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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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Animal Research International
Number of Followers: 3  
 
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ISSN (Print) 1597-3115
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Underlying lessons from ignored innovative mosquito/malaria control
           devices from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka

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      Authors: Francis Stephen Ogbonna Ugwu
      Pages: 4415 ̵ - 4415 ̵
      Abstract: Controlling mosquitoes translates to malaria control and alleviation of associated impediments practically. Current controls are ineffective so local researchers develop alternatives but authorities refuse uptake. S/o channel/ grip devices are innovative house screening approach from the University of Nigeria that are not up-taken despite confirmed numerous attractive qualities. The objectives here were to rehearse experiences of the researcher to unveil lessons that help prepare researchers for gains/ losses ahead to manage the consequences of innovations and to prepare policy makers to turn a new leaf. Experiences of the researcher were captured non-formally from his numerous encounters during exhibitions of the devices, seminars, discussions and interviews with interested parties, professionals, policy makers and chief executives. Outcome revealed mixed reactions to the new devices which ranged from strong enthusiasm to resounding contempt. Inhibitors could be inapparent or vocal. Infertile environment for innovation uptake, unhealthy team players, inadvertent anti-individual policies of relevant institutions and insidious imperialism are other impediments to innovation uptake. Finally, effective mosquito/ malaria solutions developed by native researchers are not up-taken because stakeholders preferred the status quo out of fear of losing pecuniary benefits. To halt and reverse the trend of mosquito borne diseases, stake holders must carefully examine/ re-examine the evidence/ output of relevant home-grown researchers like the utility of s/ o channel/ grip devices and do the needful. In the crises ridden healthcare sector, governments should adopt mono-profession or no significant difference in salaries principle. Legal instruments are required to enforce mosquito/ malaria control by insect-proofing all private and public buildings with effective screens.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and treatment practices associated with the control of
           African animal trypanosomiasis among Fulani cattle herders in selected
           areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Ngozi Blessing Uzoka, Ogochukwu Monday-chukwu, David Aja Onwe, Sorochi Adaugo Maduforo, Martin Orichi Nwele, Faith Onyebuchi
      Pages: 4428 ̵ - 4428 ̵
      Abstract: The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices of Fulani cattle herders in relation to the control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) in selected areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. Interviews and administered questionnaires were used to collect information on knowledge, control and treatment practices associated with AAT and tsetse from 49 cattle herders. Results showed that all the respondents have knowledge of tsetse and AAT. Most of them (98.0 %) know that the disease is transmitted by tsetse fly, which bites more in the rainy season and in the morning and have higher densities by the river banks. Majority (87.8 %) treats their animals with trypanocides when infected and use locally made herbal insecticides to control the flies. The study has established that the respondents have good knowledge of the AAT and tsetse, as important factors in disease control and treatment. However, the misuse and unsystematic use of some conventional trypanocidal drugs by the herders is reported to be one of the predisposing factors for the development of drug resistance which has become a menace in the control of the disease. In conclusion, more sensitization among herders on the control and treatment of AAT is needed. Researchers need to tap into the knowledge of the use of locally found herbs in the control of tsetse and AAT, and explore and exploit the knowledge gained for the development of insecticides for tsetse and novel drugs for AAT.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Age structure of mosquito vectors from boarding school dormitories in
           Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Anthony Osarobo Omoregie, Felix Iruobe Aigbodion
      Pages: 4434 ̵ - 4434 ̵
      Abstract: Anopheles and Culex species, notorious vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis diseases respectively are known to thrive in poor third world countries. Regular monitoring of entomological indices are necessary pre-requisites for instituting effective control against the vectors. An assessment of the parity of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and their relationships with temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and malaria cases was carried out in school dormitories in Egor, Oredo and Ikpoba Okha Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benin City, Edo State. Resting adult mosquitoes were collected from randomly selected school dormitories using sweep net and mechanical aspirator between 08:00 and 11:00 hours, twice every month for 6 months. Collected mosquitoes were identified and classified as being freshly fed and unfed using relevant published keys. A total of 283 female Cx. quinquefasciatus (n = 265; 93.6 %) and An. gambiae (n = 18; 6.4 %) were dissected and examined for parity. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between total parous and nulliparous rates of An. gambiae in all the LGAs it occurred and also for Cx. quinquefasciatus, except in Ikpoba Okha (p>0.05). Variation in the monthly parous rates of the study mosquitoes in all their LGAs of incidence were not significant (p>0.05). Although, no significant association existed between parous rate of study mosquitoes and weather conditions (p>0.05), parous An. gambiae and treated malaria cases related highly significantly (p<0.01). Results from this study emphasize the need for establishment of effective control against mosquito vectors within and around human dwellings.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Re-assessment of the prevalence of onchocerciasis in Adamawa State,
           Nigeria after more than twenty years of mass drug administration with
           ivermectin

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      Authors: Micah Sale Pukuma, Lucky Daniel, Alhaji Bobbo Ahmadu, Abdul Qaader Mohammed
      Pages: 4442 ̵ - 4442 ̵
      Abstract: Onchocerciasis is an eye and skin infection caused by a filarial worm (Onchocerca volvulus) transmitted by haematophagous female Simulium blackfly. The study was carried in four Local Government Area (LGA) of Adamawa State. Toungo, Yola-South, Song and Hong LGAs to assess the prevalence of onchocerciasis after more than twenty years of mass drug administration with Ivermectin drug. The technique employed was the use of Ov16 Rapid Diagnostic Test. 1311 blood samples were collected and examined for onchocerciasis from eight sentinel sites across four LGAs. 81 of those examined were positive for onchocerciasis giving prevalence of 6.18 %. The result showed higher prevalence in Bolki Community of Song LGA (8.77 %) and lowest in Ganzamanu in Toungo LGA (3.66 %). The prevalence in relation to sex was statistically not significant (p>0.05), though prevalence was higher among the males (6.80 %), compared to female (5.42 %). Infection was statistically significant (p<0.05) in relation to age with highest prevalence (27.84 %) observed in age group >60 years, while zero (0.00 %) prevalence was observed in age groups 5 – 20 years. Assessment of interruption of transmission among 486 children between the ages 5 – 9 years showed zero (0.00 %) prevalence in all the children in the sentinel communities. The continuous use of the microfilaricide drug over the years has interrupted the transmission of onchocerciasis. This implies that continuous distribution of the drugs will lead to elimination of the parasite and eventually the disease in Adamawa State, hence, distribution should be sustained.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of slaughter age on carcass composition and beef yield of white
           Fulani cattle

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      Authors: Idorenyin Meme Sam, Ofoninyene Okon Usoro
      Pages: 4451 ̵ - 4451 ̵
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the influence of age and body weight on carcass composition of white Fulani cattle raised n Akwa Ibom State University, Obio Akpa, Nigeria. Nine male white Fulani cattle were used for the study, which were categorized into three age groups (3 – 3.5, 4 – 5 and 5.5 – 6.5 years) respectively. Data on the animal carcass composition and external offal (slaughter weight, carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage) were obtained, predicting model for carcass composition were also generated. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The results indicated that means for dressing percentages for the three age groups were 52.93 ± 1.18, 51.84 ± 0.53 and 53.92 ± 0.76 respectively. The results also indicated that age had significant influence (p<0.05) on live weight (LW), carcass composition and some external offal. The correlation between LW and carcass compositions were high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.64 – 0.97, 0.90 – 1.00 and 0.71 – 0.99 for age groups 3 – 3.5 years, 4 – 5 years and 5.5 – 6.5 years respectively. However, the correlation between age, carcass composition and external offal were also positively high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.50 – 1.00, 0.84 – 1.00 and 0.78 – 0.96 respectively across the different age group. Thus, this study revealed a strong and positive (p<0.001) relationship between animal age, LW, carcass composition and some external offal. The present study could be used as reliable indices for carcass composition and some external offal prediction or estimation as age strongly influenced animal LW and carcass trait.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of diagnostic value of otoscopy for otitis in dogs from
           selected states of south west Nigeria

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      Authors: Adenike Olusola Olatunji-Akioye, Isaac Olawale Oladeji
      Pages: 4460 ̵ - 4460 ̵
      Abstract: Otitis refers to inflammation of the ear canal, the middle ear or inner ear. The shape and conformation of the ear in dogs is a factor in the development of ear inflammation. Otoscopy is the diagnostic tool of choice for ear disease to be easily diagnosed in pets. Otitis in dogs may be much more prevalent in dogs than previously thought. This study seeks to determine the usefulness of otoscopy in diagnosis of otitis in dogs in southwestern Nigeria. A total of 207 dogs were sampled in different hospitals and clinics in three states of the south west of Nigeria; Oyo, Ogun and Lagos states from October till December 2021. Questionnaires to access demographic information of the dog and obtain the consent of the dog owners were administered. Data collection following assessment of each ear visually and by otoscopy was carried out. Age, sex and breed of dogs, and prevalence of otitis were determined. Zero to one year, male and Alsatian breed was most prevalent although not significant. Prevalence of otitis ranged from 2.22 and 2.22 % in Lagos, to 10.4 and 13.0 % in Ibadan and 14.1 and 10.6 % in Abeokuta for left and right ears respectively. Both ears were also more commonly affected. Otoscopy remains an invaluable tool as 84% of the diagnosed cases had no visual ear symptoms while only 12% of the positive cases were visually correctly diagnosed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Haematological and biochemical parameters assessment of alloxan-induced
           diabetic rats treated with ethanol leaf extract of adansonia digitate
           (baobab) leaf

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      Authors: Emmanuel Nnaemeka Uhuo, Kingsley Okechukwu Godwin, Prince Ogochukwu Alaebo, Helen Chinenye Ezeh
      Pages: 4469 ̵ - 4469 ̵
      Abstract: The progression of diabetic complications is marked by abnormal values of some haematological and biochemical parameters and the toxic effects of some drugs use for the management of diabetes has also contributed in the derangements of these parameters. Plant-based natural medicines are popularly acclaimed to be safe, cheaper than allopathic drugs, available and affordable. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol leaf extract of Adansonia digitata in diabetic-induced experimental rats. Forty five male rats were allotted into five groups: (1) normal control, (2)diabetic rats untreated, (3) diabetic rats administered 2.5 mg Kg–1b.wt ofglibenclamid (4) and (5) received 200 and 400 mg Kg–1b.wt leaf extract of A. digitata respectively. After treatments, biochemical and heamatological parameters weredetermined. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of blood glucose and increased body weight among text groups were recorded as against Group 2. MDA decreased significantly(p<0.05) in Group 5 and not significant (p>0.05) in experimental group administered 200 mgkg-1b.wt of the extract compared with Groups 1 and 2. Total protein level increased in the test groups and decreased in Group 2 against Group 3. Heamatological parameters (PVC, RBC and WBC) significantly (p<0.05) increased in groups 4 and 5 in comparison with positive control (Group 2). Similar results were obtained whencompared with normal control group. The result suggests that the leaf extracts of A. digitata are safe and capable of ameliorating haematological and some biochemicalabnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus, thus, could be recommended as adjunct to dietary therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Multiple baits, exposure time and trap design influenced trapping
           efficiency of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

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      Authors: Ikponmwosa Nathaniel Egbon, Loveth Omoruwa
      Pages: 4478 ̵ - 4478 ̵
      Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) commonly known as fruit fly, is a minor pest in agro-ecosystems, but not for fruit vendors trading on soft-skinned fruits. Amidst a plethora of fruit hosts obtainable in open markets, using baits to trap out these insects could be more effective, hence different baits performance in baited traps were tested. Also tested for catchability were two types of improvised traps viz.: with and without bait-holding chambers. With five fruits (banana, citrus, onions, pineapple and tomato), two beverages (beer and red wine) and water (control) as baits in a multiple-trap arena, a multiple-trap (for baits), and a two-trap (for design) trials were conducted. Among the multiple-trap trials, tomato-baited traps attracted significantly more D. melanogaster than the other baits as it accounts for four times more catch than the banana and orange-baited traps; and three times more than the pineapple baited traps. In 24 and 48 hours, all the baited traps had respectively mopped up 72 and 98.9 % of the 1591 flies released into the test arena. In the binary-trap trials, the trap without bait-holder was significantly more efficient than the trap that had bait holders. The poor effectiveness of the traps with bait-holding chambers and low attractiveness of some fruits as baits suggest that simple trap designs can be cost effective in trapping problematic fruit flies and that amidst plausible crosstalk of smell molecules within common arenas where economic fruits abound, some baits would perform less than others.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Toxicological and histopathological effects of lead and zinc on juveniles
           of Aporrectodea giardia in northeast of Alegria

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      Authors: Berrouk Houda, Moukhtel Kaouter, Touahria Khadija
      Pages: 4488 ̵ - 4488 ̵
      Abstract: Most studies investigating the effects of heavy metals on soil communities have focused on using earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardia as efficient bioindicators of soil health. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the toxicological and histopathological effects of four different concentrations of lead and zinc (0, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 ppm) on Juveniles of A. giardia for four exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 hours). The physicochemical analysis proved the soil as an appropriate living environment for earthworms due to its richness in organic matter (OM = 8.93 > 4), neutral pH, and the sandy-silty texture owed to the capacity in the field (19.37) and in the interval (12 – 14). Moreover, a reduction in earthworms survival rate confirmed by a proportional increase of lethality rate with the increase concentrations of lead and zinc (Lead: LC50 = 893.27; LC90 = 12394.42; Zinc: LC50 = 785.22; LC90 = 92348.13). The histological findings of earthworms exposed to 100 and 200 ppm of Zn and Pb for 96 hours showed a dispersion or loss of junctions and cohesions of the chloragogen cells, while serious alterations at the level of the epidermal and intestinal cells (chloragogen) characterized by the formation of vacuoles and detachment of cellular fibres were noticed in the concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm of the two metals.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cryptosporidium infection in cattle, goat and ram in Yenagoa
           abattoir Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Josephine Aaron Mondebo, Austin Edache Abah, Grace Dornu Bari Awi-Waadu
      Pages: 4499 ̵ - 4499 ̵
      Abstract: Cryptosporidium infection is of significant public health importance and its transmission is principally anthroponotic as a result of close contact between humans and animals. This study investigated Cryptosporidium infection in cattle, goats, and ram in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 211 faecal samples from cattle, goats, and rams were collected and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst using modified Kinyoun’s acid-fast staining method. The overall infection was 57.82 % with an infection rate of 58.00 % in cattle, 57.00 % in goats, and 63.64 % in rams respectively. There was no statistical significant difference (x2 = 0.18, p = 0.91) among the various animals. Cattle and rams sampled were all adult males, while the goats were male and female with different age groups. An infection rate of 56.16 % in adult goats of 4 – 5 years and 59.26 % in young goats within the age range of 0 – 3 years. There was no statistical difference (X2 = 0.08; p = 0.78) between the age groups. More males (59.09 %) were infected than females (52.94 %). There was no statistical difference (X2= 0.35; p = 0.56) between the sex distribution. The study has shown that cattle, goats, and rams in Yenagoa abattoir harbour Cryptosporidium oocysts which have a zoonotic consequence if not controlled as the meats from animals are eaten freely as a source of protein. Strict sanitation by proper sewage and animal dung disposal is required to prevent and control the spread of this infection.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative study on the susceptibility status of three common mosquitoes
           species in Makurdi to eight different insecticides using who test tube
           bioassays

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      Authors: Philip Oladele Oke, Kenward Uma Terhemba, Manasseh Msugh-Ter Manyi, Christopher Igoche Ogbaje
      Pages: 4507 ̵ - 4507 ̵
      Abstract: Comparative susceptibility study of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus to eight insecticides in four classes was conducted using 2 – 5 day old laboratory reared, non-blood fed adult female mosquitoes. Standard WHO test tubes bioassay method was adopted with two thousand four hundred (2400) female mosquitoes. The study revealed that Ae. aegypti was resistant to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT – an organochlorine), showed suspected resistant to Permethrin and Lambdacyhalothrin, susceptible to Deltamethrin, Alphacypermethrin, Bendiocarb, Propoxur, Pirimiphos methyl and to all the pyrethroids. An. gambiae was found to be resistant to Deltamethrin, Alphacypermethrin, Permethrin and DDT but susceptible to Lambdacyhalothrin, Bendiocarb, Propoxur and Pirimiphos-methyl. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed suspected resistant to Alphacypermethrin, Lambdacyhalothrin and Bendiocarb. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be highly resistant to DDT, Permethrin, Deltamethrin and Propoxur but susceptible to Pirimiphos-methyl and resistant to all pyrethroids, the Cx. quinquefasciatus had the highest level of resistance among the three species of the mosquitoes used in the study and all were resistant to DDT.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Retrospective study of canine parvoviral enteritis in Veterinary Teaching
           Hospitals in south east, Nigeria

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      Authors: Chigozie Stanley Ukwueze, Mary Ucheagha Ememe, Chikera Samuel Ibe, Robinson Cyprian Unigwe, Stella Uwaezuoke Kalu, Ikechukwu John Udani, Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam
      Pages: 4515 ̵ - 4515 ̵
      Abstract: Canine parvoviral enteritis (CPE) is endemic disease of dogs younger than six months of age and immune compromised adult dogs. A retrospective study was conducted on tentatively diagnosed cases of CPE from clinical case records of dogs presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospitals, in South East, Nigeria for a period of 10 years (2011 – 2020). A total of 1647 dog cases were reviewed with overall prevalence of 117 (7.1 %). Age, sex and breed did not show any association with the occurrence of CPE, while vaccination, survivability, location, year, month and season showed association with the occurrence of CPE. High prevalence was recorded in 2018 (13.1 %), 2019 (9.0 %) and 2020 (13.9 %), while the low prevalence was recorded in 2011 (1.3 %), 2013 (5.8 %) and 2015 (4.6 %). High prevalence was observed during the dry season months of January and February, while the wet season months of September and October had low prevalence. Boerboel, Caucassian and Toy breed were the most frequently affected. It was concluded that CPE is endemic in South Eastern Nigeria with all year round occurrence and unvaccinated dogs and puppies were more at risk. Aggressive vaccination of dogs with homologous vaccine containing the field strain is highly recommended for complete protection.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as feed additive on the
           performance and cost benefit of red sokoto bucks fed Digitaria smutsii
           basal diet

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      Authors: Umar Malumfashi Ibrahim, Clarence Ayodele Mawo Lakpini, Salisu Bakura Abdu, Abubakar Musa
      Pages: 4523 ̵ - 4523 ̵
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion levels of ginger on performance of Red Sokoto bucks (RSB). A total of twenty-four (24) bucks weighing on the average 17.86 kg were used for the experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to four diets, containing 0, 250, 500 and 750 g/100kg diet levels of ginger respectively, with six animals per treatment diets, in a completely randomized design. The animals were fed concentrate at 1.5 % of body weight. Feed intake, weight gain and nutrient digestibility were recorded. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) and significant treatment means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results obtained showed that bucks fed diet containing 250 and 750 g ginger consumed more feed even though with no significant difference (p>0.05) across the treatment. Animals fed diet containing 750 g ginger had significantly higher (p<0.05) weight gain (2.50 kg) and significantly best (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio (28.08) while significantly least (p<0.05) weight gain (1.17 kg) was recorded in the group fed diet containing 500 g ginger. Including ginger at 750 g saved cost of feeding/kg weight gain by 17 % compared to the control. The study showed that ginger inclusion in the diet of RSB improved weight gain, feed conversion ratio, digestibility and reduced cost of feed per kg weight gain. The study showed that ginger can be included up to 750g/100 kg diet of RSB for better performance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity and anti-diarrheal potentials of Psidium guajava
           Linn leaf extract in experimental rat models

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      Authors: Faustina Njideka Ugwuja, Favour Chidinma Ezebuiro, Olorunshola David Omodamiro, Solomon Nnah Ijioma, Flora Ebaimoh Mukah
      Pages: 4530 ̵ - 4530 ̵
      Abstract: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and antidiarrheal potentials of guava leaf ethanol extract (GLEE). GLEE prepared from dried guava leaves was first subjected to acute toxicity (LD50) test. Antimicrobial activity of GLEE was tested in vitro against some enteropathogenic organisms including Escherichia coli, Cympylobacter jejuni, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococcus aureus. The zone of inhibition for each GLEE application was determined using Agar well diffusion techniques, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by doubling dilution technique compared with Ciprofloxacin. The anti-diarrheal effect of GLEE was evaluated using charcoal meal transit and castor oil induced diarrhea models in rats. For each model, 36 Wistar rats assigned 4 groups of 3 rats, replicated thrice and treated according to the order: group 1(control), group 2(0.5 mg/kg Loperamide), groups 3 and 4 (500 and 1000 mg/kg of GLEE respectively) were used. Results obtained indicated an LD50 value >5000 mg/kg for GLEE. GLEE also significantly inhibited microbial growth in concentration dependent pattern (p<0.05) with the highest concentration producing inhibition zones measuring 9, 13, 14, 17 and 17 mm against S. dysenteriae, S. aureus, S. typhi, E. coli and C. jejuni respectively. In the castor oil induced diarrhea model, GLEE significantly reduced frequency and weight of wet stool output in rats, and also inhibited charcoal meal transit significantly in the motility study. In both cases, the activities of GLEE compared favourably with that of Loperamide, the standard drug used. These results therefore justify the local use of guava leaf for the treatment of diarrhea.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Seasonal fluctuation and relative abundance of tsetse fly (glossinidae) in
           

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      Authors: Victor Chatcham Dalla, Nweze Michael Ani, David Aja Onwe, Martin Nwele Orichi, Oluyomi Olajumoke Ogunleye
      Pages: 4543 ̵ - 4543 ̵
      Abstract: Trypanosomiasis, transmitted by tsetse flies has remained a serious health threat to both animal and human life in Nigeria and other countries in the sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted between June – July (wet season) and November – December (dry season) of 2017. Biconical traps were deployed at three sampling sites along the gallery forest of River Ewu in Obinagu and the captured tsetse flies were identified and sexed. A total of 182 tsetse fly of the species Glossina palpalis were collected, out of which 42(23.07 %) flies were caught during the dry season and 140(76.92 %) during the wet season. Out of the 42 flies caught during the dry season, 28(66.6 %) were males and 14(33.3 %) were females and of the 140 caught during the wet season 71(50.7 %) were males and 69(49.2 %) were females. The difference in flies caught during the wet and dry season was significant (p<0.05). Similarly, significantly more males (p = 0.01) and female (p = 0.01) were trapped during the wet season compared to dry season. The relative abundance of tsetse flies between dry and wet seasons were 23.07 and 76.9 % respectively, thus, tsetse flies captured were more abundant during the wet season than the dry season. Also, the abundance of the male tsetse flies caught was more than the female tsetse flies. The study confirmed the presence of tsetse flies in Obinagu, Obeagu community in Enugu South LGA Enugu State Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Determination of the peroxidative status of branded and unbranded edible
           oils marketed in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

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      Authors: Paschal Ugwu, Prince Ogochukwu Alaebo, Osinachi Fortune Anumudu, George Chigozie Njoku, Polycarp Nnacheta Okafor
      Pages: 4551 ̵ - 4551 ̵
      Abstract: Contaminated edible oil cause many disease conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the peroxidative status of frequently consumed edible oils marketed in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. 100 samples of edible oils from six notable markets were bought and analyzed using acceptable physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The highest and lowest values obtained are – density: unbranded palm oil (0.95 ± 0.05 g/ml) and branded vegetable oil (0.89 ± 0.03 g/ml); iodine value: branded soya oil (142.26 ± 24.69 g/ml) and unbranded vegetable oil (57.38 ± 14.48 g/ml); peroxide value: branded vegetable oil (4.43 ± 0.87 meqO2/Kg) and unbranded palm oil (3.58 ± 0.95 meqO2/Kg); acid value: unbranded palm oil (40.45 ± 6.62 mgNaOH/g) and branded vegetable oil (0.72 ± 0.22 mgNaOH/g); malondialdehyde value: branded soya oil (0.69 ± 0.58 mg MDA/Kg) and unbranded palm oil (0.36 ± 0.25 mg MDA/Kg); pH: branded soya oil (6.67 ± 0.28) and unbranded palm oil (3.16 ± 2.12); color: unbranded palm oil (0.68 ± 0.04 A) and branded soya oil (0.02 ± 0.01 A). The identified essential fatty acids in branded vegetable oil include eicosatetraenoic acid (1.33 %) and linoleic acid (92.50 %); unbranded vegetable oil include arachidonic acid (85.70 %), while the non-essential fatty acids in branded vegetable oils include oleic acid (73.00 %) and stearic acid (95.80 %); unbranded palm oil include palmitic acid (93.00 %). This study has revealed that unbranded edible oils marketed in Umuahia are highly saturated, adulterated, rancid, not properly refined, and unsafe for consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The operations of quarantine stations and the impact on animal disease
           prevention and control in Lagos State, south west, Nigeria

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      Authors: Felix Ayodele Oyeleye, Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Chinedu Cynthia Okoli
      Pages: 4562– - 4562–
      Abstract: Nigeria is considered to have one of the highest burdens of endemic diseases globally and an annual incursion of highly contagious transboundary animal diseases in Africa. The entry points of diseases into the country includes: airports, seaports and land borders. The study was conducted in Lagos, southwest geopolitical zone to evaluate the operations of the quarantine stations, namely: Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Apapa Seaport and Tincan Island Seaport. The stations were evaluated based on procedures and licenses, check operations, reporting and documentation, animal traceability and facility. Validated questionnaires and score sheets prepared according to the OIE standard were used for data collection. The stations were identified as A, B and C, respectively, in order to conduct blinded data analysis. Overall, Station A had 41.9 % of the total marks obtainable by the station. Station B had 26.3 %, while Station C had 45.5 % standard compliance score. Overall, low proportions (10 %) of the respondents are veterinarians, with 67 and 23 % of these having Bachelor of Science Degree in agricultural and non-agricultural related qualification respectively. The study established that facilities and equipment available at each station was found to be below the international standard while none of the stations has an onsite diagnostic laboratory. Inadequate man power, facilities, vet professionals, and equipment are observed to be the reasons for inefficiency. Government, organizations and administrative officers involved in animal quarantine need to improve on the procedures, operations and facilities at these stations to prevent animal disease incursion.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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