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Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.136
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2251-628X - ISSN (Online) 2251-631X
Published by Islamic Azad University Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Alternative Village Based-Breeding Schemes for Simien and Gumuz Sheep
           Breeds in Northwestern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The study aimed to design breeding schemes for the improvement of sheep in Northwestern Ethiopia. The alternative breeding schemes were modeled and evaluated using a deterministic approach for genetic and economic efficiency. The input parameters were obtained from a survey of existing flock structures, breeding management, and literature. The predicted genetic response, genetic gain for goal traits, and rate of inbreeding were little different under village-based schemes depending on selection objectives and selection criteria. The highest genetic gains for six month’s weight, pre-weaning lamb survival, twining rate, and lambing interval were predicted from village-based schemes with BLUP selection at 5% selection intensity. The highest genetic gain predicted under BLUB at 5% selection intensity for six months weight within and across village breeding schemes were 1.85 kg and 1.87 kg per year respectively. The rate of inbreeding for both schemes increased as the proportion of rams selected decreased from base to 5% selection intensity. The expected genetic gains were higher as it promotes participation of farmers, cooperation of villages, and achieving concentrated lambing which in turn increase selection intensity and genetic progress. This suggested the possibility for sustainable sheep improvement and conservation through village-based schemes.
       
  • Search for Association between Ovine Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site
           Family Member (Wnt10A) Genes with Supernumerary Teat in Ghezel and Romanov
           Sheep

    • Abstract: Supernumerary teats (SNT, polythelia) is a common abnormality in many mammalian species including sheep. Recently, the WNT10A candidate gene has been reported to be associated with regulation of embryonic programming for mammary gland connective tissue differentiation and embryogenesis. Here, we propose that variants of this candidate gene may be linked with SNT in Ghezel (GHE) and Romanov (ROM) sheep. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to uncover this abnormal phenotype. The study group consisted of fifteen individuals which had four functional teats (GHE=10, ROM=5). The control group consisted of thirty individuals which each had two (normal) teats (GHE=20, ROM=10). After extraction of genomic DNA from all samples, the candidate gene region was amplified using routine PCR. Genotyping at the WNT10A gene was performed by sequencing of the purified amplicons. Genotypes and allele frequencies were compared between the two study groups using the χ2 statistical test. A P-value of 0.05 was considered to be the threshold below which all results were significant. No effect of allelic variation (A/G in exon 4) between case and control groups in GHE and ROM sheep was found. In summary, our study provides preliminary results linking candidate gene this single nucleotide polymorphism to SNT in GHE and ROM sheep.
       
  • The Influences of Adding Polyethylene Glycol and Activated Sodium
           Bentonite on the Performance, Blood Parameters, and Muscle Mineral Content
           of Saanen Goats Fed Pistachio Byproducts

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or activated sodium bentonite as tannins deactivation materials on the performance of Saanen goats fed diets containing pistachio by-products (PBP). Twenty-one Saanen male goats (27±3 kg, 10 months) were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design and fed for 60 days. Three experimental diets consisted of a diet containing 30% dry matter (DM) pistachio by-products with no additive (control); control diet supplemented with PEG at 1.0% of DM (PEG group), and control diet supplemented with activated sodium bentonite at 1.0% of DM (G-bind group). Results indicated that dry matter intake (DMI), total gain, average daily gain (ADG), and ruminal pH were not affected by treatments (P≥0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments in hematological parameters (P≥0.05) except monocyte count (P<0.05). The plasma concentrations of total triglycerides (TG) decreased (P<0.05) by adding G-bind. Serum Insulin concentration was also increased significantly (P<0.05) in the PEG group compared to the control. Besides, the G-bind increased the calcium content of this muscle compared to the control and PEG group (P<0.05). Zinc content in muscle showed a significant increase in the PEG treatments in comparison to other experimental groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, Iron (Fe) content in muscle improved by both additives (P<0.05). Data showed that there were no significant differences among treatments for hair fiber characteristics (P≥0.05). It can be concluded that activated sodium bentonite can be an appropriate substitute for PEG as a tannin-deactivation material in diets containing 30% DM PBP for feeding goats.
       
  • Physical Form of Concentrate for Lactating Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goats:
           Feed Intake and Sorting, Milk Production, and Blood Metabolites

    • Abstract: Global demand for goat milk and its products is increasing. Goat producers are urged to improve feed efficiency and farm economics. Physical form of concentrate was hypothesized to affect lactating dairy goats’ responses in feed intake and sorting, milk production, and blood metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine effects of different physical forms of concentrate [mashed (M), pelleted (P), or textured (T)] on feed intake and sorting, milk production, and selected blood metabolites of lactating Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. Thirty Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation (87±6 days in milk; 2±0.04 kg/d milk yield) were used in a completely randomized design study and assigned to the three forms of concentrate (10 goats per treatment). Goats were fed the experimental diets as totally mixed rations (TMR). The data were analyzed using mixed models of SAS program. The dry matter intake (DMI) and yields of raw milk; fat-corrected milk; milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids not fat (SNF); and cheese as well as feed efficiency were improved (P<0.01) by feeding T instead of M and P. Feeding P vs. M improved milk production and feed efficiency (P<0.05). The milk percentages of fat, protein, lactose and blood concentrations of glucose, albumin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were unaffected by treatments. Feed sorting occurred less for T than for the other physical forms of concentrate. Therefore, under the conditions of this experiment, feeding lactating Murciano-Granadina dairy goats TMR with textured concentrate compared to mashed and pelleted concentrates increased milk production and cheese yield estimates, and improved feed efficiency.
       
  • The Complete Mitochondrial Genome from Iraqi Meriz Goats and the Maternal
           Lineage Using Whole Genome Sequencing Data

    • Abstract: Meriz goat is a native goat breed found along the northern boundary of the Iraqi Kurdistan region near the center of species diversity and domestication. This economically important breed is distinguished by its production of fine hair, high persistence, and ability to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. Although the phenotype and productive traits of the Meriz goat have been described, the complete mitochondrial genome, maternal lineage, and genetic diversity of the breed have yet to be identified. Therefore, the whole genome sequencing data and bioinformatics analysis were used to assemble the complete mitochondrial genome, generate a maternal phylogeny, and identify some mitogenomic diversity features of Meriz goats Meriz goat is a native goat breed found along the northern boundary of the Iraqi Kurdistan region near the center of species diversity and domestication. This economically important breed is distinguished by its production of fine hair, high persistence, and ability to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. Although the phenotype and productive traits of the Meriz goat have been described, the complete mitochondrial genome, maternal lineage, and genetic diversity of the breed have yet to be identified. Therefore, the whole genome sequencing data and bioinformatics analysis were used to assemble the complete mitochondrial genome, generate a maternal phylogeny, and identify some mitogenomic diversity features of Meriz goats from the Iraqi Kurdistan region. The complete mitochondrial genome of the two individuals was assembled with lengths of 16641 and 16639 bp, respectively (MH165338 and MH165339). The mitogenome comprises13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one non-coding control region. In addition, our data revealed that the mitogenome copy number is greater in female goats than in males. Integration into a phylogenetic tree with other goat breeds showed that Meriz goats belong to the most predominant maternal haplogroup A (HPGA). Furthermore, nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic analysis indicated that Meriz goats have a high level of mitogenomic similarity to Chinese Cashmere goats and Turkish Angora goats within the same maternal lineage. The molecular data reported here provide useful insights into the evolutionary relationships and mitogenomic diversity of domestic and wild goats from the center of diversity of animal species in the Middle East.
       
  • Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Guava Leaf, Oxytetracycline, and
           Tert-Butylhydroxytoluene on Growth Performance, Gut Microbial Population,
           Immune Status, Carcass, and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of guava leaf (GL), oxytetracycline, and tert-butylhydroxytoluene on growth, immune status, gut microbial population, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 280 Ross 308 one-day-old chicks were randomly allotted to either G-0; basal diet (BD) without additive; G-1; BD + 0.5 g/kg oxytetracycline + 0.15 g/kg tert-butylhydroxytoluene; G-2; BD + 2.5 g/kg GL; or G-3; BD + 5 g/kg GL for six weeks. At 1-21 d, G-1 and G-2 birds had higher (P<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and feed efficiency compared with G-0 and G-3 birds. At 22-42 d, the supplemented birds consumed more feed than the G-0 birds. At 1-42 d, BWG and feed intake were higher (P<0.05) in the supplemented birds compared with the G-0 birds. Hematological indices were not affected by the diets. GL-supplemented birds had lower (P<0.05) serum and meat cholesterol than the G-0 and G-1 birds. The G-0 birds had higher tumor necrosis factor-α (83.69 pg/mL) and lower interleukin-10 (5.84 pg/mL) than birds fed other diets. The G-3 birds had lower (P<0.05) interleukin-1β and immunoglobulin M than other birds. Dietary supplements lowered (P<0.05) clostridium, coliforms, and salmonella counts in caecum and ileum. GL-supplemented birds had a higher ileal Lactobacillus count than G-0 and G-1 birds. Carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents were lower (P<0.05) in the supplemented meat on day 4 postmortem. Antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity were higher in the G-3 meat compared with other meats. Breast meat quality was not affected by diet. GL could be a potent antioxidant and antimicrobial in broiler diets.
       
  • Effect of Exogenous Enzymes on Feed Digestion and Anaerobic Digestion of
           Holstein Cow Faeces

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes (ExE) on feeding behaviour, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen disappearance rate of Holstein cows, as well as methane production from faeces of these cows by means of anaerobic digestion. Five cannulated Holstein cows were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 periods of 21 days each) and received five treatments which differed in inclusion of different ExE in the diet (control: diet without enzymes; amylase: basal diet with 7.5 g of amylase/cow/day; xylanase: basal diet with 15 g of xylanase/cow/day; cellulase + protease: basal diet with 7.5 g cellulase + protease/cow/day; and pool: basal diet with 30 g enzyme mixture (all enzymes added at the same dose of individual treatments). Therefore, feeding behaviour, dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility and rumen disappearance rate were evaluated. Representative pools of faeces from each cow were collected in each period to perform anaerobic digestion. Afterwards, 25 experimental batch-type biodigesters were filled with faece substrates and were subsequently arranged in a completely randomised design of 5 treatments with 5 replicates. Then, evaluations of total gas, methane production, total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) removal efficiency were performed. No effect of ExE was observed (P>0.05) on feeding behaviour (number of daily meals; total daily time spent eating, ruminating or masticating), DMI, nutrient digestibility (although enzyme pool and cellulase + protease tended to increase crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility) or on rumen disappearance rate. No effect of ExE was observed on total gas and methane production or on the efficiency of removal of TS and VS from faeces. Exogenous enzymes did not increase efficiency of nutrient utilisation by the animals and, accordingly, did not affect the potential of methane emission from faeces of Holstein cows by means of anaerobic digestion.
       
  • Effect of a Multispecies Probiotics on Productive and Reproductive
           Performance of Holstein Cows

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental multispecies probiotics on milk production and reproductive performance of postpartum lactating Holstein cows. Ninety-six cows were assigned to one of two dietary treatments from day 1 to 85 postpartum. Treatments were including 1) control, a standard diet, (n=48) and 2) probiotic, same as control plus 3 g/cow/day of the probiotics supplement (Hypro-cow®) (n=48). In a subset of eight animals per group, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS), rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), and heart rate (HR) were assessed, and blood samples and milk yield recorded. Milk samples were analyzed every 2 wk. for fat, protein and somatic cell. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 85 post-partum for determining plasma total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, glucose and triglyceride concentrations and activity of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). In all animals, occurrence of health disorders (i.e. metritis, endometritis, laminitis and mastitis), calving to first estrus interval, days open (DO), conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy up to 85 and 120 DIM were evaluated. Probiotic supplementation increased DMI (17.43±0.11 vs. 14.12±0.17) and BCS (3.36±0.16 vs. 3.14±0.23) (P<0.05). Mean daily milk yield (36.34±0.32 vs. 34.36±0.38) (P=0.05), and all milk components increased (P<0.05) by probiotic supplementation. Plasma concentrations of urea (10.28±0.63 vs. 11.08±0.47) and creatinine (1.00±S0.25 vs. 1.23±0.63) was lower (P<0.05) in supplemented group compared to control group. The incidence of laminitis (20.5±0.61 vs. 27±0.31) and metritis (32±0.03 vs. 40±0.81) were reduced (P<0.05) in supplemented cows compared to control cows. Interval from calving to first estrus and days open (DO) was reduced by 4 and 26 days, respectively (P<0.05) in treated cows. The conception rate was greater in probiotic group (22.5%) than control group (12.5%). In conclusion, supplemental multi-species probiotics during postpartum has a beneficial effect on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.
       
  • Effect of Oocyte Maturation Period on Developmental Rate and Sex ratio
           Distribution of in vitro Produced Bovine Embryos

    • Abstract: It has been suggested that the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of fertilization influences the sex ratio of resulting embryos produced in vitro. Therefore, the duration of the oocyte in vitro maturation is likely a simple method that leads to in vitro production of embryos with the desired sex. For this purpose, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of in vitro maturation culture period of bovine oocytes on the sex ratio of resulting blastocysts. The abattoir ovary-derived oocytes were cultured for various duration of in vitro maturation (16 h, 20 h, 24 h, 28 h, and 36 h). After in vitro fertilization and culture of mature oocytes, nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with AMELX and SRY primers was used to determine the sex of blastocysts. The results of this study showed that the cleavage and blastocyst rates were increased by prolongation of in vitro maturation (IVM) duration from 16 hours to 24 hours and deceased from 24 hours to 36 hours (P<0.05). The sex ratio of male embryos in aged oocytes (36 hours IVM) was significantly higher than in other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, the maturation duration of bovine COCs influences the sex distribution of embryos in the blastocyst stage appearing on day 8, and the male embryos were recovered more than female counterparts by increasing the oocytes culture period.
       
  • Peripartum Injection of Vitamins (E and B12) and Trace Minerals (Selenium
           and Iron) in Holstein Dairy Cows: Effect on Milk Production and
           Composition, Body Condition Score and Serum Metabolites

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of injection of vitamin E and selenium, vitamin B12 and iron or their combination during the transition period on milk production and composition, body condition score (BCS) changes and serum metabolites of dairy cows. A total of 40 Holstein dairy cows (659±57.9 kg of body weight (BW)) were divided into four groups based on parity, BW and BCS and randomly assigned to experimental treatments. Experimental treatments were T1: injection of NaCl % 0.9 as control treatment (C), T2: injection of 3000 IU of vitamin E and 30 mg of selenium (ESe), T3: injection of 700 μg of vitamin B12 and 254 mg of iron (B12Fe) and T4: injection of 3000 IU of vitamin E and 30 mg of selenium plus 700 μg of vitamin B12 and 254 mg of iron (ESe+B12Fe). Injection of ESe, B12Fe or ESe + B12Fe had no effect on BCS and its changes (P>0.05). Milk production, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM), energy-corrected milk (ECM) and milk fat, protein and lactose content and yield did not influence by injection of ESe, B12Fe or ESe + B12Fe (P>0.05). Experimental treatments had no effect on serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P>0.05). It was concluded that injection of ESe, B12Fe or their combination during transition period had no effect on milk production and composition, BCS changes, and serum metabolites concentrations of Holstein dairy cows.
       
  • Association of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Expression with Cattle Milk
           Characteristics

    • Abstract: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of the lipids, thus the goal of this study was to investigate the influence of canola and soybean oilseeds on gene expression of SCD in adipose tissue, composition and yield of milk, fatty acid profile in Iranian Holstein cattle. Animals (n=20) were randomly selected to test experimental diets. Fatty acid composition was determined. After isolation of total RNA, cDNA was synthesized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify SCD and GAPDH. For analyzing the real-time PCR results, LinRegPCR, REST and SPSS softwares was employed. The animals fed canola seed in comparison animals fed soybean seed showed higher gene expression. The milk production, fat percentage, 4% fat corrected milk, body condition score and milk urea nitrogen showed a significant difference between two groups. The amount of a number of fatty acids extracted from adipose tissue including C18:3t, C18:0 and C16:1 in animals fed two different diets was variable and their amount was significantly different. SCD gene expression was not significantly different between animals fed two diets (canola and soybean). This may be due to the similarity of the fatty acid composition of the two compounds and their nutrient balance. Since canola seed are higher in fat and protein than soybean seed, it can be a good substitute for soybean seed in the diet of dairy cows. In addition, canola seed, with the effect of nutrition on the composition of milk fatty acids can be used to improve milk.
       
  • The Effect of Trace Mineral Source on Nutrients Digestibility and Ruminal
           Fermentation Parameters

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the effect of organic versus inorganic sources of trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn and Co) on nutrient digestibility in lambs and in vitro gas production parameters. In experiment 1, 18 Zandi male lambs (initial body weight (BW), 28.5±1.4 kg) were randomly assigned to either a basal diet with no trace mineral supplement (control diet), basal diet supplemented with trace minerals sulfates, basal diet supplemented with mineral-amino acid complex. In experiment 2, in vitro gas production was used to estimate in vitro fermentation parameters of the experimental treatments. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (CP) were not affected by treatments. However, supplementation with either mineral supplements decreased digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P<0.05). Organic mineral supplementation decreased rate of gas production (P<0.05), however asymptotic gas production (b) and effective digestibility were not different among the groups. Results of this study show that supplementation of trace elements does not affect the in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters and nutrients digestibility.
       
  • Importance of Phosphorus in Farm Animals

    • Abstract: Nutrition is a crucial factor in animal production. Feeding animals with a well-balanced diet is beneficial economically and promotes animal welfare. Mineral supplements are the third most costly component in animal feed. Phosphorus (P) is one of the key minerals responsible for skeletal development, energy metabolism, cell signaling and is a constituent of nucleotides. An animal’s P requirement varies with species, production trait, age and management practices. Dietary P should meet the growth, maintenance, and production requirements of animals. Deficiency in dietary P causes severe impacts on skeletal development and growth in young animals and long-term deficiencies can impact both animal welfare and production parameters. Overfeeding of P can lead to nutritional disorders related to Ca metabolism. Therefore, maintaining the balance between Ca and P in the diet is crucial in feeding. Excess P is not retained in the body and excreted with faecal matter. Through the homeostasis process, animals are able to balance the mineral composition in their bodies. The primary P source in the diet comes as organic P from plants and inorganic P from supplements. The bioavailability of the P varies within animals according to physiological and functional variabilities. Understanding the physiology as well as functional and production variabilities in animals is beneficial in managing the economic and environmental aspects of animal husbandry.
       
  • Estimation of Optimum Utilization of Ruminant Feed Resources on Tropical
           Dry-Land during Dry and Rainy Seasons

    • Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the optimum utilization of ruminant feed resources in tropical dry-land during dry and rainy seasons. Data concerning feed availability and quality were collected from Gunungkidul Regency of Indonesia over two seasons: the dry and rainy seasons. The JAVA program, the model, was used to estimate the availability of feed for ruminants associated with mean live weight gain (MLWG) and total live weight production (TLWP). The results showed that the maximum production in the dry season was obtained when 18% dry matter (DM) was used (MLWG 0.33 kg/animal unit (AU)/day, herd size (HS) 197 AU, and TLWP 11.94 tons/season), or in the rainy season, when 46% DM was used (MLWG 0.18 kg/AU/day, HS 1116 AU, and TLWP 37.22 tons/season). Furthermore, when only 100% was used, it could feed a maximum of 1500 AU and 2968 AU in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Without the transfer of feed from one season to another, a constant number, 350 AU, was obtained for HS, with a maximum TLWP of 19.16 tons/year. On the other hand, when the feed was kept constant at 34% dry matter (DM), a maximum TLWP obtained was 32.32 tons/year which is enough 420 and 820 animal units in the dry and rainy season, respectively. It was concluded that to obtain maximum TLWP in each season, only 14.5% to 46% of available DM feed should be used, as most of the available feed was of very low quality.
       
 
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