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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
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Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.833
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2329-8456 - ISSN (Online) 2329-8464
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Pavlovian summation: Data and theory.

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      Abstract: In summation experiments, responding to a compound stimulus is assessed after conditioning a response to each of its components. This simple experiment poses significant challenges to models of associative learning because of substantial variability in results. Here, I introduce a new method to quantify generalization from components to compound in summation experiments, which I apply to over 250 measurements of summation in rabbits, pigeons, rats, and humans. The analysis confirms that more summation occurs with stimuli from different rather than from the same sensory modality, although this is not the sole determinant of summation. A theoretical analysis shows that this finding is best accounted for by a model that includes both element sharing (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and element replacement (Brandon et al., 2000) in stimulus representations. I point out remaining gaps in our empirical and theoretical understanding of summation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Inhibitory summation as a form of generalization.

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      Abstract: Inhibitory learning after feature negative training (A+/AB–) is typically measured by combining the Feature B with a separately trained excitor (e.g., C) in a summation test. Reduced responding to C is taken as evidence that B has properties directly opposite to those of C. However, in human causal learning, transfer of B’s inhibitory properties to another excitor is modest and depends on individual differences in inferred causal structure. Here we ask whether instead of opposing processes, a summation test might instead be thought of in terms of generalization. Using an allergist task, we tested whether inhibitory transfer would be influenced by similarity. We found that transfer was greater when the test stimuli were from the same semantic category as the training stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and when the test excitor had previously been associated with the same outcome (Experiment 3). We also found that the similarity effect applied across all self-reported causal structures. We conclude it may be more helpful to consider transfer of inhibition as a form of conceptual generalization rather than the arithmetic summation of opposing processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Valence generalization across nonrecurring structures.

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      Abstract: Semantically meaningless letter strings correlated with affective attributes (US) can become evaluatively conditioned stimuli (CS). Jurchiș et al. (2020) recently demonstrated CS-US correlations may influence evaluations toward previously unseen strings when the latter are grammatically congruent with CS. We replicated those authors’ findings in a modified extension (Experiment 1; N = 108), where emotional faces (US) were correlated with letter strings (CS) constructed from familiar (English) and unfamiliar (Phoenician) alphabets. CS-US trials were sandwiched by evaluations of strings that never appeared as CS but were constructed using similar grammar rules. Although CS and evaluated strings never overlapped, their individual elements (letters) recurred between phases. Element recurrence was controlled for in a second replication (Experiment 2; N = 140), where participants viewed Phoenician (/English) strings during conditioning and English (/Phoenician) strings during evaluations. We found credible evidence for valence generalization across strings from different alphabets but parallel grammars, suggesting the latter had been perceived as ‘functionally equivalent’ (Tonneau, 2004b). We provide support for this claim in a third study (Experiment 3; N = 79), where participants underwent a ‘free selection’ 2AFC discrimination task with sample and comparison strings taken from different alphabets. Increasing frequencies of grammar-congruent discriminations suggested strings were becoming functionally equated along overlapping grammar rules. We speculate how ‘rules’ which inform how elements are organized relative to each another can be abstracted and generalized across without specifying elemental properties (Spaulding, 1912). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) perceive the
           Müller-Lyer illusion.

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      Abstract: A Müller-Lyer figure consists only of a line and arrowheads located at both ends of the line. Many comparative studies have reported that animals perceive Müller-Lyer illusion as humans, but few have used appropriate experimental designs to verify whether animal subjects actually respond to line length alone. The present study investigated whether budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) can perceive the Müller-Lyer illusion by using a method that addresses this problem. Four budgerigars were trained to select a long or short line (counterbalanced across subjects) from two horizontal lines. Next, the same task was conducted using two lines, one of which was situated between arrowheads pointing either right (>>) or left (
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pigeon’s choice depends primarily on the value of the signal for the
           outcome rather than its frequency or contrast.

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      Abstract: Pigeons typically prefer a 20% probability of signaled reinforcement over a 50% probability of unsignaled reinforcement. There is even evidence that they prefer 50% signaled reinforcement over 100% reinforcement. It has been suggested that this effect results from contrast between the expected probability of reinforcement (e.g., 50%) at the time of choice and the value of the positive signal for reinforcement (100%). Alternatively, it is primarily the value of the positive signal for reinforcement itself that determines suboptimal choice. To attempt to distinguish between these two hypotheses, in Experiment 1, we gave pigeons a choice between (a) a 50% reinforcement alternative that was followed by one of two signals for 100% reinforcement, each 25% of the time, or a signal for the absence of reinforcement 50% of the time (50% contrast) and (b) a 25% reinforcement alternative that was followed by a signal for 100% reinforcement 25% of the time, or a signal for the absence of reinforcement 75% of the time (75% contrast). In spite of the difference in contrast, the pigeons were indifferent between the two alternatives. In Experiment 2, when contrast was held constant at 50% and the value of the positive signals for reinforcement were different, we found support for choice based on the value of the positive signal for reinforcement. Thus, it appears that pigeons’ choice depends primarily on the value of the outcome rather than its frequency or contrast. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Blocking is not ‘pure’ cue competition: Renewal-like effects in
           forward and backward blocking indicate contributions by associative cue
           interference.

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      Abstract: Blocking (i.e., reduced responding to cue X following YX-outcome pairings in Phase 2 as a consequence of cue Y having been paired with the outcome in Phase 1) is one of the signature phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning. Its discovery promoted the development of multiple associative models, most of which viewed blocking as an instance of pure cue competition (i.e., a decrease in responding attributable to training two conditioned stimuli in compound). Two experiments are reported in which rats were examined in a fear conditioning paradigm (i.e., lick suppression), and context dependency of retrieval at test was used as an index of associative cue interference (i.e., a decrease in responding to a target cue as a result of training a second cue with the same outcome but without concurrent presentation of the two cues). Specifically, we observed renewal of forward-blocking which parallels renewal of proactive interference, and renewal of backward-blocking which parallels renewal of retroactive interference. Thus, both backward-blocking (Experiment 1, embedded in a sensory preconditioning design) and forward-blocking (Experiment 2, conducted in first-order conditioning) appear to be influenced by retroactive and proactive interference, respectively, as well as cue competition. Consequently, blocking, long regarded as a benchmark example of pure cue competition, is sometimes a hybrid of cue competition and associative interference. Finally, the Discussion considers whether stimulus competition and associative interference are two independent phenomena or products of a single underlying process. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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