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Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2141-1778
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • A review of the importance and utilization of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae as
           a source food to rural livelihood

    • Authors: O.O. Oyewale, K.D. Makinde
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Oryctes rhinoceros’ larvae serve as a source of food which is highly nutritious and also as a means of livelihood but despite this importance, Oryctes rhinoceros and other insects have been neglected, especially as food and source of income. Insects are part of the forest ecosystem and are readily available in the forest in different varieties. The problem with exploiting the use of edible insects is due to the lack of social acceptance, nutritional knowledge, information and disbelief about delicacies of these insects that are abundantly available in our farms and forests. The income realized from sales of Oryctes rhinoceros’ larvae increases the total income of the rural dwellers which leads to an improvement in the standard of their living. The major threat factors are deforestation and climate change. Due to the economic significance of Oryctes rhinoceroslarvae in this areas, the conservation of the host plant (Raphia palm) should be encouraged by the state government through the enforcement of legislation against bush burning and illegal felling of trees. As the population is increasing, there is a need for an increase in the level of productivity of food in other to meet the demand of the people. However, due to the increase rate of poverty, lack of employment and food insecurity, there is need for the population to shift their focus from the total dependence on government jobs to exploring areas of self- employment, one of which is marketability of insects. The potential of insects need to be more considered in food security and poverty alleviation.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Abundance and diversity of dry season avian species in Katsina Metropolis,
           Katsina State Nigeria

    • Authors: Z. Musa, K.M. Aliyu, M.B Gomna
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess avian abundance, distribution, and diversity in Katsina metropolis during the dry season. Point count was employed for the study. Data was collected in the morning and evening when birds were more active. Data was analyzed using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index, Simpson index of diversity, Evenness Index and Sorensens Similarity Index. A total of 2865 individual birds belonging to 35 species in23families were recorded during the study period. Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) 516(18.01%) was the most abundance species during the dry season. The Shannon Weiner index ranged between 0.996-2.553 with the highest being in golf course (2.553), biological preserve (2.306), and recreational (2.124) and the lowest being market (0.996), business district (1.096) and road (1.237). While species like the African silver bill and laughing dove were widely distributed across the study area, other species were restricted to three, two and even one habitat. Road and business district (0.750), residential and industrial areas (0.700), biological preserve and recreational area (0.640) recorded the highest similarity index while the least was recorded in farmland and market (0.182), farmland and business district (0.261). The result of the study found that bird abundance was influenced by the level of disturbance of the various land uses. Efforts should be geared towards creating a bird friendly urban environment and making urban dwellers realize the importance of avian species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Abundance and diversity of fungi under three tree species in Shabu-Lafia
           Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: T.M Soba, S.A. Clement , H.I Ndagi, C. Obadiah , L.D. Shammasu
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: The study was carried out to assess the abundance and diversity of soil fungi under the canopies of different tree species (T. grandis, G. arborea and K. senegalensis). The plantation was stratified in to three strata according to species. In each of the strata 4 transects line of 100m were laid. On each transect 4 plots of 4x4m were systematically located at 25m interval, this gives a total of 16 plots in each strata, and 48 plots in the plantation. Five plots were randomly selected per strata making a total of fifteen soil samples. In each plot, five soil sample were taken, four of the five soils samples were collected at the four corners of the plot while one soil sample was collected at the center. The soil was mixed up to form one composite sample per plot and this was repeated throughout the plantation plots. The soil samples were collected at the depth of 15cm each and the collected soil samples were taken to the laboratory for soil analysis. The data collected was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA)and species diversity indices.A total of 8 soil fungi were recorded, only 4 species were found in Khaya senegalensis, Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea. Aspergillus nudulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penilline fungus and Mucorales fungus from the soil sample were significantly influenced by the tree species (T. grandis, G. arborea and K. senegalensis)at 5% probability(0.035*, 0.040*, 0.008**, 0.005*, and 0.050** respectively).The study recorded species richness value of 1.987 and diversity index value of 1.987.The result of the study also shows significant correlation between Aspergillus fumigatus and Penilline fungus with the value of 0.542*. It was established that, the tree species under the study has the ability to support growth of different soil fungi species. Different tree species affect the abundance of soil fungi differently. It is evidence from this study that, the tree species (T. grandis, G. arborea and K. senegalensis) should be recommended to the farmers among tree species for agroforestry practice and improving ecosystem functioning.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effect of seed pretreatments on germination and watering regimes on early
           seedling growth of Afzelia africana Sm & Pers

    • Authors: O.O. Sobola
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Effect of pretreatments on germination of Afzelia africana seeds and watering regime on the seedlings growth was assessed. The pre-treatments used were; cold water treatment, hot water treatment, acid treatment, mechanical scarification and control. While watering regimes include; daily, thrice a week, and twice a week watering. The Pretreatments were completely randomized into three replications. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance. The result showed the highest germination percentage (58%) in cold water treatment while the least (5%) was recorded in hot water treatment. Seedling height was highest in thrice a week watering regime (18.24cm), seedling diameter was found highest in daily watering while the highest number of leaves (15) was obtained from seedlings under thrice a week watering regime. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the seedling collar diameter and number of leaves. Since seed pretreated with cold water gave the best germination and thrice-a-week watering regime proved to yield a better growth rate, pretreatment with cold water and thrice-a-week watering regime is therefore recommended for propagation of Afzelia africana.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Impact of population growth on timber industries and forest resources in
           Kurmi Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.A. Maiguru , O.S. Onyekwere
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: As population density increases, the demand for forest product increases which results to deforestation and forest resources depletion. This in turn affects the survival of timber industries. This research work was carried out to assess the impact of population growth on forest resources depletion in Kurmi forests in Taraba State, Nigeria. The investigation was based on the trends of population growth in the area, causes of population growth, and impacts of population growth on forest resources, factors responsible for forest resources depletion, effects of forest resources loss and the economic benefits from the Kurmi Forest Reserves. Primary data were collected by the used of structured questionnaire, and the secondary data were collected through documented literature and cartographic maps. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that there was steady population growth (55.6% in 24 years) around the forest reserves which was attributed to forest resource depletion by 86% of the respondents and 100% of the respondents affirmed that there was decline of forest resources in the study area. Other factors responsible for forest resources depletion was found to include poverty (61%), lack of indigenous people participation in the management of the forests (53%), illiteracy (80%) and combination of these factors (80%). Thus, it is recommended that government should enact supportive forest conservative and regenerative policies involving the indigenous people and support it with, along with other stakeholders, funding. Proper reorientation and education should be carried out in the area on forest restoration and conservation.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Small-scale vegetable farmers knowledge, attitude, practices and health
           problems associated with pesticide use in some local government areas of
           Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.A. Adesuyi , K.L. Njoku , A.L. Ogunyebi, O.E. Dada , V. C. Nnodu
      Pages: 47 - 59
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices of small-scale vegetable farmers in three vegetable farming locations in some local government areas in Lagos. In all, 187 vegetable farmers were sampled for this study in all three local government areas using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics. Most of the farmers used pesticides on their farms, mainly for the control of diseases and insect pests. A large number of the farmers (79.36%, 58.98%, and 70.58%) agreed that pesticides use poses risk also to the environment while 71.43%, 58.97%, and 70.59% agreed that pesticides use poses some potential risk to human health, however, this does not reflect the percentage of farmers with formal education (20.64%, 5.13%, and 31.76%) across the 3 LGAs. A higher percentage of the farmers sometimes or always use a form of PPE either singly or combined. The most used PPE is the coverall, followed by the hand gloves. The least used PPE is the respirator/nose mask. This study revealed serious and lethal consequences of pesticide exposure to human health when adequate and appropriate protection was not used. A substantial percentage of the respondents reported at least one symptom of acute pesticide poisoning in the previous year immediately after applying or handling pesticides. Generally, the study shows a paucity of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides among small-scale farmers. Similarly, there is also a high risk of pesticides exposure. Urgent need for regular and updated training of farmers on the safe use of pesticides and additional pest management methods.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Coppicing potentials and management of Tectona grandis linn. F plantation
           in investigation 309 experimental plot of rainforest research station,
           ore, Ondo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: I.O. Asinwa , C.I. Akintan, A.O. Akintan, L.A. Akomolede, A. A. Peters, G.T. Philips
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Coppicing is described as a vital mechanism of regeneration in harvested plantation, but there is dearth of information on the management practice of certain species. The study therefore investigated the growth and sprouting potentials of different stump diameters in relation to number of sprouts retained on the stumps of Tectona grandis Linn with a view to determining the best coppice management. Systematic cluster sampling technique was used for plot location in four (4) randomly selected cardinal points of the site while the fifth plot was located at the center. In each plot, stump diameters of≥ 25 -< 35cm, ≥ 35 < 45cm and ≥ 45 cm were identified and sprouts/coppices were reduced to the desired number; that is one, two, three and more than three. The experimental design was a 3 x 4 factorial replicated 5 times. Number of sprouts/emergent, Coppice diameter and coppice height were assessed once in a month for 6 months. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the effects of stump diameter (SD) and number of coppices (NC)on of coppice heights and coppice diameter but significantly different (P<0.05) on number of sprouts. The relationship among numbers of coppices left on the stumps and different diameters on coppice heights (CH), coppice diameter and number of sprouted coppices (NS) showed that the coppice diameter was highest (18.32 cm) in diameter of >45cm with a single coppice. At more than three coppices left on different stump diameters, the stump diameter of >45cm had highest CH of 375.1cm, coppice diameter of 11.02 cm and NS of 18.4. Number of sprouts/coppices retained on the stumps and various diameters of stumps had influence on the growth and sprouting of T. grandis.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Effect of tree canopy on urban heat island in Makurdi, Benue State,
           North-Central Nigeria

    • Authors: E.T. Ikyaagba, G. Nanen , T.N. Tee
      Pages: 69 - 81
      Abstract: This study determines the effect of tree canopy on urban heat island in Makurdi, Benue State of North-Central Nigeria. Applying a multi-stage sampling technique, 150 residential houses with tree canopies, and 150 without tree canopies in urban and rural locations in and around Makurdi were sampled for the study. Data were collected by measuring wall temperatures in selected residential houses with tree canopies and those without tree canopies for both dry and rainy seasons. A total of 29 species of trees with 284 individuals representing 15 families were encountered in residential houses within and around Makurdi. There was a significant difference in temperatures of residential houses with tree canopy and those without tree canopy in rural areas (Mean Difference = 0.88 ± 1.55, p = 0.01) and in urban locations (Mean Difference = 3.64 ± 2.86, p = 0.01). There was significant difference in mean temperature variation between urban (27.75 ±3.57a) and rural (24.64 ±2.16b) locations within the study area. Significant difference exists between mean temperature values for rainy and dry seasons within the study area (Mean Difference = 1.42 ± 1.69). Individuals living (50%) in residential houses without tree canopy felt discomfort while those with tree canopy showed no discomfort. There was no discomfort to residents in rural areas of Makurdi. This study has established the existence of urban heat islands within Makurdi and therefore proved the positive effect of trees in contributing to reducing the occurrence of urban heat islands
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Determination of the home range of endangered drill monkeys (Mandrillus
           leucophaeus Cuvier, 1904) in Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Nigeria

    • Authors: J.O. Bukie, E.E. Offiong, E.I. Inah, A.U. Ogogo
      Pages: 82 - 86
      Abstract: Home range is an area in the habitat that an animal habitually carries out its daily activities. The endangered drill monkey (Mandrillus leucophaeus Cuvier, 1904) is highly terrestrial primate that forages on the forest floor extensively for its food. It is on this note that this study was undertaken to determine the home range of the drill monkeys in Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Nigeria. Drill monkeys’ groups were followed at reasonable distances to avoid detection by the drills. Garmin 72 GPS was used to record GPS coordinates at first contact, either visually or acoustically as well as the daily distances covered. The study was carried out from January to December, 2020. Drills were encountered eighty-five (85) times either visually or acoustically; it was not possible to document all the encounters using the GPS due to equipment failure or bad weather. Hence only 45% of such encounters were documented. Five (5) large drill groups were identified, three (3) groups with overlapping home ranges in the north and two (2) groups without overlapping home ranges in the south. The home range of the drill groups in the north was 20km2while that of the drill groups in the south was 15km2. Statistical test of significance showed no significant (p= 0.05). it was recommended that further study using other more scientific methods such as the use of drone technology and radio-telemetry are needed for detailed study of drill monkeys home range in the study area.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Leaf epidermal studies of Artocarpus altilis (J.R&G Forster) and
           Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam

    • Authors: Q.R. Olopete , V.O. Akinyode , C.A. Odebunmi
      Pages: 87 – - 87 –
      Abstract: A comparative leaf epidermal studies of two species of Artocarpus was study in this work. Fresh leaf of ArtocarpusaltilisFHI 113556 were collected from Idi-ayunre Ibadan while Artocarpus heterophyllus FHI 113557 were collected from University of Ibadan. Fresh plant specimens were used for this study. Samples of leaves were macerated in concentrated Trioxonitrate(v) Acid for 2-4 hours. The samples were transferred into water in Petri-dishes while the abaxial and adaxial epidermis samples were carefully separated using forceps and dissecting needle. The use of light microscope revealed that stomata only occurred on the lower surface of both plants. It also revealed the presence of trichomes on the both surfaces of the leaf of Artocarpus heterophyllus.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Crop-based agroforestry systems in the buffers of protected areas:
           Implications for tree species conservation in Okomu National Park, Nigeria

    • Authors: N. Osadolor, M.O.O. Isese
      Pages: 94 – - 94 –
      Abstract: Woody species inventory was carried out in the traditional agroforestry around Okomu National Park (ONP), Nigeria, to ascertain the conservation of trees/shrubs in the farming systems. Systematic line transects were employed in the laying of Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the existing compartments of ONP forest ecosystem. Two temporary sample plots of 25m x 25m (0.0625ha) in dimension were established in alternate positions along transect at 100m interval, amounting to four (4) temporary sample plots per range and a total of sixteen (16) TSPs within the national park. Total enumeration of live woody species was carried out in each sample plot. Three predominant farming systems were selected from buffer zone and boundary communities. Four (4) farms were purposively selected from each of the farming systems and used as sample plots. All live woody species present on each farm were enumerated and recorded, and diversity indices used to analyze species density and diversity. The density of the tree species identified in the study area include 519, 35, 174 and 80 (ha-1) for ONP, Cassava, Cocoa and Plantain land uses respectively. While diversity indices ONP, Cassava, Cocoa and Plantain land uses were: Shannon’s diversity index of (3.431, 1.868, 2.168 and 2.284); Species evenness (0.711, 0.711 0.537 and 0.733); Families Annonaceae, Meliaceae were the richest families identified in ONP while families Moraceae, Mimosoideae were common to the three agroforestry land uses. The analysis of variance of the diversity indices revealed that the biodiversity of the three farming systems differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05)from ONP. However, all land uses surveyed showed no significant difference in species evenness. The species diversity indicates that traditional farming systems can be effective biodiversity conservation tools in the edges of protected forests and consequently provide environmental sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Influence of watering regimes on early growth of Annona muricata seedlings

    • Authors: J.A. Yisau, R.A. Abass , P.N. Emilimor , O.O. Ojekunle, A.A. Majomi
      Pages: 105 – - 105 –
      Abstract: The study determined the response of Annona muricata seedlings to water regime and it effect on early growth. Levels of water required was determined by subjecting seedlings to four watering frequencies vis-à-vis Daily watering, watering every two days, watering every four days and once a week. The experiment was laid out in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and parameters such as stem height, collar diameter, leaf area, leaf number were collected fortnightly while, dry weight, fresh weight, root to shoot ratio, root length, root weight, shoot length, turgidity weight and relative water content were evaluated after Twelve (12) weeks of growth. Data collected was subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance on SAS software and significant means was separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). From the result, number of leaves (18.93) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in seedlings watered daily while seedling height (39.51 cm), collar diameter (8.05 mm) and leaf area (150.29 cm2) were not significantly (p>0.05) different to watering regimes increased. Also, physiological variables such as dry weight (11.67 g), fresh weight (28.88 g), turgid weight (24.46 g), root weight (14.53 g) and shoot weight (14.36 g) increased significantly (p<0.05) in seedling water daily. Availability of water owing to daily watering of Annona muricata seedlings heightened its growth rate.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Growth functions of Gmelina arborea (ROXB) for sustainable management of
           an even aged forest in Ukpon river forest reserve, Obubra, cross-river
           state, Nigeria

    • Authors: E.E. Offiong, P. B. Ita, E.O.B. Ita
      Pages: 113 – - 113 –
      Abstract: This study involved developments of growth functions for predicting future individual tree characteristics, stem volumes and yield using stand age, stocking, diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height as predictor variables for Gmelina arborea plantation in Ukpon river forest reserve, in Obubra local government area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were collected from sample plots within five (5) age series (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 years) in Gmelina plantation. Five sample plots of 0.04 hectare each were randomly selected from each age bracket. Diameter at breast height (dbh) of all trees in each plot was measured using diameter tape and grouped into 10cm diameter classes. Two trees with mean diameter in each class were randomly selected and measured for total height using Sunnto altimeter. Four dominant trees were randomly selected and measured for dominant diameter at breast height and dominant total height in each plot. Over bark diameter at the hohenadls positions (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9) along the free bole for the two trees with mean dbh were measured using Haga altimeter for volume and form factor computation. Seven growth models were fitted to age, stocking diameter, and height using linear and non-linear regression techniques. The model selection criteria were based on high coefficient of determination (R2), low goodness of fit, high significant of variance ratio (F) and least residual mean square error (MSE). The results showed that Gmelina species had the fastest initial height growth of 3.6m per year within the first five years of growth. The mean diameter at breast height increased from 13.31cm at age 3 to 6.99cm at age 11 with mean diameter increment of 4.4cm per year in the first five years and 2.3cm per year thereafter between ages of 7 and 11 years. Mean total height increased from 13.3m to 25m from age 3 to 11 years with corresponding dominant height of 17.28m to 33.88m respectively. The average stands form factor of 0.412 was obtained. The mean basal area increased from 15.44m2/ha to 33.18m2/ha for ages 3 to 11 years respectively while the mean annual increment (MAI) declined from 27.46m2/ha/yr at age 3 to 21.34m3/ha/yr at age 9 and increased slightly to 28.69m3/ha/yr at age 11 years. This study serves as a useful tool for proper evaluation and prediction of future stand growth for sustainable management of forest plantation under similar environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Heavy metal contamination and associated ecological risk on farms around
           Oluyole industrial area, Ibadan

    • Authors: M. O Smart , L.O. Asabia, A.E. Roberts, B.O. Okumodi, O.H. Ibironke
      Pages: 121 – - 121 –
      Abstract: Assessment of heavy metal concentration was done to determine the contamination on various farms around Oluyole industrial area and the corresponding ecological risk they posed in the area. Four farmlands were visited and different plant samples ((Musa acuminata (banana), Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane), Abelmoschus esculentus(okra)and Zea mays (maize)) were collected on each farmland. The plant samples were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and the data collected were used to analyse the bioaccumulation factor, contamination factor, and ecological risk indices. The metal concentrations result indicates that the significant difference in the heavy metals from each other is at 5% level of significant also the mean separation showing the sequence Cr>Pb>Co>Zn>Cd>Mo>Mn values. Bioaccumulation factor analysis showed that cobalt (5.55) is the heavy metal accumulated the most by the Musa acuminate plants while chromium (0.74) is the metal accumulated the most by the Saccharum officinarum plants. Chromium (1.10) is also the most accumulated by the Abelmoschus esculentus plants while lead and zinc (1.39 and 3.61 respectively) are the heavy metals accumulated the most by the Zea mays plants. The calculated contamination factor showed that Co, Mn, Cr and Cd are the metals showing very high contamination of the plants (CF≥6) while Pb (1.10) showed moderate contamination of the plants. The ecological risk assessment showed that only Cd has very high ecological risk within the four farmlands while the whole industrial area is at a high ecological risk (2094.42) for pollution. Consequently, due to the effects of these heavy metals to the consumers, the farmlands need to be relocated farther from these industrial environments and an environment impact assessment need to be carried out to create awareness to the habitants of this area on the impact of these industrial activities to their environments.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Population distribution of Black-and-White Colobus monkey in two selected
           ranges of old Oyo National Park

    • Authors: M.O. Ibiyomi, B.B. Ibiyomi, T. K. Adebowale
      Pages: 129 – - 129 –
      Abstract: This study was carried out in order to ascertain population and distribution of Black and White Colobus monkey in the Marguba and Tede ranges of Old Oyo National Park. Two ranges Marguba and Tede were selected based on habitat preference of the species. Two transects were laid in each range; Ipadeaya and Oopo in Marguba and Lower-Ogun and Iwawa in Tede range. Each transect was traversed morning and evening once a week for three months to count the monkeys and observe their activities, identify and survey the vegetation in the area and record the elevation of each transect. Collected data were subjected to descriptive statistic and inferential statistic. The results showed total population of fifty (50) Black and White Colobus monkeys with Tede range having the highest. The results also reveal higher sightings of the monkeys in the morning than in the evening. There was no significant relationship between the population of the monkeys and the examined variables in the two ranges, F (4, 12) = 29.237, p = 0.791. The study concluded that there was no relationship between population of Black and White Colobus monkeys in the two ranges and the examined variables in the ranges. Further study is recommended in the two ranges to determine factors that might be influencing the monkeys’ population.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Distribution and threat to white-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis)
           in Oluwa Forest Reserve, Ondo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.E. Adeniji, B. N. Ejidike, O.E. Olaniyi, V.T. Akala
      Pages: 134 – - 134 –
      Abstract: In this study our aim was to investigate the distribution and threat of white-bellied pangolins within Oluwa Forest Reserve in Ondo State, Nigeria. Field surveys were conducted during both the wet and dry seasons. Indirect observations were employed to gather data on the presence of white-bellied pangolins, including identifying signs such as scats, traces of their tails, burrows, and footprints. During the survey, we recorded 56 occurrence points during the dry season and 51 occurrence points during the wet season. Indirect signs such as scat, footprints, and traces of tails were also documented. Utilizing ArcGIS software, we generated a map illustrating the current distribution pattern of white-bellied pangolins. The Kernel density tool in ArcGIS software was employed to calculate the density of occurrence points representing pangolin sightings. To assess the threats to white-bellied pangolin in the study area, focus group discussion was conducted, a total of 12 participants were purposively selected. Direct observation of threats was also recorded. The findings revealed that 50% of respondents perceived habitat destruction as a significant threat, while 37.5% identified hunting and 12.5% pointed to predators. These results highlight the urgent need for more effective implementation strategies to conserve the white-bellied pangolins in Oluwa Forest Reserve.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Farmer’s perception and adoption of agroforestry technologies in
           Eastern Rwanda

    • Authors: E. Umuhoza , C.P. Mugunga , A. William , F. Hagumubuzima , E. Bizimana
      Pages: 144 – - 144 –
      Abstract: Agroforestry systems are multifunctional settings that can provide a wide range of economic, sociocultural, and environmental benefits; it also improves soil fertility. Through the LDCFII-EbA project, the government of Rwanda started to implement the ecosystem restoration activities in 2017 to restore landscapes and improve peoples’ livelihoods including the Eastern part of Rwanda where this research was conducted and documented on how agroforestry technologies are contributing to ecosystem restoration. Direct observation and interviews with multi-stakeholder participants helped to document agroforestry tree species planted in the project sites, the contribution of agroforestry to the supply of tree products to the smallholder farmers, and the challenges affecting the adoption of agroforestry technologies in the study area. Hedgerow system was the dominant agroforestry technology. Firewood was the dominant benefit of practicing agroforestry technology according to the interview participants; whereas termite attack and drought were reported as the main challenges impeding the adoption of agroforestry technologies in the study area. Future research is recommended to identify most adapted tree species and their management practices. It is recommended that indigenous species be prioritized in agroforestry because they are already adapted to the local conditions while exploring exotics which may be beneficial.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Habitat suitability modeling of African forest elephant (Loxodonta
           cyclotis) in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Authors: V.T. Akala , B.N. Ejidike , O.E. Olaniyi
      Pages: 158 – - 158 –
      Abstract: Maximum entropy (MAXENT) algorithm was used to explore how environmental variables influence habitat of African forest elephant in Omo Forest Reserve. The occurrence data and the predictor variables were processed using Geographic Information system software. The survey was conducted for both wet and dry season. Result shows that distance to river, mean diurnal range, distance to farmland, distance to road, and NDVI contributed mostly to predicting the habitat suitability for both dry and rainy seasons. There were several streams that flows within the forest reserve which reflects in elephant movement pattern towards riverine areas. Suitable habitat within the study area were found to be areas with dense vegetation. Elephant frequent movement around agricultural and cultivated areas within the reserve resulted in crop raiding and destruction. The model combined result for the study area suitability shows a suitable area of 332.90km2, moderate area of 434.47km2 and unsuitable area of 529.65km2. The performance ratings of AUC values (area under receiver operating curves) were 0.779 and 0.781 for dry and rainy seasons respectively. Due to increasing anthropogenic activities, elephants’ activities were greater in the northwestern part of the forest reserve which provides suitable habitat that meets food, water and vegetation cover requirement for the species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Aboveground biomass allometric models for a private semi-natural forest in

    • Authors: A.A. Alade, T.V. Oluwajuwon , A.A. Alo , F.N. Ogana , E.V. Aghimien
      Pages: 169 – - 169 –
      Abstract: Private forests with conservation priority such as Abayomi Farm Estate (AFE) Emerald forest reserve, Nigeria can significantly contribute to the global carbon cycle while enhancing sustainable livelihoods. However, little consideration is given to accounting for their biomass pools and carbon sequestration. This study, therefore, developed models for estimating aboveground biomass in the private semi-natural forest. Four (4) temporary sample plots (TSPs) of 50 x 50 m were systematically sampled with a complete, non-destructive enumeration of 176 individual tree species with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 10 cm. Aboveground biomass models were developed using the enumerated parameters covering a wide range of DBH and total height (H), as well as wood density (WD) as predictor variables. The models were developed for the two most-abundant, native tree species and all species combined in the forest. The models were evaluated using different indices such as coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE). Selected models were cross-validated. The species-specific biomass models with double predictors proved more accurate and reliable for estimating aboveground biomass in the forest than the DBH-only allometry, with their adjusted R2 as high as 95 % and RMSE < 0.23. Mixed-species allometry fitted by all the three predictors (DBH, H and WD) was the most suitable, depicting the added relevance of wood density and sample size in biomass modelling. It recorded RMSE and adjusted R2 of 0.22 and 97 %, respectively. Overall, all the models provided good estimates and could be used for assessing the carbon storage in the forest estate.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Post-harvest menace of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on Kola nut
           (Cola spp.) in Nigeria

    • Authors: Y.O. Oladigbolu, S.A. Ayanwole, S.B. Orisajo, B.A. Ogundeji, M.W. Adesina , E.O. Oloyede
      Pages: 181 – - 181 –
      Abstract: Kola nut is the fruit of a perennial plant called cola that belong to the family of Malvaceae. It is a lowland tropical crop fruit produced from September to January and June to July. Harvesting is done by plucking ripe pod from the trees with the aid of go-to-hell. Disease incidence during storage is a major post-harvest problem that farmers and Kola nut traders seek to solve. The major post-harvest pathogens in West Africa for the nut are Lasiodiplodia theobromae and it is considered a serious problem in agriculture since it causes a fast spread of the disease due to its wide range of unspecialized hosts.The problem posed by L. theobromae in storage is detrimental to the little production often achieved by kolanut farmers. Biological control using natural plant products presents a viable alternative in controlling plant diseases. The use of plants bio-extracts and organic control to reduce disease incidence of Kola nut storage disease would be seen as a practical solution to the problem encountered by kola farmers and traders during storage of nuts.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sunbirds (Nectariniidae) diversity and relationship with weather
           characteristics within the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

    • Authors: M.A. Yisau, E.C. Umechukwu, O.A Akintunde , T.O. Sanni
      Pages: 187 – - 187 –
      Abstract: Unlike most common bird species there is paucity of information on diversity of Sunbirds Nectariniidae within the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between contemporary weather variables and Sunbirds in the University’s Campus. Bird survey was carried out using Line Transect method within the core activities area of the University. Transect lines were surveyed two times per point count station by skilled observers for fifteen weeks. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis. Step-wise regression was used to assess the relationship between the bird’s abundance and weather variables. Likewise, data were subjected to ecological indexes such as Evenness index, Shannon diversity index and species richness. Results revealed seven different Sunbird species in the University’s campus. Maximum diversity index (H) of the group was 1.89 and the species evenness was 0.97. Collared Sunbird accounted for 22% while Green Sunbird accounted for 5% of the bird’s abundance. There was association between the abundance of Sunbirds and the period of survey on the Campus X2 (2, N = 44) = 7.780, P = 0.020. There was relationship between the abundance of Sunbirds and wind speed in the University’s Campus; F (1, 42) = 12.522, P = 0.001. This study concluded that there was relationship between wind speed, period of survey and Sunbirds.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Influence of torrefaction temperature on the chemical composition of
           Leucaena leucocephala grown in Nigeria

    • Authors: F. A. Faruwa
      Pages: 193 – - 193 –
      Abstract: Wood is polymeric with varying quantities of extractives and inorganics. The quantity of the polymeric substances ( Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin) can be changed by torrefaction. Hence, this study investigated the influence of torrefaction on the chemical composition of Leucaena leucocephala within the temperature range of 225 to 300°C. The compositional analysis of the lignocellulosic biomass involved the utilisation of both wet chemistry and gravimetric methods. These methods determined the quantities of hemicellulose, cellulose, Klason lignin, extractives, and ash content. The findings revealed notable variations in extractive, hemicellulose, and cellulose content across different temperatures and parts of the biomass. The hemicellulose content of Leucaena ranged from 24% to 33%. There was no significant difference in the ash content, although an increase in value from 1.57 at 225°C to 2.71 at 300°C was observed. Furthermore, the cellulose content decreased with rising temperature, whereas the lignin content increased. These results provide insights into the chemical transformations occurring in wood during torrefaction.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Assessment of income generation on non-timber forest products in Eneme
           Community Forest Taraba State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. A. Maiguru
      Pages: 200 – - 200 –
      Abstract: The study assessed income generation on non-timber forest products in Eneme Community Forest Reserve in Taraba State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted in selection of the communities that were used in the study. A total of 127 copies of structured questionnaire for information collection were administered to respondents who are involved in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) collection and income generation activities. Data collected were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The study showed that there is variety of non-timber forest products in the area. Most (69.2%) of the respondents earned between ₦11,000.00 and above monthly (₦132,000.00 yearly) from the sale of NTFPs. The findings revealed that the respondents are involved in collection of Irvingia gaboneensis (76%), bush meat (55%) as hunters, honey harvesting (44.8%), harvesting of piper quineensis (39.4%) of the respondents. Firewood has a major share in NTFPs income generation with (99%) of respondents engaging in its collection. Other NTFPs which constitute less than 5% include Luffa cylindrical (sponge), Massuleria accuminata (chewing sticks), worms, and insects. The major problem confronting respondents in the collection and sale of NTFPs is scarcity of the NTFPs in the reserve (90%). Others include bad road network (75%), lack of market (55%), lack of transport (54%) and insecurity (31%). The income generation from NTFPs was significantly influenced by age and family size. It is therefore recommended that in order to sustain this important forest reserve, government and the inhabitants should embark on enrichment planting in the forest with fast growing exotic and indigenous tree species.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Perception and attitude of tourists towards ecotourism development and
           conservation in Port Harcourt zoological garden, Port Harcourt, Rivers
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Z. Dododawa, R.C. Mbalisike
      Pages: 208 – - 208 –
      Abstract: The study of the perception and attitude of tourists towards ecotourism development and conservation in Port Harcourt zoological garden was carried out in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were collected using open and closed ended questionnaires and interview to get detailed information from the respondents. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaires were administered to the tourists that visited the zoological garden. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and presented as tables and charts. The results revealed that the majority of the tourists (37.50%) have visited the zoological garden three times while the least number (5%) have visited five times or more. The frequency of visit showed that 37.50% of the respondents visited once in a month, 32.50% once in three months and 17.50% once in a week. The majority of the respondents (30%) visited with their family while the least number (10%) visited alone. Others (45%) visited to see animals, 30% to enjoy natural environment, 15% to enjoy the playground and 10% for project research. Gate fees according to a high percentage of the respondents (67.50%) was moderate while the least number of respondents (7.50%) was high. Most tourists (67.50%) were dissatisfied with facilities, 20% were satisfied and 12.50% were very dissatisfied. Also, 74.17% of the respondents said they will not visit the zoological garden again while 25.83% wanted to visit again. Majority of respondents (80%) said they would not recommend the garden to others while 20% were of the contrary. Most respondents (40%) revealed that inadequate facilities were the major challenges faced by the zoological garden while the least number (10%) stated that inadequate staff and visitors not complying with the zoological garden rules were the major challenges
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Efficacy of botanicals in the control and management of insect pests of
           cashew (Anacardium occidentale): A Review

    • Authors: O. Y. Alabi, E.F. Odeyemi , R.A. Buari , A.O. Ogunsowo, B.O. Olorundare
      Pages: 220 – - 220 –
      Abstract: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an essential cash crop tree grown in Nigeria and other countries worldwide, providing a livelihood for many people. However, insect pests such as Analeptes trifasciata, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, Pachnoda cordata, Helopeltis spp. (H. anacardii, H. schoutedeni), Plocaederus ferrugineus can cause significant damage to the crop. Several measures have been adopted by farmers, particularly, the use of synthetic insecticides which have harmful effects on both man and the environment. Globally, some researches have been conducted to investigate the efficacy of extracts and essential oils of some botanicals against these pests. The results obtained showed that the plant samples tested were found effective against the insect pests, though some were dose dependent. Therefore, any of the plant samples used in these researches can be explored as biopesticides against the pests. Future research should concentrate on isolation and characterization of active components in these plants samples.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Determination of Significant Factor and T -Statistics of soil moisture and
           temperature for effective irrigation management

    • Authors: A.A. Alli, O.E; Omofunmi , P.O. Dickson, H.L. Ladapo, A. S. Ojo
      Pages: 230 – - 230 –
      Abstract: A study was conducted at the Experimental farm of the Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Epe Campus Nigeria which lies on latitude 60. 58’ N, and longitude 30. 96’E. Tomato crop (Eva F1 variety developed in the Teaching Research Farm) was used due to its advantage over other species. Therm 500 Digital soil thermometer was used to measure soil temperature, soil moisture, and pH level. The readings were taken at three different depths of 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm respectively based on the root depth of tomatoes which is 60 cm. Data were analyzed using two different statistical software of Microsoft Excel and XL Compare analytical tools. Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the soil moisture and temperature raw data generated for the different depths of 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm for sixty days. XL Compare statistical tool was used to carry out a comparative analysis between soil moisture and temperature data. The finding indicated that soil temperature increases with a decrease in soil moisture content, and they were significantly different at p = 0.02. The significant factor of soil temperature was greater than that of soil moisture which means that more attention is to be paid to soil temperature in irrigation management as this will enable curb or reduce the incident of crop failure due to soil heat influx
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Litter diversity improves litter fall and nutrients sustainability in an
           agroforestry system in a semi-arid ecosystem in Juja, Kenya

    • Authors: O.A. Bankole , O.O. Fawibe , N.P. Mwangi , K.M. Gichua
      Pages: 235 – - 235 –
      Abstract: Trees in agroforestry are important for the cycling and sustainability of nutrients; however, documentation on the decomposition and nutrient release as influenced by tree diversity is scarce in agroforestry. This study aimed to determine the effect of litter diversity of five commonly used agroforestry tree species (Cordia Africana (Lam.), Faidherbia albida (Del.), Grevillea robusta (A.Cunn.), Acacia seyal (Del.), and Acacia xanthophloea (Benth.) on nutrient release in an agroforestry ecosystem in Juja, Kenya. Litter bag techniques were adopted to determine the quantity and quality of nutrients released in the mixed litters of the five tree species compared with the individual species. The mineralization of N, P, K, and C significantly increased in A. seyal among individual tree litters, hence, proves its suitability for agroforestry. However, tree diversity increased litter fall by 82% and 33% compared with those of F. albida and A. xanthophloea, respectively. Potassium and C released in the mixed litter were not significantly different from their corresponding monocultures. Meanwhile, an antagonistic non-additive effect of mixed litter was observed on N and P after 90 days of decomposition, thereby ensuring their retention and sustenance in agroforestry system.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Post-harvest management of perishable products from field to table using
           systems engineering approach: A review

    • Authors: R.O. Bello , B. LeeRoy
      Pages: 245 – - 245 –
      Abstract: Perishable food products are indispensable in maintaining good health. However, the rate of its loss/waste globally is quite alarming due to its effects of food shortage, economy instability and environmental threats due to the disposed waste. The scope of this study is to assess the level and effect of food loss/waste through literature reviews and to analyze how effective post-harvest management from planting to harvesting stages can help minimize food loss/waste in the global world. The system engineering approach, System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) was used to solve this problem. This approach explains the how the selection of a suitable farm site, planting/harvesting at the optimum time can contribute to reducing food loss/waste. The paper revealed that for good post-harvest management practice, there is a need to consider some key factors, which include selection of a suitable farm site (free of acidity), proper irrigation system, fertilization, harvesting at the right time and with the right tool, proper handling from field to the end users and across the supply chain, and the need for government intervention/support to provision of adequate, suitable storage facilities. The study confirms that public awareness of the implication of food loss/waste in the global world, intervention and proper monitoring/management of the perishable foods across the supply chain actors and support from the government towards the provision of accessible, affordable, and suitable processing and storage facilities will go a long way to curb food loss/waste, secure the growing population against hunger and our environment from environmental hazards.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Edge-interior disparities in tree species diversity and soil
           physicochemical properties in a Nigerian strict nature reserve

    • Authors: A. Lawal, R.O. Ariyo
      Pages: 268 - 280
      Abstract: This study was designed to compare the variation in species richness, diversity of trees and soil physiochemical properties along the edge-interior gradient of a Nigerian Strict Nature Reserve located in Akure Forest Reserve, Ondo State. The forest was categorized into three habitats, namely: edge (0–100m), intermediate (100–200m), and interior (> 200m), depending on the distance from the forest margin. A total of five plots of 20m x 20m were laid in each habitat where data on mature trees, saplings and seedlings were collected. Soil samples were also collected for laboratory analysis. This study revealed that forest edge and intermediate were relatively similar but different from the forest interior in terms of tree species richness, diversity, evenness and structural composition respectively. The forest interior possessed higher species richness (25), diversity (2.93) and density of mature trees (89/ha), while the intermediate and edge possessed higher tree saplings (179/ha, 237/ha) and seedlings (611/ha, 358/ha). However, the soil physicochemical properties, except soil organic matter and organic carbon at 15-30cm, were uniform along the edge/interior gradient of the reserve. Since this forest edge and intermediate had higher regeneration potential than the forest interior, strict conservation measure should be put in place to protect the regenerated tree saplings and seedlings in this nature reserve.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physico-mechanical properties of selected species subjected to thermo-oil

    • Authors: T.O. Bodunde , M.B. Ogunleye, L.O. Aguda, K.O. Olaoye, L.T. Oriire , A.O. Adiji , O.Y. Aguda, F.B. Okanlawon
      Pages: 281 – - 281 –
      Abstract: This research examined the effect of thermal modification on the physical and mechanical properties of Gmelina arborea, Triplochiton scleroxylon, and Hevea brasiliensis using palm kernel oil. Colour change, density, compression strength, Modulus of rupture, and modulus of elasticity were measured. Results showed that at temperatures between 170oC and 190 oC, average density values varied from 375.83 kg/m3 to 431.70 kg/m3 for obeche, 470.56 kg/m3 to 474.59 kg/m3 for Gmelina arborea and rubber from 539.17 kg/m3 to 510.47 kg/m3. The Average Compression strength values varied from 25.38 N/mm2 at 27.50 N/mm2 for obeche, 42.87 N/mm2 to 45.16 N/mm2 for Gmelina arborea, and rubber from 28.83 N/mm2 to 25.37 N/mm2. The Average Modulus of Elasticity values varied from 4264.63 N/mm2 at 170°C to 4891.66 N/mm2 for obeche, 8496.72 N/mm2 to 7405.64 N/mm2 for Gmelina arborea, and rubber from 5159.17 N/mm2 to 4613.07 N/mm2. The Average Modulus of Rupture values varied from 67.32 N/mm2 to 60.45 N/mm2 for obeche, 78.54 N/mm2 to 74.52 N/mm2 for Gmelina arborea, and rubber from 63.83 N/mm2 to 58.16 N/mm2. It was observed that dimensional stability was enhanced when thermally modified. The colour of wood samples became darker after treatment therefore, thermal modification is recommended for applications where the appearance and high strength of wood are not paramount.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
  • Exploring the geochemistry of gold mineralization In Toto Local Government
           Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.B. Sylvanus, Q. H. Muhammad
      Pages: 288 – - 288 –
      Abstract: This study explores the geochemistry of gold mineralization in Toto Local Government Area, Nasarawa State Nigeria. The study utilized field and remote sensing data which includes field sampled soil, rocks, Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER DEM which were used to detect alterations, extraction and characterization of lineaments associated with gold deposits. The analysis dealt with Oxide composition in percentages which were reclassified into Sio2, Tio2, Al2o3, Fe2o3, Cao amongst others. These were carried out in a GIS working environment using the ArcGIS Software. Results from the Geochemical Analysis (KXRF analysis) show that the sample ST1A, ST3, ST04, STV10, GL01, GL02, GL03, VRII S2, STO4, STVS9, HNVS1 in most profiles generally have the highest concentration (response) of key pathfinder elements (As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn). Assessment of the geochemical data indicates that Fe (iron oxide/ox hydroxide) has an important influence on pathfinder element geochemistry in the study area samples. This is indicated by moderate to strong positive correlation between Fe and the elements in the total data set and the individual profile distribution patterns. Result from the study also shows that arsenic generally shows a selective concentration in some samples which happens to be a major pathfinder of Au mineralization followed by copper which is probably the most useful of the major pathfinder elements. The study therefore concludes that based on the outcome of the field sampled rocks, gold mineralization in Toto area is dispersed spatially and geochemically which is attributed to pathfinder. Hence recommends for drilling operations in order to uncover the vertical geochemistry and minerals concentrate with depth of the area using the GIS and remote sensing data/technique.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2023)
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