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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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Animal Research International
Number of Followers: 3  
 
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ISSN (Print) 1597-3115
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Evaluation of the biochemical and toxicological profile of methanol
           extract of Dennettia tripetala (pepper fruit) fresh leaves on some
           selected parameters in male albino rats

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      Authors: Prince Ogochukwu Alaebo, George Chigozie Njoku, Osinachi Fortune Anumudu, Paschal Ugwu, Norah Nwadiogo Anyadike, Chukwuma Great Udensi, David Uchenna Iloanusi, Victoria Chiemela Dike
      Pages: 4571 ̵ - 4571 ̵
      Abstract: The vast majority of Africans still use traditional medicine as the primary means of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and toxicological properties of methanol extract of fresh Dennettia tripetala (pepper fruit) leaves in male albino rats. Twenty healthy male albino rats were divided into four groups of five rats each was used in this study. Group 1 was the control group; groups 2, 3 and 4 received an oral dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg methanol leave extract of D. tripetala daily for 21 days. After 21 days of the administration, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected through the ocular puncture to assay the biochemical parameters. Animals given the D. tripetala methanol extract at doses up to 1000 mg/kg body weight showed no harm in acute toxicity testing; however, D. tripetala caused a significant derangement in the liver and kidney profile. ALT, AST, ALP, total protein, albumin, direct bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels increased non-significantly (p>0.05) from the control. The activities of the antioxidant parameters showed a non-significant increase at all doses compared to the control. In conclusion, this study has shown that administration of methanol leaves extract of D. tripetala at a dose over 100 mg/kg body weight for an extended period may induce toxicity to the liver and kidney, which could cause hepatic disease and renal dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Acute toxicity of tramadol in African catfish Clarias gariepinus
           (Burchell, 1822)

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      Authors: Kingsley Chukwuebuka Okoye, Chinedu Innocent Ngene, Funmilayo Faith Hinmikaiye, Hope Chinwe Ezinwa
      Pages: 4581 ̵ - 4581 ̵
      Abstract: Tramadol is among the most famous analgesic drugs used for the management, treatment and relief of moderate to severe pain condition. The present study investigated the effect of acute toxicity (LC50) of tramadol on juvenile Clarias gariepinus. A total number of one hundred and eighty healthy juveniles of freshwater catfish C. gariepinus with total mean weight and length of (455.3 ± 50 g and 163.9 ± 18.2 cm) were used for the study. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour LC50 of C. gariepinus exposed to tramadol were 213.01(151.94 – 613.23), 109.86 (66.36 – 936.04), 74.02(4.51 – 205.10) and 63.34(29.50 – 95.83) mg/L respectively. The safe levels of tramadol in C. gariepinus varied from 6.33x10-1 to 6.33x10-4mg/L. The toxic unit of tramadol is 0.63 indicating that the drug is toxic to C. gariepinus. Fish exposed to tramadol showed some significance abnormal behavioural responses such as, reduced agility, abnormal mucus secretion, skin coloration, opercula movement and air gulping, very poor swimming rate and mortality increased with increase in the exposure duration and concentrations except for the control. The results of the present study demonstrated that tramadol is toxic to fish and its use should be monitored in the aquatic biota to safeguard non-target organisms.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • The effect of cattle breeds on haematological parameters and possible
           association with trypanotolerance

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      Authors: Abigail Chidinma Abwage, Richard Eden Antia
      Pages: 4589 ̵ - 4589 ̵
      Abstract: In order to investigate the trypanotolerant indices in cattle breeds, haematological parameters were determine in 12 N’Dama (ND), 13 Muturu (MUT), 11 White Fulani Cross (WFX) and 14 White Fulani cattle (WF). The packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) values of all the breeds of cattle were within the normal reference interval. MUT had significantly higher PCV, Hb and RBC values than the WFX. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the PCV, Hb and RBC was observed among the other breeds. No significant difference (p>0.05) in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) was observed in all the breeds of cattle. However, ND had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) compared to MUT, WFX and WF. The trypanotolerant cattle (ND and MUT) had significantly higher (p<0.05) Hb and MCHC than the more trypanosusceptible cattle (WFX and WF). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the white blood cell (WBC) count among the breeds of cattle. However, WF cattle had significantly lower (p<0.05) lymphocyte count than WFX, MUT and ND. ND cattle had significantly higher (p<0.05) eosinophil count than WF, MUT and WFX. The results suggest that MCHC, lymphocytes and eosinophils are considered as possible trypanotolerant indices in the trypanotolerant breeds of cattle.  
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Perception, prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites of some domestic
           animals in Lagos State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Azeezat Oyindamola Alafia, Kafayat Oluwakemi; Ajelara, Kolawole Gbemavo Godonu, Bamidele Halimah Adetunji, Marufa Idowu Jimoh, Anthony Gbolahan Reis, Abiodun Akinpelu Denloye
      Pages: 4595 ̵ - 4595 ̵
      Abstract: Ectoparasites cause great loss in livestock but little attention has been paid to identifying their prevalence on livestock in Lagos State, Nigeria. Assessment was therefore conducted using cattle, sheep, goats and dogs in selected farms at Ojo, Agege and Badagry Local Government Areas LGA), Lagos State, Nigeria to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites from March to May, 2021. Validated questionnaires were distributed to farmers to assess the prevalence of these ectoparasites on domestic animals in each LGA studied. Ticks and mites were also collected by handpicking from the animals to determine their prevalence and the assemblage of ectoparasites found in each study LGA. A total of 918 animals (consisting of 387 cattle, 207 sheep, 249 goats and 75 dogs) were examined for ectoparasites. The highest prevalence, 197 (21.46 %) was recorded for ticks being the most common ectoparasites found infesting domestic cattle. Species of ticks recorded were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (27.50 %), Amblyomma variegatum (8.20 %), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (9.70 %), Ixodes scapularis (1.90 %), Otobius megnini (4.80 %), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.80 %), Dermacentor albipictus (0.90 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.70 %). Other ectoparasites were mites with prevalence of 111(12.09 %) in cattle. The infestations were mostly at the ear and mammary gland causing scab-like lesions on the ear, scrotum, mammary gland and tail, while annoyance and nuisance due to ectoparasite activities were also observed in infested animals. Treatment of affected animals with suitable methods and proper management practices are recommended for keeping away the ectoparasites from the livestock.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Application of advanced biotechnology tools in Veterinary Medicine

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      Authors: Onyinyechukwu Ada Agina
      Pages: 4604 ̵ - 4604 ̵
      Abstract: In Veterinary Medicine, biotechnology plays a significant role in the improvements of animal health, nutrition and genetics. Advances in biotechnology have remarkably produced genetically modified animals for food production and biomedical research. Biotechnological tools applied in veterinary medicine include genetic engineering, gene editing, gene therapy, sterile insect techniques and bioinformatics. Genetic engineering led to the production of genetically modified animals (transgenics), which are tolerant to specific infectious agents, and are beneficial for human health. Gene editing technologies such as clustered regulatory interspersed short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 (CRISPRs/Cas9) have been used to detect and eliminate possible genetic disorders in animals and biological systems. Gene therapy is utilized in cancer treatment and treatment of cystic fibrosis. Areas, where biotechnology has been applied for the advancement of animal health, include molecular diagnostics (PCR, RT-PCR, nanoPCR, biosensors, proteomics, nanotechnology), production of virus vectored vaccines and DNA vaccine technology. This review, therefore, provides an overview of recent advances and applications of biotechnology in veterinary medicine.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of growth performance, morphometric and carcass
           traits of three strains of broiler chicken raised in the tropics

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      Authors: Idorenyin Meme Sam, Loveday Samuel Okon
      Pages: 4617 ̵ - 4617 ̵
      Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the influence of strain on growth performance, morphometric and carcass characteristics of Arbor Acre, Ross 308 and Cobb 500 strains of broiler chicken. A total of 144 birds were used for this study, the birds were divided into three treatment groups according to strain and each group was randomly replicated four times with 12 birds per replicate and was raised for eight weeks. The data obtain were subjected to analysis of variance. The result showed that Cobb 500 had the most superior body weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (3520.00 ± 187.48 g, 4757.08 ± 38.56 g,3217.50 ± 161.10 g and 1.48 ± 0.06) respectively followed by Arbor Acre and Ross 308 in that order. However, in the finisher phase there was significant difference (p<0.05) observed in body height, Cobb 500 strain of broiler chicken was significantly (p<0.05) superior in body height than Arbor Acre and Ross 308. The result also indicated that strain had significant (p<0.05) influence on dressed weight, breast weight and liver weight with Cobb 500 being superior to the other two strains. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that Cobb 500 was the most superior in body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, dressed weight, breast weight and liver weight at 8 weeks compared to Arbor Acre and Ross 308. Therefore, Cobb 500 strain of broiler chicken could be recommended to broiler farmers for increase productivity in the study area.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Effect of parasitic copepods on the length-weight relationship and the
           condition factor of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in the Beni-Haroun
           Dam, Mila City, Northeast Algeria

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      Authors: Houda Berrouk, Abir Sid, Ahlem Lahoual, Fatiha Sahtout, Nouha Kaouachi, Chahinaiz Boualleg
      Pages: 4625 ̵ - 4625 ̵
      Abstract: Ectoparasites are commonly the largest group of fish pathogenic organisms, and among these, crustaceans cause considerable pathogenic effects on farmed freshwater fishes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of parasitic copepods on the growth of Carassuis carassuis, from the Beni-Haroun Dam, Mila city, Northeast Algeria. The study was conducted on 242 fish individuals sampled between July 2015 – October 2016. The sex was macroscopically determined and age was specified by the scalimetry method. The identified gill ectoparasites were six ectoparasitic species belonging to four genera and two families, namely Ergasilus briani, E. megaceros, E. sieboldi, Paraergasilus brevigiditus, Neoergasilus japonicas and Lernea cyprinacea. Further, the fishes growth under the effect of parasitic copepods was carried out by the mathematical method of Von Bertalanffy, and accordingly, the growth parameters in C. carassuis were L∞ = 34.1 cm; K = 0.65; t0 =-1.01; Ø’ = 2.87, in the non-parasitized fishes, and L∞= 29.47 cm; K=0.92; t0= -0.80; Ø’= 2.90, in the parasitized fishes. In addition, the parasites slow down the absolute growth in length of the parasitized fishes which, in turn, suffer from a drop in their condition factor (K = 1.26) compared to the non-parasitized fishes (K = 1.34). The evolution of the total weight of the studied fishes in relation to their length revealed minor allometry (b<3) for the non-parasitized and parasitized fishes (without distinction between the two sexes).
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • First checklist, species richness and diversity of leaf-litter dwelling
           ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in ancient Benin moat, Nigeria

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      Authors: Ikponmwosa Nathaniel Egbon, Iyegbekosa Progress Osabuohien
      Pages: 4634 ̵ - 4634 ̵
      Abstract: Encircling Benin City, in Nigeria, lies an enormous excavation commonly known as a moat or ‘Iya’ by the people of Benin or the Great Benin Kingdom, which dates back several centuries and holds diverse, but poorly known faunal and floral species. To catalogue its leaf-litter ant species, 24 10-m2 quadrats randomly sited within the moat were sampled with a leaf-litter sampler (sifter) and the collected ants were euthanised in properly labelled enclosed jars containing a ball of cotton charged with ethyl acetate. Results revealed eight species of ants distributed among eight genera and four subfamilies (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae and Ponerinae). Pheidole megacephala was the most abundant species followed by Odontomachus troglodytes. Diversity indices revealed a heterogeneous community of ants at microhabitat levels notably dominated by P. megacephala, while five species were rare. The study predicts an additional ant collection of 27 to 45 % to realise the complete inventory of litter ants in the moat, which typifies an isolated green space capable of retaining several species despite pressure from urbanisation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A case of colic due to metastatic melanoma in a 23-year-old mare

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      Authors: Mary Ucheagha Ememe, Richard Emmanuel Edeh, Philip Wayuta Mshelia
      Pages: 4643 ̵ - 4643 ̵
      Abstract: A 23-year-old grey Argentinian mare was presented with a history of chronic weight loss, anorexia, restlessness, pawing, rolling, frequent recumbency, straining to urinate, urinating frank blood and round and firm subcutaneous lumps on left neck and occiput. Clinical examination showed tachypnea, congested mucous membrane and capillary refill time greater than 2 seconds, bruises on different parts of the body, bilateral epiphora, sunken eyelids, and slight loss of skin turgor, body condition score of 3/5, depression and temperature of 38.9oC. Abdominocentesis revealed frank blood while rectal palpation showed a large mass on the left quadrant. Haematology revealed increased packed cell volume (44 %), lymphopenia and neutrophilia. Serum biochemistry revealed hypercalcaemia, increased alanine aminotransferase, uremia, hyperproteinemia and hyperfibrinogenaemia. The horse was treated for colic and died 24 hours after the presentation. At post-mortem examination, the liver and spleen were remarkably enlarged and nodular with numerous surface melanomas. A large black firm nodular mass of about 7 kg was observed on the left kidney. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made. In conclusion, this case demonstrates the malignant behaviour of equine melanomas hence early detection and prompt treatment of small lumps before they proliferate is recommended.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cross-sectional survey of the occurrence of azotaemia in trade pigs in
           Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Echezonachukwu Ernest Ogoenyi, John Ikechukwu Ihedioha
      Pages: 4648 ̵ - 4648 ̵
      Abstract: This study was a cross-sectional survey that evaluated the occurrence of azotaemia in pigs slaughtered at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Nigeria. A total of 304 pigs were evaluated. The pigs were physically examined, and categorized based on sex, age and health status. Blood samples were collected from each of the pigs and assayed for biomarkers of azotaemia. Cut-off value (CoV) based on established reference limits in pigs for serum creatinine (sCr) [1.0 – 2.7 mg/dL] and serum urea (sUr) [21.4 – 64.0 mg/dL] was used to lassify the pigs as azotaemic or non-azotaemic. Results showed that 18(5.9 %) out of the 304 pigs were azotaemic based on sCr CoV, 14(4.6 %) had azotaemia based on sUr CoV, and only 8(2.6 %) had both sCr and sUr above the CoV. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between sex and the occurrence of azotaemia based on sCr CoV, but significantly more (p<0.05) females had sUr levels above the CoV. Significantly more (p<0.05) adults had azotaemia based on the sCr CoV, but significantly more (p<0.05) growers and fatteners had sUr levels above the CoV. Also, significantly higher (p<0.01) number of unhealthy pigs was azotaemic when compared to the healthy ones. Significantly more (p<0.05) females and young pigs had sCr levels below the lower reference limit (LRL) of 1.0 mg/dL, but none of the pigs had sUr levels below the sUr LRL. The occurrence of azotaemia in the pigs sampled ranged from 2.6 to 5.9 %, and was strongly associated with the health status of the pigs.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • The gut content of Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (anura: dicroglossidae)
           provides an inkling of its age-modulated voracity, prey diversity and
           choices

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      Authors: Sylvia Ogoanah, Ikponmwosa Nathaniel Egbon, Stephanie Alegbe
      Pages: 4661 ̵ - 4661 ̵
      Abstract: Notably known to consume small animals, anurans’ diets are sometimes affected by their age. This study examined the diet composition of Hoplobatrachus occipitalis, its prey diversity and preferred taxon using snout-vent lengths (SVLs) as a metric for age. With a non-destructive stomach-flushing technique, the gut contents of each actively captured Hoplobatrachus frogs were introduced into properly labelled vials and their prey items fixed in 70% alcohol for microscopic visualization and identification. Before releasing captured frogs, their SVLs [grouped as small (27 – 56 mm, n = 18), medium (57 – 88 mm, n = 35), and large (89 – 120 mm, n = 6)] were determined. A total of 392 preys belonging to 14 Orders, seven Classes and four Phyla of animals, a twig and pebble were found. The small and medium frogs significantly (p<0.05) preyed on more Hymenopterans (ants) than any taxon, while the large frogs showed no prey preference. The prey taxa among the small frogs were significantly fewer and less diverse with more dominant taxa than those found among the medium frogs, but not the large ones. Nonparametric estimates showed over 80% prey inventory completeness (a metric for sampling efforts); in conformity with taxa-accumulation curves, which approached their asymptotes for small and medium frogs, unlike the large ones, which had 53%. In sum, age-specific differences were seen in the prey contents, diversity and preference of H. occipitalis. Ontogenetic changes, among other plausible implications, may impose nutritional demands that modulate the predator’s choices and voracity.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Nutrient retention and performance of broiler chicks fed finisher diets
           fortified with insects meals

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      Authors: Chioma Cynthia Ojianwuna, Victor Ngozi Enwemiwe, Innocent Onyemaechi Osuya, Destiny Nyerhovwo Eyeboka
      Pages: 4673 ̵ - 4673 ̵
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of finisher diets fortified with African palm weevil larvae meal (APWLM), housefly maggot meal (HMM) and cockroach protein meal (CPM) on the performance and nutrient retention of caged broilers (Cobbs). One thousand four hundred (1400) broiler chicks were assigned in four groups to livestock feed (LF) fortified with APWLM, HMM and CPM for single form diets, and to LF fortified with APWLM and HMM, APWLM and CPM, and HMM and CPM for the combined forms. Insect inclusion rate was 19.5 and 9.75 % respectively as LF alone served as control. Growth performance parameters and nutrient retention were measured. Body weight (0.56 – 3.57 kg), body length (23.75 – 43.00 cm) and breast width (7.50 – 18.50 cm) ranges increased with increasing weeks. Growth performance was highest at week 10 in chicks fed LF fortified with APWLM and maggot (3.57 ± 0.03 kg), APWLM (43.0 ± 0.02 cm), and APWLM and CPM (18.50 ± 0.02 cm) respectively. Feed efficiency and body weight versus body length were highest in chicks fed LF fortified with APWLM and maggot. Dry matter, crude protein and ether extract were highest in broilers fed fortified diet in combined forms, while crude ash, calcium and phosphorus were highest in broilers fed fortified diet in single forms. Finisher diets fortified with insects in this study especially in the combined form advantageously increased growth rate of broilers and its adoption to brace commercial broilers diets is advised.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2023)
       
 
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