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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4377 - ISSN (Online) 2345-4385
Published by World Science and Research Publishing Homepage  [2 journals]
  • The Role of Direct-Fed Microbes to Ruminants: A Review

    • Authors: Zemedkun Diffe, Tesfa Kassa
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Feed additives are used in livestock feed and feeding to increase feed quality, the utility of feed derived from animals, and the performance and health of the animals. Digestibility gravies, rumen flora stabilizers, and microbial are some of the zoo's technological additions. Direct feed microbial are characterized as microbial-based feed additives, with a tighter definition than probiotics. It improves feed use by boosting energy usage per unit of feed and enhancing fiber digestibility. The term direct-fed microbial (DFM) was coined by the Food and Drug Administration and the American Feed Regulator Representatives Associations to describe a feed product that contains live, naturally occurring microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast; the bacteria can produce or consume lactic acid. Microbial feed additives have traditionally been given to animals during stressful times in the hopes of establishing a beneficial microbe population in the digestive tract, which would reduce or prevent harmful organism development. DFM has several mechanisms of action, some of which affect the rumen and others which affect the gastrointestinal system. Lactic acid-generating bacteria (LAB) have a favorable impact on the rumen by reducing ruminal acidosis, encouraging the proliferation of ruminal microorganisms that have adapted to the presence of lactic acid in the rumen, and boosting lactic acid-using bacteria (LUB). LUB has been presented as a DFM that can lower lactate levels while maintaining ruminal pH. Through hydrophobic interactions, DFM can block or prevent pathogens like Escherichia coli from attaching to the intestinal mucosa. DFM medication helps dairy calves adapt quickly to solid feed by speeding up the formation of ruminal and intestinal microbes and preventing the spread of enteric pathogens, which can cause diarrhea. DFM was utilized to improve dairy cow performance by improving dry matter intake, milk output and protein content, as well as blood glucose and insulin levels before and after delivery. DFM is critical in beef cattle to prevent ruminal acidosis induced by highly fermentable diets, as well as to promote growth, meat output, and feed efficiency. Powders, pastes, boluses, and capsules are only some of the direct-fed microbial products available. It can be added to feed or ingested by drinking water. According to one study, feeding more than 107 CFU per head per day may cause lower nutrient absorption due to overpopulation in the gastrointestinal tract.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of (Co) Variance Components and Genetic Parameters of Growth
           Traits for Boran Cattle

    • Authors: Dejenie Mengistie, Genet Zewdie, Tesfaye Sisay, Dereje Beyene, Selam Meseret, K Suk Kim, Hailu Dadi
      Pages: 14 - 27
      Abstract: Availing information on genetic parameters of traits of interest for a given population is a prerequisite for effective genetic improvement programs. The objective of this research was to estimate the covariance components and genetic parameters of birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and growth rate (ADG) traits of Boran cattle maintained at Did Tuyera cattle breeding ranch. The total number of animals considered in this study was 1162 (634 males and 528 females). The fixed effects included in the animal model for the analysis of growth traits were calf birth year, season of birth, and sex of calf. Pedigree was pruned using Relax 2 program. Covariance components were estimated using the Average Information-Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AI)-REML procedure as implemented in the DMUV.6 program. The data for BW (1120), WW (1144), and ADG (1144) were collected between 1999 and 2005. The estimation of the BW, WW, and ADG of Boran's calves was optimized by evaluating two models that either include or exclude the maternal genetic effects. The best model was chosen according to the log-likelihood ratio tests. The genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate models (DMU) package, fitting univariate and bivariate models with a restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The sex of the calf significantly influenced BW and ADG (p< 0.01). Calf birth year and birth season significantly (p< 0.001) influenced BW, WW, and ADG. The direct heritability estimates for BW, WW, and ADG were 0.17, 0.38, and 0.46, respectively. A larger phenotypic correlation coefficient was found between BW and WW (0.28). The direct and maternal genetic correlations for BW, WW, and ADG were -0.47, -0.45, and -0.47, respectively. The relatively high heritability estimates observed (model 1) for WW (0.38) and ADG (0.46) indicated that reasonable genetic improvement for those traits might be possible through selection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Relationship between Fertility and Milk Production Traits in Pure Jersey
           Dairy Cows: Multitrait Analysis

    • Authors: kefale getahun, Zenebech Lemma, Nibo Beneberu
      Pages: 28 - 39
      Abstract: Records on 22175 pure Jersey dairy cows evaluated the genetic and phenotypic correlations.  Data for this study were collected from Adea Berga dairy research farm span over 33 years (1986-2019) performance records. Five fertility; number of services per conception (NSC), days open (DO), calving interval (CI), age at first calving (AFC), age at first service (AFS), and three-milk production traits; lactation milk yield (LMY), daily milk yield (DMY), lactation length (LL) were estimated by WOMBAT software fitted a multitrait repeatability animal model. The result of present study revealed that genetic correlations among fertility traits for pure Jersey cows varied from -0.63 to 0.91 whereas the values of phenotypic correlations were found to be ranged from -0.28 to 0.98. The AFS-AFC was the highest genetic and phenotypic correlations among all fertility traits. The lowest genetic and phenotypic correlations were between AFS/AFC-CI and AFS/AFC-NSC, respectively. For milk production traits, the genetic correlations ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 whereas the values of phenotypic correlations were found in the range of -0.05 to 0.82. The LMY-LL was the highest genetic and phenotypic correlation and DMY-LL was the lowest. The genetic correlations between reproductive and milk production traits also varied from -0.38 to 0.42 and phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.48. The highest genetic and phenotypic correlations for reproductive and milk production traits were from DO-LL and LMY-CI/DO whereas the lowest was from NSC-LL and AFS-LL, respectively. Genetic correlations among the traits in the present study were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations among all milk production traits and the majority of fertility traits. The positive genetic correlations among traits in the present study would broaden the choice selection of more traits at one time for improvement. To improve genetic progress and breeding efficiency of Jersey dairy cows, periodic evaluation of the genetic and phenotypic relationship of dairy traits should be applied and more than one trait should be selected based on the magnitude of correlations (more correlated traits).
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • the Evaluation of Reproductive and Productive Performance of Indigenous
           Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Lakew Alemu, Elias Bayou, Ayantu Mekonnen, worku Masho
      Pages: 40 - 53
      Abstract: Evaluations of the reproductive and productive performances of local dairy cows were carried out in Shaybench and Sheko districts under the smallholder farmers’ management system. For the study, a cross-sectional survey and -a semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect data from 180 households. Follow-up studies were also conducted to obtain milk production based on lactation stages. The data were analyzed through a general linear model of SPSS version 20. Cattle are reared primarily for their milk production, drought power, and income source in the study area. The results of the study showed that from the follow-up study, the mean daily milk yield for the first, second, and third stages of lactations were 3.01±0.12, 2. 83±0.26, and 1.75± 0.05 liter per cow respectively. The milk yield decreased significantly in the third stage of lactation than that in the first and second (P<0.001). The milk yield observed was significantly different at (P<0.01) higher in the morning than in the evening for the three stages of lactations. From survey results, the overall mean of AFS, AFC, CI, DO and NSPC were (50.72±0.20 and 44.28±0.0.60 months), (50.50±0.20 and 50.40±0.0.20 months), (21.84±0.14 and 19.56±0.4 months), (16.24±0.30 and 16.20±0.20 months) and (2.30±0.20 and 2.01±0.03 times), in Shaybench and Sheko districts respectively. All of the considered traits for reproductive performances were significantly (p<0.001) different between the districts. Thus, it could be concluded that the results reported for reproductive and productive performances in both districts were below the optimum value of 10 months of dairy cows’ production. Therefore, Milk production and reproductive performance of local dairy cows in the study area were almost similar to the performance of zebu cattle. 
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Flock age on Reproductive Traits of Shika Brown® Chicken

    • Authors: Saidu Suleiman, W.A. Hassan , A.A. Kwaido
      Pages: 54 - 59
      Abstract: The research was conducted to determine the effect of flock age on the reproductive traits of Shika Brown® chicken in Aliero, Nigeria. A total of 1177 eggs were collected from the birds of the African Chicken Genetic Gains (ACGG) project in Kebbi State and incubated at different flock ages (48, 49, 50, and 51 weeks). The experimental design used was the Nested type. The Parameters considered include mean egg weight, fertility, hatchability, hatch weight, and embryonic mortality. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model of SPSS. Significant interaction (P≤0.05) was observed between flock age and egg weight, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and hatched weight. The highest egg weight (58.40±0.32g) and hatchability (68.57±1.91%) were recorded at age 51, fertility was highest (94.65±1.75%) at age 50 weeks and lowest (89.52±2.21) at 48 weeks. Egg weight, hatchability, and hatched chicks’ weight were amplified (P≤0.05) with the increase in age (48-51 weeks). Embryonic mortality differs with age (P≤0.05) and was highest at the 48th week and lowest at 51 weeks of age. From the results obtained, it can be deduced that flock age has a great influence on egg weight, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and hatch weight of Shika Brown® chicken.
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Calcium Requirement in Relation to Milk Fever of Dairy Animals

    • Authors: Muhammed Nurye Gebeyehu, Getachew Animut
      Pages: 60 - 80
      Abstract: The objective of this review paper is to compile recent findings and give an overview of dairy animals’ calcium requirement for milk fever. Dietary imbalance and inadequate management of dairy cow feeding programs can cause a wide range of health problems, termed metabolic disorders. Periparturient hypocalcemia, often known as milk fever, is a metabolic condition that affects dairy cows around the time they give birth. Dairy animals’ calcium requirements are moderate throughout the dry period but skyrocketed when lactation begins at calving. If the cow body fails to respond to the demand immediately the blood calcium concentration falls below a crucial level, causing clinical or subclinical milk fever, because plasma calcium is essential for neurotransmission affected animals will develop muscle weakness. Sometimes cows develop recumbency, and eventually coma and death. Therefore, administering intravenous calcium salt infusion is the best and fastest way to restore normal plasma calcium levels, and the use of different nutritional approaches has a remarkable role in preventing the sharp drop of blood calcium that occurs during parturition and also avoiding economic loss.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Survey on Antibiotic Usage in Poultry Birds

    • Authors: Idris Ibrahim Adamu
      Pages: 81 - 90
      Abstract: The survey is continually lacking in developing countries to justify the regulation of antibiotic usage in poultry farming. Imprudent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is associated with health risks for consumers. This study aimed to gather baseline data on which antibiotics are used in some selected commercial poultry farms in Minna metropolis, Nigeria between March and April 2022. A total of 30 questionnaires were distributed to poultry farmers in the study area. The result of the study indicated that the majority (40.0%) fell within 41-50 years old, who were either college of education/polytechnic holders (70.0%). Many, (60.0%) had no animal science base discipline. Almost all 26(86.0%) participants used one or more antibiotics. Antibiotics were commonly administered for both prophylactic and therapeutic 14(53.8%) and for leasers extent for prophylaxis 4(15.4%), therapeutic 4(15.4%), and 4(15.4%) for growth promotion. All, 26 participants that used antibiotics in their farms procured antibiotics from veterinary stores while 20(76.9%) consulted with animal health workers before using antibiotics. The most frequently used antibiotics in the study area are oxytetracycline 8(30.8%), while the least is neomycin 4(15.4%). This study provides baseline data on the extensive and inappropriate use of antibiotics by poultry farmers in the study area. Thus, it is recommended that awareness of the prudent use of antibiotics by farmers and supervision to obtain reverse in antibiotics should be a preference.  
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • the Effect of Rumen-Protected Niacin and Vitamin C Additives on Productive
           Performance of Suckling Friesian Calves Under Heat Stress Condition

    • Authors: Nabil Mohamed Eweedah, Atef Yousif Salem, Hamed Mohamed Gaafar, Ahmed Shaban Shams, Reda Abd Albary Mesbah, Imad Fawzy Aljadba
      Pages: 91 - 105
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rumen-protected niacin and vitamin C on suckling Friesian calves' productive performance under heat stress during the summer season. Twenty-four newly born Friesian calves with an average live body weight of 31±0.21 kg is assigned into four comparable groups. Calves were unsupplemented in G1 and served as control, or supplemented with rumen-protected niacin at 2g/head/ day in G2, vitamin C at 2 g/head/day in G3, or rumen-protected niacin at 1 g/head/day plus vitamin C at 1 g/head/day in G4 during suckling period (105 days). Results confirmed that G4 recorded appreciably (P<0.05) the very best digestibility coefficients of all nutrients, feeding values, TVFA’s attention and decrease notably (P<0.05) Ph price and NH3-N awareness accompanied with the aid of G2 and G3, whereas G1 had the different trend. Blood biochemical and hematological values had been substantially (P<0.05) the highest, however, the exercise of liver enzymes (AST & ALT) was appreciably (P<0.05) the lowest in G4 accompanied by using G2 and G3, however, the lowest counts performed in G1. Group four recorded considerably (P<0.05) the very best TDN and DCP intake, weaning weight, whole, and daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and financial affectivity accompanied by G2 and G3, alternatively G1 had the lowest values. In conclusion, either rumen-protected niacin or vitamin C and its mixture had an effective role in improving the growth performance of suckling Friesian calves under heat stress.
      PubDate: 2022-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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