popa, Elena Eugenia Mocanu, Viorica Savin, Desimira Stroe, Floricel Dima, Neculai Patriche
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: To determine the macronutrient variations in fish meat at the end of the winter period compared to the start of wintering, 7 species from the Danube River were fished (Abramis brama, Ballerus sapa, Barbus barbus, Blicca bjoerkna, Gymnocephalus schraetser, Sander lucioperca, Vimba vimba). Biochemical analyses of fish meat were performed for the winter of 2020-2021 and 2021-2022.The biochemical profile followed the same trends for the 7 fish species as well as the 2 wintering periods considered.At the start of the winter period, in the meat of all analysed species, the percentage of water was lower compared to the end of the winter period. Proteins and lipids varied inversely with the amount of water in the fish meat for both wintering periods.In 2020-2021, the percentages of proteins and lipids were lower than in 2021-2022, for all 7 species analysed.The variations of macronutrients between the start and the end of the winter period are explained by the hibernation behaviour of the fish, which is directly influenced and dependent on temperature variations. The thermal regime recorded higher values in the winter of 2020-2021, interrupting the hibernation of fish, which led to a higher consumption of energy reserves in the meat of the considered species
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of phytogenic additives on growth parameters and meat
           biochemistry in Cyprinus carpio

    • Authors: Viorica Savin, Elena Mocanu, Floricel Dima, Neculai Patriche, Marcel Daniel Popa, Victor Cristea
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Over time, antibiotics have been used in aquaculture to control fish diseases. Improper and sometimes unjustified use of them has raised concerns about their effectiveness and the possibility of resistant bacterial strains development. One of the attempts to maintain a good health status of fish was to introduce botanical or phytogenic additives into the feeding diets. Phytogenic compounds are natural bioactive compounds, with beneficial effects on technological performance by stimulating growth, feed consumption and food recovery. The aim of this experiment was to determine how the growth parameters and composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio) meat are influenced by the introduction of phytogenic compounds in the diet, such as licorice, echinacea and thyme. The inclusion of phytogenic additives in feeding diets has ensured a higher growth performance in the experimental groups, compared to the diet without the addition of phytogenic additives and a feed conversion ratio (FCR) with better values in the experimental groups (1.87 in the group fed with licorice addition, 2.03 in the group with added echinacea, respectively 2.31 for the group with added thyme), compared to the control group, where a value of 2.40 was obtained. Phytogenic additives supplemented in feeding diets cause an accumulation of protein and lipids in carp meat, which increase the fish nutritional value.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Preliminary results regarding the growth of catfish in floating cages on
           the irrigation canal

    • Authors: Elena Sîrbu, Veta Nistor, Floricel Maricel Dima, Neculai Patriche, Liliana Blondina Athanasopoulos, Magdalena Tenciu
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: The selection of fish species that can be raised in floating cages took into account the physiological compatibility between them and the water supply to the irrigation canal, respectively of the Danube river. The european catfish is a predatory species with a positive growth rate and high-quality meat, which recommends it for use in aquaculture. This experiment aimed to adapt and evaluate the growth conditions of wels catfish (Silurus glanis, Linnaeus 1758) in floating cages located on the irrigation canal. The experimental period lasted 120 days. A number of 52 catfish specimens were distributed in two floating cages, the experimental variant V1 with 26 specimens and an average weight of 230 g, and the experimental variant V2 with 26 specimens and an average weight of 440 g. The fish were fed three meals per day with extruded feed containing 53% crude protein and 18% fat. The analysis of the experimental data on the growth of catfish in floating cages located in irrigation canals shows that both, the survival of the biological material and its growth rate, registered a positive evolution in the experimental variant V2, where survival was 92% and gained weight 19.66 kg/m3, compared to 12.12 kg/m3 in the experimental variant V1. In conclusion, catfish may be a species of interest for the culture in floating cages on irrigation canals, but the study recommends future research to elucidate several aspects of growing and assessing of the environmental conditions
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Strategies for identifying and preventing fungal mastitis in dairy cows

    • Authors: Adina Mirela Ariton, Ioana Poroșnicu, Andra Sabina Neculai Valeanu, Ioana Cristina Crivei, Cătălina Sănduleanu, Alina Narcisa Postolache, Lucia Carmen Trincă
      Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most important diseases with a multifactorial etiology that causes high economic losses in dairy industry, having a direct negative impact on the profitability of the farm and animal welfare. Fungal mastitis is widespread in dairy cows, and in recent years, fungal agents have been frequently reported as being responsible for mastitis. The aim of this study is to identify the species of fungi in various milk samples collected from cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis, in order to monitor the number of somatic cells. A total number of 30 samples of milk collected from cows diagnosed with mastitis were studied to determine if the disease was caused by the presence of fungal species or other etiological agents. In the analyzed milk samples, a number of species of fungi belonging to the genera: Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus were identified. The presence of fungal contamination in the environment is almost ubiquitous, thereby strategies to prevent fungal mastitis in dairy farms, have become the main goal for most farmers, in order to increase the quality of raw milk.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of heavy metals content in raw milk samples from dairy cows
           – a systematic review

    • Authors: Adina Mirela Ariton, Andra Sabina Neculai Valeanu, Ioana Cristina Crivei, Alina Narcisa Postolache, Cătălina Săndulescu, Ioana Poroșnicu, Elena Ungureanu
      Pages: 113 - 119
      Abstract: Heavy metals toxicity, as well as the cumulative effects on the human body, require regular monitoring of their concentration in cow's milk. In dairy cows, heavy metals can cause loss of appetite, reproductive imbalances, and long-term consequences on milk production, among other concerns. Cow feed quality is directly related to environmental quality and agricultural aspects such as plant type, soil quality, fertilization processes, harvesting, processing, and storage. This literature review highlights various sources of heavy metals in raw milk, methods of decontamination and prevention, as well as classical and innovative techniques for determining the presence of heavy metals in milk. Due to the high concentrations of heavy metals in milk samples, particularly lead and cadmium, health and environmental protection organizations should conduct rigorous assessment. The relevant regulatory agencies should establish and implement more precisely the permitted levels of cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and copper in milk, and each unit that processes milk should be required to adhere to practices and a food safety management program.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Body Measurements on the Aubrac Cattle Breed: a review

    • Authors: Bianca Maria Madescu, Roxana Lazar, Andra Sabina Neculai Valeanu, Ioana Porosnicu, Paul Corneliu Boisteanu
      Pages: 120 - 127
      Abstract: The Aubrac is a French breed of domestic beef cattle, becoming a major interest for cattle breeders in our country. Being a large breed of cattle, cows weigh are between 650-800 kilograms and bulls between 1,000-1200 kg. Body conformation is one of the main criteria for assessing bovine animals from a zootechnical and economic point of view. The notion of body conformation in cattle means the overall external appearance of the examined bovine, with reference to the development of each body region separately. The method of body measurements consists in the direct measurement, on the animal, of the different body and mass dimensions. With the help of these measurements we can appreciate the development and connection of different body regions or segments that make up the whole body and the general development of the animal.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Study of Time Intervals of Egg Formation in Oravka Hens

    • Authors: Cyril Hrnčár, Emília Hanusová, Anton Hanus, Jozef Bujko
      Pages: 128 - 132
      Abstract: In this study, we analysed daily the time intervals of egg formation in pure chicken breed Oravka in the second half of egg production on 66 hens for 30 days, from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. Experiment was realised in deep litter system in pens with automatic egg nest. Feeding of hens was providing by feed mixture for laying hens (crude protein 158.06 g/kg, metabolic energy 11.32 MJ/kg). Feeding and watering were ad libitum. Birds were exposed to natural light as a practiced in rural areas of South-West Slovakia. There were observed that in Oravka chickens the egg forming on average 25.78±0.39 hours, while the range was from 17 to 32 hours. Intervals between successively laid eggs were shortened by the clutch length. Time intervals of egg formation were 26.92±1.87 hours in short clutches (1 to 3 eggs), 25.31±1.65 hours in medium clutches (1 to 8 eggs) and 24.67±1.54 hours in long clutches (more than 9 eggs).Time intervals of egg formation were shortened by prolonging the clutch. The clutch length can significantly affect egg weight.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Time Intervals of Egg Formation on Some Quality Characteristics
           of Oravka Chicken Eggs

    • Authors: Cyril Hrnčár, Emília Hanusová, Anton Hanus, Jozef Bujko
      Pages: 133 - 136
      Abstract: In this study, we studied the influence of time intervals of egg formation on some egg quality parameters in descending part of laying curve in pure Oravka chicken breed. We studied the daily dynamics of egg production from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. for 30 days on 66 hens. Experiment was realised in deep litter system in pens with automatic egg nest. Feeding of hens was providing by feed mixture for laying hens (crude protein 158.06 g/kg, metabolic energy 11.32 MJ/kg). Feeding and watering were ad libitum. Birds were exposed to natural light as a practiced in rural areas of South-West Slovakia. The results showed that prolonging the time intervals of egg formation increased of egg weight, eggshell weight and eggshell proportion. At the same time, albumen weight and albumen proportion decreased during period.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Using Infrared Lamps on Growth Parameters in Jumbo Brown
           Quail Youth at 1- 42 Days of Age

    • Authors: Ionita Lucian, Elena Popescu-Miclosanu, Minodora Tudorache, Ion Custură
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: In order to determine the effect of using infrared lamps in raising the Jumbo youth meat quail as a source of heating and lighting during the 1-42 days of age, an experiment was organized on a total number of 300 quail chickens, divided into three equal groups (100 chicks/ group), respectively two sources of electric heating and electric lighting (control batch – 100 W power incandescent lamps, experimental batch I – 100 W infrared lamps and experimental lot II - infrared lamps in the 0-3 weeks of growth and incandescent lamps in the period of 4-6 weeks of growth).Average live weight at the age of 42 days was of 216.55 g/head in control group, of 185.56 g in experimental group I and of 248.55 g/head in experimental group II, 12,87 % higher compared to the control batch and with 25,34% compared to experimental group I, the differences between the three groups being very significant.The average consumption of compound feeds was of 1344 g c.f./head in control group, of 855 g c.f./head in experimental group I and of 1310 g c.f./head in experimental group II, the differences between the three groups being very significant.In view of the inferior results recorded in the case of experimental group I, it can be stated that the use of infrared lamps for the entire growing period of 42 days to Jumbo meat quail youth has negative effects on the weight gain of the chicks, especially in the second part of the growth. The superior growth performance of the experimental group II, compared to control and experimental group I, shows that the combined use of infrared lamps in the 0 - 3 week growth period and incandescent lamps during the 4 - 6 week period has positive effect on growth parameters, especially on the live weight of the chicks at the age of 42 days. 
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative study on the average daily gain of Teleorman Black Head lambs
           reared on two farms in the NE of Romania

    • Authors: Andrei Ciobanu, Mihaela Ivancia, Andreea Dana Șerban, Dănuț Dorel Dronca, Răzvan Alexandru Popa, Șteofil Creangă
      Pages: 143 - 147
      Abstract: Sheep flocks of the Teleorman Black Head breed started to grow and spread almost all over Romania since 2010 when this breed was homologated and a breeding programme was implemented to improve the productive traits of the animals within the breed, especially milk production. However, the animals of this breed have a large body size, a high growth gain for lambs and good carcass weights are obtained at slaughter. On the Romanian market, lambs that are not kept for fattening are destined for export, especially to Arab countries, or for slaughter and consumption during the period around Easter. Since average daily gain is a trait with medium heritability (h=0.16-0.45) [1], the environment in which animals are reared needs to be studied and optimized. The aim of this study is to identify the environmental factors that influenced the performance of young sheep from two farms in different areas in the NE of Romania. The biological material taken in the study was the lambs from the two farms, 277 in farm A and 380 in farm B obtained from the 2021 lambing campaign from a flock of 252 mother ewes in farm A and 376 mother ewes in farm B. The lambs were weighed according to the COP (Official Production Control) procedure, both at birth and at weaning. The average daily gain of lambs on farm A ranged from 229.5 g to 319.8 g, with an average of 273.23 g for females, and from 280.7 g to 405.7 g for males, with an average of 340.66 g, and on farm B from 243.2 to 275.2 for females, with an average of 259.43 g, and from 307.2 g to 408.5 g for males, with an average of 368.7 g.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The Influence of Sheep Age at First Calving on the Productive Performance
           of Lambs from Tsigai breed

    • Authors: Elena ILIȘIU, Andreea Hortanse ANGHEL, Vasile Calin ILIȘIU, Camelia Zoia ZAMFIR, Cristian Vasile ILIȘIU, Daniela Rodica MARE, Dorina Nadolu, Ion Dumitru CHIRTES
      Pages: 148 - 153
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age on reproductive indices and on growth performances, carcass and meat quality of Tsigai lambs coming from young females (8 months age), in order to improve meat quality and meat sensory characteristics of lambs. 222 adult ewes and 51 young females were pursued in the breeding and calving season 2020-2021. The fecundity, prolificacy and weaning rate was 78.43%, 105% and 78.57% to young females and 94.60%, 105.24% and 91.40% to adult ewes, respectively. Thirty lambs (L1, n = 14 heads coming from young females and L2, n = 16 heads from adult ewes) were used in the experiment from birth up to end of intensive fattening of 100 days. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the two lots with regard at final weight and average daily gain during fattening period, but significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for average daily gain from birth to the end of fattening. Significant differences (p <0.001) were also recorded between meat from the two groups with regard to juiciness and overall difference. The meat of lambs from L1 has showed improved eating qualities, resulting in a more juicy and tender meat, in which the specific lamb taste was attenuated.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Food security in low developed countries – the case of the D.R.
           Congo

    • Authors: Ioana Mihaela Balan, Roger Gaise N'Ganzi, Teodor Ioan Trasca, Raul Pascalau, Ioan Brad, Remus Gherman, Camelia Tulcan, Emanuela Diana Gherman, Anamaria Roxana Martin
      Pages: 154 - 160
      Abstract: The article focuses on food security in the least developed countries, through a case study of the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R. Congo), a low-income country with a food deficit, with one of the lowest rates of gross domestic product per capita in the world. The article presents the context after gaining independence in 1960, the last five years, starting with 2017 and the current context of D.R. Congo in 2022, briefly developing the demographic situation, which have a direct impact on food security. The study has as inputs the data provided by the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC). The D.R. Congo continues to live in a particularly unstable political, economic, and social climate. If currently the western part of the country, including the capital Kinshasa, is no longer the scene of violent clashes and demonstrations, in many other provinces armed gangs, non-governmental militias, ex-military and tribal groups are active, carrying out assaults and raids with massacres of civilians. However, in the D.R. Congo, most deaths are not caused by the violence of the ongoing conflict in the African country, but rather by malnutrition and a poor medical system. Thus, food insecurity is one of the first two factors generating deaths in the D.R. Congo.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Food waste worldwide - Top 10 countries

    • Authors: Ioana Mihaela BALAN, Remus GHERMAN, Teodor Ioan TRASCA, Camelia TULCAN, Sabry A. El-Khodery, Ioan BRAD, Ana Mariana DINCU, Emanuela Diana GHRMAN, Anamaria Roxana MARTIN
      Pages: 161 - 166
      Abstract: Food waste worldwide is beginning to become a "heavy" problem of one billion tons. It is almost unbelievable that in 2021, global food waste reached an extraordinary value of 931 million tons. Of these, over 60% is represented by food waste at the household level. In this context, the research analysed which countries have the highest level of food waste, presenting a double Top 10: the first - Top 10 of the countries with the highest food waste at national level and the second - Top 10 countries with the highest food waste per capita, based on data collected from external sources, data provided by organizations and institutions, as well as reference publications in the field.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Studies on the evolution of agricultural production in Gorj County

    • Authors: Ana-Mariana Dincu, Ioan Brad, Ioana-Mihaela Bălan, Diana Cornelia Marin, Oana Maria Sicoe-Murg, Camelia Mănescu
      Pages: 167 - 172
      Abstract: Agricultural production varies from season to season, so it requires current decisions in a constant effort to maximize profits and minimize the effort and resources used. In this article we will present the evolution of agricultural production in Gorj County. Gorj covers an area of 560,174 ha and has about 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, the rest being occupied by forests, urban areas, stretches of water, etc. Animal husbandry and forestry, as well as fruit growing, viticulture and beekeeping are specific activities for the north of the county, the cereal culture being present especially in the center and south. The livestock sector includes significant herds of cattle (30,883 heads), pigs (73,872 heads), sheep (122,336 heads), goats (25,354 heads), birds (108,6471 heads).
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tourism In The Context Of Economic Growth And Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Claudia Sîrbulescu, Mariana Chirila, Daniel Chitila, Liana Alda, Ana Mariana Dincu
      Pages: 173 - 177
      Abstract: Tourism is an important sector that has an impact on the development of a country's economy. Among the main benefits of tourism are income generation and job creation. It is the most important source of wealth in many parts of the country. The national economy can benefit from tourism as long as there is availability for investment to develop the infrastructure that will meet the needs of tourists.Romania has tourist potential to develop coastal tourism and mountain tourism, but also other alternative forms of tourism.The aim of the article is to present the impact of tourism on the economy, especially on income.The paper presents tourism as an excellent potential, a catalyst for economic growth thus representing a key sector at the macro-economic level
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Specific-Protocol of Laboratory Techniques in the Diagnosis of Rabies

    • Authors: Ioan Cristian Iancu, Ioan Pet, Mirela Ahmadi, Ana Maria Damjan, Dumitru Popescu, Elena Pet, Sorin Morariu, Adina Horablaga, Mariana Alina Popescu, Florica Morariu
      Pages: 178 - 185
      Abstract: Many animal-to-human transmissible diseases have been known since ancient times, but the Pasteurian period, which was by far a turning point in the development of microbiology, is the hottest stage of accumulation, substantiation and detection of the causality and pathogenesis of many of these. Peat is an anthropozoosis spread all over the globe, and without being influenced by climate or season, it can have a sporadic, enzootic or epizootic character. The epidemiological aspect correlates with the biology of the species, the main vector. The existence of stray dogs in all regions of a country gives a very scattered character of cases of urban disturbance, with seasonal incidence, favored during the route. Rabies is an acute, sporadic-enzootic encephalomyelitis, found in all homeothermic animal species, transmissible to humans, and characterized by acute evolution with sensory and motor nervous manifestations, expressed by hyperexcitability and aggression, followed by paralysis and death. In all cases of rabies, an immediate diagnosis and urgent action is required, 32 both for animals that are disturbed or suspected of having the disease, and for those that are contaminated or suspected of being infected. As neither the clinical aspects of the macroscopic lesions are pathognomonic, the diagnosis of the disease is based on laboratory exam (virological, biological, histopathological and serological). As it is a major zoonosis, laboratory diagnostic techniques for rabies have been internationally standardized.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of the Supplementation with Protected Fats in the Diet of Dairy
           Cows on The Quantity and Quality of Milk

    • Authors: Adela Marcu, Lavinia Stef, Calin Julean, Ioan Pet, Voichita Gherasim, Nicolae Pacala, Ioan Valer Caraba, Dorel Dronca, Marioara Nicula Neagu, Vasile Rus, Ducu Sandu Stef
      Pages: 186 - 195
      Abstract: The objectives of this paper were to analyze studies on the effects of supplementation with protected fats in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and its chemical composition. Many fats can be used in the diet of dairy cows as sources of protected fatty acids. Adding of protected fats in the diet of dairy cows were significant effect on milk production and were influenced by some factors such as supplemental fat sources, the stage of lactation, dry matter intake. However, some authors reported an insignificant effect on milk production and the chemical composition of milk (fat, protein and lactose) as a result of supplementing the diet with protected fats. In other studies, have shown that the use of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows had effect on the biohydrogenation process in rumen and reduction of the total content of saturated fatty acids in milk. In this review, based on the works analyzed we can conclude that the diet supplemented with protected fats in dairy cows had effect on the quantity and quality of milk.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Body Measurements and Morphological Evaluation of Romanian Raven Shepherd
           Dog

    • Authors: Adela Marcu, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Dorel Dronca, Marioara Nicula Neagu, Diana Ioana Marcu, Gabriel Sipos, Sebastian Fleseriu, Adrian Marcu, Ioan Bencsik, Calin Julean, Ducu Stef
      Pages: 196 - 199
      Abstract: Romanian Raven Shepherd Dog is the fourth breed of shepherd dog of national interest, formed in the area of the southern Carpathians and the related sub-Carpathian area. The breed is nationally recognized and approved in Romania, with a national breed standard. In order to be internationally approved, breed morphometric studies are required. The purpose of this study is to evaluate body measurements in certain target population of Romanian Raven Shepherd Dog in relation to the national breed standard.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Two DNA Extraction Methods Used in Genomic
           Research in Cattle

    • Authors: Madalina Alexandra Davidescu, Daniel Simeanu, Cristina Simeanu, Mihaela Ivancia
      Pages: 200 - 205
      Abstract: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) extraction is the first key step in the success of a genetic analysis. This research aims to validate the optimal method of DNA extraction from a number of 30 blood samples collected from Holstein cattle breed. Two methods of DNA extraction were tested, manual method (using Wizard Genomic DNA extraction kit) and automatic method (with Maxwell equipment). The results were interpreted statistically, finding that the average DNA concentration extracted by automatic method was 27.82 ng/µl compared to the average value of 18.01 ng/µl, obtained by manual method, the difference between the two values being quite high, 9.81 ng/µl. Following the application of the T-student test, with unequal variances, a value P = 1.41E-08 ˂ 0.05 resulted, which means that there are statistically significant differences regarding the concentration of the samples of DNA extracted by the two methods, the highest value of the concentration being obtained after the application of the automatic method. The accuracy of the results, the purity of the samples, the short analysis time and the lack of contamination of the samples are just some of the advantages of the automatic method of DNA extraction, which is recommended to be used in molecular genetics studies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Nutrients on the Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Ion Valeriu Caraba, Nicolae Pacala, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Adela Marcu, Ducu Stef, Dorel Dronca, Calin Julean
      Pages: 206 - 213
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to review the effects of the quality of nutrients in the ration on the reproductive function of dairy cows. Protein supplementation is one of the most important nutrients in milk production. However, an excess of protein over the requirements of cows affects reproductive function. Protein is needed to meet the nitrogen requirements of rumen microorganisms, as well as a direct source of protein for lactating cows.The excess of degradable proteins in the rumen also results in large amounts of ammonia in the blood of the dairy cow, when there is not enough energy to turn ammonia into microbial proteins. In addition, the ammonia excess conversion requires energy, which can lead to a negative energy balance. This ammonia excess and negative energy balance result in reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows.Minerals and vitamins are the most important nutrients for breastfeeding women, which are needed in very small quantities, but play an important role in metabolism, milk production, reproductive function and even for microbial fermentation in the rumen. Shaking seeds from plants is normally responsible for the loss of many nutrients, so the remaining material, such as straw, is a poor source of food.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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