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Buletin Veteriner Udayana
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2085-2495 - ISSN (Online) 2477-2712
Published by Universitas Udayana Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Cover Vol. 15 No. 5 October 2023

    • Authors: Kadek Karang Agustina
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
       
  • EFFECTS OF FERMENTED GOAT'S MILK ADDED LEAF PANDAN FILTRATE ON
           ESCHERICHIA COLI

    • Authors: Muhammad Nafis, Nurliana Nurliana, Amalia Sutriana, Sugito Sugito, Dasrul Dasrul
      Pages: 702 - 710
      Abstract: Probiotics and herbs have potential as antibacterials. This study aims to determine the activity, inhibitory, and bactericidal effect of Lactobacillus casei fermented goat's milk added with fragrant pandan leaf filtrate at different concentrations to Escherichia coli. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) type of post-test only control group design consisting of 8 (eight) treatments. Group P0 used distilled water (negative control) and group P1 used chloramphenicol (positive control). Lactbacillus casei roasted goat's milk was added with fragrant pandan filtrate at concentrations of 17.5%, 22.5%, 27.5%, and 32.5% in groups P2, P3, P4, and P5. Group P6 only used boiled milk and P7 only used fragrant pandan filtrate. Analysis of variance showed that the addition of fragrant pandan leaf filtrate to fermented goat's milk had no significant effect (P>0,05) among varied concentration groups, but had a significant effect (P<0,01) compared to the negative, positive, and comparative (fragrant pandan leaf filtrate) control groups. The results of the inhibitory and bactericidal effect showed that fermented goat's milk added with fragrant pandan leaf filtrate had the ability to inhibit and kill E. coli colonies. As conclusion, L. casei fermented goat's milk added with fragrant pandan leaf filtrate with varied concentrations has the weak antibacterial activity against E. coli
      PubDate: 2023-02-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p01
       
  • HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF BROILER CHICKENS INFUSED WITH DADAP
           LEAVES AND EXPERIENCED TRANSPORT STRESS

    • Authors: Ryan Helmi Habibi, Ida Bagus Oka Winaya, I Made Merdana
      Pages: 711 - 718
      Abstract: To get to the hands of consumers, it is necessary to transport broiler chickens from the warehouse to the marketing place. The transportation process often causes stress to broiler chickens, this is due to the long distance traveled when transportation is inadequate. This situation causes changes in organs, one of which is the lungs. Due to the potential of Dadap leaf as an antistress, this study aims to determine the effect of Dadap leaf infusion (Erythrina subumbrans) on pulmonary histopathology (Pulmonary ventilation) of broiler chickens experiencing transportation stress. A total of 30 male broiler chickens aged 4 weeks were taken as samples in this study. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with a factorial 3×2×5 pattern with three replications and the number of samples used were 30 broiler chickens which were divided into 5 treatment groups, namely negative control (P0), vitamin C 2 grams/L (P1), 1000 ppm Dadap leaf infusion (P2), 2000 ppm Dadap leaf infusion (P3) and 3000 ppm Dadap leaf infusion (P4). The data obtained were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. If there is a difference, it is continued with the Mann-Whitney test. performed using a scoring method on five visual fields, with a score of one meaning mild/focal, two to three meaning moderate/multifocal, more than three meaning severe/diffusion. The results showed that the mean of pulmonary histopathological damage with accurate variables was significantly different. The data obtained were the highest damage occurred in the P0 group (negative control) and the lowest damage occurred in the P3 group (3000 ppm dadap leaf infusion). The conclusion of this study is that 10% Dadap leaf infusion can reduce pulmonary damage and can be used as an antioxidant.
      PubDate: 2023-02-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p02
       
  • COLOR PATTERN OF TARO CATTLE

    • Authors: Yolla Noviolita, Ni Nyoman Werdi Susari, Sri Kayati Widyastuti, I Ketut Suatha, Luh Gde Sri Surya Heryani
      Pages: 719 - 723
      Abstract: Taro cattle are a group of cattle that are uniquely different from Balinese cattle with a relatively small population and reared in Taro Village, Tegallalang District, Gianyar Regency, Bali and are sanctified and used in religious ceremonies. Taro cattle are characterized by white hair, skin, iris, hooves, and horns. The difference in hair/skin color of taro cattle is due to the influence of melanin pigment. This study is an observational study using purposive sampling technique where 52 male and female taro cattle skin observations were made at Yayasan Lembu Putih with the aim of providing information and scientific evidence as well as guidelines and references for further research. The data obtained were then analyzed using relative frequency (percentage). The results showed that there are other colors found. There are six colors of taro cattle, putih kemerahan color with a total of 40.39%, in females as much as 32.69% and males 7.69%; putih gading color with a total of 38.46%, in females 17.31% and males 21.15%; putih color with a total of 1.92% which is only found in females; sudamala and cemeng colors are only found in the male population 7.69% and 3.85% respectively; and coklat color is only found in the female population as much as 7.69%. Improvements are needed in breeding and mating management, recording systems and checking taro cattle regularly every year.
      PubDate: 2023-02-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p03
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. IN SUMATRAN ORANGUTAN AND BORNEAN
           ORANGUTAN AT NORTH SUMATERA WILDLIFE PARK

    • Authors: Indah Serly Pohan, Muhammad - Hanafiah, Erdiansyah Rahmi, Winaruddin Winaruddin, Rosmaidar Rosmaidar
      Pages: 724 - 731
      Abstract: Cryptosporidium sp. is a zoonotic intestinal protozoa in orangutans which is transmitted through contaminated water (waterborne disease). This study aims to determine Cryptosporidium sp. which infects the sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and the bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in North Sumatera Wildlife Park. The samples used were 3 orangutan fecal samples from different locations, two bornean orangutans in Medan Wildlife Park and one sumatran orangutan in Pematang Siantar Animal Park. Samples were examined using the floatation method and the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method. The results showed that from 3 samples of orangutan feces (sumatran and bornean orangutan), 2 positive tails from bornean orangutans were found containing Cryptosporidium oocysts, namely the C. parvum species. In this study, it can be concluded that the orangutans in Medan Wildlife Park, the bornean orangutan were infected with cryptosporidiosis.
      PubDate: 2023-02-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p04
       
  • MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLASTOCYSTIS SP. IN LONG-TAILED MACAQUE AT
           ALAS PURWO PARK

    • Authors: Edward Yonas Kristijanto, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Mufasirin Mufasirin, Poedji Hastutiek, Endang Suprihati, Boedi Setiawan, Puput Ade Wahyuningtyas, Doohan Mahendra
      Pages: 732 - 736
      Abstract: Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted through close interactions between long-tailed monkeys. Blastocystis sp. is one of the parasites that can attack mammals and is most commonly found in the intestinal tract. This study aims to analyze the presence of infection and the phylogenetic tree of Blastocystis sp. in long-tailed monkeys in Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi, East Java. Identification of Blastocystis sp. in this study using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 100 stools were examined microscopically using the floating method, showing that 61 samples were positive, followed by a PCR test with a target of 600bp. PCR results obtained three positive samples followed by squencing. Sequences processed in BLAST isolate samples TNAP2 and TNAP9 having homology with Blastocystis sp. Subtype 3 was 98-99%, while the TNAP7 isolate had a lower homology level of 78-79% and the level of phylogenetic analysis of the TNAP2 and TNAP9 isolates was related to Blastocystis sp. from the Philippines (KY610153.1) and Egypt (OP942294.1) and the TNAP7 isolate is related to Blastocystis sp. from Thailand (MH197670.1, MH197668.1). Isolate Blastocystis sp. from Alas Purwo National Park has high homology analysis results to Blastocystis type hominis from Rep. Czech and Chinese by 80-99%, it is possible to have a connection with the zoonotic problem.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p05
       
  • PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF TRYPANOSOMIASIS IN HORSES IN EAST SUMBA
           DISTRICT

    • Authors: Umbu Yabu Anggung Praing, Ida Ayu Pasti Apsari, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan
      Pages: 737 - 746
      Abstract: This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors for trypanosomiasis in horses in East Sumba. The samples used were blood from 286 horses taken in the West and East Regions of East Sumba Regency. Blood sampling was carried out through the jugular vein. Diagnosis of trypanosomiasis is made by examining thin blood smears stained with 10% Giemsa. The risk factors for trypanosomiasis were studied by distributing specially designed questionnaires to farmers. The results showed that 2.10% of the samples were Trypanosoma evansi positive. The distribution of incidents spread to Lewa District (3.65%), Kota Waingapu District (1.72%), and Pahunga Lodu District (7.4%). The probability of trypanosomiasis infection based on the OR value is horse age more than 5 years (OR=3.185), availability/origin of drinking water (OR=2.821), method of rearing (OR=2.179), female sex (OR=1.256), location/origin of horses in the western region (OR=1.022), heavy livestock traffic (OR=0.979), and farmer's knowledge of surra (OR=0.222). Statistically these risk factors were not significantly different (P>0.05). Therefore, it is necessary to carry out active surveillance and control of trypanosomiasis in horses in East Sumba District. Further research is also needed with other diagnostic methods, such as the card agglutination test (CATT).
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p06
       
  • AFOXOLANER EFFICACY AGAINST GENERAL DEMODECOSIS IN DOGS BASED ON SKIN
           HISTOPATHOLOGY

    • Authors: Jeremy Christian, Putu Devi Jayanti, Sri Kayati Widyastuti
      Pages: 747 - 756
      Abstract: Demodicosis is the most common skin disease found in dogs, caused by the proliferation of Demodex sp. mites. Based on the distribution of the lesions, demodicosis is divided into local and generalized. This study aims to determine the efficacy of Afoxolaner against General Demodicosis in dogs. A 1.5 year old mixed-breed male dog weighing 7.8 kg came to the Internal Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, with anorexia, weakness, and hair loss in the facial area, around the ears, neck, limbs, sides, back and extremities. On physical examination found alopecia, erythema all over the body, crusts, pustules in the medial caudal limb. Dogs exhibit high levels of pruritus. Routine haematological examination showed that the dog had anemia and leucocytosis. Diagnosis based on microscopic examination of deep skin scraping is Demodicosis. The prognosis in this case is fausta. Case dogs were treated with Afoxolaner (NexGard®), Azithromycin Dihydrate (10mg/kgBB, PO, q24h) and Chlorpheniramine maleate (4mg/day, PO, q12h) for a week. Histopathological examination of the skin before drug administration revealed pieces of demodex in the hair follicles, furunculosis, inflammatory cell infiltration of the stratum spinosum and dermis layer, necrosis accompanied by haemorrhagic exudate, follicular dilatation, and peri folliculitis. Post-therapy, the results of histopathological examination showed good results, with no pieces of mites found, the size of the follicle returned to normal, and no inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in the peri follicle. On the 10th day it was seen that the dog's condition had improved, the results of the skin scraping showed a reduced number of mites in one field of view. Afoxolaner should be given once a month for three months to eliminate and prevent mite infection in dogs.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p07
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF 70% ETHANOL EXTRACT OF CEMCEM LEAF
           IN DENPASAR CITY

    • Authors: I Gede Bagas Upaditha Adresya, Anak Agung Gde Oka Dharmayudha, Luh Made Sudimartini
      Pages: 757 - 764
      Abstract: Traditional medicine is a national cultural heritage that needs to be preserved and developed to support health, one of which is the cemcem (Spondias pinnata (L.f) Kurz) plant whose leaves are used. This study aims to determine the class of chemical compounds contained in the ethanol extract of cemcem leaves. The sample used in this study was cemcem leaves obtained in the Denpasar City area, Bali. Cemcem leaves were first extracted using 70% ethanol solvent, then a phytochemical test was carried out to detect the presence of active compounds of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, triterpenoids/steroids, and tannins. After the data is obtained then analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The results showed that the ethanol extract of cemcem leaves contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, triterpenoids/steroids, and tannins. The 70% ethanol extract of cemcem leaves grown in Denpasar City positively contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, and triterpenoids/steroids. This research is an early stage to detect the content of secondary metabolites of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, triterpenoids/steroids, and tannins, therefore it is necessary to carry out further research on cemcem leaves, for example fractionation so that later it can be applied in the field of veterinary science.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p08
       
  • PRAESEN STATUS OF FEMALE BALI CATTLE IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY

    • Authors: Maureen Rosanti Hamangau, I Nyoman Suartha, I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Trilaksana
      Pages: 780 - 786
      Abstract: This study aim to determine the praesen status which includes body temperature, frequency of respiration, frequency of heart rate and frequency of pulse in female bali cattle with gestational age in the third semester of pregnancy, namely gestational age of 7 months, 8 months and 9 months and to determine the effect of gestational age on the praesen status. The study was conducted at the Bali Cattle Breeding Center in Sobangan village Mengwi District Badung Regency used completely randomized design where gestational age was the group to be studied and analysis data was carried out using Analysis of Variance. The results showed that body temperature at 7, 8 and 9 months of gestation were 38,12 + 0,94; 38,16 + 0,50 dan 38,37 + 0,98. The frequency of respiration at 7, 8 and 9 months of gestation were 17,71 + 3,34; 19,05 + 3,22 and 20,87 + 4,86. The heart rate at 7, 8 and 9 months of gestation were 85,22 + 12,19 and 85,44 + 15.37 and 92,23 + 12,78. The pulse frequency at 7, 8 and 9 months of gestation were78,39 + 10,37; 81,57 + 10,73 and 88,18 + 13,01; Statistical analysis shown that there were significant differences (p<0,05) in body temperature, respiration frequency, heart rate and pulse rate at 7, 8 and 9 months of gestation. The conclusion is that gestational age affects praesen status which includes body temperature, frequency of respiration, frequency of heart rate and frequency of pulse rate in bali cattle at the third trimester of pregnancy. It is necessary to do research on the praesen status before parturition occurs.
      PubDate: 2023-02-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p11
       
  • RESISTANCE PROFILE OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM LAYING HENS MANURE IN JEMBER
           REGENCY

    • Authors: Enny Suswati, Elly Nurus Sakinah, Jauhar Firdaus, Abu Khoiri
      Pages: 822 - 830
      Abstract: Antibiotics are becoming more prevalent as environmental pollutants, raising public health concerns. Antibiotics are routinely employed as growth promoters and therapeutic agents in poultry feeds. Because antibiotics are not completely metabolized in chicken body tissues, they are deposited in meat as parent compounds and eventually extruded into the environment via fowl droppings. Organic fertilizers based on chicken litter are typically recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. Chicken litter, a vital source of nutrients for crop productivity, may also carry a variety of human infections that might endanger humans who consume contaminated food or water. A convenience sampling of five places was carried out. Litter samples were collected aseptically. CLSI standards were used to isolate E. coli and Proteus spp. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. E. coli and Proteus spp. were found in 80% and 60% of the samples. All E. coli and Proteus spp isolates derived from laying hen manure were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cefixime, tetracycline, amoxiclav, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol. However, only 50% and 33% were resistant to azithromycin. All E. coli and Proteus spp. Isolates were multidrug resistant. There was no resistance reported to cefepime or imipenem. Contamination of chicken litter with multidrug-resistant E. coli and Proteus spp. may be an underappreciated source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) transmission to animals, people, and the environment. This demonstrates the importance of a One Health strategy to AMR surveillance and control in Jember. Monitoring AMR hazards and trends in the chicken litter would be possible with ongoing surveillance.
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p17
       
  • EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF BIOSECURITY AFTER THE AFRICAN SWINE FEVER
           EPIDEMIC ON PIG FARMING IN KUPANG REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    • Authors: Galih Shinta Kurniawati, Annytha Ina Rohi Detha, Novalino Harold Geoffrey Kallau
      Pages: 831 - 840
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious and hemorrhagic disease that attacks pigs caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, in family Asfarviridae and genus Asfivirus. Known that vaccines and treatments for pigs infected by the virus have not been found can increase the risk of transmission in pig farms, so that biosecurity is a very important measure in reducing or minimizing the spread and prevention of the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the types and evaluation of biosecurity application techniques on pig farms after ASF outbreak in Kupang Regency. Method of this study is used cross sectional method and descriptive analysis by conducting observational interview and data collections by filling the questionnaires. Data of this study are presented in the form of a weight processing table and a comparison table of types of biosecurity. There are three types of biosecurity, conceptual, structural and operational biosecurity. Value of the application of biosecurity of the three types of biosecurity in six farms got a good category, namely conceptual biosecurity has value of 128, structural biosecurity has value of 261, and operational biosecurity has value of 204. Evaluation the values of the three types of biosecurity in 6 pig farms has good category. This category is evidenced by the application of the three types of biosecurity by the six pig farms. Researchers suggest to increasing the application of biosecurity, especially manage the distances from residential areas by means of higher walls, making septic tanks for waste collection so that they are not environmentally friendly, providing sanitation and disinfection facilities, namely places and soap for washing hands and feet, toilet facilities, and procurement of PPE for workers.
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p18
       
  • DERMAL CARCINOMA IN DOG AT ZOO CLINIC MAKASSAR

    • Authors: Nurul Sulfi Andini, Wa Ode Santa Monica, Sri Deniaty, Wahyuni Wahyuni, I Wayan Nico Fajar Gunawan
      Pages: 841 - 846
      Abstract: Dermal carcinoma or skin cancer in dog is a skin cancer consisting of various types of cancer which are included in it. The tumor appears as a solitary, non-encapsulated lump, generally hairless, and occasionally ulcerated, which moves freely. The diagnosis is generally made through microscopic examination of a sample of tumor cells (biopsy). Dermal carcinoma cases are cases that often occur in pets but reports of these cases are still rare especially in Indonesia. The purpose of writing is to describe clinical manifestations, clinical course, and case prognosis. This case report was obtained from the Zoo Clinic Makassar. A dog "Pororo" came with the owner with a temperature of 38.40 C, had an enlarged mass in the medial part of the radius dexter, encapsulated, with an estimated diameter of about 6 cm. Physical examination was carried out, followed by laboratory examination found that the WBC level was very high and anemia. Handling of cases in the form of removal of the tumor through surgery and followed by histopathological examination with Haematoxylin Eosin staining to determine tumor development stage, degree malignancy, prognosis and therapy. The results of histopathological examination stated that the cells found were not uniform and lead to metastasis. The diagnosis of Pororo disease is carcinoma dermatitis but the type is not clear because the primary cells have not been found. The prognosis is infausta, the presence of metastases worsens the prognosis of cases, and it is possible that new tumors will reappear after removal. Handling for similar cases should be done quickly and precisely so that the case prognosis can be better.
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p19
       
  • VIRAL INFECTIONS THAT THREATEN FISH FARMING IN INDONESIA

    • Authors: Andi Muhammad Yahya, Andi Nurul Atiqa Faizah Makkarumpa, Frinth Azarya Kuriakos Ngopo, Ishika Maulyda, Muhammad Fathiyakan Thamrin, Putri Dyah Zahrani, Vinka Melani Putri, Andi Magfira Satya Apada, Fedri Rell
      Pages: 847 - 855
      Abstract: Indonesia as a maritime country that has fish resources that cannot be separated from various types of virus infections. Viral infections in fish cause death due to multiorgan damage to fish such as necrosis and hemorrhage. Fish deaths result in economic losses for fish farmers. The lack of knowledge of fish farmers about fish diseases and their prevention is one of the factors in the high cases of viral infectious diseases in fish. This paper is to present fish diseases due to viral infections that threaten fish farming in Indonesia such as: Viral Nervous Necrosis, Koi Herpes Virus, Channel Catfish Virus Diseases, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis, and Lymphocystic Disease Virus. The source of the study in this paper comes from research reports or literature on viral infections in fish, specifically case reports on fish farming in Indonesia. The viral infectious disease can be acute or chronic where the infection occurs due to the presence of virus-carrying fish so that it spreads and infects other fish. It is hoped that this paper will be a source of information on viral diseases in fish that can help in the prevention and control of viruses in fish. Improving water quality, securing water temperature, and selecting the right seeds will be the first actions in handling and preventing viral infectious diseases in fish. In addition, socialization from relevant agencies is needed to provide guidance to fish farmers in especially in disease prevention
      PubDate: 2023-04-05
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p20
       
  • THE EFFECT OF ADDING MAGGOT FLOUR BLACK SOLDIER FLY ON PERFORMANCE AND
           PROFILE OF WHITE BLOOD BROILER

    • Authors: Viniesa Pandie, Frans Umbu Datta, Yohanes Timbun Raja Mangihut Ronael Simarmata
      Pages: 856 - 863
      Abstract: Broiler chickens are superior breeds resulting from crossbreeding and genetic engineering that have high productivity, especially meat production, and can be harvested at the age of 5 weeks. Broiler chicken productivity can be seen from the performance and white blood cell profile through the feed consumed. One of them is BSF maggot flour. The purpose of this study was to see whether the addition of BSF maggot flour affected ration consumption, feed conversion, body weight gain, and white blood cell profile in starter phase broiler chickens. The method used is an experimental method, using a completely randomized design (CRD). 100 chickens used were divided into 4 treatments (P0, P1, P2, P3) with 25 in each treatment. Analysis of the data used is the Analysis of Variance with the results of the analysis presented in the form of tables and curves. Based on the results obtained statistically that BSF (Black Soldier Fly) maggot flour had no significant effect on body weight gain, ration consumption and feed conversion. From the results of blood tests, BSF maggot flour (Black Soldier Fly) has an effect on the differential of white blood cells, but it has no significant effect because the results of the examination obtained various results influenced by various things such as environmental conditions, weather and climate, and nutrition. Suggestions for further research are to determine the digestibility of the feed added to BSF (Black Soldier Fly) maggot flour and to perform a proximate analysis on the BSF (Black Soldier Fly) maggot flour to be used.
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p21
       
  • ENTERITIS AND SECONDARY INFECTION COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKEN AT TEGAL,
           CENTRAL JAVA

    • Authors: Refina Sastya Qomariyuti, Rully Abiyoga Majid, Nafisa Raihana Amany, Rizni Fania Fajrin, Tyagita Tyagita, Muhammad Viqih
      Pages: 864 - 872
      Abstract: Excessive chlorination in chicken drinking water can trigger pathogenic microbial infection, such as Eimeria protozoa infection which causes coccidiosis. This disease can cause losses in farmers because it causes poor weight gain and high mortality. In this study, it was known that broiler chicken on farm in Tegal were reported with inappetence, lethargy, weakness, paleness and bloody diarrhea. Water examination was performed and found 600 ppm chlorine in the drinking water and the litter thickness was less than 5 cm. Post mortem examination found enlargement of the heart and kidney, caecal tonsil and caecal bleeding, swelling of the intestine and enteritis. Based on that pathological anatomy lesion and examination of oocysts per gram of feces, the chicken diagnosis as enteritis followed by coccidiosis as a secondary infection due to Eimeria tenella with a severe infection. Therefore, control can be carried out by giving Capzuril® or Agricox®, vitamin K, vitamin A and probiotics and prevention by controlling the chlorination of the drinking water and increasing the thickness of the litter.
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p22
       
  • DEVELOPMENT OF ADENOVIRUS VECTORED VACCINE FOR AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
           BASED ON NON-STRUCTURAL PROTEIN

    • Authors: Made Sumitha Kameswari, I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika, Ida Bagus Kade Suardana
      Pages: 873 - 887
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of swine which causes high mortality as well as causes high economic losses in domestic pig. This study describes the process to develop an adenovirus vectors ASF vaccine with A224L and A276R coding region and its immune response in mice. Synthetic DNA containing the A224L and A276R genes was amplified and cloned into the commercial plasmid pAdenoX with an infusion cloning kit. A total of 106 AdenoX-ASF-224L-276R viruses from transfected T293 cells were injected into six mice intra-muscularly, while the other six mice were given T293 cell extract and were treated as controls. Blood without anticoagulant was collected from the facial vein of mice at 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after injection. Antibodies against ASF were tested by ELISA using synthetic peptides of A224L and A276R as antigens. AdenoX-ASF_A276R_A224L recombinant was successfully generated and proven. Injection of recombinant AdenoX-ASF_A276R_A224L in mice can trigger an immune response at week 7 significantly higher (p=0.00) compared to control, while weeks 1, 3 and 5 are not different from control (p>0.05). Production of recombinant adenovirus in monolayer cells and virus quantification need to be improved. Booster testing needs to be done after the third week.
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p23
       
  • CHARACTERISTIC OF INFLUENZA VIRUS H5N1 FROM LAYER POULTRY FARM LEGOK
           DEMARCATION, SERANG DISTRICK, BANTEN

    • Authors: Nurfildza Wafeta Abharina, Gusti Ayu Yiniati Kencana, I Nengah Wandia
      Pages: 888 - 897
      Abstract: Avian Influenza virus infection is still a serious concern in the poultry sector in Indonesia. The molecular character of the AI virus that easily mutates is thought to be a factor in the AI virus continuing to spread and having endemic status. This study aims to characterize the Avian Influenza virus from laying poultry in Legok District, Serang Districk, Banten as a form of preparation for the AI H5N1 vaccine. The test sample used is a collection of isolates owned by PT. Sanbio Laboratories, Bogor with the name Legok isolate. This study used two comparator isolates, namely Sukoharjo isolate (A/Duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428/2012) and Garut isolate (A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007) which are the master seeds of the local AI H5N1 vaccine. Virus isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs (TAB) aged 9 days and then the virus isolation results were tested using the fast and slow hemagglutination (HA) test to detect the presence of the virus, the Reverse Transcritase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test was used to see AI virus subtypes and then confirmed by sequencing tests to see the genetic distance and kinship between the isolates tested. The result is that Legok isolate is in the same clade as Sukoharjo isolate, which is in clade 2.3.2, but Legok isolate forms a new subclade 2.3.2 variant, while Garut isolate is in clade 2.1.3. The genetic distance for each isolate obtained was that Legok isolate to Sukoharjo isolate had a genetic difference of 3%, homology 97%, Legok isolate to Garut isolate had a genetic difference of 11.5%, 88.5% homology while Sukoharjo isolate to Garut isolate the genetic difference is 9% and the homology is 91%. The conclusion is that the Legok isolate has different characteristics from the Sukoharjo isolate and the Garut isolate. This indicates that the Legok isolate has a mutation, so it is necessary to carry out monitoring and further research for vaccine seeds from Legok isolate.
      PubDate: 2023-06-23
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p24
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF EURYTREMA SPP. IN BRAHMAN CROSS CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN
           BANDA ACEH SLAUGHTERHOUSE

    • Authors: Filza Savira, Muhammad Hanafiah, Teuku Zahrial Helmi
      Pages: 898 - 904
      Abstract: Eurytrema spp. is a trematode worm that generally attacks the pancreas of livestock and humans which can cause chronic interstitial pancreatitis, weight loss that leads to decreased livestock productivity and ends in death. The purpose of this study is to identify the parasitic worm Eurytrema spp. and also to find out the prevalence rate in Brahman Cross cattle slaughtered in Banda Aceh slaughterhouse. This study used a sample of 20 pieces of Brahman Cross cattle pancreas from the Banda Aceh slaughterhouse. The worms were collected by taking the pancreas of Brahman Cross cattle that had been cut and stained with the Semicon Carmine staining method. The parameters of this study were the morphological differences in size of the body, oral sucker, ventral sucker and reproductive organs in each species of Eurytrema spp. The results showed that out of the 10 worms found, there was only 1 species, namely E. pancreaticum, which has the characteristics of a wide body with a length of 8-16 mm, the oral sucker is larger than the ventral sucker and lobed testes and ovaries. The prevalence rate of infection with E. pancreaticum is 15%. It was concluded that the worm that infects the Brahman Cross cattle slaughtered in Banda Aceh slaughterhouse is E. pancreaticum.
      PubDate: 2023-07-08
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p25
       
  • THE LEVEL OF APPLICATION OF BIOSECURITY IN BROILER FARMS IN THE CITY OF
           PALANGKA RAYA

    • Authors: Ardi Sandriya, Heri Sujoko, Satrio Wibowo, Lisnawaty Silitonga, Iis Yuanita, Nopita Aritonang
      Pages: 905 - 914
      Abstract: This study aims to determine the implementation of the application of biosecurity carried out by broiler breeders in the city of Palangka Raya. This research is field research using a survey method and location selection was carried out by purposive sampling taking into account proximity, affordability, and the largest number of broiler breeders in the area. This research was conducted in 17 broiler chicken coops, the coop managers were interviewed and the coops were the object of observation for the application of biosecurity. The variables of this study are the application of biosecurity isolation, the application of biosecurity in controlling the traffic of people, livestock, and vehicles; as well as the application of cage sanitation and environmental biosecurity. The data analysis used was descriptive statistical analysis with an assessment of the biosecurity implementation category which was divided into 3, namely good: , enough: , and poor: . The results showed that the characteristics of broiler breeders in the city of Palangka Raya were very diverse, which could be observed from education, experience in raising livestock, and the number of livestock in each production period. The application of biosecurity isolation in the less category is 3 cages (18%), 4 cages (82%) is sufficient, and 0 cages (0%) is good. The implementation of cage sanitation was lacking 4 cages (24%), 8 cages (47%) were sufficient, and 5 cages were good (29%). The application of traffic control biosecurity is in the category of less than 3 cages (18%), enough 10 cages (58%), and good 4 cages (24%). It was concluded that the overall application of biosecurity in the City of Palangka Raya was in the sufficient category. It is necessary to increase the application of biosecurity to prevent the entry and exit of diseases on a farm.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p26
       
  • IMPLICATIONS OF FULFILLING ANIMAL WELFARE AND ANIMAL PROTECTION DUE TO
           SPECIESIST AND ANTHROPOCENTRIC BELIEFS

    • Authors: Fiolita Berandhini
      Pages: 915 - 923
      Abstract: Every year, billions of animals are slaughtered on industrial agricultures and animals whose status does not include under the category of protected animals and stray dogs or cats are subjected to various kinds of abusive behavior by human as a result of the moral exclusion of animals of certain species. The idea of speciesism and anthropocentrism causes suffering on a massive scale that people may find hard to fathom. This paper discusses the definition of speciesism, anthropocentrism and its impact on advocacy for farm animals, stray animals and wild animals that are not protected by law, which begins with an explanation of how animals stand before the law and how society practices the concept of speciesism and anthropocentrism which has an impact on animal welfare. Then, identify how speciesism and anthropocentrism affects the protection of animals classified in certain species as a result of unfavorable protection or treatment for the animals. The position of animals that are still categorized as property by the law makes it difficult to apply animal protection for certain species of animals and for them who do not have owners. This condition occurs because the definitions of animals included in various existing laws are not in line with the clauses in the articles that should protect certain animal species as stated in the definitions in the regulations. In addition, there is a strong belief that certain species of animals such as the wildlife animals which are legally protected, companion animals (i.e. dogs and cats) and animals whose owned by people are more deserving of protection than other animal species and for non-owned animals. At the end of writing, this paper examines how the concepts of speciesism and anthropocentrism, which are unfavorable treatment or consideration towards those who are not categorized as the human and towards certain animal species which often become victims of speciesist and anthropocentric ideas have an impact on animal law protection.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p27
       
  • HUMANE EDUCATION AND CHILD CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT: A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW OF
           CORRELATION BETWEEN ANIMAL WELFARE EDUCATION AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

    • Authors: Naomi Kristiana
      Pages: 924 - 929
      Abstract: Humane education is an educational program that does not only focus on supporting the animal’s well-being but also generally gives positive impacts on children’s character development. Characters were born from the process of learning and habit practices that were carried out at early age. Therefore, character education should be taught early. Positive character development in children, for example, empathy and compassion, will contribute to the emergence of prosocial behavior. This could become preventive action or solution to anticipate the increasing violence trend that is directed either to humans, animals or, the environment.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p28
       
  • ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CATS: ASSURANCE OF FELINE WELFARE FULFILLMENT
           WITHIN CLINICAL SETTING

    • Authors: Michael Gunawan, Nindya Dwi Utami, Deni Noviana
      Pages: 930 - 942
      Abstract: Assessing, acknowledging, and managing pain in feline patients are often challenging. Failure to recognize and protect the cats from the harmful effects of nociception, therefore, often ensues. Feline patients that are afflicted with illness and tissue trauma that may arise from trauma or surgery have acute pain that needs to be addressed. Acute pain can present with varying degrees of intensity, a parameter of sensory-discriminatory aspect, and unpleasantness, a perceived feeling that is integral to affective aspect. Notwithstanding its usefulness to protect the tissue from further damage, acute pain is detrimental to the feline’s welfare, comprising physical and mental wellness if not managed properly. Uncontrolled pain has also been associated with increased morbidity, prolonged hospitalization period due to delayed recovery, increased health-care cost, and decreased quality of life. This review article is made with the aim to elucidate how acute pain in cats is recognized, prevented, and treated, both pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p29
       
  • THE PERCEPTION OF VETERINARIANS IN BALI TOWARDS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE

    • Authors: I Gede Hendra Prasetya Wicaksana, Vera Paulina Sitanggang, I Nengah Kerta Besung, Hapsari Mahatmi
      Pages: 943 - 945
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global crisis that will greatly impact human and animal health. This phenomenon is mostly caused by veterinarians who use antimicrobial to their patient irresponsibly. This study aims to know how the perception of veterinarians toward AMR phenomena in Bali. As many as 204 clinical practitioner veterinarians who were officially registered in the province of Bali divided into two group namely pet and livestock veterinarians. Both of groups were asked to answer a Likert-type scale questionnaire. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed to determine significant differences in median responses and mean ratings between different veterinary groups for each question. Both of groups strongly agreed with the factor of patients did not finish antimicrobials therapy and using antimicrobials from previously unfinished therapy greatly contributed to the problem of AMR. Vet clinic, human clinic, human hospitals, livestock, aquaculture, and irregular use of antimicrobials contribute greatly to AMR. Patient health in a general hospital, the general public, livestock and food industry from animals are considered quite problematic due to AMR phenomenon. The role of many parties seems very important in managing and preventing AMR from both veterinarian groups. Our finding provided valuable insight into the awareness of AMR on Bali veterinarian and have important implication for the future studies.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p30
       
  • TEETH CLIPPED-OUT IN JAVANESSE SLOW LORIS AND ITS PRESERVATION THROUGH
           ROOT CANAL TREATMENT

    • Authors: Bagus Brahmanto Aji Guno, Randy Kusuma, Muhammad Ihsannul Taqwim
      Pages: 946 - 956
      Abstract: Nycticebus javanicus or often called the Javan slow loris is one of Indonesia's endemic primates whose status is now in the critically endangered category because their numbers are decreasing. The illegal trade often causes serious problems for the health and survival of slow lorises in their natural habitat. There is a wrong perception that the teeth of slow lorises are poisonous, which makes illegal traders cut or even pull out the teeth of slow lorises indiscriminately. Slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) are obligate exudativators that gouge at tree bark with their teeth. In addition to functioning for the process of eating, slow loris teeth also function for defense mechanism and allogrooming. Amputation of dental crowns or crown fractures in slow lorises can be a serious problem. Slow lorises do not survive either slowly in rehabilitation centers due to changes in diet or even faster in their natural habitat when being released. Root canal treatment as an effort that can be taken to maintain the damaged or broken teeth, so as to prevent tooth from infection and maintain the function of slow loris teeth to survive in its natural habitat. The method of root canal treatment involves three fundamental components: root canal shaping, disinfection and obturation. Teeth restoration to be performed after obturation, using composite. Teeth that have been successfully treated provide an opportunity for slow lorises to express their natural behavior as well as in surviving in their natural habitat.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p31
       
  • BETWEEN ECOLOGY AND ECONOMY: HOW TO PROFIT FROM WILD ANIMALS WITHOUT
           EXPLOITING THEM

    • Authors: Rheza Maulana
      Pages: 957 - 963
      Abstract: The wild animal trade is a large-scale and profitable business. We understand that it is a business that generates economic income, and people actually profit from it. However, it comes with many negative implications, starting with the practice itself, which is deemed unethical and harmful to animal welfare. Excessive practice leads to biodiversity loss, nature imbalance, and even the spreading of infectious diseases. It begs the question: is profiting from wild animals worth all the negative implications to the ecology' What if there were other ways to generate income from wild animals without physically exploiting them' This paper tries to answer that question. Utilizing the literature review and exploratory descriptive methods It is done by researching similar issues, such as tree cutting for timber, which causes deforestation. And how people can earn money by preserving trees rather than cutting them down, through the carbon offset mechanism. The results showed that it is possible to profit from wild animals without physically capturing and selling them. It is suggested that we can develop a means of ethical wild animal tourism. Instead of selling the animals, we are selling the experience of finding them and watching them doing their natural activities in national parks. The more numbers of wild animals preserved in their natural habitat, the more abundant they are and the more appealing they are as a tourist destination. In a way, profits could potentially be higher and more effective than selling individual animals.
      PubDate: 2023-07-09
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p32
       
  • A CASE STUDY OF CAT STERILIZATION IN KARANGWUNI, YOGYAKARTA: IMPACTS
           PERCEIVED BY CARETAKERS AND THEIR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROGRAM

    • Authors: Khalisya Anjani Putri, Winaya Satasya Tippy, Janice Viary
      Pages: 964 - 970
      Abstract: There is yet to be collected the number of cats in Indonesia, including free- roaming cats. Studies have shown that there is a connection between sterilization and free-roaming cats’ health and welfare. In 2021, Suara Suaka Indonesia decided to hold a small-scale sterilization program in a neighborhood called Karangwuni, Yogyakarta to contribute in lowering cat population. In this case study, we focus on the effect of sterilization to cats that are perceived by humans. Survey was done using Google Forms, taking information on their demographics, involvement with Suara Suaka Indonesia, feedback on their cats’ post-surgery changes and their understanding on sterilization. Respondents are generally satisfied with the impact sterilization has on them and their cats, this is supported by how they perceive sterilization as important and their willingness to recommend the procedure to other people. However, there can still be improvement on delivering messages of sterilization to ensure that the purpose, process, and impact of sterilization can be adequately understood by all participants of the program.
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p33
       
  • COPROLOGICAL STUDY OF TREMATODE INFECTION IN REHABILITATED GREEN TURTLES
           AT THE TURTLE CONSERVATION AND EDUCATION CENTER BALI

    • Authors: Aditia Permadi, Ida Bagus Windia Adnyana, I Gusti Agung Ayu Suartini
      Pages: 971 - 981
      Abstract: Trematode infection can affect population dynamics of C. mydas in the wild. Diversification and spatio-temporal dynamics of coastal and marine environments in Indonesia can lead to different trematode community compositions among various populations of C. mydas. This study aims to determine the types of trematodes in C. mydas that live in one feeding ground of the Indonesian waters. The research was conducted at the Turtle Conservation and Education Center (TCEC) Serangan, Bali. Nine juveniles C. mydas with the curved carapace lengths between 41 – 66 cm were observed. The turtles are confiscated by the police from a smuggling attempt to Bali, which was previously caught in the waters around Sapeken Island, East Java. Parasite examination was carried out using the Mini-Flotac® coprology technique in combination with Fill-Flotac®. Eggs were identified based on their morphological and morphometric characteristics and the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was calculated according to available technical guidelines. Trematode eggs found were identical to Learedius learedi (Spirirorchiidae), Diaschistorchis pandus (Pronocephalidae), Octangium sagita (Pronocephalidae), and Enodiotrema megachondrus (Plagiorchiidae). The prevalence of L. learedi and D. pandus was 100%, while O. sagita and E. megachondrus were 77.7% and 66.6%. The highest EPG was found in L. learedi (104±57), followed by D. pandus (42±14), O. sagita (32±28), and E. megachondrus (23±19). Statistically, the mean EPG of L. learedi was significantly higher (P<0.05) from the other three types of parasites, while the EPG density of the three types of parasites other than L. learedi was not significantly different (P>0.05). The result provides an up-to-date baseline information on the type and prevalence of trematodes in C. mydas inhabited Sapeken waters of East Java. Similar studies involving turtle populations from other areas are needed to enhance the understanding of the host-parasite dynamics between turtle population stocks from various waters in Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p34
       
  • THE EFFECT OF NEEM GUM ON THE REDUCTION IN RAT BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS
           INDUCED BY STREPTOZOTOCIN

    • Authors: Ichlasul Mahdi Fardhani, Jauhar Firdaus, Zahrah Febianti, Hairrudin Hairrudin, Cholis Abrori, Elly Nurus Sakinah
      Pages: 982 - 990
      Abstract: Pharmacological therapy for diabetes, which is primarily made up of chemicals, still causes a lot of side effects. The numerous side effects of pharmacological therapy for diabetes have generated innovations in alternative diabetes therapies using ingredients derived from nature. One of the natural ingredients with an anti-hyperglycemia effect is neem gum (NG), or the sap of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NG on the reduction of blood glucose levels. Moreover, this study had six groups, including a normal control group and groups with doses of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 grams/kgBW. The results showed that NG reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The paired t-test showed a significant reduction in blood glucose in all groups administered NG except for the dose 3.75 group (P<0.05). The minimum and maximum effective doses of NG were calculated using the quadratic regression test with the equation y = 1.059x2–46.576x+408. With a target blood glucose level of between 80 and 126 mg/dL, the minimum and maximum effective doses of NG were obtained in the range of 12–15 mg/dL. This study concluded that administering NG to diabetic rats can reduce blood glucose levels. Phytochemical studies and research are needed with serial examinations using the effective dose range of neem gum.
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p35
       
  • SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BRUCELLOSIS IN CATTLE IN POLEWALI
           MANDAR DISTRICT, WEST SULAWESI

    • Authors: Ni Putu Novi Aritayanthi, Hapsari Mahatmi, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan
      Pages: 991 - 1001
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in Polewali Mandar Regency, West Sulawesi; the distribution of the disease; and the risk factors associated with the incidence and distribution of brucellosis in Polewali Mandar Regency, West Sulawesi. The study was conducted by collecting cattle serum samples belonging to farmers in Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi, then examined using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) which was confirmed by the Complement Fixation Test (CFT). The risk factors for the incidence of brucellosis in cattle were studied by analyzing the relationship between the incidence of brucellosis in cattle and some data obtained from the results of questionnaires that distributed to cattle owners. Based on the results of the RBT and CFT tests, it was found that 15.17% (22/145) of serum was detected with brucellosis. This means that the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle in Polewali Mandar District, West Sulawesi was 15.17% based on point prevalence method. The incidence of brucellosis was distributed in 6 (six) sub-districts, namely Balanipa District with a prevalence of 18.75%; Campalagian 7.5%; Luyo 25.53%; Mapilli 50%, West Mapilli 100% and Polewali 25% in line with the ratio of positive samples from its total samples for every subdistrict sampled. The main risk factors associated with the incidence of brucellosis in Polewali Mandar Regency are abortion status which has an odds-ratio (OR) of 1220, livestock transportation has an OR of 17,333, and and the use of livestock drinking water has an OR of 9,343. Other risk factors are mating technology and cattle sex which have OR: 8022 and 4.053. The results of this research suggest that it is important to carry test and slaughter, also vaccination for prevention and eradication of brucellosis. It is imperative to place brucellosis control measures toward infected areas, such as, raising environmental health awareness, laboratory confirmed investigation on miscarriages, surveillance on livestock traffic, as well as periodical serology surveillance. Further research must be conducted to acquire a more thorough information on seroprevalence, spread, and risk factors of brucellosis all over West Sulawesi.
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p36
       
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A DNA VACCINE WITH NUCLEOPROTEIN GENE OF THE SARS-COV-2
           VIRUS

    • Authors: Ni Putu Sutrisna Dewi, I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika, Ida Bagus Kade Suardana
      Pages: 1002 - 1011
      Abstract: DNA vaccines have become an interesting area of research in the fight against infectious diseases in animals and humans. DNA vaccines are vaccine formulations that use DNA fragments as antigens. The DNA in vaccines contains genetic information extracted from the disease agent, such as a virus or bacteria, that it is trying to target. This research aims to develop DNA vaccines in animals and humans. We developed plasmid DNA clones with the Covid-19 virus nucleoprotein gene that was transformed into E. coli stellar bacteria. The vaccine was injected in mice. The antibody was tested using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified recombinant NP protein. The results of the study showed that a clone of plasmid DNA with the nucleoprotein gene of the SARS-Cov-2 virus could be developed and proven. Administration of plasmid DNA clones with nucleoprotein genes in mice could induce the formation of specific antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. The antibodies were increased from week 1 to weeks 4 and 5 then decreased in week 6 post-vaccination.
      PubDate: 2023-07-23
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p37
       
  • ANALYSIS OF CATTLE WASTE WHICH HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CONTAMINATE THE
           ENVIRONMENT AND SPREAD DISEASES IN SOCIETY

    • Authors: I Ketut Suada, I Wayan Masa Tenaya
      Pages: 1012 - 1022
      Abstract: Cattle farm waste is a source of environmental pollution and a source of disease transmission in society. The emergence of environmental pollution from a farm is mostly caused by livestock waste not being handled properly. The aims of this study were to analyze pollutant elements and the potential for the spread of disease to the community. This study used observational and purposive sampling methods, namely cattle ranch waste samples taken from four traditional cattle groups in South Gianyar. A total of one liter of samples was collected from each group and brought to the Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Udayana University for analysis. The content of Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Ammonia, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Coliform and E. coli were analyzed using the methods of Gravimetric, Spectrophotometer, Winkler, Titration-spectrophotometer, and Most probable number (MPN) respectively. The results showed that the value of TSS were 26.75 mg/L, ammonia 7.86 mg/L, BOD5 171.817 mg/L, COD 605.675 mg/L, pH 8.075, Coliform 22 million/100 ml, and E. coli was 20 million/100ml. In conclusion, the cattle farm waste in the current study had the potential to cause environmental pollution and infectious disease to society, contained exceeded the quality standards parameters for BOD5, COD, Coliform, and E. Coli and the bacteria have a potential to cause infectious disease in the community. It was recommended to manage and treat the cattle waste properly based on the recommended breeding practice, to minimize its impact on the environment and public health.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p38
       
  • THE EFFECT OF ADDING VARIOUS TYPES OF ANTIOXIDANT MATERIALS ON THE
           MOTILITY AND VIABILITY OF BULL SEMEN: A LITERATURE RIVIEW

    • Authors: Muhammad Rosyid Ridlo, Ida Tjahajati, Moch Dea Zein, Dzul Himam Isnan Ali, Muhammad Fatkhurohman
      Pages: 1023 - 1029
      Abstract: The quality of the cement used for Artificial Insemination (AI) influences the success of AI. The quality of frozen semen can be maintained by adding diluents that contain nutrients to maintain the viability of spermatozoa, prevent cold shock during freezing, and maintain the same osmotic pressure and pH as sperm cells. Spermatozoa also require antioxidants to protect against damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This research aims to determine various types of antioxidants on the motility and viability of spermatozoa from cow semen. The method we use is a literature study which summarizes several pieces of literature whose library sources come from journals and articles searched via Google Scholar. Library sources are selected based on their correlation with the title of the literature study being reviewed. The research results show that the use of green tea antioxidants which contain EGCG, virgin coconut oil and commercial vitamin E which contains tocopherol, genistein with isoflavone content, fish oil with omega 3 content can inhibit lipid peroxidation and provide cell protection against oxidative damage from ROS. The results of the previous literature study certainly still require a lot of development. Therefore, further testing can be carried out to check the accuracy of the research data.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p39
       
  • SEROTONIN PROFILE OF KINTAMANI DOGS IN THE BEHAVIOR OF GUNA, JAYA, PAKSA,
           TEK, KYUL (LOCAL BELIEFS) OF THE BALINESE COMMUNITY

    • Authors: Siswanto Siswanto, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I Ketut Puja, I Gusti Agung Arta Putra
      Pages: 1030 - 1034
      Abstract: There is a belief in Bali which is the local wisdom of the Balinese people that the character of dogs is divided into guna, jaya, paksa, tek and kyul. Guna is a dog with an obedient character, useful and suitable as a hunting dog. Jaya is a dog with an attractive character, energetic, tends to be hyperactive. This type of dog is also good for hunting and paksa is a dog that is difficult to manage. This dog is suitable for house keeping. Tek is a dog with dirty behavior and is difficult to train or manage and kyul is a dog with a lazy character. The results showed that the character or nature of dogs is related to serotonin compounds in the blood. Aggressive dogs such as jaya and paksa have a low serotonin level profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the serotonin profile of different characters according to the beliefs of the Balinese people towards Kintamani dogs. A total of 30 Kintamani dogs were used as experimental animals. The research design used a cross-sectional study design. The results of the serotonin profile showed that the dogs with the characteristics of guna, jaya, paksa, tek and kyul were 114.4 ± 24.51; 98.5±28.47; 269.9±87.8; 316.6±54.8 and 256±15.1 (mmol/dl). It was concluded that the profile of the Kintamani dog according to the local belief of the Balinese people has normal serotonin levels.
      PubDate: 2023-10-18
      DOI: 10.24843/bulvet.2023.v15.i05.p40
       
 
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