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Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2141-1778
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Heavy metals uptake of Ricinus communis L. grown in soil irrigated with
           industrial waste water

    • Authors: O.O Akintola, E.K. Abodunrin, A.R. Falana, T. Adeniran, C.S. Ofordu
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: This study assessed the potential of Ricinus communis for heavy metals uptake in soils irrigated with industrial waste water to reduce their toxicity impact on the environment. Pot experiments consisting 2 kg of top soil irrigated with different proportion of borehole water and industrial waste water (100% borehole water, 75% borehole water+25 % industrial waste water, 50% borehole water + 50% industrial waste water, 25% borehole water+75% industrial waste water and100% industrial waste water were replicated five times in a completely randomized design in this study. Physicochemical properties of the soils, borehole and industrial waste water; before the experiment as well the concentrations in soils and seedlings (roots and shoots) after the experiment were determined using standard instrumentation methods.Growth parameters, bioaccumulation and translocations factors at the end of twelve weeks after transplanting were used to assess the potential of the plants for heavy metal uptake. Significant seedling heights (11.02-18.22cm), leaf area (92.11-137.19 cm2), stem diameter (0.90-2.11mm) and leaf production (12.84-26.10) were observed in Ricinus communis at P≤0.05 The concentrations of heavy metals in the growing media after the experiment were Fe (89.87 - 95.81 mg/kg), Zn (28.98 – 35.69mg/kg), Cu (22.51- 27.99mg/kg), Pb (16.21 – 20.95mg/kg), Co (6.01 – 8.99 mg/kg) and Cr (3.01 – 5.01mg/kg). The trend of Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb>Co> Cr uptake was observed in different parts of the seedlings. Respective bioaccumulation factor values of 0.20-0.88 classified the plants as accumulator while translocation factor values of 1.09 -1.82 for heavy metals, classified Ricinus communis as high efficiency phytoextractor plant. This study has shown the efficacy of Ricinus communis to uptake heavy metals and transfers it into its tissue parts.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ethno-botanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Agroforestry farm
           of Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S.A. Odewo, B.A. Ajani, A.O. Agbeja, O.F. Oyedeji, L.T. Soyewo, J.O. Oyelowo, O.A. Williams, O.A. Ogunkalu
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Ethno-botanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants was conducted in Agroforestry farms of Forestry Research institute of Nigeria Arboretum, Ibadan, Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used. A total of 50 questionnaires were administered to farmers engaging in agroforestry as a method of farming through face to face interview method. Local names of plants mentioned by respondents were documented and their scientific names traced using Floral of West Africa text book. The utilizations of these plants and ailments they treat mentioned by the respondents were recorded. The data collected were presented in percentages and frequencies. The results showed that respondents are more of males (64%) than females (36%). Majority of farmers engaging in agroforestry were illiterates (46%) and married (72%). The total number of species found was 105 which include climbers (17), shrubs (16), trees (33) and herbs (39) were belonging to 49 families. A total number of 20 medicinal plants were found to treat and manage 24 ailments. The ailments indicated were malaria, pile, typhoid., constipation, ulcer, malaria, catarrh, high blood pressure, jaundice, ulcer, convulsion, epilepsy, diabetes, headache, insomania, low sperm count, malaria., obesity, difficult delivery, constipation., infertility, prostate enlargement, tumor ,pile, kidney stone, low immunity and haemorrhoid, measles, fibroid, wound and sore among others. It was observed that most of the plants treated more than 1 ailment except Commelina africana, Alchornea laxiflora, Newbouldia laevis and Tithonia diversifolia. Vegetative parts of medicinal plants used include leaves, bark and roots account for plant materials used in the preparation for treating ailments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Identification and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
           status of wood species used for charcoal production in Amukpe Area of
           Sapele Local Government of Delta State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S.O. Ihinmikaiye, J.E. Otoide, E.B. Ochekwu
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Exploitation of charcoal producing trees in Amukpe area of Sapele, Delta State Nigeria was assessed with a view to ascertaining the impact of such anthropogenic activity on tree species distribution and diversity in the forest of Amukpe area. Structured questionnaire guide on targeted respondents and field observation were used to collect data. A total of 80 respondents in the area were interviewed. Also, secondary information was obtained from 10 lumberjacks, the regular suppliers of logs to the site. Preferences of trees for charcoal production and their abundance status were determined by the information provided by the respondents. The species’ status on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of threatened species scale ranged was compared. The results obtained showed forty-one (41) indigenous tree species belonging to thirteen (13) different families (majorly hardwood) as charcoal producing trees. Most of the tree species in Fabaceae family were highly preferred by the respondents as charcoal producing trees, and were placed in the medium and high categories of preference. Thus, majority of the tree species in this family where confirmed rare, occasional and frequent. Twenty-one (21) of the highly preferred charcoal tree species were by consensus considered as being rare. This is in line with the IUCN (2019) red list of threatened species. It was concluded that charcoal producing tree species in Amukpe area are now endangered and rare, and it is recommended that there is need for sustainable use of forest trees in Amukpe area of Sapele.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Moisture sorption and quantitative assessment of acetylated African
           whitewood with infrared spectroscopic methods

    • Authors: F.G. Adebawo, O.Y. Ogunsanwo, S.O. Olajuyigbe
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: In this study, moisture absorption and reactivity of acetylated Triplochiton scleroxylon wood and its cell wall components was investigated. Wood samples were treated with acetic anhydride at 120 °C for 60, 120,180, 240 and 300 minutes. The moisture absorption was determined at relative humidity of 65% for eight weeks. The chemical constituents of the wood were determined by wet chemical analysis. The efficiency of the acetylation was assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis. The ratio of the intensity of the major peaks at carbonyl (C=O) stretch region (1739 - 1730 cm -1), carbon-oxygen (C-H) stretch region (1370-1365 cm-1) and carbon-hydrogen (C-O) stretch region occurring at (1245-1000 cm-1) of the untreated samples to acetylated ones were determined. The moisture absorption (MA) of the untreated samples after 4 weeks and 8 weeks was 4.25% and 8.24% respectively while the acetylated ranged from 1.57-2.3% and 2.64-3.53% for 4 and 8 weeks respectively. The extracted acetylated and untreated wood components yielded milled wood lignin (6.24-9.8% and 5.40%), hemicelluloses (69.80-73.10% and 67.83%) and celluloses (42.40-44.0% and 42.20%) respectively. The ratio of intensity of IR transmission at the major peaks for acetylated whole wood, holocellulose, hemicellulose and lignin samples were found to be 3.4, 4.9, 1.4 and 4.2 times greater than their untreated counterparts. This suggested that all the wood components were chemically modified, and this is responsible for their significant lower moisture absorption.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Investigation of effect of Alnus acuminata tree species on soil
           biochemical properties in Silvopasture around Gishwati forest western

    • Authors: J.W. Mberwa, V. Nsengimana, F.X. Naramabuye
      Pages: 35 - 48
      Abstract: This research examined the effect of landscape restoration on ecosystem functioning using forestry around Gishwati natural forest in western Province of Rwanda. It specifically examined changes in soil-litter arthropods and soil chemical properties in silvopastoral landscapes dominated by Alnus acuminata tree species planted by Landscape Approach to Forest Restoration and Conservation project. Data were collected in the sites dominated by Alnus acuminata and in control sites dominated by Desmodium intortum (Greenleaf desmodium), Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass) and Urtica dioica (stinger/nettle). Leaf-litter arthropods were collected by pitfall traps and hand sampling methods and analysed to the family level using dichotomous keys. Further, soil cores were collected and analysed for soil pH, soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus, soil available phosphorus and soil organic carbon. 1,065 individuals of soil-litter arthropods grouped in 6 orders and 8 families were found in treatment sites, and 864 individuals grouped in 6 orders and 7 families were found in control sites. Higher levels of soil total nitrogen (0.2±0.0%), available phosphorus (11.0±0.9ppm), organic carbon (19.6%) and leaf-litter arthropods (24.6±4) were found in treated plots compared to control sites. The study concluded that Alnus acuminata biomass contributes in maintenance of soil biological and chemical properties, and hence the ecosystem functioning. It is therefore recommended that Alnus acuminata can be a valuable agroforestry tree to plant in pastoral land along with other tree species.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of hunting activities around Sambisa Game Reserve, Borno State,

    • Authors: V.A. Ojo, W.D. Abwage, A.C. Abwage, G.O. Yager, P.F. Fwaffah
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: This study investigated the hunting activities around Sambisa Forest reserve, Borno State, Nigeria. The method adopted for data collection involved the use of a structured questionnaire administered to four communities namely; Bama, Kawuri, Maidumari, and Konduga around the Sambisa Game Reserve. Descriptive statistics were used in analysing the data, and the outcomes were presented in frequency and percentage format. The illiteracy (89%), large household size of 6-10 (47%), age class of 31-40 years (65%), and the use of guns (90%) by the respondents (illegal hunters) greatly influence hunting activities around the Game Reserve. The hunting activities are greatly linked to poverty, as most of the respondents lack conventional education which would have given them jobs with stable income, thereby reducing pressure on wildlife hunting.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Implication of consolation scheme in reducing human-wildlife conflict near
           the Rungwa-Muhesi-Kizigo Game Reserve in Singida, Tanzania

    • Authors: A.I. Liendekiye, F.Y. Mahenge, E.E. Makupa
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Human-wildlife conflicts adjacent to the protected and conservation areas continue to affect the livelihoods of local communities worldwide. This study assesses the effectiveness of Tanzania's consolation scheme in reducing human-wildlife conflict in the Rungwa-Muhesi-Kizigo Game Reserve. Learning from the local communities through interviews, surveys, and observations, the findings show the government consolation scheme to be ineffective at supporting the community members who are affected by wildlife, contrary to the scheme's goal. It is revealed that there is low awareness of the consolation scheme among the household members in the study area. Findings show a number of drawbacks that make local communities fail to access benefits from the wildlife consolation scheme, including the long procedure required to fulfill it, the delay of consolation benefits, the insufficient commitment of village leaders in reporting human-wildlife incidents on time, and a lack of community knowledge on the procedures to access the consolation scheme benefits. We conclude that the Tanzania consolation scheme is meager and less effective in reducing human-wildlife conflict in Rungwa-Muhesi-Kizigo Game Reserve. Thus, we recommend that the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism in Tanzania review the consolation scheme procedures and guidelines, employ enough game officers, work with different conservation stakeholders at local and national levels to engage in timely reporting of the incidents, evaluation of the damages or losses caused by wild animals, and improve the scheme budget for the scheme to perform effectively.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Impact of removing Eucalyptus maidenii in regenerated native species in
           Gishwati-Mukura National Park, Rwanda

    • Authors: F. Hagumubuzima, D. Nsabimana, V. Nsengimana, A. Mukuralinda
      Pages: 65 - 76
      Abstract: This study assessed the impact of removing Eucalyptus maidenii in the natural regenerated native species in Gishwati-Mukura National Park, Northern-Western Rwanda. Data were collected in the areas where Eucalyptus maidenii species were removed and were compared to the areas still occupied by Eucalyptus maidenii species. Data were collected using random sampling in quadrat plots of 10 m and sub-quadrat of a 1 m square. Within each site, herb species and woody plant species having the diameter at breast height (DBH) less than 2 cm were inventoried. Sampled plant species were analyzed focusing on abundance and diversity indices using bio-professional software. A total of 347 and 391 native woody species were identified in the areas where Eucalyptus maidenii were removed compared to 26 and 38 native woody species identified in the areas still occupied by Eucalyptus maidenii in Mukura and Gishwati correspondently. In relation with herb species, a total of 1,000 and 1,142 herb species were recorded in the areas where the Eucalyptus maidenii were removed compared to 227 and 323 herb species identified in the sites still occupied by Eucalyptus maidenii species in Mukura and Gishwati respectively. The herb species regenerated in the areas which were occupied by Eucalyptus maidenii were significantly different from the herb species regenerated in areas under Eucalyptus maidenii species. Further, higher plant species richness was recorded where Eucalyptus maidenii was removed. This study recommends avoidance of Eucalyptus maidenii planting in natural forests due to their effects on species richness of natural woody and herb species.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Fiber characteristics and chemical composition of Delonix regia
           (Boj. Ex Hook.) Raf. wood

    • Authors: F.B. Okanlawon, K.O. Olaoye, O.O. Awotoye, A.O. Adegoke
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Delonix regia, a deciduous wood species with beautifully coloured flowers was analyzed for its fibre characteristics and chemical composition to assess its potential for pulp and paper making. Three twenty-year-old trees of D. regia were felled at a farm in the Ijokodo area, Ibadan. Afterward, 27 wood samples (2 x 2 x 2 mm3) were collected axially (top, middle, and base) and radially (core, middle and outer). Slivers obtained from the samples were macerated in 1:1 volume of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide and placed in an oven for 2 hrs at 100 oC. Thereafter, a total of twenty whole fibres were selected per samples for the fibre measurement. For the determination of chemical composition, samples were crushed and test carried out according to standard method. The experiment was a 3×3 factorial experiment set up in a completely randomized block design (CRD), and data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. The fibre characteristics measured were fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), and lumen width (LW), while Cell wall thickness (CWT) was determined with relevant equation. The chemical composition parameters determined are Lignin, Cellulose, and Hemicellulose. The mean results obtained in this study were fibre length (1.30 mm), fibre diameter (37.57 μm), lumen width (26.86 μm), and Cell wall thickness (6.62 μm). The chemical compositions of the species were: lignin (18.34) and holocellulose (73%).
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Analysis of temperature trend as an indicator of climate change using land
           surface temperature (LST) and meteorological data in Akure, southwest

    • Authors: O.D. Ayeni, G. Oloukoi
      Pages: 84 - 100
      Abstract: The study aims to examine the Temperature trend as a determinant of climate change in Southwest Nigeria. Monthly Climatic Data for the study was retrieved from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and Landsat Satellite imageries obtained from United State Geological Survey (USGS). This study presented a descriptive and inferential analysis of temperature in Akure, Nigeria for a period of 31–year (1990 to 2020). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using mean, standardized temperature, decadal and time series. The result revealed increase in observed temperature above the standardized temperature (1981 to 2010). At the end of the first decade (2000), the temperature rose above normal by 1.0°C, while at the end of second decade (2010) and third decades (2020), the temperature increased by 1.9°C and 1.6°C respectively. The findings also revealed that the maximum and minimum temperature of the Satellite Land Surface Temperature increases with decades. In the same vein, the average LST increases from the base year (1990) (26.4°C), to 27.2°C, 27.3°C, and 28.3°C in the year 2000,2010 and 2020 respectively. The decadal increase was 0.8°C (3.0%) between 1990 and 2000; 0.1°C (0.4%) between 2000 and 2010; and 0.1°C (3.6%). The time series showed a trend variation while the time plot showed irregular pattern in the data series. Minimum and maximum temperature series for Akure attained stationarity since p-value (0.001) for the series are less than 5% level of significance. Temperature values is predicted to be in its highest every February of the forecasted years in Akure with February 2022 having the highest forecasted temperature of 34.70C. The indication of these finding is attestation to climate change and to prepare the stake holders to be well prepare to avert the danger of global warming. Further study can be conducted on rainfall variation in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Rooting potentials of leafy stem cuttings of pepper fruit (Dennettia
    ) Baker, F.

    • Authors: G.A. Adebusuyi, O.F. Oyedeji, J.O. Amadi, V.I. Alaje, Y.A. Dunmade
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: The effect of some post severance treatments on the rooting potentials of juvenile stem cuttings of Dennettia tripetala were assessed in an experiment conducted at the Physiology and Tree breeding Section’s Nursery of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 160 single node cuttings of D. tripetala were collected, using a Complete Randomized Design (CRD), assigned to 4 treatments namely 200 part per million (ppm) gibberellic acid (GA3), 200 ppm naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 200 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) dissolved in industrial alcohol and a control (with no plant growth regulator) applied by dipping the base of the cuttings for 10 seconds. Although the results showed no pronounced effect of the treatments on the leaf abscission and cutting mortality at 0.05 level of probability, there was however, a significant difference in shoot formation with NAA showing a mean of 2.50 followed by control (1.75), IBA (1.50) and GA3 (1.0) respectively. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in root formation, number of roots and root length with the control recording higher values than the rest of the treatments. The results, therefore, showed that it may not be necessary to use synthetic plant growth regulators used in this experiment [Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA), Gibberellic Acid (GA3), and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA)] that is quite expensive to induce root in the cuttings of D. tripetala for mass clonal propagation as this can easily be achieved and even better without the use of any hormones.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Species composition of leaf litter arthropods in the gallery forest of the
           Jos Wild Life Park, Jos Plateau State

    • Authors: H.L. Njila, N.I. Salihu, A. Ombugadu
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Arthropods play a major role in the function and stability of terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, a study was designed to document the diversity and abundance of leaf litter arthropods in relation to some physiochemical parameters in the Jos Wildlife Park. Two sites (Edge and Interior Points) reflecting different levels of disturbances and land use were selected within the gallery forest for arthropods collection. Arthropods were collected between the months of June and July 2021 using the pitfall trap method. A total of 681 leaf litter arthropods distributed into 3 Classes, 12 Orders, 31 Families and 38 Species were collected and identified. There was a significant difference in the abundance of Species of leaf litter arthropods. Loxosceles reclusa was the most abundant species of leaf litter arthropods. There was also a significant difference in the abundance of leaf litter arthropods in relation to Classes, Orders and Families. The Class Insecta, Order Araneae and Family Sicaridae were the most abundant taxa of leaf litter arthropods identified. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of leaf litter arthropods in relation to the Edge and Interior Points of the Gallery Forest. The abundance of leaf litter arthropods was significantly influenced by soil pH and marginally influenced by soil temperature and organic matter respectively. The overall diversity Index values of H´ = 2.69 in the forest edge and H´ = 2.56 in the interior point. It is therefore recommended that adequate protection of the gallery forest be ensured to curtail anthropogenic activities.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Utilizing the glycemic indexes advantages of sweet potato in production of

    • Authors: S.F. Olaoye, A.S. Oladipo
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: This study determined the importance of utilizing potato in producing granular products as an alternative diet for diabetic patients. The production and sensory evaluation of granular like product made from the yellow variety of sweet potatoes towards health improvement of diabetic patients formed the premise on which this work is based. Experimental research design was adopted to obtain Four (4) samples of cassava and sweet potato granules. The sensory properties of the products were evaluated using sensory analysis method and analysis was done using Analysis of variance (ANOVA).The sensory evaluation results showed that the garri made from cassava and sweet potato in the ratio (50%:50%)) was similarly rated with the garri made from 100 % cassava for all the quality attributes assessed. This result thus implies that sweet potato can traditionally be added to cassava for quality garri production to help diabetes patients reduce unnecessary restrictions in their diets.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ethnobotany utilization of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn)
           in two selected local government areas of Kaduna, Nigeria.

    • Authors: A.I. Sodimu, I. Adamu, G.O. Baba, R.K. Olaifa
      Pages: 126 - 134
      Abstract: The study investigated ethno-botany utilization of Vitellaria paradoxa in Kaduna State, Northern Guinea Savannah eco-region of Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) copies of questionnaire were randomly administered in two areas: Igabi (Mando, Afaka) and Chikun (Buruku, Udawa). The choice of the chosen study areas was greatly influenced by the concentration of the respondents (users and markets) and availability of the species. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results revealed that most respondents (34.3%) were between 21 – 30 years’age bracket and 49.52% were married with 38.1% having 11-15 household size. Majority of respondents (41.9%) of the had secondary education and 52.4% were herbs trader. V. paradoxa was a valuable ethno-medicinal plant species in the study area and it was being used in treatment and prevention of various ailment such as yellow fever (82.50%); bees and wasp stings (77.50%); treatment of wound (100%); waist pain (90.00%); skin problem (86.25%); rheumatism (86.25%); bone dislocation and fracture (96.25%); back ache (71.25%); arthritis (100%) and pain killer / reliever (86.25%) Methods of application employed by the respondents include; rubbing (100%); direct on the wound (86.70%); mix with cream / lotion (100%) and inhaling in hot water (93.30%). Aboriginal utilization investigated shown that majority of the respondents used V. paradoxa oil for cooking (57.5%); soap making (86.70%); wood preservation (15.00%); cake baking (17.50%); jam making (57.5%) and cosmetics (61.70%). The percentage of male was 46.7% while that of their female counterpart was 53.3%. The aboriginal processing techniques commonly used by the respondents include: picking/harvesting of fruits(67%), washing of fruits (97%), de-pulping (100%), drying(100%), seed selection(63%), seed cracking (100%), roasting of kernels (76%), milling of kernels (100%), boiling of ground kernels (94%), kneading(80%), mixing (100%), filtration (100%), solidification (100%) and packaging (25%). It is recommended that for sustainability and conservation of the species, plantation establishment should be encouraged in all our forest reserves.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Roles of human activities on the status (live or dead) of an endangered
           pearl mussels Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) In River Baissa, Taraba
           State, Nigeria.

    • Authors: W.D. Abwage, M. Haliru, A.C. Abwage
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Samples of freshwater Pearl Mussels were collected from four (4) different sites, which are the major point of access by the resident. Simple random sampling was used in laying five sample plots across the four study sites and samples of live and dead Pearl Mussels were collected, counted, and returned to their habitat. Data were analysed using Chi-square statistics, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and a T-test at α=0.05 was used. Sites’ effects on the species’ status (live and dead) were identified: Kogin Pastor (KP), Kogin Mata (KM), Kogin Maza (KZ), and Kogin Demcho (KD). A Chi-square value of 29.728 and p-value of 0.00 was observed on sites’ effect on species status. This showed that species status depends on location/sites. That is, for a species to survive or die, it largely depends on the location which in turn is a product of human activities carried out. There was no significant difference (p=0.727) in the dead sample collected across the four study locations. While the live sample contrary to the dead sample, significantly differs (p=0.007) across the study sites. The live and dead samples of pearl mussels differ significantly (p=0.037), which signifies that the live and dead samples were not in the same proportion giving hope of restoration of this species. The study site of KP was relatively suitable for this species to strive as it was significantly different from KM and KZ which are the most disturbed among them all, which was attributed to the fact that, fewer social activities and disturbances of any kind are minimum.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Non-linear models for tree volume and above ground biomass estimation in
           Afi River Forest Reserve, Cross River State, Nigeria

    • Authors: S.E. Bassey, S. Ajayi, K.S. Igbang
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: The research aimed at developing non-linear models for tree volume and aboveground biomass estimation in Afi River Forest of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two transects of 1500m in length with a distance of 500m between the two parallel transects were used for this study. Sample plots of 50m X 50m in size were laid in alternate along each transect at 100m interval and thus, summing up to 10 sample plots per 1500m transect and a total of 20 sample plots in the study area. A total of 1368 individual tree species spread across 23 species belonging to 18 different tree families were measured for diameter at breast height, diameters at the base, middle and top and tree total height. The mean diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height of 25.8cm and 18.5m were respectively obtained while12.01 m3 and 80.72 kg were obtained for average tree volume and biomass respectively. At stand level, mean basal area of 48.95m2ha-1 was obtained with a mean volume of 244.561m3 ha-1and mean green biomass was 448.860ton ha-1with a dry biomass of 325.423ton ha-1. Curve Expert software was used for model’s development. For tree volume estimation, Weibull model was the most flexible, however, Logistic models and Gompertz Relation models were most flexible for aboveground biomass estimation based on the assessment criteria (AIC and standard error) and therefore recommended as the best fit models for individual tree volume and aboveground biomass estimation in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Socio-economic impact of non-farming activities on the livelihood of the
           rural dwellers around Onigambari Forest Reserve, Oluyole Local Government
           Ibadan, Oyo State

    • Authors: A.R. Falana, O.C. Odeyale, A.T. Ademigbuji, F.F. Ojo-Fakuade, T.R. Ibode, E.K. Abodunrin, T.O. Bamigboye
      Pages: 150 - 160
      Abstract: Socio-economic impact of non-farming activities and its contribution to the livelihood of the rural dwellers around Onigambari Forest Reserve area of Oluyole local government of Oyo state was carried out. The study examined the impact of non-farming activities on livelihood to Sustainable Forest Management. Five communities were randomly chosen for the study, and a document indicating the population size of the selected communities was obtained from the National Population Commission of the State (1996) from which the population of the selected communities was computed using the population projection formula: Pn = Poert. Primary data was used for this study with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three (183) questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data and Chi-square was used to compare observed result with expected result. The ages of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years, and this age bracket is composed of youth and few adults; this means that most respondents are energetic, gender sensitive with male dominated activities coupled with marital responsibility. Many (47.5%) of the respondents have a household size of 5-7, about 37.2% had primary education while 34.4% respondents have between 11-15years of farming experience. There are 55.1% respondents that practiced non-farming to generate income. Non-farming activities help to reduce deforestation and other illegal activities thereby contributing to Sustainable Forest Management. Non- Farming activities could be combined with other jobs for livelihood sustenance as about 45.9% (highest) respondents trade and had their secondary occupation to be farming. Non-farming is an attractive business to the rural dwellers and there is great need for the adoption of non-farming activities to reduce poverty and unemployment rates and to conserve the forest in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of soil carbon and pH under forest stands and adjacent
           farmlands in a micro-tropical forest in Machakos County

    • Authors: J. Nderitu, H. Kamiri, F. Namu
      Pages: 161 - 175
      Abstract: This study evaluated the soil total organic carbon (TOC) and pH within Iveti forest, Machakos Kenya and the adjacent farmlands to determine variability among forest stands and adjacent agricultural fields. A total of 39 sampling points was established in the farmlands and in the forest along a line transect and at intervals of 200 meters and soil pH and carbon determined for each point. Forest soil had higher soil TOC and pH than the adjacent farmlands at 18.8 - 5.1 mg C/ha and 7.78-1.51 mg C/ha respectively. An increased TOC from the northern upper part of the forest to a peak in sampling points near the middle of the forest was observed while pH in soils at the inner parts of the forest was higher than that at the forest edges. Within the forest ecosystem, Pinus patula stands had significantly (P < 0.05) high soil TOC while Cupressus lusitanica stands contained the highest pH. The open forest canopy soils contained significantly higher TOC and pH. In farmlands, soil total organic carbon and pH varied depending on crops or types of trees planted. The Grevillea robusta stands had the highest soil TOC and pH followed by Eucalyptus trees stand, coffee farms and vegetable fields. Introduction of exotic tree species in plantation forests also invariably affected the soil organic carbon and pH. There is a need to foster management of soils both within the micro-forests and in the adjacent farmlands to decrease soil degradation and enhance soil quality.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physicochemical properties of soils of Farai and Ga’anda Sacred Forests,
           Adamawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: N. Yekini, M.L. Mijah, E.E. Dishan
      Pages: 176 - 188
      Abstract: This research was conducted to compare soil nutrient status of Farai and Ga’anda sacred forests of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Plot method was used for the data collection were a one-hectare 100m × 100m was marked out. Soil samples were collected from ten (10) auger points within established plots for physicochemical analysis. Student t-test was used to compare results from the two sacred forests. The highest values for soil physical parameters in the sacred forests were Farai; Sand 83.20%; Silt 27.6%; Clay 39.20%; BD 1.6g/cm3; porosity 50% and WHC was 16%, while that of Ga’anda were Sand 75.20%; Silt 21.6%; Clay 39.20%; BD 1.58g/cm3; porosity 50% and WHC was 15%. Similarly, the highest values for soil chemical parameters in the two sacred forests were Farai; pH 7.90; EC 0.42dS/m; OC 1.76%; TN 0.30%. AVP 13.76 ppm; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, TEB TEA, ECEC and PBS highest values were; 6.40, 3.60, 1.70, 0.56, 10.12, 3.20 and 13.32 Cmol/Kg and 72.83%, while that of Ga’anda were pH 7.60; EC 0.29dS/m; OC 1.17%; TN 0.20%. AVP 12.57 ppm; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, TEB TEA, ECEC and PBS highest values were; 6.40, 3.60, 1.00, 0.79, 10.43, 3.20 and 12.54 Cmol/Kg and 89.68% respectively. The Student t-test for the soil parameters between the two forests tested at (P ≤ 0.05) level of significance showed no significant differences in physical properties. The chemical parameters however showed significant differences only in OC, TN, TEA and PBS. Findings of this study have revealed high levels of some nutrients necessary for tree species flourishing while there were low levels of others. It is thus recommended that conservation of sacred forests particularly in the semi-arid regions of Nigeria should be encouraged as a means to conservation of the soils.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Antifungal activity of aqueous stem bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceous
           and Erythrophelum suaveolens (Guill &Perri) Brenan on sweet potato fungi

    • Authors: C. Ekhuemelo, C.A. Oche
      Pages: 189 - 195
      Abstract: Sweet potato is an important source of food and income for communities in Benue State North Central Nigeria. The plant is prone to attack by leaf spot fungi which are capable of partially or totally killing the plant. The antifungal activity of three concentrations of aqueous extract of Erythropleum suaveolens and Pterocarpus erinaceous were used in the management of sweet potato leaf spot fungi viz: Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticolliodes. Three concentrations of the stem bark extracts of Erythrophelum suaveolens and Pterocarpus erinaceous at 10, 20 and 30% w/v were used in the in-vitro management of leaf spot pathogen of sweet potato. The experiment was a 2×3 factorial laid out in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The hot water aqueous extracts of the stem bark of E. suaveolens exhibited fungitoxicity against all three test fungi at 3 and 7 Days After Inoculation (DAI). The mycelia growth of test fungi after three days was significantly lower in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) amended with the aqueous extracts of E. suaveolens compared with the aqueous extracts of P. erinaceous. Generally, the results indicated that the test fungi were most sensitive to P. erinaceous at 20% w/v while E. suaveolens recorded the least potency at 20% w/v. The efficacy of stem bark extracts of P. Erinaceous at 10% w/v increased at the seventh day thereby reducing mycelia growth of A. flavus but stimulated the mycelia growth of M. phaseolina. The study demonstrated fungi toxicity of the aqueous crude extract of the stem bark of E. suaveolens against sweet potato fungi.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Assessment of rate of timber exploitation in selected free forest areas in
           Ondo State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.S. Akinbowale, O.F. Adesuyi, E.T. Adedeji, O.F. Fasalejo, O.A. Adeniji, D.O. Adeyemo
      Pages: 196 - 205
      Abstract: This study assessed the rate of timber exploitation in free forest areas in Ondo State, Nigeria. Secondary data on the number of logs and volumes of legally felled trees in Akure, Ore, and Okitipupa (administrative zones) was obtained from the Ondo State Department of Forestry. Results showed that a total of 49,063 logs with a volume of 118,026.4 m3 were exploited from all the study sites. Tree species with a low number of harvested logs were Sterculia oblonga Mast (2 logs), Cola nitida (2 logs), Nauclea orientalis (L.) (3 logs), Acacia Senegalensis (5 logs), and Diospyros spp. (25 logs). Other species (tree species with unknown scientific names as of the time of harvest) had the highest number of harvested logs with 7,605 logs. Tree species with harvested volumes >1000 m3 were Entadrophragma angolense, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague), Erythropholeum spp., and Fagara zanthoxyloides with 2,620.5, 1,601.9, 2,093.1 and 2,242 m³ respectively. Generally, the lowest and highest number of logs (2,813 and 7,306) were removed in September and January. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the volume of trees harvested in January and February. However, the volume of logs harvested in March, April, July, and October was significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other. Almost all indigenous tree species of high economic values are present in this study. However, these tree species are becoming threatened and are on the brink of extinction. Conservative measures should therefore be set up for these tree species to ensure their availability.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
  • Acute toxicity of liquid organic fertilizer to juveniles of Clarias

    • Authors: J.W. Omuwa, J.O. Cheikyula, B.A. Bernard
      Pages: 206 - 209
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of liquid organic fertilizer to juveniles of Clarias gariepinus. Clarias gariepinus juveniles were exposed to different concentrations of liquid organic fertilizer for 96 hours under static conditions. The LC50 was calculated to be 328.10ml/L with Lower and upper confident limits of 275.02 ml/L and 391.42 ml/L respectively. At the contact phase there was a brief period of high excitability, visible avoidance characterized by fast swimming, leaping and attempts to jump out of the test medium, loss of equilibrium, followed by lethal (death) phase. There was no significant difference between the various mean values of temperature and pH (P > 0.05). The study revealed that acute concentrations of the liquid organic fertilizer were harmful to Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Liquid organic fertilizers could be applied in fresh water fish ponds and allowed for a period of time to break down through natural processes before stocking. Indiscriminate use of liquid organic fertilizer could also be avoided.
      PubDate: 2022-10-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2022)
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